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Long Reach



Lit. Sciota






Anderson River.


























Western District of Pennsylvania, To Wit.

BE IT REMEMBERED, that on the tenth day of March, in the forty fourth year of the Independence of the United States of America, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and twenty; R. PATTERSON & LAMBDIN, of the said district, have deposited in this Office, the TITLE of a Book, the right whereof they claim as proprietors, in the words following to wit: The Ohio and Mississippi PILOT, consisting of a set of Charts of those Rivers representing their Channels, Islands, Ripples, Rapids, Shoals, Bars, Rocks, &c. accompanied with directions for the use of navigators — To which is added a GEOGRAPHY of the states and territories, West and South of the Allegheny Mountains. By J. C. Gilleland.

In conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, "An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the time therein mentioned." — And also to the Act, entitled, "An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during times therein mentioned," and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints.


Clerk of the Western District of Pennsylvania.



IT was a remark of the celebrated John Dunning (Lord Ashburton) that "Geography is so very necessary in common life that there is less credit in knowing than dishonour in being unacquainted with it:" and certainly we must regard as most important the geography of that country which affords an asylum to the people of all other countries.

To the people of Europe the growth of new towns, and cities, and states, in regions whose very names were a few years ago scarcely known to them, must seem like geographical discoveries — and far more interesting than the discovery of wildernesses infested with wild beasts, and wild men: it presents a civilized people apparently rising all at once, like the race of Deucalion, in full maturity from the earth. It behoves the statesmen of every government to observe well the result of these astonishing changes. However lowly our national rank may be estimated abroad; however powerless we may now in fact be; yet the period seems fast approaching when the full settlement of our vast fertile territories, and the cultivation of our infinite resources may develope a stupendous political consequence, sufficient to unsettle the old balances of national power, and open a more extraordinary era than has ever happened in the destinies of the word.

Every description of the western country must surely be a subject of high interest to the emigrant flying from oppression or want; when he arrives within its boundaries and becomes confounded with the infinite variety of choice it affords — presenting unappropriated beautiful and fertile tracts which he knows not where to find and danger on every hand which he knows not how to shun: perhaps with the ruin or welfare of a family dependent upon his individual fate. Having, as usual, quitted his old home with his heart buoyed up by extravagant hopes and the consciousness of good intentions; and, as usual, finding it daily sink as he approaches the realities — the hardships and perils that gather around him — and probably meeting little to fortify his spirits against the terrible responsibility of the risks he has plunged into, how cheering to him at such a time will be every ray of light cast across the darkness of his path.

Another circumstance gives an interest to every picture of our country through every civilized nation of Europe. I mean among that numerous class whose hearts are with us though they themselves may never hope to visit us — they, who wanting resolution to meet the perils of roads and seas; or fortitude to break the personal and local attachments which fastened them to their old homes; have been able to accompany, only with their prayers, the sons, or brothers, or friends, that have adventured forth to form new settlements in the bosom of our woods: to such the very name of a village or a stream may give a throb of pleasure, as it denotes the residence of some long separated members of their family.

But this work is not written to catch the sympathies of sentimentality;


nor has it any fine descriptions for the poets or the novel writers. It is simply a manual, a packet companion for those who come to this country with the intention of purchasing land; for which reason, the principal part of my attention in writing it was devoted to those items, in the geography of each state and territory which are given under the title — "Face of the country, soil, &c."

As most of those who migrate to the western country come by the way of Pittsburgh, and from thence descend the Ohio; it has been deemed adviseable to prefix to this book a set of charts of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, with directions for navigating, &c.

The Ohio Pilot is executed from the drawings and memorandums of Mr. Alexander Boyle, who has for several years been employed in navigating that river as a pilot and as a freighter of merchandise and was, during a great part of the time, in the habit of noting down his observations relative to its channels, bars, shoals, &c. So far as I can learn his drawings and remarks have been made with extraordinary accuracy.

The publishers having found that a set of charts of the Mississippi river could not be executed soon enough for insertion in the first edition of this work, have determined to postpone them until the second is given — and it will probably be given in the course of the present year.

As to the materials of the geographical part of the book, I have been indebted for so much of them to others — to so many others that it would be a tedious and difficult task to make suitable acknowledgments upon that subject.

After the article Indiana had passed through the press an excellent and ample description of Jeffersonville was furnished to me by Neville B. Craig, Esq. of Pittsburgh, but it has somehow been mislaid or it would have been inserted at the end of the volume.

I have not been able to obtain any information of value relative to the present condition of New Albany, Salem, or Madison, which are among the first towns of Indiana: but I trust that some of the public journalists of that state will supply whatever is requisite in regard to them.

I have made some alterations in the unsettled orthography of names which are becoming localized on the borders of the new settlements. I wish some person of common sense could be authorized to reject one or two hundred names which have been given to the new towns in the western country, and substitute others in their stead. In Ohio state alone there are sixteen or seventeen Jeffersons, about fourteen Unions; Madisons, Monroes, Jacksons, &c. by the dozen — and the same ridiculous system of nomenclature is extending through every one of the new states. The savages are beyond all comparison superior to us in the business of manufacturing names. There


are scarcely any well sounding names in the country except those they have given.

I have presumed to impose two names on districts which had no names — the Kanzaw country and the Naudoessee country; but I only borrowed them — one from a river and the other from an Indian tribe. I have proposed two others. The Green-Bay country for the eastern portion of the North Western Territory, and Sauteau country for the western, as that territory is large enough to constitute two or three states, and will probably be divided into two portions in the course of four or five years.

A description of the country would be very incomplete were it not to include some notice of the character and condition of the people; and as the subject could not be divided into states or districts I determined to treat it en masse in a separate article. But a professed exposition might involve matters of delicate detail which I am fain to shun; I therefore finally resolved to sketch the outlines of the picture lightly, within the space of the nine pages which the printer says must now be written out after the fashion of a preface.

Every body acknowledges that great improvement is to be derived from travel. To say nothing of the good things the traveller learns, he derives inestimable advantage from having unlearned much. The absurdity of bad habits strikes him when he beholds them under circumstances which he has been unaccustomed to; and he readily feels inclined to expose what he so strongly perceives. Therefore foreign travel must be the most improving sort. From all this I infer that whatever may be the present condition of society amongst us we possess the means — the school, calculated to render us superior in manners, in morals, and in information to any nation in the world. We have the advantages of foreign travel brought home to our firesides. People from all the most civilized nations mingle here together in the participation of the same public privileges; in the common exercise of the same public duties; in the management of the same businesses; in acts of neighbourship and in social enjoyments; and that not under the supremacy of old customs which travellers meet in every other foreign country, and which they must conform to or become ridiculous. Here there cannot be such a formidable unanimity in favour of national bad habits. Here instead of the ridiculous nationality which naturally grew up, and was even assiduously cultivated amongst the people of Europe, our esteem for our own nation is inseparably connected with a regard for the nations out of which it is composed. We have daily before our view — the Frenchman all gaiety and complaisance; the Englishman sensibile, high minded, ambitious, haughty, thoughtful but not reflective, enthusiastically pursuing utility even into the precincts of whim and folly; the Dutchman plain, honest, industrious and economical — scorning new experiments but always accomplishing what he proposes


to do: the Scotchman full of profound sagacity and reflection, veiling his high hot spirit under a prudence which is utterly intactable. The Irishman without reflection or suspicion, rashly brave, open, warm hearted and generous. The Yankee restless, coolly brave and persevering, gentle in demeanor and sweet tongued, all things to all men and to all occasions, inexhaustible in resources and in patience; but seldom remarkably scrupulous when good principles stand in his way — these, together with the natives of the back woods, descended from them, are the raw materials which constitute our population. As I belong to the latter class I do not consider myself entitled to say what I conceive their general character to be.

Now it cannot be pretended that the people of the western country possess a union of all that is good in the characters of those different nations; or that so many repungnant principles could be combined. I even admit that at present there is disadvantage resulting from the discordance of those materials — yet it is a fact that society is most agreeable in those places where the most intimate mixture of different nations is to be met with.

We are as yet far inferior to some of the European nations in most of the essential requisites of civilization, and we may continue to be so for an age; but we have the materials and the scope for building a higher character than any of them. We have no prophets, however, to predict whether or not the nation will avail itself of its natural and accidental advantages.

By civilization I mean knowledge of the useful arts and of the sciences; the establishment of good systems of civil polity; the prevalence of good moral and religious habits; knowledge and talent in literature, and skill in the fine arts.

In a knowledge of the useful arts we are greatly deficient — even in the primitive arts; while in those that minister to the luxuries of refinement we hardly hope for ages to rival the people of Europe. The medical art is the only one that is ably cultivated in this country.

Of all the sciences law is the one that is studied most thoroughly. The other ethical ones though lying immediately within the scope of ordinary occasions, particularly in a republic, are here little attended to. The mathematical and philosophical sciences meet with the same general neglect. Of the literary sciences grammar and rhetoric have become popular studies, particularly the former, while logic even in our colleges attracts no attention. The historical science, geography, is more generally studied than any other one. Our political institutions are as good as those of any other country. The moral character of the nation; since the commencement of the late era of speculation may have become somewhat doubtful. Modern literature is little valued amongst us: ancient literature is better appreciated but less studied. Native literature we have none and can have none for a long period. It does not lie within the scope of our views or of our occasions. When we have


intersected the country in every direction with turnpike roads — built bridges over all our streams, connected our most distant cues by canals, and burdened them with steam boats from the Appalachian to the Cordilera mountains — when every tract of present wilderness becomes a civilized settlement, then and not till then, may we sit down and amuse ourselves with singing epics and drowing pictures.

The religious character of the people in the western country has been much misrepresented. None of the old settlements, except in the southern states, are destitute of preachers, or neglectful of religion. If the case is otherwise in the new settlements it is scarcely imputable to a want of ability to support preachers. We are constrained to believe that the generality of our emigrants are not very anxious about the subject. The pious whose edification has been derived from the "dead masses of divinity" as a London journalist not inaptly calls the gentlemanly, fashionable preachers of the established church in England and Ireland, need feel no apprehensions here for the want of religious instruction amongst our humble zealous pastors whose cares extend to all parts of the country; and who are continually making arrangements for supplying preachers to every new settlement in which they may be desired.

The condition of political affairs claims some notice and has occasioned several discussions even, in Europe. Many people affect to regard the existence of political parties as an evil. If men think at all there must arise differences of opinion amongst them; and if they are permitted to express their opinion they will inevitably become divided into parties. But were it possible that party spirit could be laid asleep among a free enlightened people, what would be the consequence? If the people possess the power of self government and do not generally attend to the duties which the privilege involves, the management of public affairs will fall into the hands of the few who have a direct interest in attending to it — and only a few in any country can have such a direct interest. That few — that oligarchy would be composed of angels and not of men if, while unchecked, they refrained from abusing their power. Through what motives then shall the mass of the people participate with the interested few in order to keep a check upon them in the management of their affairs? A sense of public duty: but that implies a knowledge of the duty. What enquiry, and labour, and study, are necessary to acquire that knowledge? Take for instance the case that an official agent is to be chosen from amongst a hundred thousand persons, each one of whom is entitled to be chosen. What a task would the man have to perform who should undertake to select from that number the most wise, the most honest, and the best informed in regard to the duties of the station. That task is to be performed through a sense of public duty. But whoever saw such a sentiment strong enough to make any one perform the least irksome duty? He who Tenders it powerful enough to keep in


operation the mighty system of national self government may become a good citizen in Utopia, and will deserve to be canonized along with the inventors of the perpetual motion and philosophers' stone.

The advantages and disadvantages of what is called the caucus system in this country have afforded subject of dispute amongst the statesmen of Europe. Those public meetings which are exclusive of the popular voice have the most pernicious tendencies, and the republicans of Great Britain need not trouble themselves with disingenuous defences of them.

It cannot be expected that foreigners will understand all our political systems while many of the most important principles of our constitutions are subjects of dispute among ourselves For instance it has, until lately, been a contested matter whether there exists in our constitutions any self preserving principle — or if it exists in what department is lodged the right of making an authoritative declaration of the nullity of unconstitutional legislative acts. It is now a standing question, whether in our constitutions the people have reserved to themselves any portion of the legislative power for the purpose of exercising it in the last resort upon such occasions as they may deem worthy of their interference.

At the present period the great subject of concern in this country is the want of a circulating medium. Every business and every interest in the community has shared in the evils which have been produced by the late excessive extension of trade. The extension and the punishment have arisen through the operation of one of these systems called "Bubbles" in Great Britain. Our vortex of speculation has been a great banking system, growing up from the prostitution of legislative power to the private interests of the legislators. It was formed for enabling companies of men to sell their credit and contract debts upon a hypothecated capital, without having any of their property responsible for the debts beyond the amount of capital so invested; and without being limited in their assumptions of debt to the amount of the responsible capital Thus were monopolies of the worst sort established — monopolies of unjust privileges — exemptions from the controul of honest principles.

The operation of the system and its results have been draining the community of specie, supplying its place with paper, enabling merchants to command the specie for the purchase of foreign goods, while the people felt no inconvenience from its departure — the inundation and consumption of the foreign goods, the rise in the nominal value of all things, indicating to the unreflecting an increase of wealth, consequent luxurious indulgences — finally the bursting of the Bubble, the responsible funds not appearing to be forth coming to meet the inundation of the paper currency, the maturity of the banks becoming bankrupt and their paper worth little or nothing — the solvent ones retracting their paper and thus leaving a circulating medium utterly insufficient for the transaction of ordinary business, and immense debts to be liquidated by the sacrifice of lands and chattels.

The general character of our climate seems not to he understood in Europe, nor even in the Atlantic states. I had collected materials for a dissertation upon this object — or rather for instituting a comparison between this climate and that of several European countries;


but finding it would be very extensive it was deemed advisable not to add it to this work.

Climate is a term of ambiguous meaning used in reference sometimes to the temperature of a country, and sometimes to its healthiness; yet the relation between healthiness and temperature seems to be generally misunderstood. I should have undertaken to prove that warm regions are most favourable to health: But the rule if admitted would have to pass under so many limitations and exceptions that after all, the reader might hardly know where to find his application. To be healthy in a warm climate we must be exposed to no extraneous causes of disease — to no animal or vegetable matter in a state of decomposition — or as it will be better understood to no putrid air from marshes or rice fields, or indigo manufactories, or the like: there must be no dirtiness about our persons or our houses — nothing improper in the quantity or quality of our food. In hardly any country shall we find the people exempted by nature and by habit from these sources of disease, and where they exist we perceive very distinctly how the increase of temperature exasperates them — often so greatly that some tropical regions are rendered by them not only more unhealthy than any cold ones, but absolutely uninhabitable.

Large portions of the western country present no marshes and are as healthy as any part of Europe. Even in the immediate neighbourhood of mashes, dry elevated tracts are found entirely exempt from the common effects of marsh effluvia.

The tokens of unhealthiness in any district are, 1st. In warm weather the days becoming suddenly cool after sunset, so that the temperature of the day is a great many degrees higher than that of the night. 2d. thick fogs, often having a disagreeable smell and rising regularly in the valleys every evening immediately after sunset 3d. numerous insects, particularly musquitos and flies. 4th. fresh meat becoming putrid more readily than can be accounted for from mere beat.

Those who drink river water should have it cooled by being kept in bottles hung in the shade and wrapt round with wet cloths. — Lukewarm water should never be drank alone — those who are compelled to drink it should mix it with beer or cider, or some stimulant. Travellers should never drink spring water until they have previously filtered it through sand. In a warm climate to which ones constitution has not been sufficiently naturalized, fishing along the muddy shores of streams is a very dangerous amusement; and to such persons fresh fish is an unwholesome food Emigrants should supply themselves with rich nourishing victuals and plenty of warm clothing. The best articles will cost less than sickness would.

If called upon for my opinion whether the people of any class of any country in Europe would be generally benefited by emigrating to this country, I should hesitate to answer in the affirmative. A great many individuals would find their condition improved by it no doubt. Many advantages are to be found here which can be found no where else; but so many die in travelling to attain them, and in the process called seasoning, so many survive those dangers to struggle during their whole lives against the ruinous consequences of a single imprudent step. — So many who have greatly improved their


condition yet remain miserable with a kind of chronic incurable home sickness. So many after they have succeeded in the world beyond their merits, are yet unhappy, because their fate has kept no pace with their brilliant expectations. Emigrants with great capital almost invariably ruin themselves — Now — pondering these things I would say to the people of Europe, if ye have bread to eat, stay at home — if ye have none and can come here, come and welcome.

Thousands of foreigners have been unsuccessful in this country, because they would not stoop to the means through which they might have reached prosperity.

It is related that two Irish men having heard a report of money being so plentiful in this country that one might gather up the dollars in handfuls along the highways; they both prepared good leather knapsacks, forming the moderate philosophic resolution that they would come here and fill them with dollars, and then return to their native homes contented with that trifling amount. It accordingly happened the day after they landed, that one of them did see a dollar lying upon the road, and he began to unbuckle his knapsack — when the other exclaimed "Sorrow till you ye spalpeen, would you be so mane as to stoop down for to pick up a single dollar — cant you wait to we come till where they're plenty?" An appeal to an Irishman's honour was of course sufficient, and the dollar was past by.

Now no one regards this as a fact, but the story contains more truth than a solitary fact could give it. It is a good parable, and every good parable presents the spirit of innumerable facts.


The Ohio Pilot.


Most of the difficulties which occur in navigating the Ohio are occasioned by the shallowness of the channels in times of low water; the following charts and directions are therefore particularly intended for those who descend it at such periods. When the river is moderately high, as it usually is during the spring season, your boat will need but little attention except that you must sometimes row it to avoid being thrown a-shore by head winds or indirect current. When it is flooded there is, at night, danger of running against trees on the shores. When it is low you must row continually.

In the early spring floods boats are often overtaken by floating ice. In such case land if you can below some projecting shore where you may lie in an eddy. If you cannot reach such a place, land at all events and form an eddy by falling trees into the river; for you can seldom depend safely upon one tree. Let them be chopped entirely on one side — the land side; that they may adhere to the stumps; and tie them with hickory withes whether they adhere or no, in order to prevent them from being carried down by the ice against your boat. Some rely upon a canoe moored above their boat, as a defence against the ice, but it isn't defence.

If you carry goods and are near a warehouse when overtaken by ice, it will, under common circumstances, be advisable to unload. If your boat gets frozen in, cut her loose daily. If the river rises, indicating a break up, clear out the ice between your boat and the shore that you may moor her closer if need be. If the river falls; be continually on the watch to keep her afloat; for if one end, or one side stick upon the shore she will probably be sunk. The same attention is necessary while loading. Trim her carefully — that is load so that her sides may be level with the water. Landing requires great caution for unskillful hands are apt to fall below the place they attempt to land at.

Unless you are a good judge in these matters do not think of buying a boat without getting one of skill to examine her. Lay in your provisions at Pittsburgh. No town below this except Wheeling and Cincinnati will afford you a good supply, or in fact any article, but at exorbitant prices. Always carry some oakum for it will often be in requisition.


In the following charts a black line marks the low water channel. That channel which is preferable in high water is sometimes mark by a dotted line. Sand and gravel bars are marked with dots. Rocky bars with diagonal lines. Low willow islands with diagonal lines encircled by a marginal or shore line. Common islands by horizontal lanes within a shore line.


In the Monongahela keep the town shore until within 100 yards of the point; then cross and keep within 50 yards of the left shore. In high water run into the Allegheny current to avoid being thrown by it against the left shore.

Saw-mill run (L side, of a mile down) keep to the right.

No. 1, Brunet's Island, Ch. R. side. Opposite the bar near its head keep within 20 yards of the right short: then cross


over — pass within 20 yards of its foot: then keep nearest to the right side. — 2˝

No.2, Neville's or Long island, Ch. R. side. Keep 6 yards from the point of the dam which extends from the right shore. Run towards the mill — pass it 10 yards, then turn to the left. Keep 30 yards from the island shore till you approach Lowry's rocks which lie beside a sand island on the left. Turn to the right round them. Below the sand island, 15 yards, turn to the left round the head of Duffs bar, 20 yards from Long island Shore. Above the foot of this Island, 1˝ miles, commences Merriman's bar, round which you run within thirty yards of the right shore. There is a current drawing over its point. Round the point of White's bar you run towards Hog island (which is at the foot of L. island ) Middleton bar just below. In moderate water keep the right side; in low water keep to the left, 40 yards from the foot of Hog island. A current here draws over the bar, Run 25 yards from the left shore. Wilrey's trap ˝ a mile below keep ž of the river on your right. After entering the chute turn to the left, to avoid the breakers in it. A current draws over the right shoal. — 5

No. 3, Dead man's island, Ch. R. side, near the head bar of the island, inclining towards the right: then turning to the left round the point of a bar. Run within 10 yards of the island shore; then cross to within 20 yards of the right shore in the bend. Then run towards the foot of the island, round a long bar which extends from the right,

Sewickly Cr. (R. side.) Its bar and a long break below throw you within 70 yards of the left shore.

Logstown bar throws you within five yards of the right shore. The rock and logs in its upper chute, you keep on your right; then run into the right hand bend. In the lower chute keep the rock on your right and logs on your left, running over a tree top; then turning to the right. — 8

Nos. 4 & 5, Crow's islands, Ch. R. side, near the head of the island at first. A rocky bar approaches the foot of No. 5. — 5

Atchesons bar, 1˝ miles above Beaver Cr. Ch. right side.

Big Beaver Cr (R. side) Ch. near the left shore — the breakers below the point of the creek bar on your right. Opposite the town keep between Johnston's bar on your right and another on your left — close to the breakers which lie near the foot of the latter. Turn a little to the left to avoid the right hand shoal. To land at Beaver you run round the foot of Johnston's bar. Below Beaver Cr. 3ź miles, a bar extends from the right side two thirds across the river. Turn to the right round its point to avoid a rocky bar on the left. — 4

Racoon creek (L side) Ch. in the middle between two bars.

No. 6, Ch. left side Opposite its head bar you run within 12 yards of the left shore; then towards the foot of the island through a very dangerous pass keeping a log in it on your right. — 6

No. 7, Philise's island. Ch. a firs close to the right shore; then across past the foot of the island.

No. 8, Grape island, Ch. left side, between breakers at its head. Near the middle of it you keep a breaker on your right. — 5

Total 35˝


Georgetown, L. aide. Below the town you incline to the left to avoid Little Beaver bar. — 4

No. 9, Mill creek island. Ch. L. side. There is a dangerous bar between the island and the shore. Run very close to the snags on the left hand side at the head of the chute. Turn to the right round the bar and run along the island shore some distance: then turn to the left to avoid a ledge of flat rocks.

No. 10, Ch. left side and nearest to the island shore.

Fawcetstown, R side, Ch. in the bend nearest the left shore. 2˝ miles below this town there is a bar in the middle of the river. Channel either side. Opposite the foot of it is Little Yellow creek on the right side. — 4

No. 11, Baker's island: Ch. right side, After passing the bar on the right side that runs above the head of the island, turn in and run within 10 yards of the right shore: then cross out past the foot of the island to avoid Yellow creek bar. — 4

No. 12, Kneassly's cluster: Ch. right side. Keep halfway between the island and the shore until you approach the head of the second in the cluster; then turn abruptly to right. In the lower chute keep the great breaker on your left, then for about 15 yards keep more closely to the right shore and then incline a little to the left. In the foot of this chute is a large rock which you keep on your right; 10 yards distant.

No. 13, Black's island, with a willow bar or island at the foot. Ch. left side. Opposite its head bar keep 15 or 20 yards from the left shore; then turn towards the island to avoid a tree which you keep on your left. Black Horse tavern left side. — 3

King's creek. You first run towards the right shore and then turn round the point of the creek bar to the left.

No. 14, Brown's island, Ch. left side, 12 yards from the left shore opposite the head bar of the island. You then run towards the island and keep close along its shore till you approach the bar that lies halfway down it — then cross over to the left shore. You then run out near to the foot of the little island which is connected with the foot of Browns island. A ledge of rocks comes up from the left shore within 150 yards of it. — 3

Will's creek, R. side. A rocky bar extends half across the river, and three fourths of a mile down it, 4 from the mouth of this creek. After passing this, the Ch. is in the middle of the river until you pass Steubenville. — 2

Half a mile below Steubenville incline to the right and pass close to the point of the bar at the mouth of Wells' run.

No. 15, Mingo island; Ch. L. side. From thence till you pass Indian and Virginia Cross creeks it is in the middle: then it is nearest the right shore till you arrive opposite the head of Wellsburgh. At — Wellsburgh the Ch. approaches the left shore. — 2 — 3

Buffalos Cr. L side, just below the town. There is a large bar at its mouth. Ch. near the point of the bar. — 2˝

Beach bottom bar, near the middle of the river. Best Ch. near the right shore. Below that the Ch. is nearest the left shore. — 3

Warren, (R side above the mouth of Indian Short Cr.) Ch. runs to the left, close to the bar of Virginia Short creek. A shoal extends for a mile below this on the right side. — 5

Total 70


No. 16, Pike island, Ch. right side. — 2

No. 17, Twin islands, Ch. right side. Keep within 12 or 14 yards of the snags which lie at the lower point of the first twin. Keep close to the bar of Glen's run on the right, in order to avoid another which approaches it from the left. After passing the point of the latter incline to the left and keep that side.

No. 18, Wheeling island, Ch. left side. At the head keep within 15 yards of the left shore till you arrive opposite the upper end of the town; then bear across to the island round a large rocky bar which runs out from the town shore. After passing the point of this bar turn in again to the town shore and run down it till you approach the bar of Wheeling Cr. Turn out; wind round the point of that bar, and then turn in abruptly for the left shore. Run down it 100 yards; then turn out and pass by the foot of the island. — 5

No. 19, Bogg's island. Ch. left side. Opposite the upper end of the island you run near the left shore and then incline out past the island foot. — 2

M Mahon's Cr. (R. side.) Its bar extends two thirds of the way across the river. Keep near the point of the bar and then incline a little to the right. — 2˝

Putney — a, little village on the right side. As soon as you come in view it, begin to keep the left shore. In the bank just opposite to the village, and below a large rock, are two fine springs at which boats are usually landed.

Little Grave creek, (L. side,) Ch. to the right.

Big Grave Cr. (L. side.) Its bar runs near the right shore, pass close to the point of it, and then turn into the lift. — 6

No. 20, Captina island, Ch. left side. When you are 200 yards from the foot of the island turn to the left round a bar full of snags, and run within 12 or 15 yards of the left shore: then turn out quick and pass by the point of the island. In moderate water the right side of the island is the best channel. — 2

Captina Cr. Keep three fourths of the river on your right as you pass its bar. Below that keep the middle.

No. 21, Fish-creek island, Ch. right side. In low water keep within 15 yards of the right shore until you pass half down the island; then turn out and pass near the foot of it. — 3

No. 22, Is a low willow island or bar lying near the right shore, Ch. past it near the left shore. — 2

Sunfish Cr. (R. side.) As you approach it turn to the left to avoid its bar and another rocky bar one fourth of a mile below. — 3

Opossum Cr. (R. side.) Its bar runs three fourths across the river. In the chute round its point there lies a tree which you keep on your left.

Proctor's run, (L. side.) Keep two thirds of the river on your left. At a bar on the same side three fourths of a mile below keep the same distance. — 3

Total 106˝


Fishing Cr. and Martin's station, (L. side.) Below its mouth there it a large bar in the middle of the river. At its head keep near the right shore and pass out close to its lower point. — 5

No. 23, Peden's island, Ch. right side. Here commences the Long Reach. — 4

No. 24, Williamson's island, Ch. right side. A bar lies between the foot of it and the right shore; Ch. on the right of the bar within 12 yards of the shore. Two and a half miles below this on the left side is the town of Sistersville. — 2

No. 25, Pursley's island; Ch. right side from 20 to 30 yards from the right shore 'till you get two thirds of the way down the island; it then turns out and passes 30 yards from the island foot. — 4˝

No. 26, Wilson's island, Ch. right side. Keep close to the head bar of the island to avoid a bar and rock which extend out towards it from the mouth of Mill Cr. — 2

No. 27, Grandview island, Ch. right side. After passing this island keep two thirds of the river on your left for three and a half miles: then incline to the left as you approach Petticoat ripple until you have three fourths of the river on your right. At the head of the ripple you turn to the right running towards a dead tree on the right shore till you approach within 25 yards of the shore. — 2

No. 28, Grape and Bat islands joined by a bar, Ch. right side, running out towards the foot. — 9˝

No. 29, Middle island lying close to the left shore, Ch. right side, till you pass French Cr it then turns towards the island to avoid a break of rocks on the right side. — 1˝

Total 137


Nos. 30, 31 & 32, Three Brother's islands, Ch. right side of them all. A bar extends out from the foot of No. 31 which forces you within 12 yards of the right shore. In passing the third Brother, and a willow bar half a mile below it, keep near the right shore. — 5

Bull Cr ( L. side.) From half a mile above it to three fourths of a mile below it you keep two thirds of the river on your right. — 7

Carpenter's bars. You pass between the two of which that on the right is the least. You then turn to the right and approach within 40 yards of the right shore. Keep that side to the mouth of Little Muskingum; then turn out to avoid the logs on the right. — 4 — 2

No. 33, Duval's island; Ch. right side. Duck creek enters opposite the middle of it and the bar throws you near the island shore. Then you turn to right round the point of the bar. — 1

Marietta. In low water keep the right shore till you pass the centre of the town; then turn and run directly across the river, between two large bars, one of which extends from Duval's island, and the other from the mouth of the Big Muskingum. After passing above two thirds of the way across the river turn to the right round the point of the latter bar to avoid a little sand bar on the left shore. — 3

No. 34, Muskingum island; Ch. right side inclining to the right to avoid the bar at the middle of it. — 3

No. 35, Ch. left side and nearest to the island. — 3

No. 36, Jume's island, opposite Vienna. Ch. right side and near the head bar of the island. — 2˝

Parkersburgh, above the mouth of little Kenhawa, & Belpre opposite to it. After passing the town incline to the right. — 3

No. 37, Blannerhassett's island; Ch. right side. Above the head of the island is a tree which you keep on your right. Opposite to the head are sunken trees which you keep on your left, and run into the bend of the right shore. Near the foot of the island is a bar, or little island, which throws the channel close to the right shore. — 3

Little Hockhocking (R. side.) A rocky bar extends from its mouth above half way across the river. After passing this bar 100 yards turn to the right to avoid a bar on the left. — 5

No. 38, Newbery island — a kind of willow bar Ch. right side Take care to avoid a bar that approaches its head from the right shore.

No. 39, Mustapha's island, near the right shore; Ch. right and in low water. A bar extends from the foot of the island towards the point of a rocky break on your right. — 2

Big Hockhocking R. (R. side.) Three miles below this river, and one above Belleville, a bar extends from the left throwing the channel near the right shore. You turn abruptly round its point to avoid a bar on the right which reaches two thirds of the way across the river. Run towards the head of Belleville town. — 1˝

No. 40, Belleville island, Ch. right side. After passing half a mile down it you turn to the right, and run within 50 yards of the right shore to avoid a bar at the foot of the island.

Total 185


Shade River. (R. side.) Keep near the point opposite this river to avoid being thrown against the rocks below its mouth. One mile below this there are two bars opposite to each other Ch. between them; rather nearest the right shore. Below this are two large sand bars on the left side, which throw the channel two thirds across the river. — 6˝

No. 41, Buffington's island, Ch. right side. It lies near the right shore, below a bend of the river so that you will not observe it until you are near its heed. The channel is full of logs and dangerous. Keep your boat under good head-way through it Keep a rock which is at the lower end of the island on your right. When the river is at middling height keep to the left of this island. — 5˝

Big Sandy creek. (L. side.) A ledge of rocks commences on the right shore, above the mouth of this creek, and terminates in a bar half a mile below it In passing its point you run within 30 yards of the left shore, in the bend; and then turn quick out to avoid a great ledge of rocks on the left. Keep two thirds of the river on your left for nearly three miles.

No. 42, Old-town bar, or island, Ch. right side. Old-town Cr. is opposite to it on the right side. Just below it there is a rocky bar on the right side. — 9

Tanner's run, R side. Just below this there is a bar on the left side, Ch. to the right of it.

No. 43, George's or Goose island, Ch. right side. A large bar comes out from the right hand point, near to the head bar of the island. After passing near the island, one third of the way down it, you turn to the right and run within 20 yards of the right shore, to avoid a bar which lies near the foot of the island. — 4

Nos. 44 & 45, Ch. right side, and nearest the right shore. At the foot of No. 44 a bar extends out 200 yards — keep between it and a shoal which lies on the right, bearing towards the foot of No. 45. — 4˝

Letart's rapids, half a mile below No. 45. Keep two thirds of the river on your left so as to enter the sheet of smooth water between the left hand bar and right hand dam; then incline a little to the left. A mile below the rapids there is a sand bar on the right.

"The Rock of Antiquity," at the water edge on the R shore. — 3˝

Wolf's bar, near the left shore. Ch. right side, near the point of the bar, West Cr. enters on the left at the foot of the bar. — 3

Secrease's ripple, a mile below the foot of Wolf's bar. Keep two thirds of the river on your right. From this to eight mile island the river is deep and gentle.

Allum rocks two miles above the mouth of Leading creek. — 8˝

No. 46, Eight mile island, Ch. right side, within 30 yards of the right shore, at the head, and near the island at the foot of it. — 3

No. 47, Six mile island lies close to the left shore, Ch. right side, and near the island at the foot of it. — 2

Great Kenhawa river, (L. side) Town of Point Pleasant above the month. After passing it keep in to the right shore until you approach No. 48. — 4˝

Total 239


No. 48 Galliopolis island, Ch. left side. At first near the head bar of the island. When you run half way down it, turn quick to the left to avoid a bar that lies between the foot of it and the left shore. After passing the bar turn to the right. — 2˝

Galliopolis, R. side Three miles below the town there is a rocky bar on the right. — 1

No. 49, Racoon island. Ch. left side, and near the island at the foot; as some snags lie on the left side. Racoon Cr. enters one mile below. — 5

Meridian Cr. (L. side) Eighteen Mile Cr. (R. side) Just below this there is a ripple, Ch. in middle of the river.

Little Guyundot Cr. (L. side) Below this, 5 miles, at the bend of the river, is Green bottom ripple. In passing it, keep two thirds of the river on your right. There is a rocky bar on one hand, and a gravel bar on the other. — 11˝

Federal Cr. (R. side) 1 mile. Nine Mile Cr. (L. side) 4 miles. — 10

Big Guyundot River, (L. side) Guyundot Town just above its mouth. When you approach within a mile of this, keep two thirds of the river on your right, until you come opposite the lower end of the town; then turn out quick, and pass above half across. One mile below, you enter a straight reach of 9 miles. — 6˝

Symmes' Cr. (R. side) 3 miles. Buffaloe Cr. (L. side) 2 miles. Ten pole Cr. (L. side) 1 mile. Twelve pole Cr. (L. side) 1 mile. — 3 — 7

Big Sandy river, (L. side) Ch. through the bar here is in the middle of the river. — 3

Hood's Cr. (L. side) Ice Cr. (R. side) Stoners Cr. (R. side) — 10

Ferguson's bar, Ch. (R. side.) Here is a long shallow. — 2˝

Little Sandy Cr.(L. side) Ch. nearest the right shore. — 5˝

Hale's, or Pine Cr. (R. side.) — 10

Little Sciota river, (R. side) From a mile above its mouth to a mile and one half below it, you keep žths of the river on your right, to avoid a great ledge of rocks. There is a little bar on the left, below the point. — 2

Tyger's Cr.(R. side.) — 7

Big Sciota river, (R. side) A bar commences on the left above the mouth of the Sciota, and throws the Ch. near the right side, opposite Portsmouth; but when you pass the Sciota, you turn to the left to avoid a bar, and snags opposite Alexandria. — 2

Total 327˝


Connaconeque Cr. (L. side.) — 6

No. 50, Ch. left side. Keep at first near the island bar until you pass the Cr. bar; then as you pass the middle of the island turn quick to the left to avoid the foot bar, which runs three fourths across the river. After running half a mile along the left shore, turn out to the middle.

Twin Creeks, (R. side). At their mouths there is a large bar which runs three fourths across the river.

Salt Cr. (L. side) Ch. near the right shore; In high water, there is a whirl-pool on the left. — 9

No. 51, Wilson's, or Brushcreek island, Ch. right side. Opposite to its head, there is a bar with logs which you keep on your right; and then incline to the right shore, at the mouth of Brush creek. You then turn out a little to the left, and pass between logs which lie near the foot of the island. — 10

Nos. 52 and 3, Manchester islands, Ch. left side of both. As you approach them, keep near the left hand points, to avoid being thrown on the bar between the islands. Ch. is in the middle all through. — 8

Crooked Cr. (L. side.) Cabin Cr. (L. side) 5 miles. Brook's Cr. (R. side) three miles. Below this is a large bar on the right side, Ch. near the left shore.

Limestone Creek, and Town, (L. side.) — 11

Charleston (L. side.) Opposite to the town there is a large bar in the middle of the river; Channel, left side, near the town at the head, and nearest the bar at the foot. — 5

Eagle creek, (R. side) ˝ mile. Ripley, (R. side) ˝ mile. Lavina, (R. side) 2 miles. Straight creek (R. side) 2˝ miles. At its mouth there is a large sand bar, which throws the channel near the left shore. — 1˝ — 7

Augusta, (L. side) Below the mouth of Bracken creek, a large bar opposite the town throws the channel near the left short. When you pass the town turn out. — 3

Total 382


Bullskin creek (R. side) Ch. round its bar is near the left shore. Below this there are two fears, one on each side. — 3˝

Mechanicsburgh (R. side) 3˝ miles. Neville (R. side) 5 miles. — 8˝

Bear creek R. side 2˝ miles. Big Indian creek R. side 6 miles. Little Indian creek, R. side 2 miles. — 10˝

New Richmond R. side. A large bar throws the channel close to the right shore from 1˝ miles above, until you pass below the town. Below this, 4˝ miles, there is a large bar in the middle of the river Ch. left side and near the shore. Below this, where the river turns to the right, there is another bar on the right hand point, which throws the channel near the left shore.

LittleMiami river, R. side. At its mouth, and below it, are logs; and below them a sand bar, which throw the channel nearest the left shore. About a mile below L Miami the channel turns to the right, and keeps near the right shore until past Cincinnati. — 9

Crawfish creek (R side ) Below this 1˝ miles a great bar commences on the left, running more than half across the river. Deer creek (right side).

CINCINNATI, opposite Licking river. Newport stands above, and Covington below Licking. — 7

Mill creek (R. side).

A large sand bar on the left throws the channel within 30 yards of the right shore. — 2

North Bend town (R side) — 15

Great Miami river. A large bar at its mouth throws the Ch. near the left hand point. After passing it 100 yards turn to the right, and keep two thirds of the river on your left till you approach Lawrenceburgh. — 4˝

Petersburgh (L. side) opposite Tanner's creek.

Haugham's creek (R. side.)

Parnassus (R. side.)

Loughery's creek (R. side.) Opposite to this there is a bar on the left side which reaches about two-thirds across the river. — 6

No. 54 Loughery's island. Ch. left side. — 8

Rising Sun (R. side). Opposite to this there is a large bar on the left side which throws you within 30 yds. of the right shore.

Gunpowder creek (L. side).

Big Bone Lick (L. side) Opposite to this is a rocky bar in the middle of the river. Ch. left side, and near a rocky break on the left, opposite the head of the bar. — 14

Fredericksburgh. (L. side). A mile above it there is a bar on the right. — 9

Total 479˝


No. 55, Nine mile island. Channel left side, and near the left shore at the head. About three-fourths of a mile below No. 55 you incline to the right to avoid a large sand bar which lies opposite Vevay. Keep about 300 yards from Vevay landing; arid, after passing about that distance beyond it, turn abruptly to the right, and run within 20 yards of the right shore for about one quarter of a mile; then turn out to the middle to avoid a little bar on the right. The town of Ghent is on the Kentucky side, opposite Vevay. About three and one half miles below Vevay, opposite the first high hills on the right, there is a large sand bar — Ch. right side. — 10 — 2 — 3˝

Kentucky river, and town of Port William (L. side). Little Kentucky river — about half a mile below. — 5

Five miles below Kentucky river there is a large sand bar. Ch. right side, close to the shore. — 5

Madison, (R. side). — 9

Cooper's Ferry.

About 5 miles below Madison there is a sand bar on the left, extending above two-thirds across the river. Ch. close right shore. — 6

New London (right side.) — [unknown]

Westport (L. side). — 14

No. 56 Eighteen mile island. Ch. right side, keeping about three-fourths of the river on your left. [unknown]

total 534˝


No. 57 Twelve mile island, channel right side.

Nos. 58 &. 59 Six mile islands, ch. between them. From this till you approach Jeffersonville the ch. is rather nearest to the right side. Here you pass to the right of a large sand bar, and then run across just above the head of the falls, from Jeffersonville to Gray's large brick warehouse below the mouth of Bear-grass creek. — 10 — 6

For the FALLS see pages 36 & 37.

Island No 60 is near the left shore at the foot of Louisville; and No. 61 is a little below that in the middle of the Falls. — 6

No. 62 Sandy island, opposite the lower part of Shippingport, ch. left side, close to the island, keeping two large breakers on your left. — 2˝

Portland (L side) Opposite to this town there is a sand bar in the middle of the river — Ch. left side, near the left shore until you pass below Albany, (which is on the right side.) you then cross over to the right to avoid a sand bar which commences on the left side three-fourths of a mile below Albany. Below this bar you keep nearest to the left shore for about 12 miles: you then run near the left shore to avoid a bar which lies on the right After passing round it you keep nearest to the right shore for about 4 miles, and then nearest to the left shore as far as Salt river. — 4

Salt River, L. side. Opposite to its mouth there is a bar on the right side, which throws you close in to the left. Keep the left side for half a mile, and then incline gradually over towards the right hand bend, from whence you run into the left hand bend below. — 20

Fifteen miles below Salt river, and two miles above Brandenburgh's ferry, a sand bar commences on the left shore which reaches below the ferry. Ch. right side. When opposite the ferry you run in close to the right. The Falling Springs are just below the ferry. Three miles below there is another sand bar which you keep on your right. — 15

Northampton (R. side.)

Two miles below this there is a shoal on the right.

Nos. 63 & 64 Blue river islands Ch. left side of the first and right side of the second. You keep near to the head bar of the latter, and likewise near to its foot, as there is a rocky break at the mouth of Blue river which enters just below it. — 16

Blue River right side. — 2

Leavenworth right side.

total 616



There are three channels for passing the Falls. The first, called the Indiana Chute, passes round the windings of the right hand shore: It is the deepest, and generally the safest of the three. The Middle chute is on the right side of Corn island, (No. 60.) In running this it is necessary to keep close to the shoal or bar of the island, and pass in near to the left shore below its foot, as there is a current which tends to carry boats across to the Indiana side, and which, if it were not resisted, would occasion them to be wrecked upon the chain of rocks that occupies the middle of the river through the whole extent of the Falls. The third, channel called the Kentucky chute, can be passed only in times of high water. It lies on the left side of Corn island, and runs across the point before Shippingport. At the west corner of Shippingport there is an eddy which forms an excellent harbour. When the river is flooded boats may pass on the right side of Sandy island, No. 62, but in low waiter it is impracticable.

Pilots are appointed by the courts of Jeffersonville and Louisville, and as numbers of them are always to be had at a moment's warning, it is rare that any boat descends the Falls without taking one aboard.

The Falls or Rapids of the Ohio are caused by great beds of stratified limestone rock which pass entirely across the river; presenting a descent of twenty two feet in the distance of two and a half miles.

The projected canal of Louisville is indicated upon the print in the opposite page by the divaricated white lines that pass from the harbour below the mouth of Bear-grass creek across the point towards Sandy island. The straight line on the Indiana side, passing over the great ledge of rocks, indicates a wall or mill-dam.


Little Blue river (R. side.) About three-fourths of a mile below this a sand bar commences on the left side and extends round the left point. — 14

No. 65, Flint island. Ch. right side. Below it there is a sand bar in the middle of the river which you keep on your left; though some, following the directions of Cramer's Navigator, pass through a shallow, bad channel between this bar and Flint island. Half a mile below this there is another bar on the left. Run round its point unto the right hand bend. — 9

Five miles below Flint island there is a bar in the middle of the river. Ch. left side, and near the left shore until you approach within half a mile of the first right hand point: you then turn quickly over to the right side to avoid the bar on the left. — 5

Sinking cr. (L. side.) Below this, on the Kentucky side, is the village of Stephensport, and opposite to it (on the Indiana side) the town of Rome or Washington. About one and a half miles above them there is a shoal. Ch. left side. — 6

Clover creek (L. side.) Below this about 8 miles, there is a dangerous ledge of rocks on the right (called Rock island by some) which extends one third across the river. About 5 miles below this there is a sand bar on the left. — 10

The town of Troy just above the mouth of Anderson's river, (R. side) Anderson's ferry one and a half miles below. There the channel is in the middle; but three-fourths of a mile below you turn to the right to avoid Anderson's bar, which extends 3˝ miles down the river on the left side. At the foot of it, where the river inclines to the right, you crossover into the left hand bend to avoid another bar which extends along the right hand point. Bayou Cr. (R. side.) — 19 — 9

Rockport (R. side.) When you come within three-fourths of a mile of the town, begin to keep two-thirds of the river on your right, in order to avoid the bar above the town. — 6

Nos. 66 & 67, Yellow Bank islands. Ch. left side of both. The first is a small one close to the right shore. The town of Yellow Banks is on the left side opposite the foot of the second island. There is a little bar in the left hand bend. — 6

No. 68, Little Hurricane island. Ch. right side, near the right shore. — 6

Nos. 69 & 70, lie near the right shore. Ch. left side of them. — 7

Nos. 71& 72, French islands. As you approach them keep nearest to the right side until you come near their head bar; then cross over to the left. There are rapids opposite the head of the small one. — 5

Total 718


After passing the foot of the main French island about three-fourths of a mile, run across to the right shore, passing a bar or shoal that lies near the right side. Run down that side 3 miles, then cross over to the left and run down it 2 miles.

No. 73, Three mile island. Ch. left side, close to the island. After passing it the channel is on the right as far as Green R. — 6

Green river (L. side). — 5

No. 74, Green river islands. Ch. left side of both, and near the left shore. After passing them the channel inclines to the right to avoid a bar at the left point, opposite Evansville. Two miles below this town there is a rocky bar on the right side. 5 miles below this there is a sand bar on the right. — 2 — 6

Redbanks or Hendersonville (L. side) — 10

No. 75, Red-bank island. Ch. right side: Opposite to the foot of it there commences a great bar on the right, 5 miles long. Ch. past it is close to the left shore. After passing it you keep nearest to the right side. — 2

No. 76, Diamond island. Ch. R. side, and near the right shore. After passing it and a willow island just below it, cross to the left to avoid a bar 4 miles long which commences here on the right. Below this bar there is another on the same side. — 12

No. 77, Straight island. Ch. right side, close to the island. — 9

As you approach to the foot of it turn to the right to avoid a bar below, that runs two-thirds across from the left side.

Mount Vernon (R. side.) — 3

No. 78, Slim island. Ch. right side until you approach the right hand point, where you turn out to avoid a bar and willow island which extend about two miles round the point. Ch. keeps well to the left side to avoid them and a ledge of rocks in the right hand bend below them 2 miles below these there is another ledge on the right. — 5

Highland creek, and the town of Carthage (L. side.) One mile below this a rocky bar runs half across from the left side. — 7

No. 79, Wabash island Ch. right side and near the R. shore. — 5

Wabash river (R. side.) Here steam boats usually obtain fuel.

No. 80, Browns' island, consists of three small islands united by a bar, and lies close to the right score. Ch. left side, and near the left shore mail you approach within a mile of Shawancetown: there you cross over to the right. — 5

Shawancetown (R. side) can be seen at the distance of 4 miles Opposite to the town there is a bar on the left side. 4 miles lower down you again run near the right shore to avoid another bar on the left. — 5

No. 81, Stevenson's island. Ch. right side. After passing it cross over to the left side to avoid the bar below. — 4

Total 804


No. 82, a small double island near the left shore. Ch. R. side. — 2

Saline river (R. side.) One mile above its mouth a bar commences on the right, and extends below it In passing it keep two-thirds of the river on your right — taking care not to fall on the little left hand bar opposite to it. Below this about two miles, there is another bar on the same side. — 2

No. 83, Tradewater island, opposite the mouth of Tradewater river. Ch. right side, and near the right shore. — 6

No. 84, Cave in rock island, opposite the "Cave in Rock." Ch. right side. — 7

Hurricane bar begins 2 miles below the cave, and extends 2 miles along the right shore. After passing it you cross over to the right side to avoid Walker's bar on the left, which approaches within 200 yards of the right shore. Its lower point is opposite to a high rocky bluff bank on the right, called the Tower Rock. Here you turn round the point of Walker's bar, and run almost backwards in order to make the left side of Hurricane island, (No. 85) between the head of which and the bar there is a narrow, crooked channel You keep all the logs and snags in it on your left — except two. When you pass the head of the island you must work against a current that tends to throw you on the left shore. Kirksville is just below (L. side). — 8

No. 86, Golconda. Ch. right side. Half a mile below is the town of Golconda on the right side. — 11

Nos. 87, 88 & 89, The Three Sisters. Ch. right side of them all One mile below No. 89 a sand bar runs three-fourths across from the left side. Ch. close to the right shore in the bend. — 3

No. 92, Stewart's island — Ch. left side. Below this 1˝ miles there is a bar which throws the channel near the left shore. — 7

No. 91, Dog island — a small double one near the right shore. Ch. left side. — 5

No. 92, Cumberland island, at the mouth of the Cumberland river. Ch. right side, and near the right shore, until you pass below the island half a mile; then cross over to the left side, and run near to the left shore round Cumberland bar. When you approach some willows in the left bend turn out to the right. — 3

93, Tennessee island, at the mouth of Tennessee river Ch. right side and nearest the right shore. — 13

Fort Massac (R. side.) Three milles below this there is a rocky bar in the middle of the river — Ch right side Five miles further is the Little chain. Ch. in the middle. Seven further. — 9

Wilkinsonville. Ch. near the right shore. — 15

The Grand Chain of rocks (R. side). Ch. left side. — 3


After passing the last breaker of the Great Chain incline over towards the right shore.

New America town (R. side). There is a bar opposite to it which throws the channel towards the left shore. — 15

No. 94, Cash island. Ch. right side. — 1

Cash river (R. side). From this to the mouth of the Ohio the channel is near the right shore. — 1

MISSISSIPPI RIVER. Town of Cairo at the confluence Total miles 920 — 5

Total 898

Note. The first six of the preceding charts were drawn upon the scale of five miles to the inch; and all the rest on the scale of eight miles to the inch except that of the falls This proportion however is observed only lengthwise; because from the necessity of the case, the river is made to appear much wider than it is in reality.


















West Pennsylvania.




Pennsylvania is 306 miles in length, and 158 in breadth, except at the N. West corner, where it is 175.

It is bounded on the south by the line of N. latitude 39° 43', which separates it from Maryland and Virginia: on the west by the line of longitude 3° 37' west from Washington, which separates it from Virginia and Ohio: on the north by lake Erie for 44 miles — then by a line running south 18 miles to N. lat. 42 — and then by the line of latitude 42; which two latter lines separate it from New-York. Its eastern boundary is the Delaware river, which separates it from New Jersey until it approaches within 22 miles of Newcastle, in Delaware; then a quarter circle drawn at the same distance from Newcastle cuts off the S. E. corner of this state, and separates it from Delaware state.

The Allegheny mountain is here arbitrarily made the division between East and West Pennsylvania.

RIVERS. This part of the state is watered by the Allegheny, Monongahela, a part of the Ohio, and some of the head waters of the Susquehannah.

The Allegheny rises about 20 miles from the north boundary of the state, near the sources of the Sinnemahoning branch of Susquehannah. It runs at first a northerly course, until it crosses the state line; it then passes about 40 miles through N. York, and returns to this state. After leaving New York its main course is S. W. as far as the, mouth of French creek, at the town of Franklin. From thence it runs a south, easterly course above 80 miles, to the mouth of Crooked creek; and from thence a south westerly course about 45 miles, to Pittsburgh, where it unites with the Monongahela. Their confluence constitutes the Ohio.

The Allegheny is a cool, clear, rapid river; affording excellent navigation for barges through the greater part of its extent, and communicating with lake Erie by short portages through two routes. One is by French creek, which the boats ascend as far as Le Boeuf lake. From thence the portage to the town of Erie, on lake Erie, is 15 miles over a perfectly level road. The other route is up the main branch of the river, and from it up the Conewongo creek, through part of New York state, to Chatauque lake. From that there is a


portage of nine miles to Portland, (a town situated upon lake Erie shore, at the mouth of Chatauque creek,) which is 30 miles north east from the town of Erie.

The name of this river, says Harris, has been derived from that of the Allegawe or Tallegawe Indians, a tribe which was exterminated by the Delawares. Amongst the aborigines this river is called Allegawennick, or the place of the Allegawes.

The streams which enter the Allegheny on the east side are the Tunongwant and Kenzua creeks, near its source — Tonewista creek, 35 miles above Franklin — Toby's, or Stump creek, 40 miles below Franklin. Sandy-lick creek, Mahoning, Crooked creek, and the Conemaugh or Kiskeminetas river.

Stump creek communicates with the Sinnemahoning branch of the Susquehannah. It is little used as a channel of commerce, except by the farmers in that quarter, who transport their grain in that way to the Baltimore market; but it is thought by those who have examined the read that a canal might be easily constructed there, connecting the great eastern and western rivers of the state.

The Conemaugh river rises near the main source of the west branch of Susquehannah, and likewise near the Juniata, but no examination has been made relative to the practicability of uniting either of these rivers. It breaks through the Laurel mountain by a chasm which presents a scene full of interest and sublimity.

Conewango creek, which enters the Allegheny on the west side at Warren, is navigable to its source at Chatauque lake.

Oil creek (about 10 miles above French creek) receives its name from the mineral oil which is plentifully collected from it.

French creek enters at Franklin, and is likewise navigable to its chief source, which is Le Boeuf lake, 78 miles from the Allegheny.

No other important streams flow into the Allegheny on west. Scrub-grass, Red-bank and Bull creeks, though well suited for mills, are not at all navigable.

The Monongahela river rises in Virginia, near the sources of the Elk branch of Kenhawa. It is navigable for boats as far as Morgantown, about 100 miles — but for small craft 40 miles further; and is above 400 yards wide at its mouth. Its course is at first nearly N. East, to the line which separates this state from Virginia: From thence it is north as far as the mouth of Turtle creek; and from thence to Pittsburgh, which is about 13 miles, its course is west.

Its current is very gentle, and it is no where obstructed by falls or rapids. Its waters are seldom clear, from which circumstance it is said to have derived its name, meaning, in some Indian language, the river with "falling-in-banks." So says Judge Brackenridge.

On the west side, the Monongahela receives no considerable branches. On the cast side is a large creek called the East


branch. Further east the Cheat river rises along the Laurel all in Virginia, and enters the Monongahela 4 miles north of the state boundary, and 55 from Pittsburgh. Youghioghe [unknown] rises in this state, between the Laurel hill and Allegheny mountain, and running a S. W. course, debouches 18 miles from Pittsburgh. When it passes through a gap of the Ches[unknown] ridge, it presents a very beautiful romantic cataract, about feet in perpendicular height, called the falls of Ohiopily. Ohio. This river, after running 37 miles in a westerly direction, passes the state line, and from that point becomes the boundary between the states of Ohio and Virginia. The name, of some Indian tongue, means blood, or the bloody river. The [unknown] called it La Belle Riviere — the beautiful river; a name which it well merits, particularly for the charming scenery of its shores.

As it has been deemed advisable to assign a separate portion of this work to the delineation and description of it, there reasons nothing of the detail to be here added. The Ohio receives no important stream within this state, except the Big Beaver, which is a small river formed by the [unknown] of the Mahoning, Pyamunting, Nushannock or Slippery[unknown], and Canoquenessing creeks. A short distance from the [unknown] of Beaver there are rapids on which several mill dams have been erected, and thus the navigation has been entirely constructed.

ACE OF THE COUNTRY, SOIL, &c. The land along the head waters of the Allegheny is generally very barren, particularly on east side of the river, and near the New-York line. The surface is uneven and often rugged: the timber is chiefly and hemlock; at least tracts of this sort are found there for a hundred thousand acres in extent, through which there is scarcely any variation of appearance. The trees, however, are very large, and excellent of their kinds, and will afford a actual supply of lumber, &c. for the country southward, but the streams, the beech, birch, maple, oak, and hickory, [unknown], though in small quantities. On the west side of the Allegheny the pine tracts are small: and through the greater part [unknown] district the sugar tree and beech are the trees most abundant.

Ash, locust, oak and hickory, occupy the better parts; [unknown]esnut the elevated gravelly ground. The soil of the pine consists of stones or gravel with clay, passing into clay that of the oak land is chiefly a good loam, and that of beech and maple a loamy clay, too moist for grain, but aptly rich, and in fact excellent for meadow. One portion Allegheny mountains terminates in this district, present regular and insulated ridges of considerable elevation. [unknown] these, which is near the town of Warren, affords a grand [unknown] the country about 80 miles wide.

Rest of this, towards the Ohio state line, the country is ra[unknown], and frequently marshy, well suited for grass, but unfit


for grain: the timber being chiefly beech, sugar tree and maple, but mixed with poplar, linn, cucumber, white ash, butternut, hickory; and, in the more sterile parts, hemlock, with scarcely any underwood. Weeds, however, are luxuriant, particularly the flax nettle, (Urtica Whitlowi) and an indigenous species of the potatoe.

The bottoms of French creek and its tributaries, which water this tract, are generally rich and wide. The trees are oak, black walnut, linn, sugar tree and honey locust. In the rear of these bottoms are broken ridges of hemlock and pine. The size and quantity of the trees which cover this range of country render it very difficult to clear, but it has proved valuable for the production of potash; and the land is perhaps the best of any in the state for raising stock.

Though it is in general flat and wet, it is table land considerably elevated. It terminates on the north side, at an average distance of about three miles from lake Erie; leaving a beautiful stripe of bottom land, the soil of which consists of a thin vegetable stratum with a light sandy loam, and sometimes gravel: the trees, chesnut, hickory, oak, black walnut and linn: that is, possessing second rate fertility, well suited for small grain. In the lighter parts there is hemlock; but no beech is seen beyond the table land. On the south side of the beech country the land becomes broken, and covered chiefly with pine, particularly along the Allegheny. Until you approach within 40 miles of Pittsburgh, scarcely any thing is to be seen along the river but barren knobs covered with scrubby bushes, and pine trees. At some, distance from the river the pine is of great growth, and presents forests of impenetrable shade. As an exception to this, there is a large body of good land at the mouth of Stump creek. Westward, toward the Ohio border, there is oak land degenerating into scrubby barrens, intersected by good bottoms along the head waters of the Beaver, and some tracts of tolerable hill land well timbered. As we proceed southward towards the Ohio river, the number of barren tracts increases, but the bottom land of the streams improves: the surface becomes more hilly, and the characters of the soil more varied. In the glades, as the barrens are there called, scarcely any fruit can possibly be raised on account of the frosts; and in general they are unsuited for grain. In some parts they are covered with scrubby bushes, ground oak, whortleberry, &c.; in other places they are wet, producing cranberries and grass.

From the head waters of Beaver to the south border of the state, nine tenths of the trees belong to the oak family; even on the rich bottoms, among the black walnuts and grape-vines; the oak generally predominates.

Along the Allegheny, for about 40 miles from its mouth, there is much of rich bottom land, which gradually assumes the character that distinguishes the Ohio alluvion.


The country south of the Ohio and Allegheny — that is, the south west corner of the state, is uniformly but moderately fertile. There are indeed some small tracts, both of bottom and hill land, as richly productive as the climate will allow, and there is not in this whole extent a single spot of barren soil, excepting the declivities of hills too steep for cultivation. But with regard to surface, it presents little else than groups of irregular ridges, all rising nearly to the same elevation, which is about 450 feet above the level of the great rivers. There are a few isolated points above the usual range. One of these, about two miles east of Washington, affords a view of the Chesnut ridge, above 30 miles distant. About 8 miles east of Pittsburgh the view again opens widely on the same mountain chain where the nearest part of it is at the distance of 35 miles. But the highest point, in this country, west of the Allegheny mountains, is a peak called the "Round Knob," in Beaver county, about five miles eastward from Beaver town. It exhibits a panorama of sublime extent and singular beauty.

There is a chain of hills rising in oblique and broken lines, commencing in Virginia, and extending north, nearly parallel with the Ohio river, at the average distance of 20 miles from it. In that direction it passes into this state, and reaches the great bend of the Ohio to the east of Beaver town.

The most western chain of the Appalachian mountains is the Chesnut ridge. It is a continuation of the Cumberland mountains of Tennessee, and retains that name in Virginia. In this state it is divided into two distinct ranges; the eastern one of which is usually called the Laurel mountain, it passes entirely across the state, and terminates in New-York. Its course in every part is about N. N. E. As the Chesnut ridge approaches the central latitude of this state, it spreads into a wide succession of irregular hills and can be traced no further.

The Allegheny mountain is the highest of the Appalachian ranges within this state. It forms the grand line of division between the rivers which flow eastward into the Atlantic and those that flow westward into the Mississippi. It is however cut through by the west branch of the Susquehannah; and exhibits no very regular chain of elevation on the north side of that river. It is nearly parallel with the Cumberland or Laurel mountain through its whole course; the distance between them being greatest at the south border of Virginia.

There are no marshes in the south west quarter of this state, but they are numerous in the north west.

CLIMATE. There is a great difference between the northern and southern parts of West Pennsylvania in regard to temperature — far greater than the difference of latitude would warrant us in supposing. South of Pittsburgh the snows seldom fall more than four or five inches — very rarely a foot in depth. It is also rare to see the fruit trees injured by frosts.


But forty or fifty miles north of Pittsburgh very little fruit of any kind can be raised, and even the Indian corn is liable to be injured both in spring and autumn. Snows four or five feet deep are seen almost every winter. In these respects it differs very little from the mountain country. The glades are affected by frost in a remarkable manner. When glade and woodland are included in the same field, and the trees entirely removed from the latter, the frosts will still indicate most strikingly the part which had been glade. In some seasons those glades suffer frost every month through summer. The snows and cold winds are supposed to visit this quarter from the northern lakes; but in the immediate neighbourhood of those lakes there is hardly ever very deep snow. The seasons of cold are more regular there, and the fruit trees are seldom injured, a similar anomaly, more striking, is observed in Upper Canada, where the spring begins late, but suffers no return of frost for that season; and there fruit grows abundantly.

That the snows are lighter along the lake shore than they are in the interior, is attributed to violent winds which usually prevail on the lakes, and which are supposed to drive the snow clouds beyond the expanse on which they are most powerful, suffering them to fall by degrees as they become checked by the hills and woods.

There is an opinion generally prevalent in the western country, particularly in this end of Pennsylvania, that the summers are hotter and winters colder now than they were in early times; and this change is imputed to the clearing of the land, by reason of which the earth is less skreened from the sun's rays in summer, and the cold winds less impeded in their course during the winter. Whatever may be the cause — whether it be permanent or not, the fact seems to be incontestible.

This part of the state has been more exempted from hurricanes than any other part of the western country. Within the memory of its old inhabitants the south west corner of it has been visited by two or three, but they did very little damage. The extreme unevenness of its surface has apparently been one cause of its security.

In winter the thermometer here sinks sometimes 10 or 15 degrees below zero, but such paroxysms are thought extraordinary and never last long, hardly ever more than a day or two. As great a severity on the other extreme will raise the thermometer to 94 or 95, (some say 100, which is very questionable) and after falling each evening it may return to the same point two or three days in succession, but after that there will hardly be much very warm weather during the same season. When the summer heat approaches to 90 degrees in the Atlantic cities, it causes an oppression of the feelings, a prostration both of mental and muscular energy, such as is never experienced in this country — and that state of the weather, varying in its degrees, will often continue a month at one period.


The south west part of the state has always been remarkable for healthiness. The country north and west of the Ohio and Allegheny was considered rather unhealthy for several years after the first settlements commenced. The cause of the unhealthiness probably was the fatigue and exposure which people always undergo in new settlements. But many think that the salubrity universally acknowledged at present, has been caused by the clearing and cultivation of the land.

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS. Coal abounds through this portion of the state, particularly in the country around the head of the Ohio for the distance of 40 or 50 miles in every direction; and for a still greater distance along the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers. It is most abundant in the immediate vicinity of Pittsburgh, the strata being generally about five feet thick. They are horizontal, and at the elevation of 340 feet from the usual level of the water in the rivers. About 30 miles north of Pittsburgh it is near the common level of the waters, and in, strata generally about two feet thick. It is likewise near the bases of the hills at the distance of 20 or 30 miles south from Pittsburgh, but in strata nearly three feet thick. It is not always perfectly horizontal, for it is not always at the same point of elevation in different hills of the same neighbourhood.

The Pittsburgh coal is a species of the Newcastle or Cannel coal; but its leading character is that it contains more bitumen than any other coal in the world. Cannel coal has usually two thirds charcoal, nearly one third bitumen, and the balance of 3 or 4 per cent, silex and argil: but the Pittsburgh coal has about 60 per cent, charcoal, near 40 per cent, bitumen, and the remainder 3 or 4 per cent, earth and metallic matter, chiefly oxyd of iron, together with an indefinitely small quantity of sulphur. Its colour is pure black, passing into greyish black; sometimes externally tinged yellowish with pyritical matter. Its longitudinal fracture is slaty — cross fracture uneven, passing into flat and conchoidal; but always indicating its cubical chrystallization. Its lustre is resinous and splendent, and its cross fracture often beautifully irridescent. Specific gravity from 1.20. to 1.65. The texture of its constituent vegetable substances appears sometimes in it, though rarely.

It differs very little from the Virginia (Richmond) coal, except in the beauty of its appearance; but it differs from the Lehigh coal greatly, as the latter consists almost entirely of charcoal.

With occasional intervals the bed of what is called Pittsburgh coal extends from the northern lakes through all the countries watered by the Mississippi and its tributaries, varying frequently in its position and in the thickness of its layers, but hardly any in the proportions of its constituents.

IRON is found in the greatest abundance through the whole range of the Appalachian mountains, and in smaller veins


through almost every part of West Pennsylvania, and in every situation from the transition rocks to the depositions of recent alluvion. In the former it is generally pyritical, and in the latter it is in the state of bog-ore. The sort usually worked is a clay-iron stone, always containing limestone and sulphur. Where the latter abounds it is reckoned of little value, and in many places, particularly along the Allegheny, there are immense beds of it that degenerate into perfect sulphuret of iron — presenting sometimes cubical, crystals and sometimes irregular lumps. Iron in the form of yellow and red ochres has been found abundantly in many places through this end of the state, and as a paint has supplied the western country largely.

Sulphate of iron is contained in large proportion in the aluminous shale which forms the basis of many of our hills. Sometimes it is found mixed with earth, but tolerably pure, and originating in the decomposition of sulphuretted stones.

GALENA, lead ore, has lately been discovered upon the Conoquenessing, about 26 miles from Pittsburgh. The mine in early times furnished the Indian tribes of this quarter with a supply of that metal; but no arrangements have yet been made for working it.

SILVER ore in small veins, and not rich, exists in several parts of the Allegheny country. Several years ago a hunter having lost himself in the dark, trackless and almost impenetrable pine forests on the east side of Allegheny, near its head streams, discovered a silver mine apparently of great extent. A quantity of the ore which he brought to Pittsburgh proved to be unusually rich in metal. He has since made several attempts to find the mine, but always without success.

LIMESTONE. Towards the heads of the Allegheny the stones are almost entirely siliceous, but the calcareous character becomes apparent as we proceed southward to the Monongahela country: hence arises the superior fertility of that quarter.

The common limestone stratum is below the coal, but the best kind is above it. It is sometimes in reniform nodules; sometimes shistose, and sometimes in irregular masses which no doubt had been broken off from beds of the fleets formation. Its colour is grey, passing into light blue, deep blue and black, and the lime produced from it has a dark; grey tint — a circumstance occasioned by the black oxyd of manganese it contains, which causes it to fuse into a bright black enamel at a high heat.

Limestone, containing petrified marine shells, such as cornu ammonis, escallop, with corals, &c. is found in great quantities in many places, particularly along the head waters of the Allegheny. It is always impure; being chiefly silex, and evidently formed by the lime in water oozing through beds of sand and becoming carbonized in that state. The formation of the Breccia


(which is abundant through this country) is similar, consisting of pebbles united by lime. The pebbles in it are generally washed ones of quartz, sand stone, and sometimes ribandjasper, green, grey, red and yellow.

MARBLE has been found here in small veins, but impure, containing silex and being coloured with manganese or iron. White and transparent calcareous spar is often found in fissures of the common limestone.

SULPHATE OF LIME (plaster of paris) has been discovered in extensive beds in several places along the Conoquenessing creek, a branch of the Beaver. It is impure, passing into aluminous shale.

Some varieties of marl have been observed in this quarter, but I have seen no instance of their application as a manure.

SLATE — an argillaceous shist — is common, but seldom solid enough to be of any use. The steatite (soap-stone) is generally near the coal stratum. It is greenish white, containing silex, magnesia, a little iron, and a portion of argil unusually great.

AMIANTHUS has been found near Brownsville. It is yellowish white, of a silky lustre — fibrous, loose, soft and flexible. [From this mineral an incombustible cloth is produced.]

NITRATE OF POTASH (salt petre) is found in small quantities in many of the hills near Pittsburgh.

SULPHATE OF MAGNESIA (Epsom salts) is found, not very pure, in some of the Monongahela hills.

MINERAL OIL is procured abundantly from several springs near the heads of the Allegheny river. The most remarkable of these are at Big and little Oil creeks, in this state; and at Oil creek, a branch of the Olean creek, in Cattaraugus county, of New-York state. This oil, unlike the bitumen generally found in other countries, is perfectly liquid and transparent; but slightly tinged with brown. It rises to the surface of the water in a blue looking pelicle, and is generally collected by placing woolen cloths upon the water, and wringing them out again. It is said to possess many valuable medicinal properties; at any rate, it enters largely into commerce as a medicine.

The great oil spring is eleven miles north east from Franklin, in the bed of Big Oil creek, about one mile from its mouth.

SALT is obtained from wells bored at several places upon the Conemaugh river. The supply is already great, and the number of works is still encreasing. More lately the borings on Youghiogheny have produced strong salt water in great


abundance, and it is generally supposed that it may be obtained any where west of the great transition range of the Appalachian mountains.

A considerable quantity of salt has been made upon the Conoquenessing (near Butler) by forming a kind of basin in the bed of the creek where the salt water rises without boring.

GEOLOGY. To understand this subject clearly it is necessary to take notice of the extent of all the several formations which constitute the bases of the country. The whole region is of secondary formation, which lies between the Appalachian mountains on the east, the Missouri mountains on the west, the great lakes on the north, and the gulf of Mexico on the south; except the southern parts of the states of Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana, which are alluvial as far north as Coweta and Point Comfort in Alabama, Homochitto river in Mississippi, and the Masserne hills in Louisiana.

This secondary tract is bounded on the east by a transition range which commences near the centre of Alabama state, and extends north eastwardly, designating the eastern boundaries of Tennessee and Kentucky — passing through Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York and Vermont, and terminating on the east shore of lake Champlain. It is above a hundred miles broad in Pennsylvania; occupying here the chief part of the mountain range, but becoming regularly narrower as it extends from the centre of the state both northward and southward. It is bounded on the east by the great primitive range of the mountains. The top of the Allegheny mountain is the dividing line between the transition and secondary formations on the southern side of this state, and as far north as the Juniata turnpike, beyond this their limits have not been well ascertained. The mountains of transition rock are distinguished from the irregular, peaked, primitive mountains, by the straight, long, level, unbroken ranges of their summits They are chiefly composed of quartzy aggregates, called country burr, or mill stone rock It's sandstone with a flinty cement, in masses and in strata — rocks approaching to the nature of porphyry — grey-wacke, with pebbles and fieldspar crystals in it, united by a cement of chlorite slate. These chiefly occupy the ridges. In the vallies are grey-wacke, grey-wacke slate, limestone, (the small grained transition kind) lime-spar disseminated and in veins; sandstone with a lime cement alternating with the grey-wacke, &c. The metals in this formation are iron and lead — the latter scarce.

The secondary formation consists of sandstone and clay slate, alternating with compact limestone in beds of nodules and in solid slate It is of various shades from light grey to blue or black; and often mingled with pieces of a kind of black flint called chert. Towards the lakes the limestone generally contains much silex, argil, manganese, &c. but becomes it extends southward, until, in some parts of Kentucky, it passes [unknown] several portions of this region [unknown]


coal beds extend: Plaster of paris and salt rock are suppose to exist in every part of it. At Niagara the old red sandstone appears as the basis of the limestone strata. Besides the new floetz sandstone, which is chiefly formed from the disintegration of micaceous rocks, a more free kind is found in masses. Between the Conoquenessing and lake Erie are found large detached masses of granite, resembling sienite; originating, no doubt, in the destruction of some primitive mountain. The range of it extends nearly to the centre of Ohio state. In the same range masses of white stone are found. Soap-stone, potstone and other varieties of magnesian rocks are found, but seldom in extensive strata, at least on the east side of the Mississippi.

In West Pennsylvania the limestone beds are mostly thin, and frequently interrupted. There is no coal of independent formation. In some places there are coal strata at different depths in the same hills. On the Youghiogeny there is coal some hundred feet beneath the level of the river. The detail of this subject will be given in the geography of each state.

NATURAL CURIOSITIES. In Fayette and Washington counties there are large caves containing stalactites and petrifactions, but no scientific person has examined them. There are likewise two caves in Butler county as yet unexplored. About 40 miles north east from Pittsburgh, on the west side of the Allegheny, there are numerous deep conical holes, so steep that it is with difficulty any one can descend into them. At the bottom of almost every, one of them there is a fine pure spring.

On the Monongahela shore, at the mouth of Ten Mile creek, (near Brownsville) there are carvings or impressions upon rocks, resembling beasts, birds, fishes, plants, &c.





    Census of 1810 Towns
Countries adjoining the western boundary line. Greene 12,544 Waynesboro, Morrisville, Greensburgh.
  Washington 36,289 Washington, Cannonsburgh, Williamsport, Fredricktown.
  Beaver 12,168 Beaver, Sharon, Greersburgh, Logstown.
  Mercer 8,277 Mercer.
  Crawford 5,178 Meadville.
  Erie 3,758 Erie, Waterford, Lexington.
2d Range, or counties next adjoining to the latter. Fayette 24,714 Uniontown, Brownsville.
  Westmoreland 26,392 Greensburgh, Hannahtown.
  Allegheny 25,317 Pittsburgh, Elizabethtown, M Keesport, Lawrenceville, Birmingham, Wilkinsburgh.
  Butler 7,346 Butler Harmonie, Zelienople.
  Venango 3,060 Franklin.
  Warren 3,827 Warren.
3d Range. Somerset 11,284 Somerset, Berlin, Elk.
  Indiana 6,215 Indiana.
  Armstrong 6,145 Kittaning
  Jefferson 164  
  M'Kean 142 Smethport
4th Range. Cambria 2,117 Ebensburg.
  Clearfield. 875  
  Potter 29 Coudersport.

TOWNS. Pittsburgh is situated in N. latitude 40ş 35' and 3ş 8' W. long from Washington; between the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers, where they unite to form the Ohio. Its scite is a triangular tract of alluvian ground, the greater part of which is nearly level, and elevated about forty feet above the low water mark. It has been diminished in breadth by the loss of a range of lots at the Allegheny shore, which were washed away nearly forty years ago. It was first occupied as


a military post by the French, in the spring of 1754; and was then called fort Du Quesne, in honour of the French naval commander of that name. It was one of the line of posts through which communication was established between their Canadian and Mississippi possessions. The British after some unsuccessful attempts succeeded in expelling the French from this country, in the autumn of 1758; and the fort, which had been partly demolished by its late occupants, was repaired by General Forbes, who called it Fort Pitt, in honour of the Earl of Chatham. It was then garrisoned and retained by a British force for several years.

The first houses of this town were built about the year 1760; and in '62 its population was estimated at 200 souls. In the following year hostilities commenced between the Indians and the white people of the frontier, which compelled the inhabitants of the town to retire within the fort. They were then besieged there for several months, but finally relieved by a detachment under Colonel Bouquet, after having been reduced to great distress.

The town was first surveyed off in 1765, upon a plan somewhat different from its present one; but for several years there was little addition to it, either of buildings or of population. A row of its best houses, which had occupied the Allegheny shore, were demolished by freshets about the year 780, Judge Brackenridge relates that when he first visited it (in 1781) it consisted of a few miserable houses situated around the walls of the garrison.

A re-survey was made of the town by George Woods, in May, 1784, by order of Tench Francis, Esq. attorney for John Penn, jr. and John Penn. It retains at present the plan then adopted, which was that of a right angled triangle (or a figure nearly such) having its longest side nearly a mile in length. It now contains 30 streets, 26 allays, and one public open square.

Two ranges of squares run parallel with the Allegheny; the others range with the Monongahela, forming triangular lots at the intersections.

In 1810 there were 767 houses (besides the stables, kitchens, &c.) to wit, 11 of stone; 283 of brick; 473 of frames and logs; with a population of 4,740.

In 1811 there were 953 houses, and about 6000 inhabitants.

In 1815 there were 1303 houses, and about 8000 inhabitants.

On the 18th of March, 1816, it was incorporated as a city.

Several houses have since been built, but the population has been diminished.

There are no buildings, public or private, in Pittsburgh, which deserve particular attention. The court house is a massive brick structure, or whimsical, irregular architecture. — There are three market homes of ordinary appearance; but two of them of late have fallen into utter neglect. The [unknown] was lately presented by a grand jury in the Mayor's court as a public nuisance.


There are eleven places of public worship. Two of them are occupied by congregations of General Assembly Presbyterians — two by Methodists — one by Associate Reformed — one by Roman Catholics — one by Episcopalians — one by Scotch Seceders — one by Covenanters — and one by German Lutherans.

An act has been passed for the establishment of a university, but probably an age may elapse before the project can be carried into execution.

Here are three banks, kept in common dwelling-houses; one of them, however, has lately determined to close its business.

The structures most likely to arrest the attention of travellers are the two bridges lately built over the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers. The Monongahela bridge consists of eight arches placed upon seven piers of rough massive stone work, and two handsome abutments of cut stone. It is 36 feet from the flooring to low water mark; 37 feet wide, and 1500 feet in length between the abutments; entire length about 1800 feet. The Allegheny bridge consists of seven arches upon six rough piers with rough abutments. It is likewise 36 feet in height, 37 feet in width, and 1122 feet in length, between the abutments; entire length about 1600 feet. These bridges were executed by contract; the former for the sum of $110,000 — the latter for $100,000.

About the year 1798 a wharf was erected upon the left shore of the Allegheny, to prevent that stream from encroaching upon the town; but in the great freshet of 1813 it was almost entirely demolished. A smaller one was in consequence built on its scite. Upon the Monongahela shore a kind of wharves have been raised for the purpose of forming inclined ways from the streets to the water edge.

The British fort occupied the extreme point between, the two rivers; but it was chiefly destroyed, and surveyed into town lots. The United States military post called fort Fayette was a kind of stockade fortification without ditches, constructed near the north east angle of the town. Its scite was sold off at auction, in 1813, and the present station at Lawrenceville was then purchased.

The villages united to Pittsburgh as its suburbs are — 1st, the "Northern Liberty," or Bayard's town; which is on the east shore of the Allegheny, near the northeast angle of the city — 2d, Allegheny town, on the north side of the same river, about 500 yards from the shore, opposite to the centre of the city, and at present connected with it by the Allegheny bridge. It is the scite of the Penitentiary for West Pennsylvania. — 3d, Birmingham, on the south shore of the Monongahela, about half a mile above the bridge of that river. It contains about fifty houses. Lawrenceville is on the south shore of the Allegheny, about two and a half miles north east from Pittsburgh. It is connected with the United States garrison, arsenal, &c. The


public buildings at this place are spacious, and have a very handsome appearance.

The valley of Pittsburgh is almost entirely walled round with steep hills, which have a disagreeable effect in its landscape. The natural expansion of the city is greatly checked on the east side by two beautiful eminences, called Grant's hill and Boyd's hill. From every point within this range the eye is displeased with its want of scope; but in no other respect is the natural situation unpleasant. From all the elevated points around it we are presented with beautiful views — many of them highly picturesque, combining the varieties of hill, grove and river scenery — green lawn — precipitous bare rocks — deep flats — cultivated fields — neat cottages — with the city itself all dark, dimly discovered through the wreaths of its smoke — its detached buildings and adjacent villages — and every part animated with all the moving objects that the lovers of the graphic art could wish to find here.

Nevertheless, almost every stranger enters this city disappointed and disgusted; but what is worse, the most of them leave it with sentiments not much more favourable. They find it, not indeed wrapt in a cloud of such sublime gloom as they expect to behold over a place that aspires to the name of Brummagem, but they find its streets sheeted with mud or dust, its houses swart with lampblack, and the inhabitants not much better in that respect. How many travellers would be apt to conclude that agreeable people could not be found in such an unsightly receptacle!

Its political and commercial importance — its rise and decline, are well exhibited at the following document reported by a committee specially appointed by a public meeting of its citizens.

Comparative extent and value of the Manufactories of Pittsburgh and its vicinity in the years 1815 and 1819 — viz.

Manufactories. Number of hands employed in 1815. Value of the Manufactures in 1815. Number of hands employed in 1819. Value of the Manufactures in 1819.
Steam Engine Factories, 290 $300,000 24 $40,000
Foundries and Iron Castings, 163 190,000 40 80,000
Iron and Nail Factories, 65 241,200 30 40,500
Blacksmiths aud Whitesmiths, 90 90,000 39 40,000
Glass Manufactories and Glass Cutting,* 169 235,000 40 35,100
Hat Manufactories, 69 122,000 30 50,200
Woollen Factories and Hosiery, 63 48,500 16 16,150
Saddlers, 68 90,100 28 36,000
Breweries, 28 91,050 18 35,000
White and Red Lead Factories, 25 110,000 9 35,000
Tobacconists, 48 45,850 27 27,550


Brass Foundries, 35 49,633 12 11,700
Ropemaking, 18 30,000 15 15,000
Saddletree Factories 28 29,900 12 14,000
Tin Factories and Coppersmiths, 100 200,000 40 45,000
Chair Factories and Cabinet Making, 66 90,000 40 24,500
Silver Plating, 30 32,450 8 8,500
Cotton Factories, 42 42,000 0 0
Plane Making, 20 25,000 10 9,500
Wire Weaving, 10 12,000 7 6,000
Wire Making, 8 21,000 0 0
Sutton Making, 6 6,250 3 2,100
Umbrella Making, 2 1,600 0 0
Piano Forte Making, 4 2,000 1 700
Taylors, 66 65,000 29 28,500
Shoemakers, 140 125,500 50 49,000
Patent Balances, Scale & Steelyards, 10 10,000 4 3,500
Yellow Queensware, 9 10,000 0 0
Pipe Making, 3 1,800 0 0
linen Factory, 20 25,000 0 0
Wagon Making & Wheelwrights, 40 40,000 20 18,500
Paper Making 50 40,000 30 30,000
Auger Makers, Bellows Makers, Brush Makers, Cotton Spinners, Weavers, Curriers, Cutlers, Locksmiths, Spinning Machine Makers, Tanners, Tallow Chandlers, Pattern Makers, Silversmiths Gunsmiths and Soap Boilers, 175 195,000 90 130,000
1960 $2,617,833 672 $832,000

*On Flint Glass alone the reduction has been $75,000.

(Signed) Committee

Pittsburgh, December 24th, 1819.

Erie is situated upon the shore of a beautiful bay, formed by two peninsulas, which project into lake Erie. The largest of these, called Presque-isle, is 7 miles long, and above a mile broad. It is a mere heap of sand, covered with ponds, cranberry marshes, dwarf oaks, cedars and pines. The bay has a bar across its mouth, which will not allow a passage for large ships. The town now contains, only about 100 houses, but will no doubt become a place of considerable commerce. It is a port of entry, but hitherto it, has had little trade of any land except what was connected with the salt carrying business. Originally the scite of the town belonged to New York State; but this, together with the projection at the N. W. Corner of Pennsylvania, was purchased by this, state. It is


136 miles north from Pittsburgh; 100 miles east from Cleveland; and 97 miles S. W. from Buffalo (at the east end of the lake.) The neighbourhood of the town is supplied with a great number of streams remarkably well suited for mills and other machinery.

BROWNSVILLE (which may be understood as including Bridgeport, on the opposite side of Dunlap's creek from Brownsville proper) is rising rapidly into importance. It is situated on the east shore of the Monongahela, where the great Cumberland turnpike, leading from Washington city to Wheeling, crosses that river — 220 miles from Washington — 57 from Wheeling — and 56, by the river, from Pittsburgh. It occupies the face of a hill nearly 300 feet in height; which, though an inconvenient scite for business, is beautiful and picturesque. Heretofore the flour trade from the neighbouring parts of Washington and Fayette counties constituted the principal business of this place; and the boat-building as connected with that trade; but of late it has made progress in manufactures generally, and promises to claim a large share of the entrepot business in the great commerce between the eastern and western countries. It is in the midst of a fertile body of land, very extensive and well cultivated; but the best security for its prosperity (which is not always opulence) is in the sober, industrious habits of the people who inhabit it and its vicinity.

WASHINGTON is likewise upon the Cumberland road; about 25 miles north of Wheeling, and 26 south from Pittsburgh. It is not favourably situated for trade but is surrounded by a rich, settlement. It has a College (bearing the same name) which is usually attended by 50 or 60 students. The town contains several manufactories, and about 300 houses.

GREENSBURGH is situated on the Philadelphia turnpike road 32 miles east of Pittsburgh. It is inhabited chiefly by Germans, as is the greater part of the county it belongs to. This circumstance may be sufficient to vouch for its prosperity.

FRANKLIN, at the mouth of French creek, is an inconsiderable town but promises well to become a place of trade in a few years. Its poverty is no doubt owing to the barrenness of the country around it

BEAVER, or Mackintosh, is situated about 1 mile below the mouth of Beaver river, upon a level shore, so very much elevated that it renders the scite extremely inconvenient for trade, the town accordingly possesses little.

CANONSBURGH is situated on an unimportant road, leading from Pittsburgh to the town of Washington. It owes its rise


and support to its literary seminary, called Jefferson College, an institution which had some celebrity when it was an academy. The healthiness of the situation, cheapness of living, and sober habits of the people, renders this place more suitable than any other in this end of the state for a great literary establishment.

MEADVILLE is surrounded by a thriving settlement; and it seems to be in an improving condition, which is not the case with all towns in that quarter.

HARMONIE was formerly the residence of a colony of Germans, who in 1815 were removed to the Wabash Country — They had several manufactories of fine cloths, cottons, linens, sweet oil, wine, whiskey, beer, flour, pottery, and other less important articles. They had likewise considerable flocks of sheep, and horned cattle. Their town was rendered remarkable by a vineyard formed with immense labour upon parapet walls, a garden, of medicinal plants, a labyrinth, and a number of other curiosities.

Since the departure of the Harmonites the place has almost, become a deserted village.

THE COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES of every town in West Pennsylvania,, except Pittsburgh, have been inconsiderable; and even that town has been chiefly distinguished as an entrepot for the trade carried on between the western country and the Atlantic cities. The principal articles of export furnished by this part of the country, were flour, whiskey, apples, cider, glass ware, pine and cherry boards and scantling, porter, peach brandy, corn, butter, fowls, thread, onions, beans, mineral oil, ironmongery, cabinet work, saddlery, paper, pottery, shoes and boots.

The market for these articles has been in the lower Mississippi country, the West Indies, Europe, and sometimes in our eastern cities: but that market has been so precarious that it afforded very little encouragement at any time, even for the production of the raw articles. In former times the list of exports was much longer by the addition of such items as bacon, lard, beef, tallow, potatoes, venison, cheese, soap, and many others; but at present, very few even of the first, mentioned articles can find a market. Some years ago, linen and bags were exported largely to the eastern towns and cities, but that trade, never very profitable, is worth nothing now. — Of domestic manufactures for domestic use, the principal are linens, woolens, cottons, brown sugar, articles in iron, glass and leather, porter, shoes, hats, &c. In quantity they were regularly progressive until the termination of the late war, but since that period they have gradually declined. The quantities and kinds of articles produced in Pittsburgh will be best understood by reference to the account of the manufactures in that place. The [unknown] and other iron manufactories of West Pennsylvania


are numerous, but we have no statement of their number.

The salt made at Conemaugh and Youghiogheny, hitherto has not been sufficient for this quarter of the state; but the number of wells is continually increasing.

As to the importation and entrepot business, the value of the goods can only be estimated from the amount paid for the carriage of them. From 1812 to 1817 the annual amount of waggonage for goods has been stated 1,200,000 dollars annually; and the carriage of families and household articles if paid for would have amounted to 300,000 dollars annually. In 1816 the number of waggons that passed between Pittsburgh and the Atlantic cities exceeded 12,000. The amount paid for waggonage that year must therefore have been about two millions of dollars.

HISTORY OF SETTLEMENT. The French began to accupy this country in 1753 by establishing a millitary post at Le Boeuf, under the superintendance of Le Gardeur de St. Pierre. The greater part of West Pennsylvania being then included within the limits of Virginia, Mr. Dinwiddie, the governor of that state, sent to St. Pierre a remonstrance, the delivery of which was entrusted to maj. Washington (since gen. Washington.) This message produced no effect; whereupon the Virginia legislature raised a regiment of 300 men to establish their claims.

Mr. Fry was appointed colonel, and George Washington lieutenant colonel of the troops. In April (1754) col. Washington advanced with two companies to the Great Meadows, and commenced hostilities, though war had not been declared between France and Great Britain. In a dark rainy night he surprised the French encampment at the Great meadows; captured their party all, except one man, and killed their commander Jumonville, who was afterwards much lamented. Col. Fry died soon after this event, and the command of the Virginia troops devolved upon Washington. Having received reinforcements from New-York and S. Carolina, he marched to attack fort Du Quesne, which had recently been established; but, upon the receipt of some unfavourable intelligence, he returned to the Great Meadows and constructed there a little fortification called "Fort Necessity."

De Villier, the commandant of fort Du Quesne, presently attacked Washington's detachment of colonists in fort Necessity, and after an engagement of 8 or 9 hours, with little or no blood, shed, he compelled them to surrender. He conceded to them the honours of war, and suffered them to retreat to the Virginia settlements with their arms and baggage.

The government of Great Britain then agreed to participate in the contest; and early in the succeeding spring (1755) Gen. Braddock was despatched to America with two regiments, and ordered to take possession of the "Ohio country." Upon his


arrival he invited col. Washington to join him as a volunteer aid-de-camp. Washington accepted the invitation, and joined him at Alexandria. A detachment of Virginia troops being added to the British force, they marched against fort Du Quesne, by the way of Wills creek and the Little Meadows, and on the 9th of July crossed the Monongahela at the mouth of Turtle creek. At that point they were attacked by a body of French and Indians who lay in ambush, anticipating all the adverse movements. The British fought the battle most unskilfully, and were completely defeated. Gen. Braddock received a wound of which he died in a few days at Camp Dunbar. Of his officers, amounting in number to 85, all except 20 were either killed or wounded. When the route commenced the Indians employed themselves in plundering the dead, and suffered Washington to conduct the retreat of the British and Virginians across the Monongahela without molestation. The remnant of the defeated army fell back upon camp Dunbar; and having destroyed there as much of their baggage as they could spare, they returned over the mountains.

During the three succeeding years the frontier settlements of Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia, along the east border of the mountains, were left exposed to the depredations of the savages, and suffered greatly.

A third expedition against fort Du Quesne was planned in 1758; and the command of the force collected for that purpose was assigned to gen. Forbes. When he approached the fort he permitted col. Grant, a Scottish officer, to advance with 800 Highlanders to reconnoitre the position. When this detachment arrived upon the beautiful little eminence, which now bears the name of that gallant colonel, it was sunrise, and the reveille was beat. The French and Indians in the fort sallied out, surrounded the reconnoitering party — killed the greater part of them and captured the rest. Among the prisoners was col. Grant.

When gen. Forbes arrived on the 5th of November he found the fort evacuated and nearly demolished. He repaired it; garrisoned it with a part of his troops, and called it fort Pitt. When peace was thus restored the white people extended their settlements over the mountains as far westward as the Ohio and Allegheny rivers; but the indian warfare which commenced in 1763 nearly depopulated the country again. Those who had lived around fort Pitt then retired within it, and were besieged there for several months. In the mean time lieut. col. Bouquet was despatched by Sir Jeffery Amherst with troops and provisions for the relief of the besieged. When within about 20 miles of the fort he was met by the besieging party of Indians, whom, after a severe engagement, he dispersed. He arrived at fort Pitt on the 12th of August, and found the people in it reduced to the utmost distress.

From that period until the conclusion of the revolutionary war the Indians were kept well in check; during which time


the country east of the Ohio and Allegheny received a considerable population. After that war the imbecile government of the old confederation suffered the Indians to ravage this country repeatedly with impunity.

In 1789 col. Crawford marched a detachment against them, and was defeated at Upper Sandusky. In 1791 gen. Harmar took the field and was defeated on the Sciota. In the autumn of the same year gen. St. Clair with the American army penetrated the Indian country as far as fort Jefferson, and was there completely defeated. The savages were emboldened by these successes to spread massacre along the whole line of the western frontier, forcing the white people either to retire back or to resort to their block houses. The hostile tribes of that period were the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawnoese, Miamis, Ottowas, Chippewas, Pottowattamies, Kickapoos, Weaws, Elks and Piankashaws.

After the boundaries of this state were settled, that part of it which lies north and west of the rivers Ohio and Allegheny and Conewango creek still remaining unappropriated, arrangements were made for a general disposal of it. It was put up at auction, and a few small districts were sold, but at prices so low that it was soon deemed expedient to close the sates. The state legislature then passed the famous act of 1792, granting tracts of 400 acres with allowances for roads, &c. to each person who should make actual settlement thereon for five years and execute a specified improvement: but allowing no one to hold in that way more than one tract. As settlements could not then be made with safety, on account of the savages who occasionally annoyed the people in this quarter, a provision was made permitting any one to appropriate as many tracts as he might choose, by purchasing warrants for them, and making a small improvement specified: allowing such warrants to secure the land to the warrantees for the term of two years from their date, in the same manner as actual settlements would have done. In this way almost all the lands which had not been disposed of at the public sales were appropriated. In co-operation with these plans the general government determined to effect a complete pacification and settlement of the country — Gen. St. Clair resigned the command of the army which was destined to act against the Indians, and gen. Wayne was appointed in his stead. After two years of marching and preparation, this popular general and his army were found upon the frontier and in face of the enemy. While the Indians were avowing most unequivocally their hostility, and making open preparations for battle, by a determination of singular folly, gen. Wayne sent to them two officers — col. Harden and maj. Freeman — to treat for peace. The proposal was treated with, contempt, and the two officers were immediately massacred. On the 20th of Aug. 1794 a general engagement took place at the Rapids of Maumee. The American force was stated to be little more than 3000, and that of the Indians conjectured to be


2000 — it could not have been so great. General Wayne by a rapid charge gained the battle; but prevented the destruction of the Indian army. The American loss, in killed and wounded, was reported to be 107. The Indians had 30 killed, but the number of their wounded is yet unknown. Some of those killed, who appeared to be Indians, were washed after the battle, and were discovered to be white men in disguise. Though the British retained possession of military posts within our territories, they ceased to furnish the Indians with supplies When the American army found that their enemies were not in a condition to make war any longer, then the battle of Maumee seemed to assume a new character, and was, long after the event, represented as, a decisive victory. The people are always glad to acknowledge victories, and to honour successful men.

Poor old gen. St. Clair, who had never done much good or harm, was consigned to popular odium, and the idol of the day was gen. Wayne; a man who had really acted gallantly during the revolutionary war, and who, on this occasion, with the army of the Republic, had dispersed some savages — killing a few of them, with about an equal expenditure of human existence on our part, and at the cost of five millions of dollars — a sum sufficient to have bought fairly all the lands that these Indians ever claimed or infested.

For nearly a year after the battle of Maumee the Indians continued to solicit assistance from the British; but receiving none, they at last agreed to make peace. On the 3d of August 1795, they, concluded a treaty at Greenville with gen. Wayne, by which they ceded to the U. States the south and east parts of Ohio state, and all unceded lands south and east of that; together with 17 small tracts in different places (most of which are included within more recent cessions) and in payment for the same they received large quantities of goods at the time; and stipulated for the sum of $10,000 to be paid annually for ever.

The warranted lands west of the Allegheny being now vacant, according to the unanimous apprehension of the people — the two years allowed to the warrants having expired without any attempt being made to continue the rights by actual settlement: therefore in the spring of 1796 a rapid emigration commenced, which soon settled the whole country as far as the western state boundary. Scenes of contention, violence and misery ensued, which even yet have not terminated. In the depth of winter many families were, without process of law, turned out of their houses barefooted and half naked to seek the charity of a shelter.

The greater part of the officers of our courts in this state being interested in those land speculations, they obtained much delay, a few decisions, which allowed to the original warrants a validity for two years from the date of Wayne's treaty; upon the principle that the two years which were a provision


for a period of war should take their commencement with the period of peace! There were still some cases that this latitude of allowance could not include, and they were entered by the hand speculators for trial in the United States' courts, which, sitting at the distance of three hundred miles from the settler's homes, granting continuances, from year to year, presented as complete a denial and perversion of justice as can be imagined.

An attempt was made by the state legislature to remedy this evil, but the principle of the remedy was disapproved by Gov. M'Kean. Other efforts, more direct, were made by the same body to afford relief to the settlers; but they have all proved inefficient. Finally a district federal court has been established in the west end of the state for the purpose of taking up their causes; but, as there is an appeal allowed from it to the circuit court at Philadelphia, the original evil, in all its worst features; has been magnified by the arrangement.

That part of the state upon which this system operates is unprosperous of course. Emigrants are deterred from settling in a country where the highest courts, in the most important particular, resemble so much the lamentable cabildos and judicial audiences of Cohauila and Texas.

We gladly add, that many honorable land speculators have redeemed themselves from popular odium by their liberal arrangements; and have thus avoided every dispute.

CONSTITUTION. The governor is elected by a general ballot every three years; but the same person is not entitled to hold that office longer than nine years in any term of twelve years. He must be at feast thirty years of age, and have been a citizen of this state at least seven years. He is ex-officio commander of the naval and military force of the state, except when they are engaged in the service of the U. States. No member of congress, nor any one holding an office under the U. States, shall be allowed to exercise the functions of this office. In case of the governor's death, resignation, or removal from office, the speaker of the senate shall act as governor.

The representatives are chosen annually by a general ballot. They must be at least 21 years of age, and most have been citizens of the state at least 3 years previous to their election; and, at least one year immediately preceding the same, they must have been resident within the districts for which they are elected. Their number is, from time to time, regulated by law. In establishing the districts to be represented, each county must be allowed at least one representative. The senators are elected every 4 years ; except that at the first organization of that body they were divided into 4 classes — the term of the first class expired at the end of the first year: of the second at the end of the second year &c. The number of senators shall never be move than one third, nor less than one fourth of the number of representatives. A senator must be at least 25 years of age, and must have been a citizen of this state at least


4 years, and at least one year immediately preceding his election he must have been resident within the district for which he is elected.

The regular period for the meeting of the general assembly is the 1st Monday of December.

The judicial power is vested in a supreme court, city courts, courts of oyer and terminer and general gaol delivery, courts of common pleas, orphan's and register's courts, — courts of quarter sessions and in justices of the peace. All these courts, except the two former, are held by the same judges. They exercise chancery powers for the perpetuation of testimony.

Sheriffs are elected for the term of three years, and the same person may not be re-elected until one term has elapsed. Coroners are also elected for the term of three years, but may at any time be re-elected.

An elector must be a citizen, freeman, at least 21 years of age, who has resided within the state 2 years immediately preceding the election, and within that time has paid a state or county tax, assessed at least six months previously. But the sons of qualified electors, between the age of 21 and 22 years, may vote without having paid any tax.

All elections are by ballot.


State of Ohio.



The state of Ohio is 216 miles from east to west, and 228 from north to south — extending from north lat. 38° 30' to 41° 50'; and from 4° 37' west long. to 7° 47': containing about 40,000 square miles, or 25,600,000 acres. It is bounded on the south by the river Ohio, which separates it from Virginia and Kentucky; on the west by a line running directly north from the mouth of the Miami river until it touches latitude 41° 50' which separates it from Indiana; on the north partly by the line of N. latitude 41° 50' which separates it from Michigan territory, and partly by lake Erie. It is bounded on the east partly by the Ohio river, and partly by a line commencing at the mouth of Mill creek, below Georgetown; and running directly north until it touches lake Erie — which line constitutes the western boundary of Pennsylvania.

In 1817, the surveyor general caused a line to be surveyed "from the southern extremity of lake Michigan, to the most northerly cape of the Miami Bay," conformably to the provision the sixth section of the seventh article of the constitution of this state; and in 1818, in obedience to instructions received from the President of the United States, subsequent to the survey of the former line, the surveyor general caused another line to be surveyed, in strict compliance with the act of Congress of the 50th of April, 1802, enacted for the organization of the state, which line crosses the Miami river, about ten miles south of the ‘most northerly cape of the Miami Bay,’ and intersects lake Erie about 15 miles east of said river. The governor of the territory of Michigan claims and exercises jurisdiction in the government of that territory, to the last mentioned line.

By the ordinance of Congress of the 13th of July, 1787, and by the before mentioned act of Congress, the northern boundary of that portion of the north western territory, proposed by said act of congress to be erected into a state, was declared to be "an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line," from the mouth of the Great Miami, until it shall intersect "lake Erie, or the territorial line." Report of Commit.


All the early maps of these territories represent the southern extremity of lake Michigan as being north of Maumee bay. From these circumstances it would appear that congress intended to include that bay within the boundaries of Ohio state.

RIVERS. The Ohio extends along the southern and eastern borders of this state 404 miles receiving by the way the following rivers:

1st. Muskingum debouches at Marietta about 360 miles below Pittsburgh; It is 250 yards wide at its mouth, and is navigable for large batteaux to Coshocton — 100 miles; and for small vessels about 100 miles further, to a small lake which communicates, by a portage of one mile, with the Cuyahoga of lake Erie. There are falls in it at Zanesville which Considerably obstruct the navigation; but a company was established in 1814, called the "Zanesville Canal and Manufacturing Company," who have made considerable progress in constructing a canal there. The chief branches of this river oil the east side are Elk-eye, Sandy and Will's creek. The fatter rises about 4 miles from the Muskingum, and about 40 miles from Marietta. It runs northerly about 60 miles, and enters the Muskingum 8 miles below Coshocton. Thus, after a course of 150 miles its Waters are within 4 miles of their source. The branches of Muskingum, on the west side, are White-womans and Licking creeks, besides Mohiccan and Kill Buck creeks which are tributaries of the White-womans. The general course of this river is south. The main stream of the Muskingum, above White-womans creek, is sometimes culled Tuscarawas.

2. Hockhocking river enters the Ohio at Troy, 22 miles below the Muskingum. It is about 80 miles in length and 50 yards; wide at its mouth. Its navigation is obstructed by rapids and mill-dams. It presents a beautiful cascade 40 feet in height, about miles north west from New Lancaster. Its branches are Sunday, Monday, Rush, Margarets and Federal creeks.

3. Sciota river enters the Ohio 142 miles below Hockhocking. It is 170 miles long — 133 navigable, and 150 yards wide at its mouth. It communicates by a portage of 4 miles with the Sandusky of lake Erie, but the navigation is not practicable to that point except in times of high water. Its main course is south. Its principal branches on the easiest side are Whetstone river, Allum, Big Walnut, Lower-Walnut and Salt creeks on the west Darby and Paint creeks.

4. Little Miami river is above 100 miles in length. It runs a south west course, and enters the Ohio seven miles above


is well suited for mills. In Green county it presents a series of falls, over layers of limestone rock, which altogether include a descent of 200 feet. Its branches on the east side are Sugar Massies and East-Fork creeks. On the west there are none of importance.

5. Miami river is about 200 yards wide at its mouth. It is a rapid stream, but unobstructed by falls, and is navigable almost to its sources It Communicates with the Au Glaize of Maumee by a portage of 5 miles. Mad river is its principal branch on the east side — a stream named from the wild rapidity of its current. The western branches Loramie creek, Still-water and St. Clair creeks. This, like all the preceding streams, runs a southerly course.

Those above enumerated are all the large streams that enter the Ohio river in this state. The smaller ones are Little Braver, Yellow creek, Indian Wheeling, Capteena, and Sun-fish creeks, Little Mushgum river, and Duck creek — all between the eastern boundary and the mouth of the Muskingam. Between that and the Great Hockhocking is the Little Hockhocking: From that to the Scioto there are no creeks of consequence, except Shade River, Raccoon creek, and Little Scioto.

On the west border of the state is the Maisaaitmewa branch of the Wabash. The northern portion of the state is watered by the following streams which flow into lake Erie.

1. The Maumee or Maurice river runs across the north west corner of the State. It is 105 miles in length and 200 yards wide near its mouth. At all seasons it is navigable for vessels of 60 tons burden as far as the lower part of the rapids at fort Meigs, 18 miles from Lake Erie. For 15 miles above that there is a continuation of rapids, of considerable descent, but such as boats can pass without much danger. The name of this river was originally spelled Miami; and to distinguish it from the other Miami, it was called Miami of the lake, but this name appearing inconvenient, late writers have attempted to recover the Indian pronunciation of it, while the other Miami is generally pronounced as if the name had been spelled according to the English.

Its chief branches on the south side are the St. Mary's and the Au Glaize. The union of the former with theSt. Joseph's river constitutes the Maurice. The St. Joseph's rises in Michigan territory. It is 240 miles in length, is navigable above 50 miles. The St. Mary's, in time of high water, is navigable 150; that is, as far as old fort St. Mary's.

2. The Toussaint enters the lake 20 miles south east of the Maurice. It is a kind of islet of the lake; broad aid stagnant; choked, with wild rice, grass and water lilies. It rises near lake shore, and winds through a chain of ponds and marshes. It is much frequented, by ducks and geese in the rice season, and abounds at all times with otters and musk rats.


3. Portage or CARRYING river exhibits a character very similar to that of the Toussaint. It is navigable almost to its source, being wide deep and sluggish.

4. Sandusky river, rises near the source of the Scioto, and after running a northerly course 70 or 80 miles, enters the Sandusky bay 15 miles from the mouth of Carrying river (but 47 along the lake coast) and approaching within two miles of it at the Portage. Its chief branches are Tyemachtee Honey and Wolf creeks, Pine and Cold creeks flow into the south side of Sandusky Bay. The latter is a remarkable stream rising about 4 miles from the bay in a spring which is about an acre and a half in extent.

5. Huron river is about 40 miles in length and 50 yards wide at its mouth. It enters the lake 11 miles east of Sandusky bay, and is navigable about 18 miles.

6. Vermillion river which debouches 10 miles to the east of the latter, and is somewhat smaller.

7. Black river 12 miles further east, is about the same size.

8. Rocky river, 18 miles further east is a rapid stream, about 30 rniles in length, and forms, at its mouth an excellent habour for boats.

9. Cuyakoga river is, after the Sandusky, the largest tributary of lake Erie. It rises near the source of the Tuscawaras branch of the Muskingum, and running northerly with a brisk current 60 or 70 miles, enters the lake at Cleaveland, 7 miles east of Rocky River. It is navigable nearly to its sources.

10. Chagrin is a small rapid river 20 miles east of the latter.

11. Grand river, 10 miles further east, is a fine pure stream not navigable, but abounding in mill seats. The banks are generally high, rocky and often precipitous.

12 and 13. Ashtabula or Ashtibula, and Conneaut rivers, are rapid pure, small streams in the northeast angle of the state.

The principal head waters of the Big Beaver (of Pennsylvania) are, within the borders of this state between the heads of Grand river, and the little Beaver.

LAKES. Erie is about 300 miles long and 70 wide. It had sufficient depth of water for vessels of any size, though much shallower than any of the upper lakes, with the exception of lake St. Clair. It contains no good anchorage, out of the bays, as its bottom consists of smooth limestone and argillaceous schist. It has no harbour for ships except at Erie town (in Pennsylvania,) and in the bays of Maumee, Sandusky, and Maiden. The shores are dangerous for vessels, particularly the northern one, the greater part of which consists of high precipices of limestone rock. It is subject to sudden squalls that occasion what the sailors call a short, quick sea; which is very disagreeable and dangerous. The great northern lakes have an easy sea, like a mountainous roll, in stormy weather.

ISLANDS. There are 45 islands in that part of the Ohio which constitutes the border of this state; the most remarkable


of these is called Blannerhassetts. It contains about 800 acres, and, though the descriptions of it were generally exaggerated, it is really rich and beautiful.

At the head of Lake Erie there are several clusters of islands, chiefly small. They are called the Put in Bay Islands. The names of the subdivisions are "The Three Sisters, the Old Hen and Her Chickens", the "Old Sow and her Pigs", Sandusky isle is near the mouth of Sandusky bay: Au Plait is further north. The Three Sisters are west of these. Cedar isle lies further westward at the mouth of Maumee bay. The name Put-in-bay is also applied to a single isle, the largest in the group.

They are calcareous and supply limestone to the district along the lake shore. Some of them are rich and well-timbered. Before the late war Col. Edwards had a fine farm of one of them. There is said to be a curious cave in which a late anonymous traveller describes thus — "This cave is difficult of access, admitting but of one person, of moderate compass, at a time. After sliding down feet foremost, on the damp earth, for about seven yards, we find ourselves on a table rock of limestone, arched and roofed by the same material, which originally composed one mass, but whose foundation had been undetermined by the deep water, leaving the upper stratum to be supported by the surrounding rocks. Its water is about 20,000 square feet, seven feet in height, and of an oblong form. At its extreme end this is a descent of several steps, of flag stone, to a small lake or spring of transparent cool water."

FACE OF THE COUNTRY, SOIL, &c. The eastern and southern parts of the state are hilly; the middle, moderately level; and the north western part flat with numerous marshes — There are no mountains in the state. The hills are a continuation of that range which proceeds from the Allegheny mountains. In the east side of the state the hilly region is from 60 to 70 miles broad; the most broken and elevated parts of it becoming where it adjoins the Ohio river, along which it extends, becoming narrower and less elevated, until it approaches the Miami, where it almost entirely disappears.

The Ohio bottoms are generally fertile, but subject to inundation in the richest parts. The whole breadth of them (from hill to hill) seldom exceeds one mile, through in a few instances it is several miles. The trees are chiefly sugar tree, honey locust, black walnut, beech, buckeye, hackberry, sycamore, elm, oak, hickory, ash, with underwood of spicewood, pawpaw, dogwood, plumb tree, crab tree and grape vines. The hills have oak, hickory, chestnut, ash, black locust, maple, &c. with little underwood.

Proceeding down the Ohio, we find the country between it and the Musklingun becoming more broken, the hills less fertile and the bottoms along the streams narrower. On the west side of the Muskingum the country near the Ohio (comprehending


five or six counties) is very hilly and poor; the ridges being dry light gravel, the trees, oak, chestnut, and sometimes yellow pine.

This tract is from 40 to 50 miles broad at the eastern part, but it becomes less sterile, and much narrower near the Scioto, though the hills still appear the soil of them changes entirely, and they are covered with a heavy forest oak, hickory, maple, black elm, and occasionally black walnut. The Scioto bottoms are broadband, rich; but in many parts liable to be overflown. There are a few pine hills in that quarter, and a very few barren bushy ridges.

Beyond the hilly range on the west side of the Scioto we meet with some flat marshy land; and west of that an agreeable undulating surface of fertile soil, highly suited for agriculture, and in fact well cultivated. The greater part of the Miami Country, or south west corner of the state, presents the same character.

As we proceed north we find the country become more level, Upon the head waters of the Miami it is chiefly prairie interspersed with small groves. The northwest quarter of the state now called the "New Purchase," (that is the country watered by the Maurice, Sandusky, Au Glaize and St. Joseph's,) which has lately been ceded by the Indians, is chiefly flat and much of it marshy. The greater part of it is prairie, and it is represented as fertile and beautiful but unhealthy. It is full of small groves ponds, and lakes, with a few ranges of land somewhat elevated, bordering upon the rivers. Many of the ponds arid streams in it contain wild rice. The black swamp between Croghansville and fort Meigs, is four miles wide. South west of this lie the prairie called the Great Meadows.

The following description of this "New Purchase," is extracted from a letter written by the celebrated James Riley, who has lately been employed as surveyor of public lands in that district.

"The soil is in general, excellent, and appears to have been survival deposit. In digging a well near the St. Mary's river, on the summit level, they passed through different strata of blue and yellow clay, very fibrous, to the depth of thirty-five feet without coming either rock or gravel, of finding good water."

"Along the banks of all the streams and rivers the land is good and dry; every quarter section may afford a good farm: all the country (except part of the Sandusky plain) is well timbered, with oak, hickory, sugar-maple, white and blue ash, breech elm, poplar, black and white walnut, &c. — the under-growth is pawpaw, hazle, spicewood and some prickly ash, grape vines, pruvine, &c. On receding from the banks of the streams and rivers, some wet land is met with such as swamps and wet prairies, most of these, however, will drain themselves when the land around becomes cultivated, and there afford excellent meadow-land."


"All the rivers of this district take their rise in swamps or wet prairies, and are not produced by springs. 30 that in dry seasons they afford but little water; and as few springs are met with, on the summit level, that extends in breadth front N. to S. 20 miles, the inhabitants must depend on wells for their supply of water at all seasons of the year But as we proceed north towards the lake shore, the country assumes a gently rolling aspect, springs and branches are more frequent, and the whole surface inclines gradually, northward to the margin of Lake Erie. The rivers and streams flowing to the north, soon become rapid, and abound with excellent fish, &c.; millseats are very numerous, where machinery to any amount may be kept in constant operation."

The country east of this, along the south shore of lake Erie, extending to the Pennsylvania line, and lying north of lat 41, is still called New Connecticut. It is watered by the Huron, Vermillion, Black, Rocky, Cuyahoga, Chagrin, Grand and Ashtabula rivers: The western portion of this district contains several prairies and wet flats; too wet for cultivation and of course unhealthy. The land along the heads of the rivers is undulated and becomes quite hilly as we approach the east boundary of the state. Most of the large streams have worn down deep, precipitous valleys; particularly those east of Rocky river. From the mouth of the latter stream, eastward, there is a flat border along the lake shore about three miles broad, extending into New York state, With little variation. It presents a black mould upon a sandy or gravelly subsoil, and is well timbered with hickory chestnut, oak, and some walnut of both species. It is well suited for the cultivation of grain, but is too dry for meadow. The country in the rear of this is elevated and for a considerable distance rather flat. It is fertile but too vet for raising grain. The trees on it are chiefly beach and maple, occasionally interspersed with tulip tree, cucumber, and black walnut; all indicating a moist, deep, clayey soil: It therefore produces hay abundantly, and is good for pasture. There are a few small, districts of tolerably good land west of the Cuyahoga river, but the principal part is wet, approaching the marshy character. Several miles from the lake it is said to be healthy. This may be true comparatively, or it may be true of the hilly tracts. This lakes shore is particularly unhealthy though generally dry. This anomaly is attributed to the surf of the lake, which fills the estuaries of the streams, often for the distance of some miles, with decaying vegetables.

This road is from Erie in Pennsylvania to Cleveland in this state is upon a little ridge of alluvion ground, like the ridge of a turnpike, consisting of sand, polled pebbles, shells &c. like the lake shore, and, though now so elevated, seems to have been the beach of the lake at some remote period.

The central parts of the state remains to be described — the region watered by the head branches of the Muskingum, Hockhocking and Sciota. The land upon the former is chiefly hilly


and not very rich; but tolerably good for small grain: the upland trees being oak, hickory, and chestnut, with some walnut, but pine more commonly. The bottoms along the large streams are generally broad and very good, presenting maple, sugar-tree, sycamore, elm, ash, buckeye, wild plum, with grape vines. Such land is well suited both for gram and meadow. There is not much prairie here, and less marsh land; but a great many dry, sterile ridges particularly along the largest streams.

The hill country terminates on the head waters of Licking and Hockhocking; presenting at the transition some very remarkable features. Beyond the regular hill ranges there are small insulated hills, from 400 to 506 feet in height, and very precipitous on every side, but level on the summit; looking as if they had once been islands in a great lake whose bottom was the wide, deep plain which extends westward across the state. The chief of these detached hills is about a mile from New Lancaster. It there receives the name of Mount Pleasant. It is about a mile and a half in circumference, and is said to be 500 feet in perpendicular height. These peaks have seldom any trees; but little herbage, and consist of rocks alternating with beds of sand.

The plain country is gently diversified along the Sciota, but westward it is more flat, the prairies larger, and the soil more fertile. Below Chilicothe there is a great body of broken land bordering upon the west shore of the Sciota, but it is chiefly very poor. On the west side of this commences the rich country already noticed.

The west end of the state generally presents beneath the vegetable layer a rich loam verging towards the sandy character; passing from light red into ash colour. The hills towards the east end of the state, particularly those along the Muskingum, have but a thin vegetable soil, with a poor yellowish clay beneath. The bottoms have a much better loam and a deep black mould above it. This character varies little until we approach lake Erie where the beech and maple uniformly indicate a greyish clayey loam: There the yellow and reddish soil, which belongs to the oak and chestnut land, is more friable than in the southern parts of the state.

Mr. R. Granger gives the strata of N. Connecticut as follows: 1st. Black vegetable mould, except in places near the lake — 2d. loam or clay of great thickness — orange, yellow, or grey — 3d. gravel or sand — 4th. ash coloured free-stone, or else compact blue clay — below this water — generally at the distance of from 12 to 20 feet. — The water which passes under the sandstone is good — that under the clay is bad. In the clay there are marine productions found.

GEOLOGY. C. Atwater, Esq. of Circleville has given some detached facts upon this subject. The attrition of water upon the rocks of Mackinaw, more than 100 feet above the present


level of the lake — the indications of a washed beach around lake Erie, at the same height above the present level of that lake — petrifications is in alluvion, representing sticks, frogs and fishes, such as now exist in the lake, are found in wells 300 ft. above the lake. From these he infers that Erie once held the elevation thus indicated, and that it debouched through the Ohio river.

The discovery of trees, sticks, &c. in situations far below the present surface of the earth, but far above the level of the lakes or rivers, may be accounted for by landslips volcanoes, earthquakes, or in many other ways. As to petrified fishes, after considerable enquiry and examination, I am led to doubt whether animal flesh has ever been petrified — though I have seen many things that passed for such.

Lake Erie has been ascertained to be 70 feet above the Ohio at the mouth of Beaver Pennsylvania; and 558 above the tide water at Albany. The head of the Ohio is therefore 628 feet above the Atlantic. This allows to the Ohio and Mississippi an average descent of about 4 inches per mile. There are 22 feet of descent at one place — the Falls of the Ohio — besides the Atlantic is probably not level — What is the descent of the gulf stream?

By another statement lake Erie is 564 feet above the tide at Albany, 83 above the Ohio at the mouth of Kenhawa, which latter point is 481 above tide water at Richmond. Therefore from thence to the mouth of the Mississippi the descent is 481, if the gulf stream is level.

The east part of this state appears to be chiefly sandstone and clay-slate, in level strata alternating with limestone. The main basis of the western part seems to be limestone occasionally covered with clay slate and sandstone. The layers of limestone are distinctly marked, and each layer is divided into masses of various sizes by perpendicular and irregular fissures.

CLIMATE. With regard to temperature and weather this state is as agreeable as any other one; but as to healthiness it is difficult to give it a distinct character; for probably no two townships in the state are precisely alike in this particular, Perhaps about one third of the whole is perfectly healthy, or nearly so, — another third ought to be considered as uninhabitable, and the remainder only moderately sickly; so as to suit that numerous class of people who are always willing to put life into a little jeopardy for the purpose of growing rich.

The country has no peculiar diseases — those most prevalent being such as belong to alluvion and marshy land.

Some complaints not well defined are frequently attributed to the frequent use of sulphuretted water, which is the only friend that can be procured in some places.

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS. Limestone has been found in almost every county of the state and is supposed to extend through every one.


Coal has been found through all the eastern portion of state, from lake Erie to the Ohio. It is of the Pittsburgh species.

Bog and stone iron ore are found in most parts of the state; very rich in some places and generally abundant.

Quartzy rocks suitable for mill stones, and said to be equal to French burrs, are found in great masses at several places, but best and most abundant along Raccoon creek, which flows Into the Ohio below Gallipolis. Occasional masses of granite present themselves through New Connecticut. That at Cuyahoga and Rocky rivers, according to Mr. Granger of Warren, contains garnets imbedded in it.

Allum is found sometimes very pure and crystallized, but generally contained in the aluminous schist and shale, which is a principal part of the basis of this country.

Sulpher impregnates so many of the springs, particularly in the northern part of the state, that it constitutes a very serious and general inconvenience. Many of the sulphuretted waters are chalybeate (i. e. contain carbonate of iron) and generally they present earthy solutions.

Sulphuretted iron is common.

Salt water is obtained at the depth of 2 or 300 feet along the south shore of lake Erie in many places — in Columbiana, along yellow creek, at the depth of 150 or 200 feet, arid at Salt creek in Jackson county. (This stream flows into the Sciota 15 miles below Chillicothe.) Here the salines are called the "Sciota salt works," and are the principal ones in the state. There are others on Kill-buck, in Wayne county; and on the Muskingum below Zanesville,

Clay (argil usually called crucible clay) is procured in Muskingum county.

Mineral oil On the shore of Deer creek, there is a natural well 3 feet in diameter at the top, and 42 feet deep. It continually overflows with out which runs into the creek. The produce is about six barrels per week.

Silver is at present supposed to be abundant in the neighbourhood of Zanesville, but the fact has not yet been perfectly ascertained.

NATURAL CURIOSITIES. In Sunbury township (Delaware county) near the Big Walnut branch of the Sciota there is a spring which produces petrifactions.

The falls of the Little Miami are well worth the traveller's notice. They consist of a series of cataracts, presenting altogether a descent of about 200 — breaking through rugged profound chasms. Massies creek, a branch of the Little Miami, has some very interesting cascades in the same county Green) and about seven miles N. E. from the town of Xenith.



Besides the common governmental divisions of counties and townships, there are others frequently refered to. They are The Connecticut reserveFire landsOhio Company's purchaseDonation tract, — French Grant, — Refugee tract, — Summes' patent, — Virginia Military tract, — United States Military tract and Congress or Public lands.

CONNECTICUT RESERVE. By the charter of Charles II. made in the 14th year of his reign, "all the lands between the south boundary of Massachusetts and north lat. 41°, extending from the west boundary of Rhode Island to the Western ocean," were granted to the colony of Connecticut. The claims founded on this gave rise to great contention which has been entirely settled. So much of the claim as included the north part of Pennsylvania was, after some strife, relinquished. A part which extended through Ohio state was, in part, surrendered to the United States, and in part reserved. The Reserve includes seven counties — about 3,000,000 of acres, and extends along the south shore of lake Erie, from the west boundary of Pennsylvania to 5 deg. 41 rain, west, a few miles west of Huron river.

This relinquishment was made in May 1786, and accepted by the act of Congress September 14, 1786. By the act of congress, April 28, 1800, it was provided that the government of Connecticut should hold the Reserve land as a corporation or individual, vesting all territorial jurisdiction on the U. States and extinguishing the Indian claim at their own cost. That state did accordingly renounce jurisdiction, and accepted patents for the land from the President of the U. States.

THE FIRE LANDS were 500,000 acres at the west end of the above Reserve. They were given by the government of Connecticut to persons of that state who had suffered by fire during the Revolutionary war.

THE OHIO COMPANY'S PURCHASE was a tract of 1,500,000 acres, conveyed by the, act of congress Apil 21, 1790, to M. Cutler, R.Oliver and G. Green, through the agency of Cutler and Winthrop Sargeant. It extended along the Ohio river from the mouth of Bull creek {a few miles above Marietta) to Indian Guyandot, below Gallipolis.


THE DONATION LANDS were a tract of 100,000 acres by the United States to the same Ohio Company, at the time of the above purchase, on condition that it should revert again at the expiration of 5 years, unless it should "be conveyed free of expense in tracts of 100 acres to each male person, not less than 18 years of age, being an actual settler thereon at the time of such conveyance." The condition was not complied with, and the land reverted to the U. States. This included the land bought by the first settlers of Gallipolis, who thus lost their property.

THE FRENCH GRANT is a tract of 24,000 acres granted by the U. States to the first settlers of Gallipolis, in consequence of their losses and sufferings. It is located on the Ohio river, opposite the mouth of the Little Sandy river.

THE REFUGEE TRACT contains 100,000 acres granted by congress to certain persons who, during the Revolutionary war, had fled from the British provinces. It is, four and a half miles broad, and extends from the Sciota river, at the town of Columbus, eastward 43 miles.

SYMMES PATENT is a tract of 411,682 acres, conveyed by the United States in 1794 to John Cleves Symmes, for 67 cents per acre. It is the south west angle of the state, and extends along the Ohio 27 miles — from the Great to the Little Miami, One section (No. 16) in each township was reserved for the use of schools; and section No. 29 for the support of religious institutions. Fifteen acres around fort Washington (in Cincinnati) were also reserved for the use of the public.

VIRGINIA MILITARY TRAC., The state of Virginia by its charter formerly claimed the whole of Ohio state, and ten times as much land beyond it; but relinquished to the United States all its claims north of the Ohio, reserving a tract which will be found described in our article upon public surveys — and appropriated it as a fund for paying soldiers of that state who had served during the Revolutionary war.

UNITED STATES MILITARY LANDS were a similar appropriation of a tract which is likewise described in the article on: public surveys.

CONGRESS LAND is a general title applied to all the unreserved land in the state — implying that which has been sold, or held for sale, by the U. States.


    Square Miles. Population. 1810. Population. 1815. White males over 21. 1816 Valuation. 1815. Chief Towns. Population 1816 Dwelling Houses 1816. Latitude north Longitude West. Wash'n Commenced.
First District Preble. 432 3,304 5,509 1,067 798,660 Eaton 500 40 39 81 7 31  
  Dark.     1,500     Greenville     40 2 7 30  
  Miami. 600 3,941 5,910 1,116   Troy   50 39 58 7 6  
  Montgomery 480 7,722 13,700 2,047 2,830,963 Dayton   100 30 42 7 4  
  Green. 400 5,870 8,000 1,615 1,388,226 Zenia 500   39 45 6 47  
  Clinton. 820 2,674 4,000 920 714,680 Wilmington   40 39 26 6 43 1810
2nd District Pickaway 470 7,124 9,260 1,855 1,446,407 Circleville     89 86 5 53 1810
  Ross. 650 15,514 18,000 3,311 3,681,689 Chillicoth 8,000 400 39 14 5 53  
  Pike. 400   2,300 453   Piketon         1815
  Jackson. 512   2,000     Jackson     39 36 5 53 1810
  Gallia. 600 4,181 6,000 1,326 533,320 Gallipolis   75 38 54 5 7  
  Lawrence. 400         Burlington     38 34 5 27 1817  
  Scioto. 575 3,399 3,870 774 466,748 Portsmouth     38 48 5 53  
  Adams.   9,434 10,410 2,083 1,414,898 West Union     38 51 6 24  
  Highland. 420     591 888,120 Hillsborough   60 39 14 6 30  
3d District Cuyahoga.   1,459 2,500 494 1,347,048 Cleaveland     41 81 4 44  
  Geauga. 600 2,917 3,000 523 1,116,503 Chardon 250   41 36 4 16 1816
  Ashtabula 700   3,200 639 887,708 Jefferson     41 45 8 50  
  Trumbull. 875 8,671 10,000 1,861 2,115,030 Warren     41 17 8 56  
  Portage. 750 2,995 6,000 1,153 2,495,564 Ravenna     41 11 4 18  
  Medina. 760         Mecca          


    Square Miles. Population 1810. Population 1815. White males over 21. 1816 Valuation. 1815. Chief Towns Population 1816. Dwelling Houses 1816. Latitude North. Longitude West. Wash'n. Commenced.
3d District Wayne. 720   7,100 759 610,777 Wooster   60 40 50 5 48  
  Richland. 900   3,900 591 295,333 Mansfield   30 40 47 5 33  
  Huron. 900   1,500 388   Huron     41 25 5 36  
4th District Coshocton     3,000 589 709,768 Coshocton     40 17 4 55  
  Muskingum. 660 10,036 11,300 2,238 1,671, 301 Zanesville 1250 317 39 58 5 2  
  Morgan. 568                    
  Washington. 600 5,991 3,800 1,419 703,538 Marietta   100 39 30 4 28 1787
  Athens. 886 2,791 3,960 792 519,182 Athens   40 39 23 5 5  
  Hocking. 432         Logan     3 36 5 25  
  Fairfield. 540 4,361 13,660 2,733 2,555,142 New Lancaster 650 130 39 45 5 25  
  Perry. 402         Somerset     39 52 5 20  
  Licking. 700 3,852 6,400 1,267 1,122,618 Newark 400 70 40 4 5 26  
  Knox.   2,149 3,000 850 1,030,260 Mount Vernon 420 80 40 24 5 52  
5th District Columbiana 1,160 10,878 13,600 2,725 2,064,315 New Lisbon   130 40 49 3 52 1804
  Jefferson. 500 17,260 15,000 2,937 2,083,759 Steubenville 2032 453 40 25 3 40 1798
  Harrison. 450   7,300 1,458 1,370,495 Cadiz   80 40 30 4 4  
  Belmont. 535 11,097 12,200 2,439 1,663,810 St. Clairsville 700   40 8 3 55  
  Monroe 480   1,200 271   Woodsfield   47 40 4 4 30 1815
  Guernsey. 471 3,051 4,800 958 587,690 Cambridge   47 40 4 4 30  
  Tuskawaras. 680 3,045 3,880 776 777,707 New Philadelphia   50 40 32 4 3  
  Stark. 800 2,734 6,625 1,335 1,394,637 Canton 500 70 40 50 4 20 1805


    Square Miles. Population. 1810. Population. 1815. White males over 21. 1816. Valuation. 1816. Chief Towns. Population. 1816 Dwelling Houses 1816. Latitude North Longitude West. Wash'n. Commenced.
6th District Delaware 790   5,000 984 1,094,036 Delaware   60 40 18 6 5  
  Franklin. 490 2,000 6,800 1,351 2,038,475 Franklinton   70 39 57 6 1  
  Madison. 400 3,486 2,100 1,566   New London          
  Fayette.   1,603 3,700 741 485,932 Washington     39 33 6 23  
  Clark. 400 1,854       Springfield     39 48 6 43  
  Champaign.     10,460 2,097 2,445,557 Uroaanna 600 120 40 3 6 41  
  Logan. 400 6,303       Belville          
7th District Hamilton 390 15,258 18,700 3,725 5,604,954 Cincinnatti 500 1300 39 6 7 27 1788
  Butler. 486 11,150 11,890 2,877 2,471,888 Hamilton     39 22 7 30  
  Warren. 400 9,925 12,000   2,574,586 Lebanon     39 23 7 5  
  Clermont   9,925 12,000   1,973,674 Williamsburgh 234 53 39 2 6 52  
  Brown. 470     2,413   Ripley     38 48 6 10  
  Shelby.           Hardin          
      230,760 322,790 64,550              


The population of the N. Western Territory (of which this, state is a part) amounted to 43,365 in the year 1800. — This state in 1810 had a, population of 230,760. The number of males exceeded that of the females by 10,000. By a census in 1315, the number of voters (free white males above the age of 21) was 64,814; which would indicate a total population above 300,000. In 1817 there were nearly 40,000 names upon the muster rolls of the state.

COUNTIES. No. of Townships TOWNS.
Adams 6 West-Union, Manchester, Adamsville.
Ashtabula 13 Jefferson, Harpersfield, Matherstown, Morgan, Windsor, Sharon, Williamsfield*
Athens. 9 Athens, Steadmansville, Troy, Nelsonville.
Belmont 14 St. Clairsville, Barnesville, Burlington, Canton, Flushing, Wrightstown, Jacobstown Shepherdstown,
Brown 7 Ripley, Decatur, Higginsport,
Butler 12 Hamilton, Rossville, Middletown, Oxford, Milford, Princeton.
Champign 13 Urbanna, Harrison, Mechanicsburgh, Leesburgh, Winchester, New-York, Springfield, Libson.
Clark 8 Springield, Boston
Clermont   Williamsburg, Milford, Neville, Stanton, Sussanna, Bethel, Levina, Goshen, Mechanicsburgh, Batavia, New Richmond, Moscow, Feestown
Clinton 7 Wilmington.
Columbiana 19 New Lisbon, West Union, New Alexandria, Salem, Fairfield, Columbiana, Bellefont, Portsmouth, Hanover, Clarkson, Pottsgrove, Petersburg, Achorstown, Foulkstown Fawcettstown.
Coshocton 6 Coshocton, Qxford.
Cuyahoga 8 Cleveland Granger,
Dark 4 Greenville Madison, Mina.
Delaware   Delaware, Milford, Norton, Sunbury, Zoar.
Fairfield 4 New Lancaster, Rushville, Jacksonville, Greencastle, Centrevjjle, Somerset, Clinton, New Lebanon, Royaltown.
Fayette 6 Washington, Duffs-fork
Franklin 15 COLUMBUS, Franklinton, Worthington, Georgesville, Dublin
Gallia 13 Gallipolis, Fairhaven
Geauga 7 Chardon, Painesville, Champin, Grandon, Parkman


COUNTIES. No. Townships TOWNS.
Green 9 Zenia, Fairfield, Bellbrook, Jamestown, Winchester.
Guernsey 12 Cambridge, Frankfort, Washington, Winchester, Fairview, Londonderry, New Liberty.
Hamilton 12 Cincinnati, Harrison, Columbia, Newton, Reading, Montgomery, Springfield, Colerain, Crosby, Cleves, Madison, Miami, Middletown
Harrison 9 Cadiz, Hanover, Freeport, Harrisville, New Athens, New Rumley.
Highland 9 Hillsborough, Newmarket, Greenfield, Leeburg, Middleton, Newton, Monroe, Sinking-Spring.
Hocking   Logan.
Huron 7 Huron, Sandusky, Jessup, Berlin, Bloomingville
Jackson   Jackson.
Jefferson 11 Steubenville, Mount Pleasant, Jefferson, Knoxviile, Somerset, Smithfield, Warrentown, New Salem, Philipsburgh.
Knox 8 Mount Vernon, Clinton, Fredericktown, Winchester, Williamsburgh, Harrison, New Lexington, Danville.
Lawrence   Burlington.
Licking 14 Newark, Granville, Johnstsown, Fairfield.
Logan   Belville
Madison 8 New London, Lawrenceville.
Medina 4 Medina.
Miami 9 Troy, Piqua, Staunton, Washington, Milton.
Monroe 4 Woodsfield.
Montgomery 8 Dayton, Union, Centreville, North-Dayton WOodbourne, Alexanderville, York, Uniontown Germantown, Salem
Morgan   Olivetown.
Muskingum 17 Zanesville, Irville, Putnam, Dresden, Haymarket Uniontown.
Perry 8 Somerset, New Lebanon, Thornville, New Reading, Lexington, Burlington.
Pickaway 6 Circleville, Jefferson, Livingston, Tarlton, Bloomfield, Westfall
Pike   Piketon
Portage 25 Ravenna, Rootstown, Hudson, Manteau, Neson, Stow, Shalerviile, Sharon, Suffield, Springfield, Thorndike, Tallmage


COUNTIES. No. of Townships. TOWNS.
Preble 9 Baton, Lexmgton.
Richland 11 Mansfield, New Lexington, Belvilte, Trucksville, Perrysviile, Green.
Ross 15 Chillicothe, Adelphi, New Richmond, Bainbridge, Kingston, Oldtown.
Sciota 10 Portsmouth, Alexandria.
Shelby   Hardin.
Stark   Canton, Osnaburgh, Kendall, Lexington, Green, Hamburgh.
Trumbull 30 Warren, Mesopotamia, Hartford, Green, Canfield, Poland, Youngstown, Milton, Weathersfield, Vienna.
Tuscarawas 9 New Philadelphia, Goshen, Winchester, Leesburgh, Gnaddenhutten, Westchester, Sandyville, Lawrenceville, Dover, New Hagerstown.
Warren   Lebanon, Deerfield, Waynesville, Franklin, Shakerstown, Ridgeville, Shanesville, Freeport.
Washington 15 Marietta, Belpre, Waterford, Newport.
Wayne 18 Wooster, New Brownsville, Wilmington, Moscow, Paintville, Jeromesville, Jeromestown, Jacksonburgh, Bloomfield.

Towns in the undivided north west angle of the state.

Croghansville, on the Sandusky, 18 miles from lake Erie
Venice, on the Sandusky.
Fort Stephenson, on the Sandusky.
Perrysburgh, on the Maumee,18 miles from lake Erie. Port Lawrence, on the Maumet bay. Roundheads town, an Indian village, near the head of the Sciota.
Solomonstown, an Indian village near the source of the Great Miami.
Tawa town, an Indian village near the source of the Au Glaize.
Wapakonetta, an Indian village on the Au Glaize above Tawa.
Fort Wayne, at the confluence of St. Josephs and Maurice Rivers.


CINCINNATI is the principal town in this state beyond com petition. It is in N. lat 39°, 6', 30". W. long. 7ş, 24' 45 — 300 miles (by the road) from Pittsburgh, 105 from Louisville, 275 from Detroit, 85 from Lexington, Ky, and 400 from Baltimore It is situated on the north shore of the Ohio river, between the Great and the Little Miami rivers, and opposite the mouth of Licking river. It occupies 3 miles of the shore — from Deer creek to Mill creek. The part adjacent to the river is a flat 80 feet wide and 70 feet above low water mark. The rest of the town, called the hill, is 50 feet above the level of the lower part, and extends to the neighboring hill range, which is about a mile distant from the river. There are 8 streets parallel with the shore — Water st. Front st. Second st. Third st. &c. and lastly Northern street. These are intersected by nine other: at right angles; that is north 44 deg. west, commencing at the east end of the town they are Broadway, Sycamore, Miami Walnut, Vine, Race, Elm, Plum and Western streets. Their General breadth is 66 feet. The greater part of the square; are divided each into eight lots of 99 feet by 198, and they have no alleys.

A settlement was commenced at this place in the year 1780 by the erection of a block house. In 1788 a rude fort was built and garrisoned by the United States. At the same time, John C. Symmes, the original patentee of the scite, surveyed the town around the fort, and brought a small colony from New England and New Jersey to settle it. As a town, it made no progress until after the year 1794 when Gen. Wayne first held the Indians in check. From that period it flourished moderately until in 1814 — 15 Sec. when the hot bed of the banking system began to operate completely upon it, bloating it with an astonishing and unnatural growth; giving it a commerce and a splendor which have filled all strangers with astonishment. The demon of speculation has visited so many places in our country that Cincinnati cannot perhaps claim any exclusive notice for the grand entertainment winch she has given to him.

Amidst daily changes his difficult even to estimate the present condition pf Cincinnati. In the year 1815 it contained nearly 1100 buildings — 20 of stone; 250 of brick, and 800 of wood. Of these 660 were dwelling houses. The population was 6500. There were 60 stores for the sale of dry goods and groceries generally; and ten for the sale of books, drugs, iron and shoes. Mr. Brown, who visited it in 1816, estimates the population at that date to be 8,000, and the houses 1300. Kilbourn states this population of 1818 at 11,000, which must he an exaggeration.

The principal establishments are a Lancasterian school, calculated for the reception of 1100 scholars. It consists of two parallel wings, each 30 feet in front by 80 in depth, and 30 feet apart, united near the front by stair cases, and surmounted by a dome capped peristile. As a fact characteristic of the liberality of the people of this town, it should be noted that they


subscribed 12,000 dollars for its establishment. Within two weeks from the opening of it, there were above 400 scholars admitted.

The steam flour mill, belonging to the Evans Co. stands upon the beach of the river, and in times of high water is quite insulated. It is 62 by 87 feet at its base, and 110 feet in height. It contains 9 stories, two of which are above the eaves. The walls were commenced ten feet thick, but they gradually diminish, inclining on the outside, until they arrive at the height of 40 feet. It required 6620 perches of stone. 90,000 bricks 14,000 bushels of lime, and 81,200 cubic feet of timber. It cost 120,000 dollars, and is estimated to weigh 15,655 tons.

There is a cotton and woollen factory with 3.300 spindles for cotton and 400 for wool.
A woollen cloth manufactory, producing 60 yards per day.
Four cotton spinning shops, altogether numbering 1500 spindle.
Several wool carding and cloth dressing shops.
Two rope walks said to produce 6 ton per week.
Two glass manufactories.
A saw mill wrought by oxen treading an inclined wheel.
Two large founderies on the common construction, and another on a new one,
Three or more distilleries and breweries.
There are three market houses and market open four times a week.
A court house 56 by 66 base and 100 feet high.
Meeting houses for Presbyterians, Quakers, Baptists and Methodists.
A University in an incipient state.
A literary society — Museum of minerals.
Two newspapers. 9 mails weekly, and lastly a land office.

Chillicothe is situated upon the west bank of the Scioto, 70 miles from the mouth of that river; but only 45 in a direct line. It occupies a flat between the river and a steep hill nearly 300 feet high. It is perfectly regular, and laid out on a large scale. The streets are 66 feet wide, and cross one another at right angles. The alleys are 16 feet wide, and cross each other so as to divide all the squares into equal quarters.

This town was laid out in 1796. It flourished greatly until it ceased to be the seat of government, yet it has hot declined in consequence of losing that advantage; on the contrary, its position and the fertility of its neighbourhood insure its prosperity. It has 3 newspaper offices, 30 stores, 4 cotton and linen factories, a steam mill, paper mill, oil mill, fulling mill, together with several sawmills and flour mills in its vicinity. It contains about 400 houses, and a population of 3,000.

From this place a very extensive plain, or rather a tract gently undulating, extends eastward and southward, which, together with the river, the northeastern hills — and in fact a


complete panorama — constitute a noble view from the eminence behind the town.

When this town was laid out, there was an artificial antique mound within it, which, in levelling the streets has been demolished.

COLUMBUS was, at its first establishment (in 1813) constituted the seat of government. In 1818 it contained above 200 houses and 1500 inhabitants. It is situated on the east shore of the Scioto, 45 miles north from Chillicothe and about 20 miles southwest from the centre of the state. In the south west corner of the town there is a square often acres, upon which the Penitentiary has been erected. Another square of the same extent is reserved for a public promenade near the centre of the town; and on the south west corner of this the state house and public offices are built. It is somewhat more elevated than the surrounding squares, and from the Capitol affords a good view of the river and the surrounding country including the town of Franklinton which occupies a flat on the Scioto one mile westward from Columbus. The Capitol is a brick building 75 feet by 50, surmounted by a ballustrade walk, a belfry and spire.

The streets are at angles of 12 deg. 30 min. from the cardinal points, following the variation of the compass. Opposite the mouth of broad sheet there is a bridge across the Scioto.

ZANESVILLE is situated on the east shore of the Muskingum, opposite to the town: of Putnam, and nearly opposite the mouth of Licking river; 50 miles north, from Marietta. It is a thriving town; has 3 glass factories, 22 stores, a nail factory, paper mill, several oil mills, saw mills, flour mils, two newspaper offices, and a land office. At this place the Muskingum presents fall — not a cascade, but a regular descent of six feet in a few rods. Below this the navigation is at all times practicable.

This town, together with Chillicothe and New Lancaster, were founded by Mr. Zane of Virginia, who certainly shewed great discernment in selecting these positions. This says Mr. Birkbeck, will be a grand station for manufactures at a future period. The country around it is hilly and very pleasant; not rich, but dry and tolerably fertile. It abounds in coal and lime and water power for machinery. Iron is also plentiful.

STEUBENVILLE is a handsome flourishing town, the third in the state both in regard to population and commercial importance. It has about four stores, six taverns, a woolen factory worked by steam, a cotton factory, steam paper mill, steam flour mil, brewhouse, distillery, newspaper officer, &c.

It is situated on the shore of the Ohio, 36 miles (by the road) westward from Pittsburgh. Its appearance is agreeable but the view of this country around is not very extensive or picture-esque.


GALLIPOLIS is beautifully situated on the Ohio shore three miles below, the mouth of the Great Kenhawa. The scite of this town, and the lands around it, were purchased by persons in France from the "Ohio Company" in 1788-89. In the succeeding year they shipped themselves — 500 in number to settle it, and descended the Ohio in 1791. There they suffered privations and distress such as none but back-woods men may well conceive of. The grant made by the United States to the Ohio Company became forfeited by their neglect to comply with its conditions, in regard to the making of settlements. — Thus the half starved French colony lost their lands and being obliged to abandon the town, they removed down the liver to other French settlements. In March, 1795, Congress made the free grant above noticed of 4000 acres to J. G. Gervais, and 20,000 acres to be divided equally among the other settlers of Gallipolis. This town however made but little progress, until of late years, after the possession of it was acquired principally by Americans. Some unfavourable and false representations have been made against it in consequence of a part of its lower bank falling into the river — an accident which happened several years ago.

In the neighbourhood of this town there is a vineyard of six acres at which wine is produced.

MARIETTA, at the mouth of the Muskingum was a place of great promise a few years ago, but it has not been prosperous, because it is very dangerous for people to expect too much. — It contains about one hundred houses and has business scarcely proportioned to that number. On the opposite shore of the Muskingum, where Fort Harmar once stood, there are 30 or 40 houses, but they can scarce be recognised as belonging to Marietta. From 1799 to 1806 ship building was carried on here. It was then discontinued, but recommenced again in 1816.

CIRCLEVILLE is within an antique fortification in the Pickaway bottom, about half a mile from the Sciota river on the east side. The two mounds which at present include it, contain, each, about ten acres. One of them is a circle, or rather two concentric circles, the summits of which are about 50 feet asunder. The other is a regular square, about the same size, and included within one line of mound — The greater part of the houses (which amount to 250) are within the circle. In the centre of that part there is a small circle left open. From that the streets diverge as radii, and at equal distances pass the circles. The mounds are about 15 feet above the surface of their bases. This town has few advantages regard to trade, but is thriving, as the rich Pickaway plains, and the richer bottoms of Walnut creek, are in its immediate vicinity.

LEBANON is called an inland town in this country because it is four miles from the nearest large stream — the Little Miami


but is situated between two branches of Turtle creek. "It is not", says Mr. Birbeck "a mountain of cedars, but a valley so beautiful and fertile, that it seemed on its first opening to our view, enriched as it was by the tints of evening, rather a region of fancy than a real back-woods scene."

"Lebanon is itself one of those wonders which are the natural growth of these back-woods. In fourteen years, from two or three cabins of half savage hunters, it has grown to be the residence of a thousand persons, with habits and looks no way differing from their brethren of the east."

CLEVELAND is situated on lake Erie, at the mouth of the Cuyahoga. It seems likely to become a place of trade from the advantages of its local position; but it is supposed to be unhealthy, on account of the stagnation caused by the lake in the estuary of the river.

PAINESVILLE on lake Erie, at the mouth of Grand river, has lately attracted much attention on account of its deep, capacious harbour. It contains several manufactories for woolen, cotton, &c.

ALEXANDRIA, below the mouth of the Sciota, has been partly abandoned on account of an inundation of the Ohio which did much damage, although the bank is 70 feet above the surface of the river at its common height. It is represented by Mr. Brown as a place of idleness and dissipation. Portsmouth, on the opposite side of the Sciota, has very lately risen into some importance.

ATHENS is situated in a peninsula formed by the Hockhockling river. It is the scite of the state university, being with is the two townships reserved by the U. States for that institution. These were rented on perpetual leases, and produce an annual revenue of 2300 dollars.

DAYTON stands upon the east shore of the Great Miami, just below the mouth of Mad river. It is a place of considerable trade and great promise; likely to become the third in rank amongst the towns of this state. It has already a handsome, Bridge across the Miami, 250 feet long, and 26 wide; consisting of two wooden arches upon a pier and abutments of stone.

FORT WAYNE is situated upon a bluff below the confluence of the St. Josephs and Maurice rivers; possessing great natural advantages and almost sure of becoming an important town.

SCHOOLS. Charters have been granted for three Universities — Ohio University at Athens, the Cincinnati University and the Miami University at Oxford. They are not organized


and probably will not be organized as universities for half an age. Acts have been passed for the establishment of ten academies. Houses have been built for some of them — at Steubenville, Chillicothe, Marietta, Gallipolis, New Lisbon, Worthington, Burton, and Dayton; but no regular systems of liberal education have yet been commenced in them.

Common schools are numerous and the different branches of a common education are uniformly acquired by the children of all classes.

COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. Woolens, cottons, linens, glass ware, articles in cast and wrought iron, pottery, cordage, white and red lead, salt, sugar, furniture of various kinds, spirits, porter, beer and a little wine, are manufactured for domestic use, and of many of those articles a sufficiency fur the supply of the state.

The greater part of the export trade passes through Cincinnati, including the following articles: flour, corn, beef, pork, butter, lard, bacon, whiskey, peach-brandy, beer, porter, pot and pearl ashes, cheese, soap, candles, hats, hemp, spun yarn, saddles, rifles, cabinet ware, chairs, cherry and other kinds of boards, staves and scantling.

Lead is obtained from Missouri; coffee, rum, molasses, &c. from New Orleans — dry goods chiefly from Philadelphia and Baltimore — salt in considerable quantities from Kenhawa.

IMPROVEMENTS. Arrangements have been made for connecting Cincinnati with the Great Miami by a canal — and it is intended likewise to connect this river with the Maumee. The head of navigation upon the Miami is at the town of Piqua. It is 30 miles from that to the highest point of navigation on the St. Marys, a branch of Maumee, and the same distance to Wapakanetta on the Au Glaize. The route by Au Glaize is the shortest, but that by St. Marys the most safe.

The governor of this state, in his message (of January 1820) upon the practicability of uniting by canals some of the streams which flow into the Ohio river with some of those which flow into lake Erie, recommends the following route as affording great facilities for that purpose.

1st. That between Grand river and the Mahoning branch of Beaver — crossing the west boundary of Pennsylvania, and passing through a swamp on the table land which divides these streams.

2d. The portage between the Cuyahoga and Tuscarawas.

3d. The portage between the Loramies branch of the Great Miami and the St. Marys branch of the Maurice.

4th. Through a swamp about 18,000 acres in extent, situated in the south-west corner of the Connecticut Reserve, connecting the Huron and Lower Sandusky rivers with the Whete tone branch of the Sciota. The summit level is hero stated to be


540 feet above lake Erie, requiring at one place about 16 feet of cutting, but with an average cutting of only 8 feet.

5th. Through the prairie in which the Great Miami, Sciota, and AuGlaize have their principal sources, and through a beautiful lake which discharges itself into Mad river, on the south side of that prairie.

6th. A continuation of the latter route, passing between the Great and Little Miami's, through the vallies of Mad river into the Beaver branch of Little Miami; or through Mad river to Dayton.

7th. Through the Great Miami to its mouth, or else leaving it at Middleton and cutting across to Cincinnati by the way of Mill creek; &c.

In order to create a fund for the execution of these projects, it is proposed to purchase upon credit from the United States 4,000,000 acres of land, under the expectation of being able to sell it again at a considerable advance of price. It is intimated that such a speculation, besides defraying the expenses of the canal between Miami and the Maurice, would leave a clear gain to the state of at least 10,000,000 of dollars.

CONSTITUTION. The executive officer is a governor elected every two years, He is commander in chief of the militia — issues all commissions, but makes no appointments. He must be at least 30 years of age, and must have resided at least 4 years within the state. When the office of governor becomes vacant the speaker of the senate succeeds as a lieutenant governor during the complement of the official term.

The legislature is composed of two parts — a senate and house of representatives. The members of the latter are chosen yearly: Any citizen is eligible as a representative who has resided above One year in the state, is more than 25 years of age, and has paid a tax. The number of members in this house must not be less than 36 nor more than 72. The senators are elected every two years — they must beat least 30 years of age land have resided-two years within the district for which they are chosen, besides having paid a tax. The number of members in the senate must not be less than one third, nor more than one half of the number in the other house. These two houses have the entire power of passing laws without requiring the assent of the governor, or any other person thereto.

The judicial powers are exercised by a supreme court, a court of common pleas, and by the common justices of the peace. There are four supreme judges who hold court once a year in each county of the state. There are seven judicial districts for the courts of common pleas, criminal cases, &c. In each district there is one president, and three puisne judges assistants for each county. These circuit courts are held three times a year. Air the judges are elected by the legislature, and receive their offices for the term of seven years. The justices are elected by the people ever three years. A justice


is a conservator of the peace for the county to which he belongs, but has no judicial power out of his own township.

The qualification of a voter is a years residence in the state, and the payment of a tax, besides being a free white, male citizen above the age of 21 years.

Slavery is not allowed in this state.

FINANCES. The auditors report for 1818 was —

Amount paid into the treasury for that year $ 130,190, 45.
Expenditures during the same 119,007, 22.
Leaving a balance of 11,183, 23.
Land of nonresidents taxed — acres, 4,556,204.
do. residents taxed do 7,102,294.
Amount of taxes levied on land for 1818 $169,184.
Which, after defraying all governmental expences, left in the treasury 38,820 28.


State of Indiana.





Indiana is 284 miles in length, (from north to south) and 555 miles in breadth; containing 39,000 square miles — or 24,960,000 acres.

It is separated from Kentucky, on the south, by the Ohio River — from Ohio state, on the east, by the line of Long. 7° 47' west from Wash, which commences at the mouth of the Great Miami and runs north to Lat. 41° 50' — from the Michigan and North western territories on the north by the line of N. Lat. 41° 50' — and from Illinois state on the West by a line running directly south, until it touches the Wabash river 40 miles above; Vincennes — and then following the middle of that river until it reaches the Ohio.

The act of Congress which authorized the organization of this State, required that its northern boundary should include 10 miles of the south end of Lake Michigan, whatever the latitude of it be.

RIVERS. The Ohio waters the southern boundary of this state for the distance of 345 miles, from the Miami to the Wabash; between which it receives no streams of importance on the north side, because the south branch of the White river runs nearly parallel with it for the chief part of the way, and generally about 50 or 60 miles distant from it. The tributaries it does receive are as follows:

1. Tanner's Creek, 30 miles long.

2. Heughan's Creek about the same size.

3. Laughery's Creek, 40 miles long.

4. Venoge (or Indian) creek, so called by the Swiss settler of that quarter after a small river in the Pays de Vaud (Switzerland.)

5. Indian Kentucky; 6 Silver ceek; 7 Indian creek.

8. Big Blue, river, so called from its clear blue waters which notwithstanding their tint are good and pure.

9. Little Blue river, debouches 13 miles below the latter.

10. Anderson River.

11. Little Pigeon Creek, 12 Beaver Creek.

All the above named streams have considerable current and afford many good situations for mills.


The Wabash waters the central and western parts of the state. It is three hundred yards wide at its mouth; and is, according to some, above 500 miles in length. At its confluence with the Ohio, the French, regarding it as the principal stream, applied the name Ouabache, likewise to that part of the Ohio which extends from this to the Mississippi. The northern portion of this river is little known as it raps through Indian lands that have been but partially explored. Its current is very gentle from the falls at Witanon (below the mouth of Tippacanoe) down to Vincennes, but between that and the Ohio there are some rapids though they do not impede its navigation.

The principal branch rises near old fort St. Mary's, passing in its course the Portage road between Loramis creek and the St. Mary, and in floods uniting its stream to that river. Another head branch called Little River, rises near fort Wayne. A third one called the Massadnnenva rises in Darke county between fort Greenville and fort Recovery. The Eel river regarded as another head branch, issues from a cluster of little lakes that lie 18 miles westward of fort Wayne. The rivers below this which flow into the Wabash on the west side, are —

1. Richard's creek. 2. Rock river.

3. Tippacanoe river, 8 miles below the latter, and 18 below the former of these. It has been rendered famous by the battle fought near it (November, 1811) between the Indians and United States troops. Its principal source is about 30 miles westward of fort Wayne. Some of the head branches arise from small lakes which are united to the head waters of the St. Josephs of Maurice.

4. Pine creek — 5. Red-wood creek.

6. Rejoicing, or Vermillion or Jaune river, 85 miles below the mouth of the Massasinnewa.

7. Little Vermillion. 8. Etabliere river. 9. Duchat river. 10. Bruette river. These four latter rise in Illinois, and all the other streams that flow into the Wabash belong entirely to that state. The rivers that enter on the east side of the Wabash are, after passing some small waters whose vocabulary is not yet settled.

1. Rooky river 125 miles below the mouth of Massasinnewa. It rises near the head waters of White river.

2. Busseron creek is about 50 miles long and enters 20 miles above Vincennes.

3. Maria creek enters just above Vincennes.

4. White river enters 25 miles below Vincennes. It is a large stream passing nearly across the state. Thirty-five miles above its mouth is the confluence of its two main branches, the West Fork and East Fork. The former, at the distance of about 55 miles from its mouth, receives the Eel river branch on the west side. The East Fork, at the distance of about 100 miles from the Wabash, is formed by the confluence of the Driftwood and Muscakituck rivers. On the north side it receives Guthrie's creek, Salt creek, and First


creek — on the south Lost river or Salt Lick. Some of the head waters of the Muscaktuck rise within three miles of the town of Madison on the Ohio. The Driftwood is a considerable river which rises in the Indian country and has been little explored.

5. Petoka or Patoka river debouches 3 miles below White river. It is about 90 miles in length.

6. Big Creek debouches 12 miles above the mouth of the Little Wabash.

Whitewater river rises 12 miles west of fort Greenville near the head waters of the Driftwood, and flows into the Great Miami, 4 miles from the Ohio. It received its name on account of the purity and clearness of its waters, as it is said a pebble or a fish can be seen in it at the depth of 20 feet. The people who live on its shores say that its waters are not so boyant as those of common rivers, which is absurd, but the idea may have arisen from their unusual coldness.

Some of the north eastern parts of Indiana are watered by the St. Josephs of Maurice. Further westward are the head waters of the river Raisin, Black river, St. Josephs of lake Michigan, and Eel river. Still westward are the Great and Little Kennomic and Chemin rivers, which also flow into the Michigan lake after passing the chief part of their courses through Indiana.

The Great Kennomic (marked in some maps the Calumet) has its Source about 30 miles south of lake Michigan. It approaches within a few miles of the lake, and then takes, a westerly course for some miles, — then turns eastwardly, keeping, for several miles, close along the lake shore. After expanding into a small lake it breaks through the range of sand hills which had separated it from the Michigan, and debouches about 30 miles east from Chicago.

The north western angle of the state is watered by the Kenkakee and Kickapoo rivers and a small part of the main head branch of the Illinois river, together with a part of the Vermillion of Illinois.

LAKES. Indiana includes the southern extremity of lake Michigan. It also contains an immense number of small lakes, many of which, however, may be called ponds — the largest being from 8 to 10 miles long, and the small ones frequently not more than one mile. In the late maps 38 lakes are designated in the northern half of the state; but Brown supposes that the actual number may exceed 100. Several of them have double outlets — that is they flow into the northern lakes and into the tributaries of the Ohio and Mississippi. The greater part of them are in that tract of country from which arise the head waters of the St. Josephs, Black river, Tippacanoe, Raisin and Eel rivers.


ISLANDS. There are 25, islands in that part of the Ohio which constitutes the southern boundary of Indiana, and there are a few others in the Wabash, but the number belonging, to this state has not been ascertained.

Face of the Country, Soil, &c. Indiana has no mountains. The northern part of the state is flat and full of ponds. The southern border along the Ohio as far down as Blue river, presents a range of rugged, unfertile hills, and narrow bottoms on the river, most of which are subject to inundation. The middle region is prairie interspersed with groves that extend in stripes along the streams — passing occasionally into wide forest tracts. These are the general features.

We pass the following counties in our course down the Ohio shore, to wit: Dearborn, Switzerland, Jefferson, Clark, Harrison, Crawford, Perry, Spencer, Warrick, Vanderburgh and Posey. The first five are much broken, into hills where they adjoin the river, and along the creeks that flow through them. In the first the hill land is more unfertile than it is in the others, but it is of less, extent. In Switzerland it has been found tolerably productive. The Ohio bottom through those five counties is too low where it is broad enough to be of much value, but it presents a rich soil which may perhaps be found suitable for some valuable purposes hereafter. The three first of these counties extend northwardly into a large tract of land called the "Flat Woods." It commences near the Ohio river, and reaches across the centre of the state as far as Witanon at the mouth of Tippacanoe — It is of a rich, excellent soil.

The "knobs" or hilly ranges begin at Blue river and spread in a north-westerly direction towards White river — leaving along the Ohio, through the counties of Perry, Spencer, Warrick, Vanderburgh, and Posey, a tract of high dry land, chiefly prairie, boundles to the view and in most places rich and valuable. But the river bottoms are even worse in these than in the upper counties, particularly in Posey county, whose borders are overflowed both by the Wabash and the Ohio. North of Posey county lie the counties of Gibson and Knox watered by the Patoka and White rivers, and bounded on the west by the Wabash. In Posey is the celebrated German Harmony establishment and in Knox is the town of Vincerines. The chief part of this range of country is first rate; land, with scarce one acre unfit for cultivation. In some wells that have been dug in, this quarter the black, vegetable mould extended to the depth of twenty-two feet. To the north of Vincennes lies the Indiana "New Purchase." It is rather too level; and besides the elevated dry prairies similar to those in the southern parts of the state, there are found in this district, along the shores of the streams, small low prairies, or rather savannahs, which are too wet for agriculture though they appear to have been cultivated at some remote period. The great body of prairies which extend along the west border of the state are dry even


to a fault; for springs are seldom found in genuine prairie. For some time after a period of rains the water which falls upon them collects into rivulets, sluggish brooks and ponds, but never forms regular water courses. Through this district the banks of the streams are high; generally well wooded, except towards the north, where the strips of wood-land sometimes look like mere hedge row borders round the prairies.

The Wabash, for the distance of 100 miles above its mouth, passes through a wide, low, marshy bottom, the greater part of which is uninhabitable on account of the annual inundations. Like the Mississippi bottoms it is intersected by numerous bayous and ponds.

The little groves and clumps which are found where there is neither stream nor lake, are called the "Islands" of the prairies. In many places they are of great extent, and consist of trees large and closely set — chiefly oak, but mingled with hickory, ash, elm, poplar, &c. The bottoms mostly contain walnut, sugar-tree, buckeye, elm, sycamore and maple — but always oak. There is generally less underwood here than in the country around the heads of the Ohio — though all the vegetables round upon it are more luxuriant. In many districts the greatest inconvenience which the farmers experience arises from the untamable exuberance of the vegetation; and in such places the farms which have been cultivated 20 or 30 years produce the best grain with the least labour. The soil and climate are particularly suited for corn; as the centre of this state may be regarded as the termination of the cane lauds. In this quarter — that is between White river, Rocky river and the Wabash, lies that body of land, about 3,000,000 of acres in extent, called "Harrison's Purchase." It was selected for the Canadian volunteers; and after they had chosen the best parts of a district little, if any, inferior to the best lands in the world, their necessities or their folly occasioned most of them to part with their claims, for almost nothing, to the demons of speculation!

East of this, and adjoining the Ohio state line, are the counties of Franklin and Wayne. The former which lies on the north side of Dearborn county is watered by the Whitewater river and its branches; and the latter, which lies further north, by the head branches of the Wabash, Rocky river, White river and Whitewater river. These two counties are considered the best in the state, being fertile in the highest degree, well wooded, and with a surface sufficiently undulating to prevent the stagnation of the waters. The soil is a rich, black loam, sometimes several feet deep resting on clay or gravel — seldom on rock, except at unsearchable depths. The, hill timber is oak, walnut, hickory, sugar-tree and poplar, in general, but in the lighter soil oak hickory, elm and beech are the common kinds — and all these of fine growth. The bottoms, which are of great magnitude, present walnut, with grape vines, hickory sugar-tree, sycamore, elm, honey-locust; buckeye, cotton wool &c. The great depth to which the vegetable mould occasionally


extends proves the land to be alluvion; as decomposed vegetables could not have accumulated so high. Another proof how recent the soil is in some places is the number of Natural well found in this district. They originate from sycamore trees around which soil has been floated, frequently and even 15 feet deep upon the ground in which they had first taken root. The greater part of these trees decay internally, and become perfectly hollow. At last they fall down, leaving the lower part of their trunks firmly encircled by the earth, and in most places containing water at the bottom of the excavation.

Of the plants which belong to this region we know little. — The ginseng (an indication of a very rich soil) is found in great quantities, but it is likely to be entirely extirpated by the hogs, Indian corn, the grand article of subsistence in new settlements, arrives here to its highest state on perfection, short of spontaneous reproduction. Both the sweet potato and common potato (ignorantly called the Irish potato) grow luxuriantly with little culture. Tobacco grows as well as in Kentucky — but grass is the natural product of the soil, and even the highest parts afford luxuriant pasture. The Indian lands which lie north and west of this district are supposed by many to be of a quality still superior, because those shrewd children of nature always choose the best lands — For hunting no doubt their part of the country is the best; — and even for farming it may contain a great many small tracts of superlative land; but, according to the best authorities that we can refer to, the whole northern section of the state presents appearances very uninviting to white men. In those appearances there is such general uniformity that one part cannot be distinguished from another. Grand prairies becoming more low and level the further we travel north: long strips and little "islands" of woodland, with still longer and larger Strips and tracts of marsh land — ponds, lakes, and stagnating streams — some of which when flooded seem to rival the great lakes of the north — such is the scenery of northern Indiana. In these wilds, wearied as the traveller becomes of the monotonous wastes of grass and water, he meets sometimes with combinations of grove, lake, and prairie scenery, highly beautiful and even picturesque. But these romantic spots seem fortified for ever against the progress of civilization by the chains of ponds, and grass grown streams, and natures grand processes of destruction — the putrescence of the marshes. It is true that the miasma of vegetable decomposition in the waters is not near so fatal in northern as in southern climates.

But the disadvantages caused by the flatness of the country and the excess of water, are in some degree, counterbalanced by the advantages of the safe, easy communication which may be established through it between the northern and southern interior states. Natural canals already traverse these regions in every direction and, at very trifling expense may be rendered fit for every requisite purpose of commerce.


Many of the lakes and ponds which flow at once into the northern lakes and into tributaries of the Ohio, present natural channels too shallow for perogues (the kind of boats mostly used there) so that the traders are as yet obliged to make use of those streams, which require portages to enable them to pass. The portage chiefly used between the Wabash, and lake Erie is nine miles in length, connecting the St. Mary's with the Little river branch of the Wabash. It is over a road perfectly level, and excellent in dry seasons. Teams are constantly kept upon it, and boats as well as goods regularly transported each way.

May not the superabundance of water in the north end of this state (and of the two states on each side of it) be owing to the body of compact clay which constitutes in general the substratum of the soil?

The Climate is in all respects the same as that of Illinois and Ohio states, having the same latitudes, the same soil, and a surface more level in general, but very little different — It has the same exposure as regards atmospheric currents; and what is more material, the facts of experience which the travellers and settlers in it, and in those two sister states have furnished, are altogether similar, and unluckily they are of a character somewhat alarming to emigrants. But I shall treat this subject in detail in its proper place.

The termination of the cane region is in the south end of this state or near its centre — a circumstance which marks both its temperature and its fertility.

Natural Productions. Much mineral wealth can hardly be expected in a country so flat as this. A silver mine was said to have been discovered near Witanon on the Wabash. Iron ore has been found in several places, and is supposed to be in quantity sufficient for the supply of the state. Copperas exists in the banks of Silver creek (in Clark county) aim impregnates a great many springs in that quarter. Lime is plentiful at least along the eastern border of the state; but towards the Wabash clay-slate and micaccous sand-stone form the basis sis of the country.

Near New Lexington (in Jefferson county) there is an excellent salt making establishment, and there are salt springs in the Indian lands to the north of the New Purchase. The west end of the state is chiefly supplied with this article from the U. States' works near Shawnaetown in Illinois state. Below the forks of White river there is a coal mine, and there are many indications of valuable minerals in that district.


Counties Population of 1815. Towns
Wayne 6,290 Salisbury, Centreville
Franklin 7,970 Brookville, Harrison
Dearborn 4,426 Lawrenceburgh, Wilmington, Parnassus, Rising-Sun, Hartford
Switzerland 3,500 Vevay
Jefferson 4,093 New-Lexington, Madison, New London
Clark 7,000 Charleston, Jeffersonville, New Albany, Clarksville
Harrison 6,769 CORYDON
Crawford   Fredonia
Perry 3,000 Rome, Troy
Spencer   Rockport
Warrick 3,000 Darlington
Vanderburgh   Evansville
Posey 3,000 Mount Vernon, Harmony, Springfield, Blackford
Gibson 5,330 Princeton
Orange   Paoli, Orleans
Washington 6,606 Salem, Fredricksburgh
Jennings   Vernon
Jackson   Brownstown
Lawrence   —————— Bono
Daviess   Liverpool
Knox 6,800 Vincennes

Vincennes, though no longer the seat of government, may yet claim precedent among the towns. In 1817 it contained about 100 houses, built in the outer style of architecture which is common in French and German villages — that is roofs acute, and walls composed of frame work filled in with mud. There


are a few good brick buildings of modern date and style. There is a literary institution: the direction of Prebysterian clergyman of the name of Scott, and a monied one called the "Back of Vincennes." A newspaper called the "Western Sun," is edited by Mr. E. Stout. Appendant to the town there is a common field which contains about 5000 acres: beside, this almost every house m town has a picketed garden attached to it. General Harrison is one of the principal proprietors of the place.

The inhabitants were originally French who emigrated hither from Lower Canada about a century ago.

Corydon, in Harrison county, is at present the seat of government It is about ten miles from the Ohio river; a circumstance which will prevent it from being made permanent capital of the state. It was commenced in 1809, and has risen rapidly into consequence, particularly during the last three years. In it the "Indiana Gazette" is published.

Jeffersonville. in Clark county, is situated on the shore of the Ohio, nearly opposite Louisville (at Falls of the Ohio) It is the largest town in the state, and from the advantages of its situation will probably continue to be so.

Charleston is the seat of justice for Clark country. It is situation about three miles from the Ohio and fourteen from the falls. It is likewise a town of great promise and recent establishment. In the same country are the towns of Clarkville immediately below the fells, and New Albany a short distance below it. The former was founded in 1793, and made little progress: the latter is new but not very thriving.

Brookville. of Franklin county, is a very flourishing town. It was commenced in 1812 through it had been surveyed the preceeding year. In 1817 it contained 80 buildings exclusively of stables, shops, &c. It is agreeably situation at the confluence of the north and south branches of the White Water (about 30 miles from the Ohio). It made little progress until the conclusion of the late war but since that period it had exhibited an extraordinary degree of prosperity. The newspaper called the "Plain Dealer," edited by B.F. Morris, Esq. is published here.

Harrison in Franklin county, is stationed on the north shore of Whitewater, about 8 miles from its mouth on. The west end of the village is in Indiana and the east end in Ohio state. It is extending rapidly as the lands around are eminently fertile.

Harmony in Gibson county, is one of the most extraordinary towns in the state. It is inhabited altogether by Germans from Swabia, who emigrated to America from the year 1802. They


first established themselves in Butler county, in Pennsylvania, about 26 miles to the north of Pittsburgh, at a little town called Zelienople, beside the Conoquenessing creek. They had some dispute with Mr. Basse the proprietor of the town, and growing discontented abandoned their dwellings. Having traveled a whole day they fixed upon the scite of a new town in the evening. Instead of 20 miles (as they judged) it was not half a mile from their late residence. Before they discovered their error they had built a number of cabins and called their town Harmony. They afterwards purchased the place which they had thus chosen, enlarging their bounds from time to time until they had acquired about 9000 acres of beautiful land. To mitigate the hardships of their poverty they resolved to live in common, and to abstain from all conjugal intercourse with their wives; and finding pecuniary advantage in this abominable system of political economy, they have continued it to the present day although they are now rich. They chose a leader called George Rapp, who had assumed, or somehow possessed, a kind of priestly character; and who has kept them ever since in the vilest state of slavery by the power of a mysterious superstition. Rapp's only son had a child, lawfully, however, that is by his wife, and he was so persecuted for it by his father that he died of grief. Another person, now called Frederick Rapp, was then adopted as a son of the old priest; and this politic protege has ever since been prime manager of the establishment. This society encreased in wealth rapidly, and thereby became reconciled to evils that might seem intolerable. Sometimes, however, they were driven by acts of unusual harshness to the brink of dissolution, but the crafty Frederick always contrived to reconcile the majority. Some of them attempted to sue for the money they had deposited into the common fund, but, after some fruitless efforts, finding that no suits were entered for them, they concluded that no lawyers could, be found in this country, proof against the cash of the Harmony treasury, of which Rapp held the possession; and they returned hopeless to their servitude. A few occasionally deserted and abandoned all claim against the society. In one instance the number of deserters amounted to 30 or 40, and they were chiefly tradesmen. Old Rapp became alarmed at this, and determined to remove to the country which seemed to be seducing all his subjects away. Accordingly, in 1815, he sold all his land, with the appurtenances, and carried his people, and the rest, of the moveable property, to the Wabash. Here he carries on the manufacture of woolens, cottons, linens, &c in the same manner as he had done upon the Conoquenessing.

A similar, colony — a branch of the society of Shakers has been established on the, Wabash, 15 miles to the northward of Vincenne. They are the dupes of an unnatural superstition somewhat similar. They practise the same system of abstinence from all sexual intercourse; live in common, and submit to the unlimited control of a master. Their prosperity


likewise affords a wonderful example of the advantageous results of united efforts. But, as Mr. Birkbeck observes, people do not care to imitate those they despise.

Vevay in Switzerland county was surveyed in 1813, and commenced in 1814. In 1817 it contained 80 dwelling houses besides several public buildings. It is finely situated upon the upper bank, or "second bottom" of the Ohio river, and presents a view of that noble stream for about eight miles. It is said to be very healthy; and the land around though uneven, is very productive. The "Indiana Register" is published here.

New Lexington, of Jefferson county, is celebrated as the scite of a fictitious bank, called. "The Lexington Indiana Manufacturing Company," an institution which has somewhat exceeded the generality of banks in the business of swindling. The seat of justice for this county is in Madison which lies about 20 miles west of Vevay.

New Switzerland, — This settlement was commenced in 1805 by a few emigrants from the Pays de Vaud in Switzerland, It is situated on the shore of the Ohio at the mouth of the Venoge creek; and immediately below the town of Vevay. Three thousand seven hundred acres of land were purchased of the United States, by J. J. Dufour and his associates, at a credit of twelve years upon condition of introducing there the cultivation of the vine. More land has since been purchased, adjacent to the first, and, besides a very considerable increase of members by gradual emigration, a great accession was made by the importation of a whole colony in 1816, conducted thither by Mr. Dufour. In 1810 they had eight acres of vineyard, and produced the same year 2400 gallons of wine. The vineyards have been since greatly extended, but we have no account of the product. They likewise raise grain and other vegetables; and manufacture a variety of articles, particularly straw bonnets and hats of peculiar construction. Their language is pure French. In every respect they are a highly interesting society.

Salisbury is the county seat of Wayne, but will probably be supplanted in that honbur by a new village called Centerville.

Princeton is the county seat of Gibson county. It lies about 135 miles south of Vincennes, 2 miles from the Petoka, and 10 from the Wabash. Mr. Birkbeck, in 1317 observes, "One year ago the neighbourhood of this very town of Princeton was clad in ‘buckskin,’ now the men appear at church in good blue cloth, and the women in fine, calicoes and straw bonnets" — a very good proof of their prosperity; for though trade may be kept up and even extended on mere credit it must commence upon actual resources.


Lawrenceburgh is situated upon the Ohio shore two miles below the mouth of Big Miami. It is unprosperous on account of its being frequently overflown by the rivers an it will probably be outrivalled by a new town called Endinburgh, on an elevated scite half a mile from Ohio.

Rising Sun is in same county (Dearborn) between the latter and Vevay. It is built on a high second bottom, and bids fair to be of consequence.

In the south western comer of the state several new towns have risen suddenly into notice, These are Darlington near the mouth of kittle Pigeon creek; Evansville at the mouth of Great Pigeon creek; Mount Vernon, on the Ohio, directly south of Harmony; Springfield on Big Creek, north of Mount Vernon, and Blackford about six miles from the Ohio, to the eastward of Springfield.

Condition of the inhabitants. This is so rapidly progressive that it is difficult to mark its characteristics. Those who have resided there for some years are emerging from the condition of hunters or else from that of Indian traders; but even when society was at its lowest stage they had in that region of plenty a large portion of rude satisfaction which they regarded as comfort.

Constitution. The executive power is vested in a Governor and Lieutenant governor, who are elected every three years. The same persons may be reelected, to the same offices once. The governor's salary is 1000 dollars per annum — the lieutenant governor's is 2 dollars per day during the session of the legislature.

The legislature consists of a senate and house of representatives. The members of the latter are elected annually. They must be free, white, male citizens, and at least 21 years of age. The senators are elected for the term of three years. In addition to the above qualifications they must be at least 25 years of age. The legislative sessions commence every year on the first Monday of December.

The judicial power is vested in a supreme court — in circuit courts, and injustices of the peace. The supreme court is held by three judges who are appointed by the governor and senate for the term of seven years. They have appellate jurisdiction: — they hold their sessions at the seat of government — and each on receives a salary not exceeding 500 dollars per annum.

A circuit court is held in each county by a president judge and two associates. The president judges are elected for elected for seven years by a joint ballot of the legislature. Two associate judges are elected in each county by a general ballot, for the term of seven years. The sheriffs are elected every three years by a general ballot. Clerks of the courts and justices of the peace are the elected in the same manner and for the term of seven years.

Slavery is excluded from this state.


State of Illinois.




The State of Illinois is 374 miles in length and 150 of average breadth. It is between 37° and 42 - 30 of N. latitude, containing about 52,000 square miles or 33,280,000 acres.

On the north it is separated from the North Western Territory by the line of lat. 42° 30' — on the west side it is separated from the Naudowesse country, and from Missouri state by the Mississippi river — on the south it is separated from Kentucky by the Ohio river — on the east it is separated from Indiana by a line running up, the middle of the Wabash 40 miles above Vincennes; (or 16 below fort Harrison) and thence running directly north to lat. 41° 50' — thence along that parallel of latitude to the middle of lake Michigan, and thence north to lat, 42° 30'.

RIVERS. The rivers are those already mentioned as constituting its boundaries and their tributary streams. Those which flow, into He Mississippi within this state are:

1. Rock river which is 300 yards wide. It rises near lake Michigan.

2. Sand Bay river.

3. Illinois river which debouches in N. latitude 39ş 10' — 1 miles above the mouth of the Missouri and 200 above the mouth of the Ohio. It affords a most important route for navigation as its channel is unobstructed and its current very moderate. It traverses the state for above 400 miles in a south westerly direction, its total length being 500. At its mouth it is 400 yards wide. It arises in Indiana from the confluence of the Plein and Kenkaki rivers (in it, lat. 41 - 48) first low lake Depage (an expansion of the Plein.) The rivers which enter the Illinois to the north side are:

1. Fox river rises near the sources of Rocky, and after running towards lake Michigan about 50 miles and approaches within two-miles of Plien, river and theft turning southward enters the Illinois to the past of Illinois lake. It is navigable 130 miles.

2. La Marche.

3. Seseme-Quain is navigable about 60 miles.


4. Demi-Quain debouches 30 miles below the latter. It is navigable 120 miles.

5. Sagamond river debouches 28 miles below the latter, (130 miles from the Mississippi.) It is 100 yards wide at its mouth and is navigable 150 miles.

6. The Mine river debouches 75 miles from the Mississippi. The streams which flow into the Illinois on the south side are:

1. Rainy Island river or rather creek.

2. Vermillion river which is too much obstructed for navigation.

3. Crow Meadow river, the source of which is near the Knobs at the head of Vermillion of the Wabash.

4. Little Michiiimackinac which is navigable for 90 miles and debouches 200 miles from the Mississippi.

5. Macopin river, or creek, which is 20 miles from the Mississippi.

Wood river enters the Mississippi opposite to the mouth of the Missouri.

Cahokia enters the Mississippi 40 miles below the Illinois; that is 12 below the Missouri.

Kaskaskia enters the Mississippi 110 miles below the Illinois (103 above the Ohio.) It is navigable 130 miles. It receives, on the west, Shoal creek, Sugar creek, Silver creek and Richland creek: on the east Crooked creek, Elkhorn and Plumb creeks.

Four miles below the Kaskaskia is Marys river.

Au Vase river debouches 70 miles above the mouth of the Ohio and is navigable 60 miles. Its main branches, on the north side, are Little Muddy and Beaucoup Creek. The rivers which water the eastern section of the state are the Great and. Little Wabash and their tributaries.

The Great Wabash is connected with this state, as a boundary, about 240 miles. On the west side (within Illinois) it receives, from fort Harrison to Vincennes, the Tortue, St. Germain and Moscantin rivers — from Vincennes to the Ohio, the Embarrass, the Bon-Pas and the Little Wabash: the latter of; which is, at its mouth, 60 yards wide. The rivers which flow into the Ohio (within Illinois) are:

The Saline (Smiles below Shawnee town.) It is 150 yards wide at its mouth and is navigable 30 miles. Upon this are salt works belonging to the United States. Its two main branches are called North Pork and West Fork.

Cash river debouches 6 miles from the Mississippi.


Mississippi 620 miles
Ohio 123
Wabash 240
tributaries 500
Illinois 320
tributaries 750
Kaskaskia and branches 300
Au Vase, Maria, Cash, and the other small rivers 200

LAKES. The Illinois river expands (about 200 miles from its mouth) into a lake called Illinois or Peoria lake. A similar one called Depage is in the Plein river. Many of the streams in this state have their sources in small lakes. Demiquain lake is near the Illinois river just above the mouth of Demiquain river. Marrodizua lake, in the Great American Bottom 12 miles below the mouth of Wood river, is 5 miles long and flows by a small outlet into the Mississippi. Eight miles above the Au Vase there is a lake 6 miles long. Bonds lake is about 24 miles below St. Louis.

The Illinois river, 40 miles above its mouth, receives on its east side an outlet from a long chain of small lakes.

ISLANDS. The islands which belong to Illinois are principally in the Mississippi river and have not yet been designated. That portion of the Ohio bordering on this state contains 15 islands — and in the Mississippi from the mouth of the Ohio to the mouth of the Illinois there are 68. Between that and the north boundary line of the state the islands are very numerous according to Lieut. Pike, but the actual number is not mentioned.

FACE OF THE COUNTRY. There are no mountains in Illinois, but there are several large districts of hilly land, particularly in the northern part of the state along the Illinois river and at the sources of the streams which flow into the Wabash, with occasional portions along the whole western border approaching generally close to the Mississippi river. Some of the southern border, along the Ohio, is likewise much broken. But the interior is, in general level, consisting of grand, prairies interspersed with groves of very good timber. No part of it presents a desert character like the upper Missouri country. The prairies are generally fertile, beautiful and gently undulating. Where they are quite level they are marshy; particularly those that that lie near the sources of streams, but which the greater part of them are dry.

Beginning at the north west angle of the state and passing southward along the Mississippi we find a gradual but great improvement in the qualities of the soil. About the mouth of


Rock river the greater part is prairie land which sometimes approaches to within sight of the Mississippi. At intervals we see barren hills covered with cedar and pine. Between these ranges there is found different kinds of bottom. Some new alluvion where the trees are sycamore, black willow, American linn, water maple, swamp oak, cottonwood, water-ash, water-elm, &c The soil producing these is generally second rate, and such situations are always unhealthy. The next bind of bottom has black walnut, honey locust, peccan, and other kinds of hickory, buckeye, papaw, &c. This is the best possible soil for this climate and is rarely unhealthy. Alternate portions of the above sorts are seen until we arrive at the mouth of the Illinois; and proceeding up that river we find the country nearly similar. Between those two rivers and at a considerable distance from both are found districts of "rolling land," that is moderately hilly, and chiefly wooded with different kinds of oak together with hickory, beech, ash, &c. or such as is commonly called small grain land. It is between the Mississippi and Illinois, immediately above their confluence, that the United States have appropriated 3,500,000 acres of bounty land for the soldiers who served in the late war against Great Britain.

Below the mouth of the Illinois commences the "Great American Bottom:" it extends a hundred miles-nearly to Kaskaskia, containing about 600 square miles of land equal, it is said, to any in the western country. It also contains lakes, as has been observed, upon whose snores there are views inconceivably delightful. The country adjoining this bottom is elevated rolling land very valuable and well suited for agriculture.

The bottom terminates at each end with a country of a very different character; less valuable but not less agreeable to the eve of a tasteful traveller. On the shores of the Kaskaskia and Illinois we meet hills broken, rocky and precipitous; and combined in the same view with them are the deep swails, the wide savannahs with their clumps and groves, the lake and river scenery, all the varieties and contrasts that constitute the picturesque.

From Kaskaskia to the mouth of the Ohio the country is chiefly barren and often dreary, hilly in some parts but generally flat and wet. At the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi the shorts are marshy and uninhabitable. The point of land between those two rivers, is 20 feet above the usual height of the water, but in times of floods it is inundated several feet. Every year there is somewhat added to its height by slime and sand deposited during the inundations.

The shores of the Ohio below the Wabash are generally flat and wet; intersected occasionally with lines of sterile hills. The country along the Wabash is much better. With the exceptions of wet bottoms it is in many parts excellent: chiefly "rolling land" covered with trees of great magnitude. The shores of the creeks and rivers in that quarter are marshy and liable to be inundated. The country at a distance from the


great streams is in many places destitute of timber but mostly fertile. The trees however are unlike those far westward and northward in the Missouri country, for here, wherever they appear, they are large, and of good kinds. Mr. Birkbeck whose settlement is between the Great and Little Wabash says the land in his neighbourhood is equal or superior to any in Ohio or Indiana: "It is a fine black mould inclining to sand, and is from one to four feet deep." The country westward of his establishment, along the Little Wabash, and particularly that on the "Skillet Fork" he calls dreadful. It is generally either prairie or heavy woodland rendered almost impervious by the wild exuberance of undergrowth and by marshy flats along the stagnating streams.

The interior of the state consists chiefly of prairie, the north end of the state is little known, and as yet belongs to the Indians.

The large Prairies of Illinois are remarkable for sink holes, as they are called. They are excavations sometimes 120 feet wide, in the shape of an inverted cone — and at the bottom of each one there is a spring of pure water.

CLIMATE. In the respect Illinois cannot differ much from, the settled parts of Missouri state. The actual difference seems to be rather in favour of Missouri. The dry, elevated districts of Illinois, we have every reason to regard as perfectly healthy, and the superior at average fertility of its soil, together with the advantages of its situation, must, for a long time, render it a place of great attraction to emigrants.

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS. Lead and copper have been found in several parts of the state. Upon Mine river there is said to be a mil of allum. Coal is found on Au Vase river and upon the Illinois above Peoria lake. Below the coal mine of Au Vase there are two ponds of yellowish, stagnant water, from which the Indians and French of that country used to make excellent salt. On the Saline river (below the Wabash) at the U. States' saline is made the chief part of the salt required at present for the supply of Illinois and Indiana. Lime is the basis as of the greater part of the hills, and white clay is found on the Tortue and Illinois rivers.

"Sand predominates in the soil of the south-eastern quarter of Illinois. The basis of the country is sand-stone, lying, I believe, on clay slate. The bed of the Ohio at Shawneetown is sand-stone: forty miles north-east, near Harmony, is a quarry of the same stone on the banks of Big Wabash. The shoals of the Little Wabash, and of the Skillet-fork, twenty, forty and sixty miles up, are of the same formation. No limestone has I yet been discovered in the district. I have heard of goal in several places, but have not seen a specimen of it. Little, however, is known of the surface of many parts of the country; and the wells, though numerous, rarely reach the depth of thirty


feet, below which, I presume, it had no instance been explored." [Birkbeck's Notes] The same writer afterwards observes in his Letters that there is excellent limestone in that quarter.

The peccan or Illinois nut is abundant, and has constituted an article of export for many years. It is a species of hickory which is not plentiful in any other part of the United States; and from it this state derived its name — (Isle of nuts).

Grapes grow wild in great quantities; and the French have continued to make wine of them ever since they occupied this part of the country.

Upon the head waters of the Illinois there are numerous lakes of wild rice the sesort of wild geese and ducks.

The hunters find plenty of deer, bears, wolves, foxes and, above all, turkies, but buffaloes, once the supreme occupants of the Illinois prairies, are seen there no more, having receded from the settlements of white men.

NATURAL CURIOSITIES. On the Ohio shore, 13 miles below Saline river, there is a cave 20 feet above the common height of the river. The mouth of it is semicircular passing through the perpendicular face of a rock 30 feet in height. A few yards from the entrance is a room 60 yards long and nearly the same in width. Near the centre of the roof there is an aperture room like a Gothic cathedral, with the vault of immense depth at the end of it — But Ash is already celebrated for falsehood and villany. The cave was the refuge to Mason's famous gang of robbers in 1797.

Battery Rocks are a great range of perpendicular rocks upon the Ohio shore 8 miles above the "Cave in the Rock."

The Devil's Oven is a rock resembling an oven, projecting into the Mississippi from a precipitous bluff, 15 miles below the mouth of the river Au Vase.


Counties. Population of 1810. Towns.
Randolph 7,275 Kaskaskia, Prairie-de-Roche:
St. Clair 5,007 Cahokia, Bellville.
Madison   Edwardsville, Alton.
Bond Monroe   Ripley, Perryville. Independence, Pope.
Monroe   Harrisonville, St. Philipe.
Washington   Covington.
Jackson   Brownsville.
Union   Jonesburgh.
Alexander   America, Cairo.

The whole population of the state in 1818 was 40,156.

TOWNS. Kaskaskia is situated on the west side of the Kaskaskia river, eight miles from its mouth, but only four from the nearest part of the Mississippi. It is 150 miles south-west from Vincennes, and 900 from Washington city. It was first established by French emigrants from Lower Canada about 100 years ago; and their descendants still constitute a fair proportion of its population. In 1817 the houses, many of which are stone, were 160 in number, scattered over a wide plain. They have acute roofs, and the odd, clumsy general appearance which distinguishes the French and German villages. In the rear of the houses are a large picketed gardens, from which the chief part of the vegetable food of the inhabitants is produced. They likewise keep great numbers of cattle, swine, poultry, &c. This town contains the land-office of its district; and a printing office where the "Illinois Herald" is published. The neighboring country is well cultivated.

Prairie du Roche in the Great Bottom 11 miles north of kaskaskia, contains sixty or seventy families, chiefly French, and


they have a Roman Catholic chapel. The land around it is beautiful and of the richest kind of prairie. Near this village, on the south side, is situated the monastery of La Trappe, so much celebrated in the annals of superstition. Its monks are devoted to perpetual silence, and have no employment, except that of digging their own graves. This austere institution was founded at Perche in France, in the year 1640, by Rotrou of Perche, and was modified into the extreme of its severity in 1664 by the once gay, but love lorn Abbe Rance. From France it was long afterwards removed to the wilds of Illinois.

Four miles to the northward of Prairie du Roche are the venerable and romantic ruins of fort Chartres which was built by the French at the expense of 100,000 dollars.

St. Philipe is an agreeable village about 10 miles to the north of Prairie du Roche.

Cahokia is situated one mile from the Mississippi on Cahokia river, and five from St. Louis. It has 160 houses which are occupied chiefly by French. Formerly it carried on a considerable trade in furs, but at present it is rather on the decline — as many of its inhabitants have removed to better situations. It is said to be unhealthy: for, although built on elevated ground, it is fiat and wet. It contains a Roman Catholic chapel, a court house use, &c.

Eight miles from the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi, above the marshes, a town has been laid out, which, in the true American style of nomenclature, has been called the "city of America."

Wilkinsonville stands on the shore of the Ohio, about 25 miles from its mouth. Formerly a garrison was kept here, and since its removal the village has somewhat declined. It is almost surrounded by a small, beautiful prairie. It has a fine harbour for vessels by an eddy in the Ohio.

Fort Massac is about 25 miles higher upon the river. It was built by the French and occupied by them until about the year 1750. After the Revolutionary war it was used as a military post by the United States for several years; but has been suffered to fall into ruin.

Shawneetown on the Ohio shore 9 miles below the mouth of the Wabash. At this place is the land office for the district, including the south eastern angle of the state. Its scite is low and liable to be overflown. "Once a year" says Mr. Birkbeck, "for a series of successive springs the river has carried away their fences from the cleared lands, till at length these they have surrendered and ceased to cultivate. Once a year the inhabitants either make their escape to the higher lands or take


refuge in the upper stories until the waters subside, when they recover their position on this desolate sand bank."

Edwardsville is a new town 20 miles north east of St. Louis. It is at present the seat of government for the state.

Vandalia has been designated as the seat of government. It is situated on the Kaskaskia river, 60 miles east from the mouth of the Missouri.

"The city of Mount Carmel" is situated on the west side of the Wabash, opposite the mouths of White river and Patoka. It was commenced in 1819 by a company of Episcopal methodists.

Albion is in "the British settlements, between Great and Little Wabash, about 12 miles from the former and 6 from the latter." It was commenced in 1819 by Mr. Flower, and during that year 30 houses were built in it. Messrs. Richard and George Flower, had, in the fall of 1819, between 3 and 400 cattle and 500 sheep.

The scite of Mr. Birkbeck's settlement has been already noticed. Descriptions of it have been given in his "Notes on a Journey in America" and "Letters from Illinois;" and as these highly interesting works have been very extensively circulated, it can hardly be necessary to make extracts from them. Since the publication of them many people have busied themselves in; representing the English prairie as unhealthy, and the condition of its settlers as deplorable in every respect.

Those false reports occasioned Mr. Birkbeck to address to Mr. Bakewell of Pittsburgh a letter, dated Dec. 14, 1818, in which he observes: "We now number about 300, where 18 months ago there were two families. We have good health, and good-spirits; good water; good land, and good provisions. We have probably suffered less by sickness than any settlement under similar circumstances, certainly less than any settlement under my observation, and this we may fairly attribute to the superior salubrity of the situation. My own family has enjoyed extraordinary health, and I have not been confined the house by sickness of any kind since I entered the territory. We have only had three fetal cases, and those were of persons who came to us labouring under disease, either constitutional or occasioned by the journey, and who died soon after their arrival."

Indians. The northern part of Illinois is yet owned and occupied by Indian tribes. Part of the country upon the border of Sand Bay and Rock rivers is claimed by a portion of the Sauk nation who reside there in three villages. The United States placed an agricultural establishment there (4 miles


below Rock river) under the superintendance of a certain Mr. Ewing, for the purpose of teaching the savages to become farmers; but they treated it contempt, and it was at last abandoned. Between the Kaskaskia and Illinois rivers there are remnants of the Kaskaskia, Illinois, Cahokia and Peoria tribes. Some of them killed the Sauk chief Pontiac, and in consequence of that act the Sauk nation made war with them and nearly exterminated the whole of them. At present they count only 250 warriors. The Piankashaws and Mascontins reside on the Tortue and Rejoicing rivers (branches of the Wabash) and some of the Delaware and Shawneose nations have their summer hunting ground on the Au Vase, four miles below the mouth of which their lodgers are situated.

By a treaty concluded at Edwardsville on the 31st of July 1819, the Kickapoos ceded to the United States all their land south-west of the Wabash. The boundary of the ceded tract commences at the north angle of the cession of 1809 — running from that eastwardly to the line which divides Illinois from Indiana — thence along that line north to the Kenkakee river — then down that river to the Illinois river, and then down it to the Mississippi — thence to the Vincennes tract — thence along it western and north-western limits to the place of beginning The trace thus ceded contains between 13 and 14,000,000 of acres. In addition to the Osage lands the Kickapoos are to receive 2000 dollars per annum for 15 years.

Improvements, &c. There is a good road through the American Bottom from Kaskaskia to Cahokia. Emigrants pass to Kaskaskia either by the rivers, or by the road from Vincennes or by that below Shawnaetown, or by that past Lusk's ferry, 16 miles above Cumberland river. The United States have leased lands along these routes, requiring of the tenants, as rent, to keep the roads in good condition. Still however travelling is disagreeable in this country, for in many places the travellers are obliged to "camp out;" but so great has been the influx of sojourners hither, that this inconvenience may have ceased to exist before this book can pass through the press.

CONSTITUTION. The governor is elected every 4 years, and until the year 1824 his salary is to be $1000 per annum. There is also a lieutenant governor, elected every 4 years — to administer the government when the governor happens to be absent, or when the governor's office is vacant; at other times (during the session of the legislature) he is to be speaker of the senate.

The supreme court is to consist of 4 judges elected by a joint ballot of the two branches of the legislature. The judges are to retain their offices during good behaviour — until the year 1824, at which time new appointments are to be made, daring good behaviour and for life. These judges form a council with the governor, and have an equal voice with him in the approval of all new laws. Their salary is 1000 dollars per annum.


The legislature is to consist of a senate and house of representatives. The senators to be elected every 4 years. It is necessary that they be at least 25 years of age and have resided within the state at least one year. The members of the representative house are to be elected every two years — They must be at least 21 years of age.

Sheriffs are coroners are to be elected every two years.

The qualifications of votes are, 1st to be at least 21 years of age, and 2nd to have resided at least six months within the state.

The introduction of slaves into the state will be tolerated only within the "lick reserve" and there only until the year 1825. The original French settlers are suffered to retain their slaves; and the legal indentures of negroes introduced before the adoption of the constitution are valid, but the offspring of them shall be free — males at the age of 21 and females at the age of 18. No contract that may be entered into hereafter between a negro and a white person shall be valid for a longer period than one year.

The first session of the General Assembly was held on the first Monday in October 1818, and hereafter their sittings are to commence on the first Monday in December every year.

STATE BANK. The legislature of Illinois in 1819 authorized the establishment of a new bank with a capital of $4,000,000; of which $2,000,000 are to be taken on behalf the state. It is to go into operation as soon as $15,000 are paid in; and shall not issue notes beyond the amount of $8,000,000. Whether we call this madness or swindling, we presume it has no modern parallel.


State of Missouri.




On the south it is separated from the Arkansaw territory by the parallel of 36° of north latitude; beginning at the Mississippi river and extending west to the St. Francis river; thence by a line running up the middle of the main channel of that river to the latitude of 36° 30; thence, west, along that line of latitude to a point where it is intersected by a meridian line passing through the middle of the mouth of Kanzas or Kanzaw river. On the west it is separated, from the Kanzaw country by the same meridian line, extending north to the parallel of latitude that passes through the rapids of the river Des Moines; making this line correspond with the Indian boundary line: On the north it is separated from the Naudoessee country by the said parallel of latitude, extending east to the middle, of the channel at the main fork of the river Des Moines; thence, down the middle of the main channel of Des Moines, to where it enters the Mississippi river: On the east it is separated from Illinois, Kentucky and Tennessee states by a line passing down, the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi to the place of beginning.

RIVERS. The Missouri passes through the middle of this state, from west to east, and enters the Mississippi in lat. 38° 50'. As its entire length is above 3000 miles, and as the portion of it included in this state is only about 300, the general description of it is reserved to be given in the sketch of the Kansaw, Upper Missouri and Naudoessee Countries.

The rivers which enter the Missouri on the left (north side) within this state are 1 Little Platte, 2 Tyger river, 3 Grand Chariton, 5 Goodwomans river, 6 Little Manitou, 7 Great Manitou, 8 Cedar river, 9 May river, 10 Otter river, 11 Cherette, 12 Feme-Osage river. The three latter are below the mouth of the Osage. None of them large.

On the south side of the Missouri below the Kanzas are Blue river, and Mine river. The Salt Fork of the latter stream is generally, during the summer months, as strongly impregnated with salt as sea water is. It receives a creek about 20 feet wide which, it is said, never varies as to the volume of water it supplies; and it is formed entirely by salt springs.


5 Little Saltwater river, which likewise abounds with salines.

4 Osage (Wasash) enters the Missouri 133 miles from its mouth in lat. 38° 22'. It is said to be navigable 600 miles, but it contains an unusually great number of shoals and sand bars. Its main sources are in the Black mountains which divide its waters from those of the Arkansaw. Its chief branches on the south side are the Grand Fork, Buckeye river, Cardinal river, Park river, and Yungar or Nehemgar, so called on account of the great number of springs from which it rises. It is said to be navigable for canoes 100 miles. It enters the Osage about 140 miles from the Missouri. Twenty-five miles further down the Great Gravel river enters, likewise on the south side.

The northern branches of the Osage are Vermillion, East Fork, and Grand rivers.

5 & 6 Gasconade enters the Missouri about 120 miles from the Mississippi, and the Bonhomme about 70.

The rivers that enter the Mississippi on the west side, between the Des Moines and Missouri, are 1 the Wyaconda, 2 the Jaustioni, 3 Wahahah or Salt river which has salines 30 or 40 miles from its mouth; 4 Burr river; 5 Buffaloe river.

"The Merrimack" says Mr. Schoolcraft, is the only considerable stream which enters the Mississippi on the west, from the mouth of the Missouri to the mouth of St. Francis, a distance of nearly 600 miles. It is 100 miles in length and joins the Mississippi 18 miles below St. Louis where it is only 100 yards in width. Its depth is not being navigable only 50 miles with common sized boats expect in the spring and fall when its principal tributaries may be ascended. It waters the country of the lead mines and affords some facilities for the transportation of lead to the Mississippi, which do not appear to be known or appreciated, and have not been improved A branch of one of tributaries, the Negro Fork, nearly encircles Mine a Burton. Its two main branches are the Fourche a Curtois and Osage Fork rivers which rise near the heads of the St. Francis.

The following stream Debouche between the Merrimack and the mouth of the Ohio; to wit, 1 Platine, 2 Gabourie, and 3 Saline creeks. 4 St. Lera. 5 Amite. 6 Obrazo, and 7 La Pomme risers, and 8 Tyawatia creek. St. Lora is the largest of them and is remarked as beautiful stream.

Chepousa river is about 70 miles in length and has Its source in a lake. It enters the Mississippi 90 miles below the mouth of the Ohio.

A considerable portion of the St. Francis river and several of the head branches of the White river waiter the southern parts of this state.

FACE OF THE COUNTRY. The part of this state, watered by the lower Missouri and its tributaries is generally fertile and


dry, with woodland sometimes level and sometimes hilly; prairies chiefly level or slightly undulating; and with no marshes, ponds or lakes worthy of notice.

There are no mountains within several hundred miles of the Mississippi on the west side.

The Missouri bottoms are not greatly varied in quality from the Mississippi to the Kanzaw. They are generally rich and dry, covered luxuriantly with large timber, of which cotton-wood is the most common kind Besides this are the sugar tree, pecan, black walnut, sycamore, locust, hickory, the usual varieties of oak, elm, ash, &c. with close undergrowth of vines and shrubbery. The cane is found in many parts but does not occupy any extensive districts. The bottoms of the Missouri and its tributaries are generally of much greater proportional breadth than those of the Ohio.

The uplands north of the Missouri are rather more level than those on the south side, and have less timber but in general greater fertility. So far as the country between the Mississippi and Missouri is known, it consists chiefly of rich level prairie with woodland borders of various breadth, sometimes several miles wide along the streams. Where there are hills they are mostly of very gentle inclination; seldom rising into the boldness or variety of what is called "rolling land."

On the south side of the Missouri the district between the Kanzaw and Osage called the "Boone's Lick country" (Howard county,) is very fertile and beautiful. It is somewhat hilly but not rugged. From the central parts, prairies of unknown limits extend southward and spread into dreary sublimity towards the borders of the Arkansas territory. All the prairies here (unlike the smooth grassy lawn prairies of the Upper Missouri) are covered with tall coarse tall grasses, and a superb variety of wild flowers, being the most agreeable and valuable portions of the country, so far as they are intermingled woodland. The bottoms of the Osage are rich and extensive, particularly on the north side, though generally, the woodland here is of leas breadth than it is along the Missouri. Gen. Pike says "the country round the Osage villages is one of the most beautiful the eye ever beheld." The greater part consists of prairie, but the numerous groves present a heavy growth of large trees, chiefly of the valuable kind. The land is seldom either level or hilly, but mostly sloping and agreeably varied.

Passing the Osage to the Mississippi across the Gasconade and Bonhomme rivers the country differs little from that already, noticed, except that in some parts it is more hilly and better supplied with springs.

A tract of elevated and uneven extends southward from the mouth of the Missouri along the west shore of the Mississippi, leaving narrow bottoms interrupted with bluff limestone banks. It terminates twelve miles below Cape Girardeau; and from that to the gulf of Mexico the high land no where approaches


the Mississippi on that side. Below the mouth of the Ohio the bottoms on the west shore of the Mississippi become of indeterminate width, being rich and low, interspersed with la goons, ponds, marshes and bayous, and extending with little change westward to the river St. Francis.

The country along the head waters of the White river and St. Francis is chiefly hilly and sterile; consisting of prairies alternating with tracts of woodland, sometimes of pine and sometimes scrubby oak, with a poor soil, consisting of clay intermingled with fragments of hornstone, quartz, jaspery flint and limestone. The bottoms of the streams are generally rich and well timbered, but they are in many places walled in by sublime precipices of limestone rock which constitutes the chief basis of this district.

The tributaries of White river present an immense number of salt petre caves, — some of them very extensive and branched into avenues or rooms like the caves of Kentucky. The cane region terminates upon the head of this river and is in some places intersected with marshy flats.

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS. Missouri is celebrated for its minerals. Of these the lead is at present considered the most valuable, and is found in abundance sufficient for the supply of the whole world. The great lead district is about 50 miles in length and 25 in breadth, extending across the head waters of the rivers Merrimack and Gouberie. The principal mines now worked are Mine a Burton, Mine la Motte, The New Diggings, American Mine, &c. I have seen specimens of carbonate of lead from those mines, but I suppose the common ore of it is Galena, (the sulphuret of lead.) It is rich, producing often 80 and 90 pounds of metal from 100 of ore. It is found not only in every part of this lead district but extends to the St. Francis and to Washita. It is in veins of every size under three feet in diameter, commencing from 3 to 12 feet beneath the surface of the earth. The utmost depth of the veins has never been ascertained, as the miners never penetrate far, but quit their diggings whenever the Water begins to incommode them, thought is said by some that the best ore could be procured from those abandoned mines, if regular shafts were sunk and machinery constructed for pumping out the water.

There is no complete furnace for smelting, except at Mine a Burton, as the miners generally, in order to reduce the ore, build it up in alternate layers with wood between two ride walls 5 or 6 feet high.

The product of those mines has been about a thousand tons annually.

Mineral coal has been found in great abundance in several places, and is believed to extend through all the country bordering the Missouri, at least within several hundred miles of its mouth. Near the shore, about 15 miles from the Mississippi,


there is a hill called La Charboniere which entirely a solid mass of coal.

The country between the Missouri and the Mississippi presents beds of clay very white and fine, but it qualities have not been examined. There is also a black hard clay which the Indians make cooking utensils. In several places there are found large masses of a soft compact red sort of stone which hardens by exposure to the air, and is cut into pipes and similar articles. It is probably, a variety of steatite or of pot stone.

Limestone extends through the whole state generally in the state of great thickness.

Iron ore is abundant, and is said to be an unusually good quality.

Zinc is found in masses in the lead mines, and in quantity more than sufficient for the supply of the United States.

Allum and copperas are frequently found here in extensive beds.

Salt springs are numerous and highly impregnated, particularly in the south end of the state.

[unknown] stone or a fossil suspected to be kaolin, is found in many places along the Missouri river.

Salt petre appears to be abundant in the numerous caves of the white river country as it is in Kentucky.

GEOLOGY. The state appears to be all of secondary formation. The chief basis is limestone, sometimes alternating with sand stone. In southern districts the limestone often appears without intermediate layers, rising stratum supper straum, to the height of several hundred feet. At once place it has been observed to rest upon a basis of ribband jasper. Flint and other quartzy stones are abundant in many parts. Clay slate does not seem to be common, but there are numerous beds of soap stone and other varieties of magnesian fossils. The metallic veins though not greatly varied are generally rich and extensive.

Mr. Schoolcraft states that the range of hills, which separate the tributaries of the Missouri from those of the White river and St. Francis presents primitive rock (crystalized limestone) but whether is detached masses, and as an unbroken formation is not mentioned

CLIMATE. A great portion of the country including the St. Francis, White River, Arkansaw, and heads of Washita, give rise annually to dissentry, argue, and billons complaints. The Mississippi flats south of New Madrid are considered extremely unhealthy. All the country which includes the Missouri and its tributaries is celebrated for healthiness. The air in it is remarkably dry and clear. The only complaints that frequent here are colds of that kind absurdly called influenza.


NATURAL CURIOSITIES. The numerous caves in the south end of this state will probably be found well worthy of examination. Most of them contain salt petre. The sides and ceilings of many are ornamented with stalactites and masses of stalagmites. A large creek flows out of the mouth of one of them. They are all calcareous.


COUNTIES. Census of 1818. Representatives. Fractional. TOWNS.
Howard 3386 6 386 Franklin.
St. Charles 2866 5 366 St. Charles, Belle Fontaine, Florissant.
St. Louis 4725 9 235 St. Louis, Carondelet, St. Ferdinand.
St. Genevieve 2205 4 205 St. Genevieve, Bourbon.
Washington 1245 2 245 Potosi.
Cape Girardeau 2303 5 93 Cape Girardeau.
New Madrid 669 1 169 New Madrid.
Lawrence. 1592 3 29  

Thus the territory (exclusive of Arkansaw) had 19,218 free white males in 1818.

Census of 1810.
St. Charles 3,505 New Madrid 3,103
St. Louis 5,657 St. Francis 188
St. Genevieve 4,260 District of Arkansaw 874
Cape Girardeau 3,103    
    Whole population 20,845

Divisions under the act of 1820.
COUNTIES Representatives towns. Rep.
Howard 5 Washington 3
Cooper 3 St. Genevieve 4
Pike 1 Madison 1
Lincoln 1 Cape Girardeau 5
St. Charles 3 New Madrid. 2
Franklin 1 Part of Lawrence Wayne 1
St Louis 8    
Jefferson 1    


The population of Howard county in 1819 was stated at 8000 — which is questionable.

TOWNS St. Louis is the largest town in Missouri, and though at the border of the state it is at present the seat of government. It is situated o the shore of the Mississippi upon a high plain composed of rock, 18 miles below the mouth of the Missouri, in N. lat. 33ş 39'. It was founded by the French in 1764 and intended as a depot for the Indian trade. It consists of three parallel streets which extend along the river nearly two miles. The houses are chiefly of stone — plastered or whitewashed on the outside. Many of them are large and handsome, and have fine gardens attached to them, which are enclosed by high stone walls. The population was estimated, three years ago; at 3000; and it still continues to increase rapidly.

When the United States first acquired possession of territory including this state, the inhabitants were chiefly French, and strongly characterized by peculiar habits, in which the suavity and gaiety of French manners was mingled with the indolence, liberty and equality of savage life. Of late years Americanism prevails in every town and tract of this country, through the overwhelming influence of the new settlers.

The neighbourhood of St. Louis is a beautiful prairie highly cultivated.

Franklin has risen in about two years to the habitation of above one thousand people, and will no doubt soon to be place of great trade and consequence. It has a respectable newspaper the press of which was the first Missouri. It is situated on Missouri shore — lat. 38ş 57' 9" long from Washington 15° 58' 6'.

St. Genevieve is situated upon a second bank of the Mississippi, 124 miles above the mouth of the Ohio and 55 below St. Louis. It was founded by the French in 1774. It is depot of the lead trade, being at the mouth of the Gouberie which flows through the great lead district. It hats an academy and above 300 houses. Adjacent to the town there is a rich bottom in which there is a field containing 700 acres, held in common and cultivated by all the citizens.

New Madrid is situated on the Mississippi shore about 70 miles below the mouth of the Ohio. It was founded in 1787, and was at first a place of great promise and some celebrity. Its scite has a grand and imposing effect, but it has made little progress as it has been annually unhealthy, being surrounded by muddy creeks and marshy flats. A great part of it has been washed away by the river; the rest has been sunk several feet by the earthquake in 1813 and shaken repeatedly since.

On the west side of the town there is a beautiful lake, and a fine harbour in the mouth of Chepousa creek above it.


St. Charles is upon the north shore of the Missouri, 24 miles above its mouth, and 18 (by a direct course) from St. Louis, It was founded in 1780, and is now a fine flourishing town, containing (in 1818) about 200 houses and 1000 inhabitants.

Cape Girardeau is upon a high bluff bank of the Mississippi 45 miles above the month of the Ohio, and 70 below St. Genevieve. It is but a small village and is occupied chiefly by Germans and French.

Belle Fontaine is at the month of the Missouri and on the south shore. It contains a garrison and is the head quarters for the ninth military department.

Villepouche, or Videpoche, is a French village on the Mississippi shore 6 miles below St. Louis. It contains 60 or 70 houses.

New Bourbon is a village of about the same size, situated on a bluff bank of the Mississippi two miles below St. Genevieve.

Carondolet a small French village about 6 miles, in a western direction, from St. Louis.

St. Ferdinand is situated in an open plain about 14 miles the shot manufactory of Mr. Matlock, on the Mississippi shore 28 miles below St. Louis.

Herculaneum is an American village which has risen around the shot manufactory of Mr. Matlock, on the Mississippi shove 28 mile below St. Louis.

Florissant is on the north shore of the Missouri 12 miles above Belle Fontaine.

Portage de Sioux is on the Mississippi shore six miles above the Missouri.

Maddensville is likewise on the Mississippi shore neatly opposite the mouth of the Kaskaskia.

Potosi, formerly called the village of Mine a Barton, is town into a town of importance. It is surrounded by the great lead mine district, and is situated in a beautiful valley upon a branch of the Merrimack, 40 miles west from St. Genevieve, and 60 south west from St. Louis. Besides a courthouse, jail, &c. It has an academy of several miles. It is stated that between the years 1798 and 1816 the lead smelted here amounted to 9,360,000 pounds.


AGRICULTURE. Maize, rye, wheat, oats, buckwheat in fact all kinds of grain grow as luxuriantly in Missouri as in any part of the United States. Cotton, flax and indigo can be cultivated to good advantage. It is remarkable however that tobacco does not thrive here even on the soils equal to the best tobacco lands of Kentucky or Tennessee. Hemp is said to be indigenous here; sweet potatoes and common potatoes, and all the common esculent roots succeed very well.

COMMERCE. Lead is at present the great staple of this country, and it is estimated that the produce of the mines give 1006 tons annually. An extensive trade in furs and peltries is carried on with the Indians who live in the region north and west of this, but it is monopolized by the United States establishments; the depot of it having been lately transferred to Washington, greatly to the injury of this state.


Kanzaw, Naudoessee and Upper Missouri Countries.





The names above are chosen to designate different portions of the undivided territory north and west of Missouri state. They include part of the country purchased from France under the name of "Louisiana;" but as that name has been appropriated to the state lately formed from "Orleans territory" it would be improper to allow any extension of it beyond that state.

The name Kanzaw is here applied to the country watered by the river Kanzas, which should be pronounced Kanzaw. On the east it is bounded by Missouri state; on the north by the Upper Missouri country; on the west by the Cordilera mountains; and on the south by the Arkansaw territory.

The Naudoessee country is inhabited chiefly by the Sioux or Naudoessee Indians. It is bounded on the south by Missouri state; on the east by the Mississippi river; on the north partly by the same; and on the west by the Missouri river.

The Upper Missouri country lies north west of the territories here indicated. On the north it is bounded by the British North American possessions, and on the west by the Cordilera mountains.

As the two former of these divisions will probably become states in eight or ten years it may be well to settle their nomenclature, early. The Indian name of the St. Pierre should be ascertained, and if it is a good one it should be applied to the country; watered by that river. The name of the Platte or La Platt and Yellow Stone should also be ascertained for a like purpose. Almost all the well sounding names which we have in this country are aboriginal ones.

RIVERS. The Missouri, though regarded as a branch of the Mississippi, is in feet the principal stream, because above their confluence the Missouri extends 3100 miles, and the Mississippi little more little more than one third of that distance (say 1100 miles.) The Missouri at the mouth is 700 yards wide and 1888 miles from thence it is 527 yards. Its current is rapid


and deep, affording good navigation as far as fort Mandan, which is 1600 miles from its mouth. At the distance of 970 miles beyond that are the great falls, which extend 18 miles along the river through a total descent of 362 feet. The first fall is 98 feet, the second 19, the third 48, the fourth 26. The remaining 171 feet of descent is through numerous rapids. This river is remarkable for the yellow colour and saline taste of its water. Near the source it is divided into three branches nearly equal; and Capt Clark, instead of applying the name of Missouri to the principal one, called the north branch Jefferson, the middle one Madison, and the south one Gallatin. From the confluence of these streams the Missouri runs northerly about 250 miles to the great falls. From thence its main course is eastward 900 miles (nearly to fort Mandan.) From thence it is southward about the same distance. Afterwards it runs chiefly in a south eastern direction until it reaches the Mississippi. Its lesser windings are too numerous and unimportant to be noticed here. Of its tributary waters those that enter it on northern side are as follows, commencing of the mouth of Jefferson river.

1 Dearborns, 2 Medicine river, near the falls, and 3 Marias liver just below them. Between these and the Mandans on the same side are:

4 Brattons river, 5 Milk river, 6 Porcupine river, 7 White-Cash river.

Below the Mandans are:

8 Warreconne river, 9 Otter river, 10 Jague river, 11 Great Sioux, 12 Little Sioux, 13 Soldiers, river, 14 Little Platte, 15 Tyger river, 16 Grand river, 17 Chariton, 18 Goodwomans river, 19 Little Manitou, 20 Great Manitou, 21 Cedar river, 22 May river, 23 Lower Otter, 24 Cherette, and 25 Femme-Osage rivers.

The rivers that join the Missouri on the left or south side proceeding from the mouth of Gallatin river are

1 Musdeshell river, 66 miles above fort Mandan.

2 Yellow Stone, which debouches 278 miles above the Mandan villages (i. e. 1888 from the mouth of Missouri.) At its mouth it is about half a mile wide; and rapid though rather shallow. The water is clear except just after rain; and then it is remarkably muddy with the earth that is washed, into it from the bare mils which extend along its shores. It receives several rivers some of them of considerable size — the largest is Big Horn. It has its source in a lake near the Cordilera mountains. Besides this there are the Tongue river, Marshacap and others.

3 The Little Missouri, 186 miles below Yellow-Stone, and 90 miles above the Mandans. The name arose from its resemblance to the great Missouri both in colour and taste.

4 Batteaux river is about 100 yards wide.

5 Weterhoo river.

6 Sarwarcana river.


7 Chien or Dog river, which is about half a mile wide.

8 White river is about 150 yards wide is navigable 100 miles.

9 Teton, 10 Quicoure, (1026 miles from the mouth of Missouri.)

11 Platte a large river and flows through a level country It is navigable several hundred miles and it head waters like near those of the Arkansaw.

12 Weeping river, 13 Great Nemahaw, (190 yards wide) 14 Wolf river, 15 Independence.

16 The Kanzas is supposed to be 1200 miles in length. It enters the Missouri 300 miles below the mouth of the Platte, and about the same distance above the mouth of the Missouri. At its confluence it is about 230 yards wide. It rises near the Arkansaw and is navigable to within a short distance of that river.

Several of the head branches of the Arkansaw river pass through the west end of the Kanzaw country, but scarcely any thing else is known relative to the geography of that part.

The rivers that enter the Mississippi on the west are

1 Leach lake river which flows out of Leach lake, one of the main sources of the Mississippi.

2 Lake Winnepeque river.

3 Pike. river, which runs, for the greater part of its course, parallel with the Mississippi (i. e. directly south.)

4 Pike river which communicates with Leach lake by a chain of little lakes and a short portage.

5 De Corbeau river which enters with the Mississippi in Lat. 45° 47' 50" north, 375 miles above the falls of St. Anthony. It is nearly equal in size to the Mississippi, and they have their sources within a short distance of each other. In ascending the western main branch of the Corbeau we approach near to the St. Pierre river. The eastern branch affords the best communication with the Red river of Hudson Bay. On this route they ascend the Corbeau (about 180 miles) to the mouth of the Aux Feuilles river; and then ascend the Aux Feuilles 180 miles to the head of navigation; from thence by a portage of one mile they enter the Otter Tail lake, which is the main source of Red river. Neither the Corbeau nor the Aux Feuilles present rapids or obstructions of consequence.

6 Elk river.

7 Sac river which joins the Mississippi near the Grand Rapids.

8 St. Pierre which is a large river; running the greater part of its course south-eastwardly; i.e. nearly parallel with the Mississippi. It debouches just below the falls of St. Anthony. The traders ascend the St. Pierce to the Sauteaux river, and up the latter to a portage of four miles which leads to a large lake, from that they proceed a creek to small lake, which affords an outlet into the Elk river.

Cannon river 40 miles above lake Pepin.


10 Au Boeuf flows into the lower end of lake Pepin.

11 Riviere de Montaigne qui trompe dans l'eau debouches opposite to an insulated hill which bears the same foolish name.

12, 13, 14, The le Clair, the Embarra, and theUpper Iowa rivers all enter the Mississippi together, at the distance of 35 miles from the Prairies des Chiens.

15 Yellow river, 16 Turkey river, 17 Cat Fish river, 18 Little Macaketh 19 Great Macaketh, 20, Wabisinekan.

21 Iowa river which is about 150 yards wide and is navigable to where it receives the Turkey-foot-forks, a distance of 300 miles nearly. About 36 miles from its mouth it receives the Red Cedar rivers.

22 De Moyen which is about 200 yards wide at its mouth, and is supposed to be 7 or 800 miles long. It rises near the Sioux (of the Missouri) and receives the following tributaries; Rustand, Teton, Buffaloe, Point, Grand and Village rivers.

The northern border of the Upper Missouri country, fort a considerable distance, is watered by the Red River of Hudson and its branches the Pasquayah and Assinnibion.

LAKES. The Pepin lake is only an expansion of the Mississippi river. Lake Despice is the source of the little Sioux, lake Biddle of the Big Horn river — and lake Ennis of the Yellow Stone. Winnipique Packagamu, Leach, Upper Red Cedar and Muddy lakes constitute the principal sources of the Mississippi. Otter-tail lake; is the main source of the Red river of Hudson. There is an immense number of small lakes in the northern parts of this territory which have been, little explored by white men.

Face of the Country, Soil, &c. This region which is perhaps as large, as all the American states reckoned together, and in many parts highly fertile, is nevertheless very little known; even to the government that purchased it.

Nearly all the very valuable lands along the Missouri river are included within the present limits of the Missouri state. If we commence at the mouth of the Kansas — the point where the last Indian cessions terminate, we find the land generally much inferior to that which borders the lower part of the Missouri: though some tracts here are, exceedingly beautiful, yet the soil is much thinner than that of the flat bottom land near the Mississippi. The shores of all, the streams are lined with fine groves, presenting a great variety of trees many of the species of which are as yet non-descripts. But the whole interior of the country consists of prairie, intersected by lines of dry barren ridges, thinly wooded with juniper, pine, cedar &c.

As we pass up the Missouri we find the soil deteriorating and the timber becoming more scarce. The trees on the shores are chiefly willows and cotton wood become dwarfish — few oaks and plum tired equally diminutive. There is some good land


at the mouth of the Platte, which is understood to extend along that river a hundred miles or upwards. From thence to the Yellow stone the whole region is very uninviting, with the exception of a few very beautiful tracts. These however are too small, and too much insulated to be suitable for civilized settlements. Even the river shores are here generally destitute of trees, with the exception of a few straggling oaks like apple trees and plum trees, like currant bushes. These prairies appear boundless on every side, though not barren. The ground is covered by a kind of grass tolerably luxuriant, and much better for pasturage than the hard rank grass of the southern prairies.

The Country on the east side of the Cordilera is, for two or three hundred miles in breadth, at the heads of Red river and extending to six or seven hundred above the heads of the Missouri, totally barren and chiefly very rugged. The very shores of the streams are nearly destitute of herbage; and the best soils produce little else than hyssop and prickly pear. There is said to be good land at the Yellow-stone but probably it is not of great extent.

The vegetable soil, which naturally and regularly accumulates in common situations, seems to be here as regularly washed off into the rivers. Tracts of what had once been high table land are seen intersected in many places with numerous perpendicular chasms of great depth, crossing each other is different directions; all apparently cut down by the rains. The earth thus carried away is often impregnated strongly with minerals, and thus it communicates to the Missouri its remarkable taste and colour. Some of those washed hills look at a distance like cities with their streets and towers, with steeples, spires and minarets too; for such we might easily fancy the evergreens and jumpers upon their summits to be, when we approach them through the gloom of evening, or view them through the blue duskiness of the atmosphere upon the furthest boundary of a wide horizon. They are in truth the greatest curiosities that the whole country presents.

There are no marshes in this country, — the greater part of it is much too dry, and in many parts good springs are scarce.

The Kanzaw country is level, fertile and beautiful, but deficient in timber. After receding from the banks of the streams, which are uniformly well wooded, we emerge into prairies, some of which are 20 miles in breadth. The strips of woodland are generally from two to five miles in breadth.

The Naudoessee country, from the mouth of the river De Moyen to the falls of St. Anthony, along the Mississippi, on the west side, greatly resembles the Kanzaw. The bottoms are of a deep rich sandy soil, producing pecan, poplar, honey locust, cotton-wood, ash, black oak and cucumber, besides many unknown trees. The interior consists of grand prairies intersected with sycamore groves, along the streams. Many of the bottoms are bounded by precipitous bluffs which have


few trees except pine and cedar. As we proceed northward the land becomes worse, the trees that begin to be most prevalent are ash, elm, cotton-wood, sugar tree, birch, &c.

The St. Pierre river, which debouches a little below the falls of St. Anthony, is said by Carver to "flow through a most delightful country, abounding with all the necessaries of life, that grow spontaneously." His account appears to be exaggerated. Lieut. Pike speaks favourably of the part which he visited; but the interior of the country is probably sterile, destitute of timber, level and dry.

Immediately north of this the pine country commences, and extends into the British provinces. The interior of that great district which lies between the Mississippi and the Missouri has not been explored by white men, but it is said to consist chiefly of prairie.

In all the region here under review good springs are rare, even more rare than in Illinois, and this deficiency will probably constitute the greatest evil that settlers, in this country, will have to meet. However it is understood that good water can be obtained almost every where through it by digging to the depth of 30 or 40 feet.

PRODUCTIONS. Salt licks are abundant Masses of rock salt are found at the heads of the Arkansaw. Salt petre caves are found on the southern border. The extent of the lead mines is unknown but probably is very great. Coal may reasonably be expected as it is plentiful in Missouri state. Iron is no doubt abundant. There are every where numerous indications of mineral wealth through this country, but they have been little investigated. Virgin copper is found in masses on the St. Peter river.

The Cordilera mountains are a continuation of the Andes of South America; and as this range is rich in silver and gold and other minerals from Chili through Peru, Mexico, to Texas, (beyond which it has not been examined) there is almost a certainty that its composition and contents are similar in that portion which extends through the territories now owned by the United States.

A kind of stone as white as snow is found in many places along the Missouri and Mississippi. Near the mouth of the St. Pierre river there is a hill composed entirely of it, having its surface crumbled into sand or dust. Travellers conjecture that is the fossil called kaolin, the principal ingredient of Chinese porcelain. I suspect it to be what mineralogists call white-stone which is composed of compact feldspar with a small portion of mica. There are in this territory beds of a


clay purely white, which might be a needful addition to the white stone in the manufacture of earthen wares.

ANIMALS. Buffaloes, deer, and bear are the most common animals. The former are often found in droves of a thousand upwards in number. This is the country which Brackenridge, the ‘Paradise of the hunters;’ The grizzly or bear and the brown bear are peculiar to this region, as are the gopher, the antelope (an animal which has no distinctive name yet given to it) the gorss-corne, or sheep of the rocky mountains, which is a species of fine wooled goat: the prairie dog, a kind of squirrel that burrows in the ground. Elks, wolves, lynxes, panthers, wild cats, muskrats, martins animals ermines, are numerous.


INDIAN TRIBES. Whole Numbers Warriors Villages RIVERS WHERE THEY LIVE.
Sioux or Naudoessee 21,675 3,833 6 Mississippi both sides.
Osages 10,500 2,500 4 Osage, Arkansaw & White river
Wetapahatoes and Kiawas 11,850 5,250 Padouca fork of the Platte.
Pawnees 7,500 2,500 4 Kanzas, Nimmehaw and Arkansaw.
Assinibions 6,500 1,250 7 Between Pasquayah and the Rocky mountains.
Castahanas 5,005 2,300 Between Yellowstone & Platte.
Chippewas 3,200 Heads of the Mississippi.
Quehatsas 3,560 960 Yellowstone.
Paunch Indians 2,850 860 Yellowstone and Big horn.
Sauks 2,850 750 4 Mississippi below the Iowa.
Ricaras 2,500 550 Missouri below the Mandans.
Knisteneaux 2,450 550 North & west of lake Superior.
Foxes 1750 440 4 Mississippi above De Roche and on Turkey river.
Kanzas 1,650 465 2 Kanzas river to Arkansaw.
Kenenavish 1,570 450 Head of the Padouca.
lowas 1,400 300 3 De Moines and Iowa.
Chiens 1,250 350   Red river of Hudson.
Mandans 1,200 350   Missouri.
Mahas 750 350 Heads of the Platte.
Ottos 600 250 2 Platte 45 miles from its mouth.
Kites 470 120 Heads of the Platte.
Poncars 250 50 Poncar river.
Ahwhawas 250 50 Above the Mandans.
Minatores 250 Knife river above the Mandans.
Katas 25 75 Head of Chien river.
Nemausins 220 50 South fork of Chien river.
Dotames 120 30 Heads of Chien river.

The Sioux claim a tract of country greater in extent than any of the states. It includes both sides of the Mississippi river from the heads of the Des Moines river to the St. Pierre: the western part being that designated as the Naudoessee country, at the commencement of this article, excepting the Iowa lands between the De Moines and the Mississippi. The eastern part extends an undefined distance into the North Western Territory and Illinois.

This nation is divided into 10 tribes; 1 Yanktons, 2 Yanktons Abnah, 3 Sussetongs, 4 Minowa Kantong, 5 Washpetong, 6 Wahpacootos, 7 Tetons Bois Brule, 8 Tetous Okandadas, 9 Tetons Minnekineazo. The four latter (the Tetons) are even amongst the Indians regarded as a kind of roving outlaws.


The Sioux are more warlike than any other nation of North American Indians.

The Chippeway nation claim a considerable territory west of the Mississippi, and north of the Sioux Indians. They are sober, timid, Vagrant and selfish: dark in complexion and homely. They possess a copious and difficult language, which has been modulated by different tribes into several dialects.

The Knisteneaux live to the north of the Chippeways, and extend their claims far into the British dominions. They are generally handsome, active and well dressed, for Indians. They have fine piercing black eyes, a light copper colour, and agreeable countenances. Their women are more comely than any other Indian women in this country. They do not regard chastity as a virtue; and the offer of their persons to strangers is observed among them as a common and creditable act of hospitality.

The Assinibions or Osinipoilles once constituted a part of the Sioux nation.

The Foxes or Reynards live in three villages above the rapids of the river De Roche. They attend to agricultural pursuits.

The Iowas reside between the De Moines and Iowa along the Mississippi. They live in alliance, or rather under the protection of the Sauks and Reynards.

The Osages are a very large, tall, well formed, fierce, warlike race. They have dark brown eyes, large aquiline noses, and dark olive complexions.

PROHIBITION OF SLAVERY. By the act of 1820, passed for the organization of Missouri state, it is provided "that, in all that territory ceded by France to the United States, under the name of Louisiana, which lies north of 36° 30' north latitude, excepting only such part thereof as is included within the limits of Missouri state, slavery and involuntary servitude, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes whereof the party shall nave been duly convicted, shall be for ever prohibited: Provided always, that any person escaping into the same, from whom labour or service is lawfully claimed in any state or territory of the United States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed, and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labour or service as aforesaid."


North-Western Territory.




The extent of the North-Western territory is not yet known with precision. According to our gazetteers its extreme points of limitation are included between 42, 30 and 49 of North latitude, and 8 — 20; and 18 — 30 of West longitude. It is bounded on the east by the lakes Huron, Green-Bay and Michigan; on the south it is separated from Illinois state by the fine of lat. 42° 30' running from lake Michigan to the Mississippi river — which is 161 miles.

The river Mississippi forms the western or rather south western boundary, and divides this territory from the Naudoeissee and Upper Missouri countries. The British claims in Canada, the lake Superior, and the strait of St. Mary are the northern boundaries.

The eastern portion of this territory may be called the Green Bay, and the western the Sauteau country. In a few years they will probably constitute separate states.

RIVERS. The Mississippi waters the south-western border of this territory for the distance of 8 or 900 miles.

Its principal source lies west of lake Superior, in Upper Red-Cedar lake, or rather in a chain of ponds and marshes that run into that lake on the N. W. side. Within a few miles of this lake are the sources of the Red River, which runs into Hudson's Bay; and of the St. Lawrence, though that name is commonly applied only to the outlet of the grand chain of American lakes.

The rivers that enter the Mississippi within this territory are 1. Le Croix sometimes called "The Cross" or "Le Cross" and 2. the Deer river. Neither of them have been described to us, but it has been ascertained that their head waters are near those of the St. Louis river (of lake Superior.) They both join the Mississippi below "The Fork" of the Leech lake branch.

3. Meadow river which enters the Mississippi three miles below low the falls of Packagamu (in N. lat. 46 — 20) Its main course is S. W. and it is navigable for canoes about 100 miles.

4. Swan river, which runs westerly, and is boatable about 90 miles to Swan lake.

5. Sandy-lake river which is 40 miles below Swan river. It is the outlet of Sandy lake. This lake receives several small


rivers, among which the Savanna is the most important. There are only 4 miles of portage between it and the St. Louis of lake Superior, and through this route the N. Western Company convey their goods for the supply of the Upper Mississippi country.

6. Muddy river which is about 70 or 80 miles below Sandy lake river, is only about 20 yards wide.

7. Red-Cedar river (the lower) is about 6 miles in length, being only an outlet from Red Cedar lake.

8. Clear river is a beautiful stream about 80 yards wide, running out of a cluster of little lakes and swamps.

9. Lake river, which is an unimportant stream about 15 yds. wide at its mouth.

10. Leaf river is about the size of Lake river. It is distinguished as being the point of termination to the travels of Carver and of father Hennepin on this route; and was named by them the St. Francis.

11. Rum river is about 50 yards wide. It flows out of Le Mille Lacs (the thousand lakes) a cluster about 35 miles south of lower Red Cedar lake.

12. St. Croix is only 80 yards wide at its mouth, but at the distance of 500 yards it enlarges into a lake that bears the same name, and extends 36 miles with an irregular breadth, from half a mile to three miles. This river rises near lake Superior, there being a portage of only half a mile between it and Burnt liver, and not one fall or rapid in its whole course. It is therefore a most eligible channel of trade, and as such is used by the Indians and the N. W. Company traders.

After passing the falls of St. Anthony, in our downward course, we next arrive at.

13. Sauteau, or Chippeway river which enters the Mississippi at the lower end of lake Pepin. It is a deep majestic stream about half a mile wide at its confluence, having its sources near those of Montreal river (of lake Superior) and Menomonce of Green-Bay. Its principal tributaries are the Rufus, Vermillion and Copper rivers. The navigation of it in some parts is much obstructed by islands.

14. The river Au Bauef the Buffaloe, is only about 20 yds. wide.

15. The river of the Montaigne qui trompe dans l'eau is a small stream which enters the Mississippi opposite to, a hill of the same name.

16. Black river, which is about 200 yards wide at its mouth, has its source near that of Fox river (of lake Michigan).

17. The Wisconsin is 180 miles in length and about mile wide at the Prairie Des Chiens, where it enters the Mississippi. It is the grand route, of trade between this post and Mackinaw — passing, in times of low water, by a portage of two miles into Fox river and thence through Green Bay into lake Michigan. In times of high water, however, the two rivers unite at the portage and permit loaded boats to pass.


18. Rock river likewise rises near Green Bay, and after running a distance of 450 miles (for 400 of which it is navigable) it falls into the Mississippi 10 miles below Prairie des Chiens — 390 miles above St. Louis.

Commencing at the sources of St. Lawrence, and proceeding round the northern and eastern boundaries of the territory, we pass the following streams:

1. St. Louis, which falls into the west end of lake Superior at West bay or Fond-du-Lac. It is large and navigable for 50 miles, having connexion with the head waters of Mississippi as already described. The others which enters this lake are —

2. Strawberry river.

3. Goddard's river.

4. Burnt (or Burnt-wood) river communicating with St. Croix.

5. Bad river.

6. Montreal river communicating with the Sauteau.

7. Fair river.

8. Ontonagon river.

We now come to the great peninsula of Shagomigon which projects into the lake Superior upwards of 60 miles. From this to the east end of the lake, at the head of St. Mary Strait — a distance of 370 miles, the following rivers enter in the order that they are here named.

9. Porcupine, 10. Little Garlic, 11. Great Garlic, 12. Carp, 13. Dead, 14. Corn, 15. Grande Marais, and in this list we omit the mention of 14 or 15 important streams, called rivers, which occur in the route.

16. Sault de Marie or St. Mary Straits is the outlet which connects lake Superior with lake Huron. It is about 50 miles in length, and is divided into several channels — or rather it contains several islands, and is deep enough to admit of large ships. Vessels cannot pass from Huron to Superior on account of the Falls of St. Mary, which are near the latter lake, but boats and canoes may safely descend. These falls are not perpendicular, but consist of rapids that extend about three-fourths of a mile down the straits. The still water below these falls is probably the best fishing place in the world, as it is the resort of incredible quantities of white fish.

The rivers which enter the strait are — 17. The Great Bouchitaouy, 18. Miscontinsaki, and 19. Minaston.

From the debouchure of St. Mary's straitto Makinaw; pass the St. Ignace the Little Bouchitaouy both of which fall into lake Huron.

22. The Mino Cockien is a large river which enters lake Michigan about 35 miles S.W. of Mackinaw.

23. The Ministique has its source in a large lake near the head water of the Great Bouchitaouy, and enters the Michigan thirty miles north of the Detour or mouth of the Green Bay.

24. Sandy river enters Noquet's which is the name now applied to the north end of the Green Bay; and was formerly applied to the whole bay.


25. The Menomonie enters Green Bay and communicates, by a short portage, with the Rufus branch of the Sauteau.

26. The Gospard enters to the south of that river.

27. The Rouge river.

28. The Fox river enters 20 miles south of the latter. It unites with the Wisconisin of the Mississippi by a navigation which will be described in the sequel. The whole distance from the mouth of Sandy river to that of Fox rivers (following the coast) is about 130 miles.

On the west side of lake Michigan the following rivers enter

29. Fourche, 30 Maurice 31 Skabayagan, 32 Sauke, 33 Milwakee

34. Roaring river is so called from a "rumbling noise like distant thunder, which is heard every two or three days during the warm season, occasioned by the vast quantities of copper which attract the electric fluid!" This river is approached with awe by the Indians, and regarded as the residence of the Great Spirit: the waters being poisonous with the impregnation of copper, and the fish in it unfit for use. — Ignorance can wrship nothing but what is bad and terrible.

35. Cedar river, 36. Masguedon, 37. Wakayah, 38. Tanahan and 39. Chicago.

According to Major Long, United States Topographical Engineer, the Chicago is only "an arm of the lake (Michigan) dividing itself into two branches at the distance of one mile inland from its communication with the lake. The north branch extends along the westerly side of the lake about 30 miles, and receives some tributaries. The south branch has an extent of only five or six miles and receives no supplies except from the lake at its source." It is united with the Plein river (a branch of the Illinois river) by a little sort of canal which admits canoes and little boats to pass, thus opening a complete water communication between lake Michigan and the Mississippi through the river Illinois: for the Plein river through its whole course resembles a chain of lakes or ponds, without any rapids or ripples except at one place about 30 miles from its mouth; and there they are not observable except in times of low water. It is proposed by Major Long to render the canal navigable for large boats by raising the head waters of Plein and Chicago, at their junction, with dams and locks; and in that way little or no digging will be requisite for the purpose.

Along the south boundary of this territory, there are several branches of the Illinois river, the chief of which is the Depage that rises near the head of the Plein (on the west of it) runs almost parallel with it and falls into the Illinois about 70 miles from the Mississippi.

LAKES. Superior is the largest inland expanse of water in the world of all that bear the title of lake. Its extent is not precisely known, but has been generally supposed, (upon the


authority of Carver and the French charts) to be about 1500 miles in circumference. But Darby, in his Northern Tour, states the length at 381 miles, breadth 161, and circumference 1152. The bottom of the lake and the coasts are chiefly composed on rocks — probably limestone, for this whole region is calcareous. Its water are pure and always clear. Darby estimates its medium depth at 900 feet. It receives its principal rivers on the north side. The largest is supposed to be the Michicopoten.

With the lake Huron only a small portion at the north eastern angle of this territory is connected.

For lake Michigan see Michigan territory.

Green-Bay is about 126 miles long and from 6 miles to 30 wide. Where it joins lake Michigan it nearly 50 miles in actual breadth, but is there chiefly occupied with islands. This junction, the Detour is one the west shore of Michigan, about 100 miles from its northern extremity, and 150 from Makinaw. Green-Bay lies nearly parallel with Michigan, and distant from it generally about 40 miles. On its west shore there is a regular tide which ebbs and flows from a foot to 18 inches. The name Green Bay is properly applied to the principal part of the lake, which extends southward, for that part which projects northward from the Detour is called Noquet's bay — a name by which the whole lake was formerly designated. As the navigation of this lake requires caution and a knowledge of the route, direction concerning it will be given in our tables of navigation.

Besides the lakes at the sources of several of the rivers, which has been already noticed, there is an immense number of others to be found in the territory, little known and probably of little importance.

Lake Pepin at the mouth of the Sauteau river may be regarded as belonging equally to this territory and to the Naudoesee country.

  Miles of Navigation
Rivers that enter the Mississippi above the falls of St. Anthony 550
Rivers that enter the Mississippi below the falls of St. Anthony 2000
Lake Superior (U. States shore) from the Grand Portage 600
Tributaries of Superior (on U.S. shore) 1500
Strait of St. Mary 50
Tributaries of St. Mary's strait 150
West side of Huron 50
Tributaries of do. (St. Ignace and little Bouchitouy) 120
Whole west coast of Michigan 260
Tributaries of do. 570


  Miles of Navigation.
Green Bay 120
Tributaries of do. 350
Plein and Depage (of Illinois river) 100
Interior small lakes probably 150

ISLANDS. The principal island of lake Superior has been conceded to the Great Spirit, as it is uninhabitable on account of snakes. It is on the British side, as are the others in that lake probably.

In St. Mary's strait there are three — St. Josephs on the British side, Nibish parallel with it on the American side, and sugur island.

In lake Huron, at the west end of Makinaw, and within view of that port, lies St. Helens. Near this is another small elevated, pine covered island called Epouvette. Several others lie south of this, down the Michigan. At the mouth of Green Bay, at the Detour, is Isle au Detour. Further up Green Bay are three islands, Brule, Verte, and De Pou, Isle Hacro lies 30 miles to the south and is resorted to as a harbour. Beside it there are several large islands little known. Beyond this lies Vermillion isle, and a few miles further near the shallows, is Isle La Baye.

Face of the Country. There are no mountains within this territory, though the elevated land, between lake Superior and the Mississippi, has been represented as such. The actual freight of the hills, is no doubt, above the level of the whole United States, as the three principal rivers of the continent rise within it: nevertheless its surface is chiefly very flat and in many parts inundated with stagnant waters.

The whole country around the heads of the Mississippi, says Lieut. Pike (since General Pike) "has the appearance of an impenetrable morass, or boundless savanna." On the shore of lake Leech the sugar maple abounds and is intermixed with oak. After passing the river Le Cross you see only savannas, or meadows of wild grass, and pine swamps. At Meadow river the appearance is slightly improved; the land being more dry; timber is pine, pinenet, hemlock, and sap-pine. Below Sandy Lake river only the heights present pines, while the timber of the low lands is elm, linn, and maple, the indications of alluvial soil. At Red Cedar lake river the heights have various sorts of pine, together with red cedar; the dry bottoms, elm, ash, oak and maple, while the swamps are timbered with pinenet, sap-pine, and hemlock. Chains of little ridges extend along, the streams, but towards the interior the surface is all flat. Though the pine marks the distinctive character of the country, as far south as the fails of St. Anthony, yet a gradual improvement is perceptible as we travel south. The red or yellow pine begins to supplant the white. The


soil of the prairies becomes lighter, more sandy, and the ash becomes more common amongst the oak and linn on the bottom lands.

Below the Falls, the timber of the bottoms is maple, sugar tree and ash, while cedar appears only on the cliffs. Passing lake Pepin we find the bottoms as rich as those of Ohio; there the cottonwood begins to appear. The river ridges are of considerable height, but the interior consists chiefly of those dry savannas properly called prairies.

From thence to the southern boundary the land is fertile, and particularly well suited for raising Indian corn. A great portion of the country at a distance from the Mississippi is dry, level, elevated prairie, full of little groves. The timber of the bottoms is of the best kind; to wit, black walnut, hickory, maple, pecan, and oak — the soil sandy and deep with vegetable mould.

The bottoms of the Mississippi, and of most of the rivers in this territory, and in Illinois, are generally much broader than those of the Ohio and of its tributaries. Proceeding north-ward one perceives the height of the bluffs or hills along the river borders gradually decreasing — that is, the surface of the country preserves its level, and does not incline with the descent of the streams.

The central parts of thus territory are described by no traveller except Carver. He says the country around the falls of St. Anthony is extremely beautiful. It is an uninterrupted plain where the eye finds no relief, but composed of many gentle ascents, which in the summer are covered with the finest verdure, and interspersed with little groves, that give a pleasing variety to the prospect. From Pikes account it would seem that it was rather barren and uninteresting consisting chiefly of prairie "with scarcely any timber but small groves of scrub oak." Carver, speaking of the interior, say that above the falls, "he found the country very uneven and rugged, and closely wooded with pine, beach, maple and birch." At the Chippeway river he says "the country is level and almost without any timber, and on its banks lie fine meadows." We must regard the meadows as marshes and the boundless prairies as worthless barrens.

The high land which forms the division between the waters that enter Mississippi, and those that enter the great lakes is covered with forests of pine and hemlock. Proceeding northward we find the country gradually improving in soil and the Fond du lac, or western point along the southern coast, the soil is "a strong clay mixed with stones," as far as the peninsula of Shagomigon. From thence to the outlet of the lake a sandy character prevails, and the precipices which occur at intervals on the shore consist of limestone. The bottoms are fertile, the timber being chiefly oak and sugar tree; while the light and sandy hills present pine and are of course barren.


The shores of St. Mary's strait are wild meadows and groves of sugar maple. Proceeding southward, along the western shore of Green-Bay, we find the country generally fertile. It some place's there are prairies, or rather savannas interspersed with small tracts of woodland; but the greater part is covered with fine forests of oak, walnut, sugar tree, poplar, elm, honey-locust, and on the poorer parts pine. Near the mouth of Fox river the land is low and flat, but at the distance of two or three miles from the lake it is elevated table land, and the river banks, as far as Winnebago lake, are from 80 to 100 feet above the level of the water. Thus far it is a forest of oak, hickory, and maple with pine occasionally. Grapes and plum are plentiful on the shores through this region of country. Indian pumpkins, beans, &c. are cultivated here by the Indians land grow well; and such, is the exuberance of nature grasses that stock can be raised with very little trouble or expense.

Southward of Fox river the wild rice lakes are more numerous, and the prairies more extensive. The marshes where wild rice does not grow are generally filled with long grass.

That part of the territory along the head waters of Illinois: presents a great extent of hilly country, sterile but not absolutely barren, as the timber consists of stunted oak and hickory. Those ranges or hills seldom approach nearer than from 10 to 15 miles of the Wisconsin rivers — leaving a kind of valley, beautiful and tolerably rich, along almost the whole extent of that stream. At the mouth of the river, around the town of Prairie des Chiens, the ridges are bleak and barren, and the valley only a mile and a half in widths.

It has been estimated that one sixth of the whole surface of this territory is covered with water; that one fifth is woodland and that the remainder consists of flat prairies and barren hills.

CLIMATE. All those situations that have been hitherto occupied in this territory, by white people, are reported to be healthy, a fact which we cannot doubt though it cannot be clearly accounted for. On Green Bay and Fox river they impute the salubrity of the air to its regular currents, which generally blow to them, from the great lakes, and over tracts of country comparatively dry. Something may likewise be ascribed to the temperature of the latitude. Notwithstanding the experience of certain districts we are constrained to believe that the marshy portions of the country will generate fevers, dysentery, &c.

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS It been stated that inexhaustible quantities of pure native copper have been discovered on the shore of lake Superior, and through a wide tract of try around it; and so many persons of the highest credibility have coincided in affirming the fact that we cannot


doubt it any longer. Gen. pike, Alex. Henry, Esq. Gen. Wilkinson, Capt. Carver, Mackenzie and others corroborate the accounts.

At the Ontonagon Mr. Henry saw masses of the copper upon the surface of the ground. One piece weighed 20 pounds: and about ten miles from the lake he saw a block, which appeared to have fallen from the hillside, and which he estimated at five tons. So malleable was it that with an axe he cut off a portion weighing 100 pounds. Upon the island of Nanibojou, between Mamance and Michicopoten, that is on the British side of the lake, nearly opposite to the copper vein along the Ontonagon, he found a variety of curious pieces weighing, from an ounce to three pounds. They had fantastic resemblances of leaves and animals, but otherwise were composed of metal equally pure. At the same place Capt. Norburg, a Russian gentleman commissioned in the British service, found veins both of copper and lead; the latter containing silver in the proportion of 40 ounces to the ton. The copper likewise contained a very inconsiderable portion of silver. Norburg erected a furnace at Point au Pins. He found on the U. States side of the lake, near Point aux Iroquois, 15 miles from the rapids of St. Mary, a shod of silver ore which he took to England. It produced in the proportion of 60 pounds of pure silver for each hundred pounds of the ore. It is believed that only a small part of the copper vein extends to the British side of the lake, and that the principal body of it lies a considerable distance from the southern shore, in the chain, of hills that run westward from Green Bay.

Near the month of Roaring river masses of pure copper have, been found weighing from 7 to 25 pounds. Still greater quantities appeared at Middle island, which lies near me west coast of lake Michigan, and Carver says it was equally plentiful upon the St. Croix river.

Lead is found in the interior; but through what extent of country is not known. Mr. Dubuque's lead mines, between the Wisconsin and Rock rivers, are said to be as good as the best mines, of Missouri. Their, annual produce has been from 20 to 40,000 pounds. Upon Depage river this mineral is said to be equally abundant.

Iron ore, copperas, and allum are found along the shores of the lakes Huron and Superior.

Amongst the vegetable productions the wild rice (avena fatua called folle avoine by the French, and Menomen by the Indians,), claims particular attention. It grows, in inexhaustible abundance, through all parts of the territory, in almost every one 6f its innumerable lakes, ponds, bays, rivers and creeks. It is said to be as palatable and as nourishing as common rice, and if so it will be incomparably more valuable. It grows where the water is from four to six or seven feet deep, and where the bottom is not ford or sandy. It rises above the surface of the water from four to eight feet, and is often so


thick as to prevent canoes from passing through; amongst it. The stalk is soft, like the bulrush, but grows in joints like the reed cane, which it much resembles. It is usual for the Indians to force their canoes through it (just before it ripens) and tie it in large bunches for the purpose of preventing the wild ducks and geese from breaking it down and destroying it; When it is fully ripe they pass through it again and spreading blankets in the inside of their canoes, they bend the bunches of wild rice over them, and thresh off the grain with sticks; an operation which requires little time, and is generally performed by the women. After drying it in the sun they put it into skins, for future use. This singular spontaneous grain grows, no where, south of the Illinois river, nor east of the Sandusky bay.

All the northern lakes and their tributary streams are celebrated for the Ticamang, or white fish, but they are much larger, finer, and more numerous in the lakes Huron and Superior than in Erie or St. Clair. Henry says, that at St. Mary, where he lived several winters, he, and the people with him, subsisted wholly on them; and there a skilful fisherman might, with a scoop net, catch 500 of them in two hours.

In the river Ontonagon, at the rapids, where he lived during the winter of 1815, he says that sturgeon were so abundant that a months subsistence for a regiment could have been taken in a few hours. There is likewise through all the streams and lakes of this territory, great abundance of a kind of trout (which usually; weigh 40 or 50 pounds) together with black bass, carp, and many other kind of fish of less value.

Every autumn and spring the wild ducks and geese resort to the wild rice lakes in flocks incredibly numerous.

A letter from Green Bay, dated July 19, 1819, gives the following account of an extraordinary visitation which, must have resembled the plagues of Africa, if the statement is true.

"Within the last four or five fly has appeared — a non-descript perhaps in fictional history — and covered the face of the whole earth, obscuring the sun, moon, and stars. I write literally, and without exaggeration. The heavens are darkened by them, as in a densely cloudy day; as far as the eye can discern, they fill the air in every direction, as closely as a thick eyes of bees. Cornfields, &c are prostrated with the clouds that settle upon them trees are covered, and the branches beat and broken down. The barracks and biddings in the vicinity, at the ends and side not exposed to the son, and are entirely covered with insects piled one upon another. These creatures, with their feeders, that from head and tail, are about three inches in length, slough their skins daily, it is said, by the inhabitants here; and in performing this operation and in dying by millions every hour, infect the atmosphere so that it becomes unfit to breath in. Cattle, swine, and Indians said feed and fatten upon them. The Frenchmen call them mosquito hawks because they make their appearance


when mosquitoes are most numerous, and , as it supposed, prey upon and drive them away. The flies themselves remain but six or seven days."

NATURAL CURIOSITIES. Carver describes a cave on the eastern shore of the Mississippi, about 30 miles below the fall of St. Anthony, which the Indian call Wakon-teebe, or the Dwelling of the Great Spirit. The entrance is about 10 feet wide and five feet high, but at a short distance within it is 15 feet high and 30 feet wide. The floor is fine clear sand. At the distance of 20 feet from the entrance is the short of a lake of unknown extent; and which, by reason of the darkness, no one has explored.



Fort Dearborn at the mouth of Chicago was destroyed by the Indians in August, 1812, but was rebuilt again in 1816 by a U States' detachment under captain Bradley. It has not, as yet attracted any considerable number of white settlers.

About a mile from the mouth of Fox river, at Green Bay, a fort was erected under the direction of captain Gratiot, upon the ruins of the old French fort Le Bay. This, will, no doubt soon become a flourishing settlement, as the land around it is highly fertile, and the situation said to be even more healthy than Mackinaw so celebrated for its salubrity. There are about 50 farms in the vicinity of the garrison; but the occupants nearly all are French. Almost all marriages amongst them are contracted for short periods; and those who live together without a new engagement, after the expiration of the term bargained for, are considered guilty of fornication. Wives amongst them are frequently sold or exchanged, and they generally live very faithfully and contentedly with their purchases. The greater part of the women are either squaws or half whites. They are generally remarked for the modesty, dignity, and strong cast of French good manners which they possess.

At Prairie des Chiens (mouth of the Wisconsin) there is a U. States' fort of considerable strength. The village or rather settlement around it is somewhat larger than that at Fox river but in all other respects similar. The ordinary population has usually been about 400, but in the trading seasons assemblage of white people and Indians amounts to more than double that number. The village contains a few Indians and American, and the rest are French. Amongst them the policy of temporary marriages is almost universally practiced. What is called the annualFair of the traders is held in the spring. The old French village of Prairie des Chiens was about a mile below the present village (or two miles from the Mississippi shore.) It was occupied as long as the French government held possession of the country. Afterwards (1783) Messrs. Giard, Antaya and Dubuque purchased the present scite from the Fox Indians (Reynards or Des Chiens) and established the town under British protection.


The French built a fort at the falls of St. Mary, but at the termination of the war of 1756 it was abandoned. The United States' government have made arrangements for erecting another upon the same scite in the course of the present year (1820).

INDIANS. The Menomonies (Folles Avoines or Rice eaters) and the Winnebagoes, are the only tribes whose lands are entirely included within the territory. "The former have 8 or 10 villages which are situated on Menomonie river, (15 miles from Green Bay), on the Fox River near its mouth; at the Kakalin and grand Menomonie portages, — on Winnebago lake — behind But de Mort; and near Milles Lacs". They have at present only 250 warriors, and by permission of the Sioux and Chippeways, they hunt between the Mississippi and lake Superiors. They are distinguished for their comliness.

The Winnebages (whom the French call Puants) have nine villages situated as follows — One at each end of Green Bay — 1 on an island in lake Michigan — 2 at Winnebago lake — 1 above that Lake 6 miles — l on lake a Puckaway — 1 at the Wisconsin portage — and 2 at Rock River.

The Chippeways and Sauteaus reside on the south shore of lake Superior and at the head waters of Chippeway river — They have 1000 warriors.

The lands in this territory formerly claimed by the Sauks, Reynards, (or foxes) and Iowas, have been ceded by treaty, to the United States.

Portions of the Kicapoor, Pottawattamie, and Ottowa nations reside near the west short of Lake Michigan.

Two chiefs of the Nandoessee nation sold to Captain John Carver, the celebrated traveller, a tract extending from the Falls of St. Anthony, along the east bank of the Mississippi, to the mouth of the Chippeway, thence 180 miles east — thence north 120 miles, and from thence to the place of the beginning. — This grant was made May 1st, 1767, and if Carver procured a confirmation of it from the British government, the right of his heirs may be good, if not it is certainly good for nothing.

COMMERCE. Hitherto this territory has only furnished a trade, skins and lead — the latter from Dubuques mines before mentioned.


Michigan Territory.




Michigan is 125 miles in length, that is from the northern to the southern extremity, and is 154 in breadth: Containing 34, 320 square miles, or 22,284,000 acres. It is between 41, 50, and 45° 20' of N. Latitude; and between 5° 13' and 8° 16' of West Longitude. Its boundaries were established by an act of Congress in 1804 — 5, thus — A line running directly north from the most southern point of Lake Michigan; through that lake until it meets the line which separates the British territories in Canada from the United States: then following that line through lake Huron, lake St. Clair and Detroit river lake Erie. — The southern boundary which divides it from Ohio and Indiana, is the line of latitude 41° 50' extending from lake Michigan to lake Erie. The latitude of the southern point of Michigan lake has not yet been ascertained, arid some say it would not touch lake Erie.

RIVERS. Beginning at the south point of Lake Michigan and passing north, then east, south, and soon round the water boundaries of the territory which they are.

1st. St. Josephs which arises in Indiana, having its sources amongst those of Black river. St. Josephs of Maumee, Eel-river and Tippecanoe. It is navigable 150 miles, and is 200 yards wide at its mouth. About 40 miles of its course are within that territory. It enters lake Michigan only a few miles to the north of the Indiana territory.

2. Black river, which the French call Le Noir, has its source in small lakes near the Maumee. It interlocks its course with the two St. Josephs rivers. Grand river and the river Raisin; and after running parallel with the St. Josephs for nearly, seventy miles, it debouches about fourteen miles further north. It is an excellent smooth stream for navigation, but how far navigable is not well known.

3. Marame enters the same lake about ten miles north of the latter, forming a capacious bay at its mouth. Its whole length is about 45 miles.

4. Barbue is about the same size and runs the same course.

West-Raisin is about 50 miles in length. It has a bay or estuary at its mouth like the Marame, about 16 miles to the north of Barbue.

Grand river is the largest tributary streams of lake Michigan. It has its source in lakes and ponds near the S.E. corner of the


territory, and after interlocking its branches with those of the East Raisin, Black river, Mastigon and Saganaw, it falls into the Michigan about 20 miles north of the West Raisin. It is navigable for small boats to its very source, and, in times of high water, the perogues and boats pass, from it into lake Erie, through the river Huron.

7. The Mastigon rises in ponds and marshes near the centre of the territory; and, after running a westerly course, enters the Michigan about 20 miles to the north of Grand river.

8. The White 9 Rocky, 10 Beauvuis, called rivers by courtesy, are only large creeks the estuaries of which are from ten to fifteen miles apart.

11. St. Nicholas, is about 50 miles long, and at its mouth about 50 yards wide. It is about equally distant from the first named St. Josephs and the island of Makinaw, at the head of the lake.

12. Marguerite is navigable for boats, and interlocks its head waters with those of Saganaw, St. Nicholas, and Grand rivers.

Between this and the straits of Mackinaw four other small streams enters the same lake: they are 13. Manistic, 14. Aux Sables, 15. Latsette and 16. Grand Terverse.

17. Chagahagun, enters lake Huron about 35 miles to the eastward of Makinaw.

18. Thunder river enters the same lake at Thunder bay, which is about equally distant from Makinaw and the out-let of the lake.

19. Sandy river enters Saganaw bay, the estuary of a river bearing the same name.

20. Saganaw river, in size, ranks next to Grand river, with the sources of which it is almost joined. It is stated by Judge Woodward that at a very small expense these two rivers might be united, and in that way, a perfect navigation established through the centre of the territory.

21. St. Clair strait, or river, is the outlet by which lake Huron passes into lake St. Clair. The distance between the two lakes is about 26 miles. Its depth is hardly sufficient to admit a 20 gun brig.

22. Belle or Flintriver enters lake St. Clair, about 9 miles from the debouchure of St. Clair straits.

23. The Huron river enters the same lake about 14 miles further south.

24. Buttermilk creek, enters about 8 or 10 miles further.

25. Tremblee is another creek between this and Detroit.

26. Detroit river, or strait is about 24 miles long. It is the outlet of lake St. Clair, conveying the waters of lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, &c. into lake Erie. It is from half a mile to two miles wide, with a current of 3 miles an hour; and depth sufficient to admit the largest vessels.

27. The river Rouge rises about 40 miles to the south west of Detroit, and enters the straits about 15 miles miles below the town. It is 600 yards wide at the month; forming an estuary


or bay deep enough to admit vessels of 159 tons as far as Conley's ship yard, live miles from the strait. For boats it is navigable upwards of 30 miles.

28. Ecorce or Bark, river enters the strait three miles below the Rouge. It is about equal to it in size, and is similar in appearance. Between this and the village of Brownstown are two creeks called Maguaga and Brownstown.

Little Huron enters lake Erie about 7 miles to the south of Maiden. At its source it communicates with Grand river by a chain of ponds and marshes navigable for canoes. The estuaries of the four last mentioned streams are obstructed with wild rice, and other aquatic plants.

30. Swan creek, or Aux Cignes river, which enters lake Erie 6 miles to the south of the Little Huron, contains even greater quantities of wild rice than the others. In summer its stagnating water, charged with vegetable substances in solution, becomes putrid and absolutely ropy, yet in that abominable state, it is drank by those who inhabit its shores.

31. Rocky creek, "la riviere aux Rochers," enters the lake 3 miles further south, This presents mill eats and considerable rapidity of current. The rocks in its bed are limestone; a kind of rock which abounds through the whole territory;

32. Two miles beyond this is the mouth of Sandy creek; Petite riviere aux Sables.

33. The eastern river Raisin enters Erie seven miles to the south of the latter. At the mouth it is about 45 yards wide, and is navigable for boats nearly to one of the branches of the Black river. Fifteen miles from the lake it receives the river Macon.

34. Otter. creek or riviere Le Loutre empties 4 miles further south; and lastly. —

35. Swan creek, which rises near the head of Otter creek, enters the Maumee four miles from the mouth of that river.

LAKES, BAYS, ISLANDS. The Michigan lake is 262 miles in length, 15 in width, and 731 in circumference. On the north west it opens into Green Bay, which is regarded as a distinct lake. Michigan is superior to any of the other lakes for navigation, being every where deep and unobstructed. According to Darby its medium depth is 900 feet. Near its northern extremity are several islands little known and probably not very important. Is the strait which connects this lake with lake Huron is situated the island and port of Makinaw, formerly called Michilimackinac (the big black turtle, which animal it is supposed to resemble.) The whole island is a mass of limestone nearly solid. On the south side is a flat or bottom formed of gravel, washed up by the waves of the lake. Upon this the village is built. Immediately above it, upon the brow of a towering bank or rock, stands fort Makinaw. At the distance of about half a mile from this, upon a still more elevated point, is another fort, which was built by the British during the last


war. It was called by them fort George; but since the cession of these posts to the U. States, it has been repaired and named fort Holmes. It commands fort Makinaw, but having no supply of water it is supposed to be untenable by an enemy. The harbour is well sheltered from all but eastern winds, and the anchorage excellent.

"Sometimes Makinaw may be discerned at the distance of 40 miles, hanging like a cloud above the horizon. On your nearer approach it assumes a pyramidical form, until you arrive within 18 or 20 miles, during which it seems to be gradually growing or rising from the water, and you now suppose yourself within half that distance of it; its great height and perpendicular sides tending to create this deception."

In lake Huron, about two miles to the south of Makinaw, is another called Round island, and another to the south east called Bois Blanc or White Wood island. Further eastward but within the U. States lines, there has been discovered another which contains immense bodies of the purest kind of Paris plaster.

The Huron lake is the largest of all the American lakes except lake Superior. Its greatest length, which is from east to west, is 218 miles, its greatest breadth, from fort St. Clair to its northern shore, 200 miles, and its circumference 812. It is navigable for ships of any size, being generally above 900 feet in depth. Com. St. Clair, in his expedition against Makinaw in 1814, sounded for bottom and could not find soundings, with 500 fathoms of line. During a great part of the voyage through it to Makinaw the land is far out of sight, which, in clear weather, is never the case in Erie or Michigan.

The Manatoulin islands form a great chain, extending from the peninsula of Cabots head to the strait of St. Mary's, dividing the Huron lengthwise into two lakes.

Thunder bay, upon the western shore to Huron, at the mouth of Thunder river, is about 100 miles south of Makinaw. It receives its name from the remarkable rumbling noise which the mariners generally hear as they approach it. It is a fine harbour, and is protected by a cluster of small islands at its mouth which bear the same name.

Saganaw or Saganaum bay is about 75 miles south of this. It is about 40 miles wide at the mouth, and nearly 100 miles long. Some parts of it are very deep but it is full of shoals and utterly unfit for a harbor. It cannot be even approached with safety on account of the violent wind which almost continually issues from it. There are, along the west coast of this lake, several convenient harbours frequented by those who trade to Makinaw.

Lake St. Clair is about 30 miles in diameter each way. It is stated that through its whole extent (excepting along its shores) it is invariably 21 feet deep. Its bottom being a perfect plain of smooth tenacious clay. Its islands are Isle aux Peches,


Thomson's island, Hay island, Cheval Ecarte, and Horsen's island. On the British side it receives Buskin, Thames, Belle, and Bear rivers. Its shores are all low and level.

In the Detroit river there are some islands. That which is opposite Maguaga creek is called Grosse isle; and the one before Maiden, Bois-blanc.

In the West end of lake Erie, about 30 miles from the mouth of Detroit river, is the very numerous cluster of islands called Put-in-bay islands, which have been noticed in the article upon Ohio state.

Those who sail from Erie town to Makinaw have generally to stop for some, time in Put-in-bay, opposite those islands; because the same wind which brings vessels up the lake will not take them up the Detroit river.

Navigable Waters of Michigan Territory.
Lake Michigan 260
——— Huron 250
——— St. Clair and straits 56
Detroit river 26
Rivers emptying into the Michigan 700
Do. do. do. Huron 150
Do. do. do. Detroit river and St. Clair  
strait and river 100
To which may be added the navigation of lake Erie 250

FACE OF THE COUNTRY, SOIL, &c. This territory has not yet been sufficiently explored by Americans to enable us to give a complete description of it. It is mostly level, and even in the hilly parts there are no considerable elevations. The interior is fiat and interspersed with lakes, ponds and marshes. Towards the borders, in almost every direction, the face of the country is diversified; in many parts much broken, but, in general apparently excellent for cultivation. The shores of the lakes Michigan, Huron, St. Clair, and Erie, as well as those of the Detroit river, are low and frequently swampy; full of little Jakes and ponds, but generally rich, and in many places beautiful.

The shores of lake Michigan present a range of little sand frills, supposed to be formed by the waves. The rivers and creeks, here ate obstructed at their outlets, and remarkably narrow where they enter the lake; but immediately behind that range of hills they are by reason of the obstruction, formed into Circular bays or lakes. These bays are generally full of wild ripe, and at certain seasons covered with immense flocks of ducks and wild geese, which resort there to live upon the rice.


A great number of prairies, most of them small, extend across the southern and central parts of the country, from the Michigan lake to St. Clair. They present great varieties of soil; some are highly fertile, while others consist of barren sand. Those that lie low are generally of no value, on account of their wetness. The uplands towards, the interior are mostly well covered; with timber; the barren parts with cedar and pine, chiefly of the long leaved species, but the principal part with oak, beach, sugar-tree, ash, poplar and hickory, and in the richer fend, black-walnut, cherry, bass-wood, buckeye, cucumber, crab-apple, black; locust and honey locust. The latter kind of locust is found as far north as the rich bottoms of Huron, while on the east side of the Allegheny mountains it does not grow in higher latitude than upon the shores of Delaware.

The most elevated part of the country is near the south eastern boundary, for the table land of the interior seems generally to descend as you proceed northward, and Westward from the high lands near Detroit.

If we pass round the border of the territory, commencing at the Maumee Bay, on lake Erie, we find at first mill seats and mills upon the creeks and the rivers; but nine or ten miles north of the river Raisin we find the currents of the streams becoming sluggish winding through marshes filled with wild rice and sater lily. As we approach tile town of Detroit the land appears still more flat, and the water more stagnant: but at a short distance from the estuaries of the little rivers, 10, 12, and 15 miles westward, we find excellent black walnut and sycamore bottoms, amidst what the yankies call fine rolling land Around Detroit the country is beautiful and naturally rich. North of Detroit, along the Huron river, at Machonee's village, the land is of the best quality, producing corn and other grain abundantly as the richest parts of the Ohio country. The Huron bottoms are the best in the territory and are usually wide. The new alluvion timber is, sycamore, elm, maple, &c. the dry bottom land has black walnut, and the timber which generally accompanies it, to wit; hickory, black locust, honey locust, cherry, basswood, &c. the highland has oak, hickory and ash. All these are of large growth, indicating a soil and climate more genial than one could expect in this latitude.

Along the straits of St. Clair, as we approach lake Huron, find much barren pine covered country, interspersed with prairies and large tracts of good walnut land. The district on shores of lake Huron presents the same varied character, generally good. As we proceed north we find sugar tree prevailing timber.

CLIMATE, DISEASES, &c. With regard to temperature, Michigan territory is far more moderate both in winter and summer than any place in the same latitude east of the Allegheny mountains. In winter there is a longer duration of regular


cold than is usual in Pennsylvania; and this is more observable along the coasts of Huron and St. Clair, but the intensity of the cold is not generally greater than it is at Pittsburgh. Judging from a series of observations made by Gen. Wilkinson in 1817, we must believe that the summers are remarkably mild. From the 4th of Aug. to the 4th of Sept. the thermometer (Fahren.) never stood higher at noon than 70 degrees, while in the mornings and evenings it often fell to 46.

General Hull represents it as superior to Massachusetts, both with respect to the moderation of the seasons and the healthiness of the climate. But such innumerable and immense bodies of stagnating water must, during summer, in any habitable latitude be unhealthy. Accordingly we find prevalent there the diseases naturally to be expected; fevers, jaundice, and dysentery, particularly the latter.

PRODUCTIONS, &c. This territory is superabundantly supplied with excellent fish. The most plentiful is the white fish or Ticamang or salmon trout. There are besides great quantities of an admirable kind of black trout, (a small species) of black bass, carp; and many other inferior sorts. In some of the settlements the people do little else than catch fish and drink whiskey.

Ducks and wild geese, during spring and autumn, resort here in millions to feed upon the wild, rice (folle avoine) and any quantity of them may he shot without difficulty. All kinds of game, particularly the fur-bearing animals are plentiful.

Orchard trees thrive and bear well wherever they have been planted in this territory; and common grain grows as well here as in Ohio state. Potatoes grow remarkably well, better perhaps than in any other part of the United States; and many or the wretched, lazy French, who live along the shores, use no other condiment to their fish.


Counties. Whites in 1810. Slaves. Chief Towns.
Detroit 2114 17 Detroit The whole population, at present, must be about 14,000. Machinaw
Erie 1327 4  
Huron of St. Clair 578 2  
Michilimackinac 599 1  

In 1807 Gen. Hull purchased for the United States the Indian claim for 7,000,000 acres in the south east corner of the territory. This purchase extends from Maumee along; the shore of lake Erie, Detroit river and St. Clair lake and strait as far as Saganaw bay, with the exception of the following Indian reservations —

A tract 6 miles square on the Maumee above Roche de Baeuf.

1 do. 3 miles square on the same above the U. States' cession.

1 do. 4 miles square at the mouth of the Maumee, including Wogan and Mishkemau's villages.

1 do. 3 do. do. at the mouth, of the river Macon, and Raisin.

4 do. 1 do. do. on the river Rouge — Seguisavin's and Tanquish's villages.

1 do. 3 do. do. on lake St. Clair, above the mouth of Huron, including Machonee's villages.

6 Sections to be chosen hereafter by the Indians in any unsettle land: besides considerable reservations at Brownstown and Maguaga, the village of Myecrain (Walk-in-the-Water.)

The Indian claim to some small tracts in other parts of the territory has been extinguished, for the sake of gaining certain military positions.

The body of lands ceded by the treaty of Nov. 17, 1807, was bounded on the west by a line running directly north from fort Defiance. Two millions of acres of boundary lands were ordered by government to be surveyed on the east side of that boundary, but the land being found not good for cultivation by reason of the number of its ponds, lakes, swamps, the surveying was discontinued. The track of country lying immediately east of that "military district" has since been surveyed for [unknown] sale, and is said to be of good quality.


In 1819 governor Cass purchased the claim of the Chippeways for a district containing about six millions of acres — lying at the north end of Hull's purchase. It includes the Saganaw and several of its tributaries, extending from Saganaw bay northward, to Thunder bay and westward 60 miles.

TOWNS. Detroit, called by courtesy a city, stands upon the shore of Detroit river, about 6 miles below lake St. Clair, and 18 miles north of the British fort Maiden. It was founded by the French above a hundred years ago; but was totally burnt down in 1805, and has been since rebuilt upon an improved plan. It now contains about 300 buildings — two-thirds of them frames; the rest brick and stone with a few of hewn logs. It has three streets parallel, with the shore, intersected at right angles by six streets, and several alleys. There is no street upon the shore, a circumstance which injures the appearance of the town; notwithstanding which its situation renders it agreeable and even picturesque. There is a line of pickets enclosing the town; a work, executed by gen. Hull when he held it during the last war. It has several wooden wharves. One of them, which was erected by the United States, is 140 feet long, and will admit vessels of 400 tons to lie beside it. The United States' store is a large handsome house. There is a kind of nunnery here, and a Roman Catholic chapel.

Detroit carries on a considerable trade, chiefly with the Indians, to whom goods ate generally sold at exorbitant profit. The French, who constitute probably a majority of the inhabitants, have no enterprise in business, but are excessively fond of amusements, particularly music, dancing, and smoking. With regard to complexion a great part of those who, through habit or compliment, are called white people, differ little from their Pottawatami neighbours, a circumstance owing to their frequent exposure upon the water. Volney observes that the ladies in general resemble the Arabian Bed wins, particularly in their shark shaped (low cornered) mouths and tyger teeth. Most of them have lively, expressive, agreeable countenances.

Detroit fort stands upon a low ridge about 200 yards in the rear of the town. On every side of it the ground is low and marshy.

Mackinaw the scite of which has already been described, is the great mart of Indian trade. Annually goods to the value of half a million of dollars or upwards are shipped to this town, and from thence distributed in boats or canoes around all the north western lakes and their tributaries. Some of those boats require two years to go to their places of destination, dispose of their cargoes and return. Here, as it Detroit, people are poor, because they are incomparably indolent. The wages of common laborers are often as high as two dollars a day. [Unknown] may be raised with culture incredibly slights and yet they raise little. "They set their nets at night and draw them


in the morning, and drink whiskey the balance of the day. They keep great numbers of dogs which they frequently use for drawing their sleighs. These animals live like their masters upon fish. A Frenchman at Detroit, some time ago, complained to an officer that the soldier had killed all dogs but nine."

On the north side of Mackinaw island there are a few small half cultivated spots called farms, which furnish a supply of potatoes, and while meadows on the neighboring mainland afford them plenty of hay.

There are no settlement s of white people in the whole territory except along the eastern shores, and at Mackinaw, and some now commencing on the shore of Michigan. At some places, particularly on St. Clair river, the habitations are so close along the shore that they look like a continual village for many miles.

Monroe is a name of a town lately commenced on the river Raisin.

The Indian villages are —

Brownstown on Brownstown river Wyandots 25
Maguaga on Moguaga river do. 19
Tendaganees village on Maumee do. Ottowas at Roche de Baeuf.  
Wagon's village on Maumee do  
Mishkamaus on do do  
Makonee's at the river Huron do  
A village at L' Arbre Cruche do Roman Catholics  
A Chippewa village on Saganaw river lately sold    
4 or 5 villages on Black river Miamies  
2 villages on the Rouge river Pottawatamies  
Several villages on the St. Josephs do  
A village on river Raisin at the mouth of Macon Pottawatamies  

The whole number of Indians in the territory is estimated at 3,000.

COMMERCE. This territory exports furs, chiefly of the Beaver and muskrat; besides these the skins of the otter, racoon, fox, wild-cat, martin, rabbit, bear, wolf, elk, and deer. The annual amount is about $150,000. In exchange they receive British goods. Their white fish will no doubt hereafter constitute an important article of commerce as they can supply the whole western country with that article. There are strong reasons for believing that the wild rice may be found a valuable production and a stable in their trade. Their imports are salt, flour, pork, beer, corn, butter, cheese, land and whiskey; which are received chiefly in exchange for fish, apples, cider, &c. The shipping amounts to about 600 tons.

HISTORY. About the year 1683 the French established military trading posts at Detroit and Michilimakinac. The Canadian possessions were never extended further north-westward


than to the latter place; and both of these posts were occupied for the purpose of communication between their establishments upon the Mississippi, then forming or projected, and the towns of Quebec and Montreal, which they held upon the St. Lawrence.

No remarkable event occurred in this quarter so long as the French authorities remained here, so perfect was the peace that subsisted between them and all the Indian nations.

In 1759 the British army under gen. Wolfe captured Quebec; and in the succeeding year France ceded to Great Britain all their claims in Canada, including therein the two forts' of Detroit and Michilimakinac. In 1763 the latter place was taken through stratagem by a combined army of Hurons, Miamis, Chippewas, Ottoways, Pottowatatamies, Saukes and Missasangies, and some of other tribes, amounting in all to about 3000 warriors and commanded by the great Saukee (called by some a Miami) chief Pontiac. Few lives were lost on the occasion, and the prisoners were sent to Montreal, Pontiac, emboldened by success, proceeded against Detroit — and proposed to treat for peace with the commandant — Major Gladwin. Under this pretence he was permitted to enter the fort, accompanied by a select band who had guns cut short and concealed with other arms under their blankets. It had been agreed among them that, upon a concerted signal, they were to commence a general massacre. However Major Gladwin obtained from a squaw some intimation of their design, and by seasonable precaution he prevented the catastrophe — suffering the delegates to march back without any other punishment than a reprimand. They immediately laid siege to the place, and continued it for several months; during which many skirmishes, happened, and the garrison became greatly reduced. In ones of those rencontres, which occurred at a place since called Bridge, captain Delzil and the principal part of his detachment consisting of 200 men fell the victims of savage cunning and cruelty. Shortly afterwards a British schooner entered the strait with a reinforcement; but at the head of what called. Fighting island she was attached by a large body of Indians in canoes. They attempted to board — but some of the sailors called out to see fire to the magazine, which immediately dispersed the assailants, and the schooner was suffered to proceed. The siege was then raised.

The Revolutionary war caused alliances to be formed between the British and Indians, which have never since been entirely broken. After the termination of that war the British held the Michigan posts until the ratification of Jay's treat (in 1796) and since which period they remained in the possession of the U. States until the 15th August 1812, when Detroit was surrendered by Hull to the British and the Indians under the command of gen. Brock. Shortly after that Makinaw was captured by stratagem.


In October 1813 general Harrison defeated the British army at the Thames or Moravian towns, and recovered possession of the whole territory, with the exception of Makinaw which was not delivered until the conclusion of the war in 1815.

Sketch of West Virginia.

The south boundary of Virginia is the line of north latitude 36' 30'. On the west the Big Sandy river and a part of the Cumberland mountain separate it from Kentucky. On the north-west the Ohio river separates it from Ohio state. It is separated from Pennsylvania by a line running directly south from Mill creek near Georgetown, to the line of lat. 39ş 43' and then from that point directly east until it touches a line running north from the main source of the Potamac river.

West Virginia is watered by the following streams, all of which flow into the Ohio:

1. Cheat river, a branch of the Monongahela.

2. East branch of the Monongahela

3. The West or main branch of Monongahela. From the west boundary of Pennsylvania to the town of Parkersburgh below Marietta, the largest streams which flows into the Ohio on the Virginia side are only creeks.

4. Little Kenhawa, which rises near the heads of Monongahela, debouches three miles above Blannerhasset's Island at Parkersburgh.

5. The Great Kenhawa rises in North Carolina, and, after running 40 or 50 miles north, enters this state through the Alegheny valley; it then runs north-westerly about 60 miles and then passing into Cumberland valley it runs north about 70 miles to the junction of the Great Briar river. From that point it runs north-west, and at the distance of about 50 miles passes the Cumberland maintain by a cataract. From that it continues nearly the same coarse 80 or 90 miles to the town of the Point Pleasant where it enters the Ohio. Green Briar river likewise waters the Cumberland valley, running S.S. W. and meeting the Kenehawa, nearly in a direct line. Elk river rises near the sources of Monongahela and after running south


west near 100 miles along the west side of the Cumberland mountain, enters the Kenhawa. On the south side the Kenhawa receives the Yellow river and Louisa river, both of which fire inconsiderable streams.

6. Big Guyandot river rises in the Cumberland mountains, and enters the Ohio about 13 miles above the Big Sandy.

7. Big Sandy river is the boundary between this state and Kentucky. It rises in the Cumberland mountains, and runs generally a north course. It is about 100 miles in length.

FACE OF THE COUNTRY, SOIL, &c. This end of the state consists almost entirely of mountains and hills. Between the Cumberland and Allegheny, mountains there is a valley or range of low country which reaches quite across the state, but very little of it is flat. In this valley, along the south branch of the Kenhawa, is a tract of land called the Great Meadows, North of the Kenhawa the Green Briar division of the valley is narrow and broken. West of the Cumberland mountain the basis of the country is chiefly calcareous, and the soil is fertile even upon the tops of the most rugged ridges. The Ohio bottoms are uniformly rich except where they are marshy. It has been remarked that, all the best bottoms of the Ohio are subject to inundation, which, is rarely the case with marshy bottoms. The greater part of West Virginia is equal to any part of the U. States for producing most kinds of small grain.

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS. Coal abounds, through the greater — probably through tire whole of this region. Iron has been found in many places, and it is supposed that all the schistose part of the mountains contain that metal. Salt water of very unusual strength has been obtained very copiously, and at several different places near the Kenhawa river. The lowest borings are at Thirteen mile creek, (13 miles from the Ohio) but the most extensive establishments are about 70 miles from the Ohio. The product of the different wells is from 90 to 130 gallons of the water for each bushel. The price of that indispensible article has been reduced nearly 50 per cent in the market along the Ohio since the establishment of the Kenhawa salt works.

NATURAL CURIOSITIES. In the flats of Kenhawa, about 67 miles from the mouth of that river, there is a large hole or basin in the ground from which a strong current of bituminous vapour continually issues, and occasions an agitation of the sand around the edge of the hole. On presenting a torch with 18 inches of the orifice the vapour takes fire and burns sometimes for 2 or 3 days, and sometimes not longer than 20 minutes, and as it ceases seems to be at that time exhausted. Sometimes the hole contains water which is very cold, but it is kept in continual ebullition by the vapor. When the vapour is ignited the water becomes heated and soon entirely dissipated into steam.


This hole is large enough to contain 30 or 40 gallons. On the Sandy river there is another similar one which is much smaller.

"On the Great Kenhawa near the mouth of Elk river there is a large mass of black (1 suppose vegetable) earth, so soft as to be penetrated by a pole ten or twelve feet deep; out of the hole so made there frequently issues a stream of hydrogen gas which will burn for a time; and in the vicinity of this place there are constant streams of that gas which, it is said, when once lighted will burn for several weeks." Maclure,

TOWNS. Wheeling is about 50 miles (by the road) distant from Pittsburgh and 25 from Steubenville. Being situated at the point where the national road from Washington city to Ohio state touches the Ohio river, it will probably soon become a place of trade and importance. Otherwise its scite is inconvenient as it is built on an elevated but narrow flat at the foot of a steepet ridge, which allows only breadth of ground for one stre along the shore. There is a piece of handsome bottom below the town, but it is subject to frequent inundations, and the ridge above is almost precipitous on both sides, with scarcely breadth of ground on its top sufficient for the road which now occupies it.

Charlestown is pleasantly situated on the Ohio shore about 15 miles above Wheeling, and half a mile above the mouth of Buffalo creek. It has little trade, but is a place of considerable embarkation for the flour and other productions of the surrounding country. It has a manufactory of stone ware, another of queens ware, and one of glass ware. There are several excellent merchant mills in its neighbourhood. The supply of coal is inexhaustable and remarkably convenient. The market is very cheap for all the common articles of subsistence: in short it seems better suited for the establishment of manufactures than any other town in the western country.

There is another town of the same name upon the Kenhawa river 60 miles from the Ohio, which contains the courthouse of Kenhawa county.

Point Pleasant, at the mouth of Kenhawa, is a small village containing about 20 or 30 families, but its scite appears to be well chosen.

It is generally thought that the best communication between the Atlantic and the Ohio may be established through this state. The James river is navigable to the mouth of Dunlap's creek: from that point to the Green Briar river near its month is 30 miles; or to the Kenhawa 100 miles. The portage road across the Allegheny mountain, which separates these two rivers could be made without any declination greater than 5 degrees. The junction of the Delaware and Chesapeake by the Raritoa canal would in that way establish a connection between Philadelphia and the western country of inestimable importance to both. Philadelphia and the western country of inestimable importance to both.


State of Kentucky.




Kentucky is 417 miles in length, (from West Long. 4° 44' to 12° 10' and 170 miles in breadth that is from North Lat. 36° 30' to 39° 12'). Its area is 40,110 square miles, or 25,670,000 acres. It is bounded on the north, by the Ohio river, which separates it from the states of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois : on the west by the Mississippi river, which separates it from the Missouri State, on the south by the line of North Lat. 36° 30' which separates it from the State of Tennessee : on the South East by a part of the Cumberland chain of mountains, and on the east by the Great Sandy River, both of which limits separate it from the state of Virginia. A dispute has arisen between the states of Tennessee and Kentucky, with regard to the line which separates them. It was first surveyed 10 miles further north than the prescribed latitude of 36° 30', and east of the Cumberland river it has been occupied by settlers located under the authority of N. Carolina, (as the rest of Tennessee was.) The tract included between the Cumberland and Mississippi rivers, has lately been purchased from the Chickasaws, and there the government of Kentucky has taken possession as far as the true chartered line of latitude; whether it can claim to the same on the east side of the Cumberland is questionable.

RIVERS. The Ohio passes along the north border of the state 650 miles, and receives in that distance on the south side, seven large rivers, besides several small ones. The large ones are Great Sandy, Licking, Kentucky, Salt, Greene, Cumberland, and Tennessee rivers.

Great Sandy rises in Virginia, between the Allegheny and the Cumberland mountains, near the head waters of Cumberland River. It is 200 yards wide at its mouth, and is about 150 miles in length, It is navigable as far as the Wasciota mountains, — about 60 miles. Its main course is north. The west fork of it, which is the main river, receives on the west Side, Shelby, Bear, Battle's, Point, and Blane creeks. On the east side it receives no streams worthy of notice.

Licking river likewise rises near the bead waters of the Cumberland, and after pursuing a north west course about 200 miles, enter the Ohio at Newport, opposite the town of Cincinnati. It receives the little Licking about 40 miles from its mouth. Its other tributaries are remarkably few and small considering length. It runs over a bed of limestone through the fissures of which it almost entirely disappears in dry weather.

Kentucky river has its main source between those of the Licking and the Cumberland rivers. It is about 200 miles in length is


navigable about 150 miles, and is about 150 yards wide at its mouth. Its head waters are called "South fork, Middle Fork, and North Fork" Elkhorn river, and Eagle Creek. On the west side it receives Middle Fork, Bed bird Fork, and Dick's river.

Salt river, which enters the Ohio 28 miles below the Falls, is navigable about 150 miles. On the north it receives Brasheer's creek and Floyd's Fork. On the south it receives Roiling Fork, of which Beech Fork is a considerable branch.

Greene river has its source near Dicks river, and after running nearly a west course above 200 miles it enters the Ohio 67 miles above the mouth of the Wabash. On the north side it receives Nolin's creek, Rough creek and Panther creek. On the south side it receives Little Barren river, Great Barren river, which rises near where the Cumberland river intersects the Tennessee line, Muddy river and Pond river.

Tradewater rises in a bend of the Cumberland and flows into the Ohio 100 miles below Greene river.

Cumberland river rises near the east end of the state. After a course of about 200 miles it enters Tennessee state — runs about 200 hundred miles through it and returns to Kentucky through which it then runs about 80 miles and debouches into the Ohio, 67 miles from the Mississippi. It is 300 yards wide at its mouth and is navigable for ships 200 miles to Nashville in, Tennessee; and for boats 200 miles further. As far as Nashville it generally has 20 feet of water from November to June, with an unobstructed channel and very gentle current; On the north side it receives Laurel, Rockcastle, Red and Little rivers.

On the south Obie's river of which Wolf river is a branch.

Tennessee river crosses the west end of the state nearly parallel with the Cumberland, and debouches into the Ohio 13 miles below it.

Kaskinamphas is a small river which flows into the Mississippi about 35, miles below the mouth of the Ohio.

There are no lakes in Kentucky except the one called the Pond in Jefferson county. It is about 4 miles in length and two in breadth. It contains one island.

FACE OF THE COUNTRY. Kentucky has so often been called the garden of the world, that most people overrate its fertility. It is true that no tract in the Atlantic country is at all comparable to it; yet there are many millions of acres west of the Allegheny mountains quite as rich, and in some places possessed of greater natural advantages.

The bottoms of the Ohio have already been described in the geography of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois states. In the rear of the bottoms and parallel with them, there is, a tract from five to twenty miles wide, extending the whole length of the state, much broken by the deep rugged values of the streams which pass from the interior through it. To account for this, and for most of the striking features of this part of the Mississippi valley


it must be remembered the soil of Kentucky and Tennessee, and some parts of the adjoining states, rests upon strata of secondary or flat limestone. In some places a great many successive layers of limestone and earth have been worn through by the streams until the banks have become abrupt precipices of great depth. The borders of such streams are dry and comparatively sterile. Through the greater part of the state, and particularly all along the Ohio, the most elevated tracts are the richest, excepting the brows of the river hills.

The central part of the state, called the "Elkhorn Tract," that is, the country immediately south of the range of broken land above mentioned, is the celebrated rich part of Kentucky. This tract which is about 150 miles long and 100 at its greatest breadth, includes the counties Mason, Fleming, Bath, Montgomery, Woodford, Clark, Bourbon, Nicholas, Fayette, Scott, Harrison, Franklin, Mercer, Jessamine, Madison, Garrard, Casey, Lincoln, Washington and Greene. It lies between Little Sandy and Salt rivers, and is watered chiefly by the Licking, Kentucky, and Salt rivers and their branches.

The surface of this part is gently undulating without any marshy flats, and without any steep ascents. The soil is generally black, but sometimes red and sometimes the colour of ashes. On the summits of ridges the vegetable mould is frequently found twenty feet deep; but it becomes gradually thinner as you approach the borders of the streams. The bottoms are narrow, but the oak land which commonly skirts them, often extends to the breadth of two or three miles. In such places the soil is dry, hard and comparatively poor. The trees of the uplands are black walnut, black-cherry, honey-locust, buckeye, pawpaw, sugar tree, mulberry, cotton-wood, elm, ash, with great quantities of grape vines. There is little or no underwood. Formerly the ground was covered with reed cane, but this has been destroyed by the cattle, as it constituted a luxuriant pasture. Its place has been supplied by a natural grass called "nimble will" which is rather short but very nutritious and much better than the cane.

Scarcely any fallen timber is to be seen on the ground, but the growing trees are chiefly young, small and in most places thinly set. There are in fact, many circumstances which strongly indicate that the country has but recently emerged from the prairie condition. One of the great evils felt here — the only very important one, is the scarcity of water in the dry seasons; whereas the poorer parts of the state are supplied with springs sufficiently numerous and durable. In the central parts the brooks, and even some of the small rivers are dried up occasionally.

Within the limits which I have here assigned to the fertile region, there is a tract, principally included in Nelson county, and lying between Greene river and the Rollins Fork of sale


river, a great part of which is considerably different from the surrounding country; being rather broken and barren, but good for pasturage. Originally it was covered with grass, and not with cane like rich lands. Small grain therefore grows well in all the arable parts of it.

The east and south east quarters of the stale present a range of mountainous country, along the boundary, and a still, wider range of hilly land between that and the interior. In these ranges the Big Sandy, Licking, Kentucky, and Cumberland rivers have their sources. Here we see nothing but steep irregular ridges through which the streams have formed deep dark glens and rugged precipices; the fronts of which (sometimes three or four hundred feet in height) present the edges of alternate layers of earth limestone, and often rolled pebbles, sand, &c. down to their very bases. Some of the breaks list in deep circular glens called coves, each of which has a gap at one side for the stream to pass out. Their bottom are perfectly level, and sometimes 50 acres in extent, but generally less than half that size. The sides of the hills which surround them, are covered with oak, chestnut, hickory, poplar and gum: but the trees of the cove bottoms are beech, black walnut, sugar tree, elm, poplar, and hackberry; closely set and of enormous size, with no undergrowth but cane. Poplars are often found in such places eight feet in diameter. Those dismal gloomy retreats, which not a breath of air ever disturbs, are often chosen for places of residence.

The southern part of Kentucky, particularly that part which lies between the Greene and Cumberland rivers, is called ‘the Barrens,’ ‘the Oak,’ ‘the Knob district,’ &c. The northern part of it is watered by the Great Barren river and its branches; the south part by the Red river, a branch of the Cumberland, and its numerous branches; the east partly Rock-castle river, Buck creek, Putman's creek, and other head branches of the Cumberland. It includes the counties of Rock-castle, Wayne, Logan, Pulaski, Adair, Knox, Whitley, Cumberland, Greene, Warren, Butler, Barren, Allen, Christian, Caldwell, Hopkins, Muhlenberg and Ohio.

This tract was called Barrens by the people on the north side of the Greene river, because it was at first destitute of cane, and because the threes did not indicate first rate land, being only oak, chestnut, hickory, gum, linn, poplar and cucumber — in short it bore tokens of having been prairie land more lately than the other parts of the state. In 1800 the Kentucky legislature granted it gratuitously to actual settlers — 400 acres to each one; which grants have since been called ‘Head Rights’ almost the only certain rights in the state. At first those grants were little esteemed, and some were sold at a dollar; and some even as low as 25 cents per acre: but as soon as the land was brought into cultivation the prices rose to 15, 20 and 30 dollars an acre. It is excellent for pasture, though like the other parts of the state no meadow grasses will grow upon it.


Small grain of every kind produces very well; Indian corn obtained 50 bushels per acre: and in the best parts; that is on the poplar land near the Cumberland, 100 bushels to the acre. Tobacco grows as well in the deep swails as in any part of the state; and stock is raised with much less trouble. But after all, it is evident that the fertility will not be as durable in it as it is in the cane country. In this quarter it is said that "diseases and physicians are almost unknown;" but Brown describes the part bordering on Tennessee as being in a remarkable manner annoyed by the frequency and violence of lightning strokes.

GEOLOGY. The basis of Kentucky consists almost entirely of limestone placed stratum super stratum, and extending to a depth that has no where been ascertained. The soluble nature of this rock has caused it to be perforated into innumerable caverns. Some parts of the country seem to be almost entirely undermined. South of Greene river, travelling is dangerous, on account of the caves breaking down occasionally into deep chasms. Cattle and even people have sometimes been killed by the earth suddenly giving way beneath them. The great depth of the black vegetable mould which overlays the limestone rock, proves that it must have been formed from submerged forests, like the coal strata around Pittsburgh; because the gradual decomposition of the vegetables that grow on any soil can never accumulate to a greater depth than six or eight inches: and in Kentucky it could not be the alluvion of rivers, for the most elevated lands have generally the deepest soil. On the summits of the hills there is often above 20 feet of vegetable mould.

CLIMATE. Every part of Kentucky is healthy but not very different in this respect from the other parts of the country east of the Ohio and Allegheny rivers.

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS. Salt petre is found in almost all the numerous caves of the state. It is contained in the earth dug out of those caves, sometimes in the proportion of 50 lbs. for every 100. This earth is leached, that is washed, and if returned to the caves again, it will in a few years become as strongly impregnated again as it was at first. The greatest quantity has been produced from Wayne county: next to this from Barren, Rockcastle, Montgomery, Knox, Estill, Warren and Cumberland. In 1810, the whole state produced 201,937 lbs. During the war the quantity was esteemed at 400,000 lbs. and since that at 300,000 lbs., annually.

The earth in the caves contains both the nitrate of potash, (i.e. salt petre) and the nitrate of lime. It is therefore dissolved in water, and filtered through wood ashes, which decomposes the nitrate of lime: the nitric acid of which unites with the alkali of the ashes, thus forming nitre and passing off in the lixivium with the rest of the dissolved nitre.

There is a kind of sand stone common in this state, called rock ore. It is richly impregnated with nitre, yielding from 10 to 20 lbs. a bushel. It is extracted by pounding the stone into small bits and


then throwing it into warm water, which soon causes it to fall into sand. The nitre procured thus, is generally preferred as it is the purest, seldom containing any nitrate of lime.

"Masses of native nitre" are frequently found amongst the nitrated sand stone, some of them it is said have weighed several hundred pounds.

There are several salt springs from which a part of the supply of suit for the state is produced.

Lead Ore has been found at Drennon's Creek in Henry county: likewise near Monticello in Wayne County, but the veins of it were small.

Very good marble is obtained on the Kentucky river, about 30 miles from Frankfort, and at some other places.

Beds of Coal are found along the Kentucky river, above Frankfort.

NATURAL CURIOSITIES. The salt petre caves are the greatest curiosities of Kentucky.

The "Mammoth Cave" in the North east corner of Warren county, 2 miles from Green River, has been amply described by Doctor Ward: and his account though doubted by many, has been lately confirmed by several travellers. I substitute the following brief description of it for the minute one given by the Doctor. At its mouth there is a pit 48 feet deep and 120 in circumference. At the south side of it a passage or "avenue" as it is called, leads to a room six miles distant. At first, for about 40 rods this avenue is 30 feet wide, and 40 or 50 high. Then for a few rods it contracts to 10 feet in width, and 5 in height. At the distance of a mile from the entrance, there is a place called the First hoppers, where salt, petre is manufactured. From thence to the Second hoppers which is about another mile, the avenue is 40 feet wide and 60 feet high. From the second hoppers it runs west one mile, and then south (as before) for three miles. At that point it opens in a room called the "Chief City," which is upwards of eight acres in area, and 100 feet in height. From that central room, five other avenues pass in different directions. They are from 40 to 80 feet high, and from 60 to 100 feet wide. The first three of them which lead southwardly, have not been explored through their whole length. It is not known whether or not they lead to other rooms but they seem to communicate with each other. The fourth leads nearly northwards; that is towards the mouth of the cave, and at the distance of some-what more than two miles opens into a room 200 feet high called the "second city;" about equal in extent to the first one. — From this second room two avenues diverge: one on the east side opens at the distance of 300 yards into the "Third City," which is about 200 feet square & 60 feet high. A cascade of water issues from the side of this room at the height of about 20 feet and disappears through the loose stones of the floor. Between this room and the corner, another avenue proceeds southward, out of the one last mentioned, and at the distance of more than a mile, through a steep passage, into the "Fourth City," a room about six acres in extent.

The fifth avenue which leads from the "First City" has an east-ward course, and at the distance of about 900 yards opens into the Fifth City, a room four acres in extent upon the floor of it were observed "fire beds" with extinguished the brand round them. From this is an avenue runs south ward, about 500 rods, and then


through a narrow vertical passage of 40 feet called the Chimney it opens into a chamber 1800 feet in circumference and 150 in height,

In this were found soda, glauber salts, epsom salts, flint, yellow ochre, spar of various kinds and same petrifications. From this chamber other avenues as large as the preceding ones diverge, but they have not been explored. Near the mouth of the cave there is an opening which decends 16 or 18 feet, and gradually passes to a level avenue which winds under the main avenue and finally opens into, it beyond the "second hoppers" It has several expansions — one called the "Sick room," one the "Bat room" another the "Haunted chamber," on account of its echo. The ceiling of this one consists of spar: and on its sides there are columns of spar, knobbed and fluted with brilliant stalactites. There is a dome in it 50 feet high, ornamented with coloured spars of great splendour.

At one side of the "haunted chamber, there is a deep narrow basin, and through it the sound of a waterfall is heard, apparently at a great distance. From this chasm an avenue leads westward, and terminates at a reservoir of pure water, called the "pool of Clitorius," from the fabled classical fons Clitorius said to be so pure, that whosoever tasted it, never relished wine afterwards. — From the latter avenue there is another, leading northward, which has columns of brilliant spar along the sides, and terminates in a chamber of pure white. From this ceiling great numbers of bate are seen hanging by their hind claws."

Three of the avenues of the Mammoth Cave, are supposed to pass under Greene River,

There is a very remarkable nitre cave in Madison County, on crooked creek, about 60 miles S. East of Lexington. It is 646 yards long, with an average breadth of almost 40 feet, and height of 10 feet, extending entirely through a hill, and affording a passage for Waggons.

There are many streams in the state which sink into caves, and some of them do not appear above ground again.


COUNTIES. Population 1810. CHIEF TOWNS. Population 1810. LESSER TOWNS
Adair 6,011 Columbia 175 New Market.
Allen   Scottsville    
Barren 11,286 Glasgow 244 Thompkinsville, Monroe, Chaplinton, Woodsonville.
Bath   Owingsville    
Boone 3,608 Burlington   Bellevue, Petersburg
Bracken 3,451 Augusta 255 Germantown.
Breckenridge 3,430 Hardinsburg   Stephensport.
Bourbon 18,009 Paris 838 Millersburg, Patesville
Butler 2,181 Morgantown    
Bullitt 4,311      
Clark 1,519 Winchester 538 Indiantown.
Casey 3,285 Liberty 33 Caseyville.
Campbell 3,060 Newport 413 Covington
Christian 1,020 Hopkinsville 131  
Cumberland 6,191 Burkesville 106  
Clay 2,398 Manchester    
Caldwell 4,268 Eddyville   Princeton or Eddygrove
Davies   Owensboro   Vienna.
Estill 2,081 Irvine    
Fayette 21,370 LEXINGTON 5230 Cross-Plains.
Franklin 8,013 FRANKFORD 1099  
Fleming 8,947 Flemingsburg    
Floyd 3,485 Prestonburg 32  
Gallatin 3,307 Port William 120  
Greenup 2,369 Castleburg   Grenupsburg.
Greene 6,735 Greensburg 132 Campbellville, Summerville
Grayson 2,301      
Garrard 9,186 Lancaster 260  
Henry 6,777 Newcastle 125  
Harrison 7,752 Cynthiana 369 Leesburg,
Henderson 4,703 Henderson 159  
Hardin 7,531 Elizabethtown 181 Philadelphia, New Haven


COUNTIES. Population 1810. CHIEF TOWNS. Population 1810 LESSER TOWNS.
Hopkins 2,964 Madisonville 37  
Jessamine 8,377 Nicholasville 158  
Jefferson 13,399 Louisville 1357  
Knox 5,875 Barboursville 55  
Livingston 3,674 Southland 99 Salem, Kirksville, Centreville
Lewis 2,337 Clarksburg   Vanceburg.
Lincoln 8,676 Stanford   Crab-Orchard.
Logan 12,123 Russelsville 532 Shakertown.
Mason 12,459 Washington 814 Maysville, Charleston, Williamsburg.
Mercer 12,630 Danville 432 Harradsburg, Perryville, Shakertown, Whashington
Madison 15,540 Richmond 366 Milford.
Muhlenburgh 4,181 Greensville 75 Lewisburg
Montgomery 12,975 Mountsterling 325  
Nicholas 4,898      
Nelson 14,070 Beardstown 821  
Ohio 3,682 Hartford 110  
Pulaski 6,897 Somerset    
Pendleton 3,061 Falmouth 121  
Rockcastle 1,731      
Scott 12,419 Georgetown 529  
Shelby 14,837 Shelbyville 424  
Union   Carthage   Morganfield, Raleigh.
Wayne 5,430 Monticello 37  
Washington 13,248 Springfield 249 Newmarket, Lebanon, Maxville.
Warren 11,937 Bowlinggreen 154  
Woodford 9,549 Vasillies 488 Leesburg, Mortonsville.

This list includes the towns commenced since the year 1810.


of 1790, whites 61,133, slaves 12,430, free blacks 114, total 73,677
of 1800, 179,875, 40,343, 741, 220,959
of 1810, 324,237, 80,561, 1,713, 406,511

TOWNS. Lexington, though not the seat of government, is the first town in Kentucky. It is situated on both sides of a small branch of the Elkhom river, called Town Fork; in N. lat. 38 deg. 5 min. W. long. 7 deg. 11 min. about 335 miles (by the road) from Pittsburgh. In 1797, says Brown, it contained, only about 50 wooden houses. These however have almost entirely disappeared; and now it contains nearly a thousand houses which are chiefly brick. In 1807 it had 2,400 inhabitants, in 1810 it had 5,230, and the number has probably increased since to about 8,000. During the same period the wealth of the place has increased at least a hundred fold. At


present it is nearly stationary in this respect, as is the case with most of the towns of the western country in through the influence of the banking system.

Near the centre of the town is a public square surrounded with elegant buildings, Main street (along the creek) is 80 feet wide, and little inferior to the streets of the Atlantic cities.

There is a handsome court-house, a masonic hall, and a bank — a beautiful building: four hotels two of which are considered equal, in regard to the luxury and elegance of their accommodations, to any of the hotels of the eastern cities. The Tranylvania University is located here. There are besides a public library, three newspaper offices; one of which, the Monitor, is the only one in the state that belongs to the federal party. The others are the Reporter and Kentucky Gazettee. In 1816 there were 4 nail factories tones, 2 copper and tin factories, 10 saddlers, shops, 5 cabinet, shops, an umbrella factory, 2 stocking weavers' shops, 3 steam grist mills, 2 steam paper mills, several cotton and woolen factories, besides breweries, distilleries, and tanneries, with the usual proportion of other manufacturing establishments.

The town is on a plain which gently inclines towards the creek. The country around it is slightly undulated, very beautiful, rich, and highly cultivated. The neighbourhood is ornamented with fifty or sixty fine villas or country seats.

Louisville is situated at the Falls of the Ohio, N. lat. 38 deg. 16 min. and W. long. 8 deg. 3D rain, about 555 miles (by the river) below Pittsburgh, 360 from the mouth of the Ohio, and 50 west from Frankfort. It is built on an inclined bottom of 70 feet elevation, which leaves a narrow piece of ground, about 17 feet in height, along the shore of the river. It was the scite of a fort, or stockade blockhouse, built in 1774 by Gen. Clark, who was sent for that purpose by Gov. Dunmore (of Virginia).

The town had little trade for a long time, except what arose from the impediment of the river navigation at that point. The marshy, lands in its neighbourhood caused intermittents and bilious complaints. Of late years these evils have been removed, and the total has since exhibited tokens of prosperity truly astonishing. The common opinion is that will henceforth be, of all the towns in the Mississippi valley, second only to New-Orleans.

There is a good boat harbour in the mouth of Beargrass creek, at the upper end of the town; and still water along the river shore as far as the town extends. Below the falls, about a mile from Louisville proper, lie the towns of Shippingsport and Portland. Clarkesville and Jeffersonsville (in indiana state) together with a fine expanse of water up and down the Ohio, and a flourishing country around, present themselves at once to the view from Louisville and form a noble landscape.

In 1816 Mr. L. Baldwin, engineer, was sent by government to both the ground along Louisville shore, and ascertain the practicability of making a Canal there. From his, examinations it appears that by digging about twenty feet in depth (three and a half of which will some places be limestone rock) a canal sufficient for vessels of 400 tons cubic made, Arrangements have been


for that purpose between, the legislatures of the states of Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Virginia and Ohio.

The trade of this place will probably be greatly injured by the circumstance that its landing places both above and below the falls, are private property, at which exorbitant charges for wharfage, &c. are imposed upon all boats and other vessels mooring, loading or unloading; while there are excellent landing places on the Indiana side, all public property and free from every charge.

The harbour at the mouth of Beargrass creek (above the falls) is owned by the house of Gray, commission merchant of Louisville. We have not been able to procure a statement of his rates of wharfage; but those of Mr. Tarascon (which are nearly similar) I insert here at length, as It is highly important that they should be known to all Ohio traders. Tarascon's landings extend from Rock island to the foot of Shippingport.

Vessels under 50 tons shall pay 25 cents per day      
Vessels above 50 and not over 109 tons 37 1-2      
100 150 — 50
150 200 — 62 1-2
200 250 — 75
250 300 — 87 1-2
300 350 — 100
350 400 — 112 1-2
400 500 — 125
  above 500 — 137 1-2


The wharfage for cargoes is intended to be a charge against the goods only; but Jonn A Tarascon will charge it against the vessels, and recover it from them, their commander, or vessels owners, as an express condition of his letting vessels load or unload on his property. The vessels to be reimbursed from the shippers or consignees.

Every vessel shall pay one cent for every hundred pounds weight of goods that she shall load from the aforesaid wharves or landing places and one cent for every hundred pounds weight that she shall discharge on them Haifa cent for every hundred pounds that vessels do deliver by water, to lighters, or receive from them when tied to the aforesaid wharves or landing places.

Regulations — The captain or commander of every vessel, will, on the day of her arrival at the wharf or landing places, provide John A Tarascon with a manifest of the tonnage of goods she has to unload, to enable him to make out his bill of wharfage of goods; and also with a certificate of her tonnage by measurement, in order to enable him to make out his bill of wharfage of the vessel. And if the said captain or commander shall fail to provide him with said manifest and certificate as aforesaid, then John A. Tarascon will consider the vessel as fully loaded, and will charge the said vessel her captain or commander and her owners with the wharfage for the goods, equal to the full tonnage of said vessel.

The captain or commander of every vessel loaded at any of the aforesaid wharves or landing places, will also, before leaving it, deliver to John A. Tarascon, a manifest if the tonnage of the goods


she has taken on board, and if she does fail to deliver it as aforesaid John A. Tarascon will charge said vessel, her captain or commander and owners, for her cargo, a wharfage equal to her full tonnage.

Every captain or commander of any such vessel shall, before leaving the wharf or landing place, pay John A. Tarascon his bills of wharfage agreeable to the aforesaid rates, and if he shall tail paying it at the aforesaid time; then John A. Tarascon will require and exact from said Vessel, her captain of commander and owners, as an express condition of his wharfage, twice as much as the aforesaid rates.

Vessels employed, in discharging or receiving cargoes are to have the preference in births. Idle boats to lay outside at half daily rates.

Wagons, drays, carts, &c, employed at hawling to or from the wharves or landing places, to follow the directions prescribed by the wharf keeper; idle ones to keep out of the way until wanted.

Shippingport (Ken.) March 4, 1820.

Maysville, formerly called Limestone, is situated below, the mouth of Limestone creek, 66 miles above Cincinnati, and 283 (by the river) below Pittsburgh It has long been a point of great communication between Pittsburgh and the interior of Kentucky; and of course its trade is almost exclusively that of an entrepot. It if situated on an elevated irregular shore, about 50 rods wide; at the bottom of a steep hill 450 feet in height. In 1816 it had about 400 houses. There are one printing office and one glass factory in it. Opposite the town there is a good landing place, and a good boat harbour in the mouth of Limestone creek. Just above the town there is a ship-yard, at which several vessels have been built. The hill above the town presents a beautiful prospect of the rivers, and of fine flourishing portions of the states of Ohio and Kentucky on each side.

Washington is situated upon the up and, three miles to the Southwest of Maysville, in the center of a rich settlement.

Paris is situated upon a little hill on the right bank of Stonerfork fork (of Licking river) above the mouth of Huston creek. It is about equal in size to Maysville. It is 20 miles to the eastward of Lexington. The road between these two towns passes through a most delightful district. If we set picturesque effect out of the question, and regard only the united circumstances of fertility and improvement; it is probably not rivalled by any other portion of the new world.

Georgetown is situated at the Royal Spring, about a mile from its confluence with the North Elkborn, — 13 miles north of Lexington. It has claimed some notice on account of its manufactories.

Bairdstown or Bardstown, is situated near the Reech Fork (of Salt River,) 35 miles south of Frankfort. In 1816 it contained 200 houses.


Covington and Newport, are chiefly distinguished for being situated opposite to Cincinnati, and affording a fine view of the beauties of that neighbourhood.

SCHOOLS. The university of Transylvania was first incorporated fey the Virginia legislature, when, Kentucky belonged to that state; again in 1798 it was incorporated by the Kentucky legislature. It has been little attended toy until lately; but now it may perhaps claim some reputation, as a complete board of professors in the different branches of the Medical art has been added to its other prosors of mathematical, philosophical and classical learning.

There are several academies in this state; but neither their situation, nor even their number are correctly known. Of late years the business, of education, seems to have attracted the attention of the Kentuckians in an exemplary degree.

COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. The following table of articles produced, and their value for one year, is an abstract of a return made to the secretary of state in 1810.

Tanneries, $ 255,212 Saltpetre $ 33,648
Distilleries, 740,242 Paper Mills 18,600
Looms 2,057,081 Rope walks, 393,400
Hemp, 690,600 Cotton bagging Manufac 159,445
Maple Sugar, 308,932  
Powder Mills, 38,561 15 Spinning Machines.
Putting Mills, 78,407 3 Forges.
Salt Works, 324,870 4 Iron Foundaries.

The Chief articles of export, are, Hemp, Tobacco, Wheat, Maize, Bacon, Saltpetre, and Whiskey.

HISTORY OF SETTLMENT. Kentucky, it has been said, was settled in tears and blood, and was formerly known by the name of "the Bloody Ground." The first white man who visited it was John Finley, who, having been on a trading expedition in the Western Country, among the Indians, returned through some part of this state on his way home to North Carolina, in the year 1766. He described the beauty and fertility of the country to the celebrated Col. Daniel Boon, who agreed to attempt a settlement in it with him. In May 1769, they set off for this purpose, accompanied by John Stewart, Joseph Holden, James Moray, and Wm. Coal, and on the 7th of June, of the same year, they arrived at a place which they called Boonsborough. It was on the Kentucky river, about 80 miles above Frankfort. The party was attacked by the savages, and all of them were plundered and killed except Boon, who remained in solitude in the wilderness until the year 1771. He removed his family from the Yadkin river, but was prevented by the Indians from bringing it further than the Clinch river in 1775 he went with others and built a fort at Boonsborough, and then returned for his family. They were accompanied in their journey back to the fort by five other families from N. Carolina and 40 men from Powel's Valley. During that year and the two succeeding ones, they had several engagements with the Indians without being taken. But in Jan. 1778 while Boon was along with 27 of his men, making salt at the Blue Licks, he was met by a party of 102 Indians. He capitulated


and was carried along with the rest of his men, first to Old Chillicothe (on the, Little Miami) and afterwards to Detroit. Some of the British there offered 100 pounds for his liberation but the Indians refused it. They had become attached to him, and one of the chiefs adopted him as a son.

In the mean time, his wife believing him to be dead, returned with her family to her father, in N. Carolina. The rest of the people at Boonsborough remained there, having been reinforced by 100 men from Virginia, under Col. Bowman, and 45 men from N. Carolina.

Boon in the mean time, lived as an Indian, and on the 15th of April of the same year returned with his captors to Old Chillicothe. Being absent with a salt making party for seven days he found on his return 450 warriors prepared to march against his establishment in Kentucky. He escaped on the 16th of June, and on the 20th arrived at Boonsborough: a distance of 160 miles — eating only one meal on the journey. The fort at Boonsborough was immediately put to repair, and, after sustaining several slight attacks from small parties of Indians, they beheld on the 8th of August, the Chillicothe army of 444 warriors, whose delay had been caused by Boons desertion. They were commanded by Capt. Du Quesne, and 11 other Frenchmen, and some savage Chiefs. The fort being required to surrender, Boon asked two days to deliberate, which were granted. Continuing his defensive preparations, at the expiration of the time he bid them defiance. They however contrived to draw him, and 8 others, out of the fort, under pretence of treating with him; but when he perceived their object was to take him, he and his companions broke from amongst them, & with the loss of 1 man regained the fort. A furious attack and siege was then commenced by the savages, and continued for nine days without effect, at the end of which time they departed; having had 37 of their men killed and several more wounded. Of Boon's party two were killed, and 4 were wounded. Similar scenes frequently occurred afterwards in this state, down to the period of peace in 1795.

We have little room for details, but the personal fate of Col. Boon claim; some notice. After Kentucky was settled he was dispossessed of his lands by some one who had purchased the right from government. Thus he was compelled to remove in poverty and in his old age, into the bosom of the wilderness. He located himself upon the Missouri at the mouth of the great Osage, 100 miles from the habitation of a white man. The place has since been known by the name of Boon's Lick — now Howard County. There he has discharged creditably the duties of a magistrate and a legislator, but is distinguished only as a hunter. In this occupation he twice a year makes a journey of several days into the wildest part to the wilderness, accompanied by a man who is bound in articles to take care of him, and bring him back again dead or alive. He has passed his 80th year, and is now nearly incapacitated from hunting by reason his loss of sight. This singular man has been most, actively engaged in every American war that has happened since Gen. Braddock's defeat in 1755.


CONSTITUTION. His governor is elected by the citizens every four years, and the same person may not be re-elected for the term of seven years. He must be a citizen of the United States at least 35 years of age, and must have resided, within this state for six years immediately preceding his election. If he disapproves a bill of the legislature it may pass into a law by a reconsideration of both houses, and a vote of a majority in each. There is a lieutenant governor elected for the same period as the governor, and he must possess the same legal qualifications. When not called to exercise the office of governor he is ex-officio president of the senate.

The legislature {called the General Assembly) consists of a senate and house of representatives. The senators are elected by districts, and hold their offices for four years. They are divided into four classes, and the term of one class expires every year. They must be citizens of the United States, at least 35 years of age, and must have resided, for the six years immediately preceding their election, within the districts for which they are elected. The number of senators must not exceed 38. The representatives are elected by counties and towns for the term of one year. They must be citizens of the United States at least 24 years of age; and must have resided within the state two years — and the last year preceding their election within the town or county for which they are elected. The State elections take place on the first Monday of August, and the Assembly convenes on the first Monday of November, annually.


State of Tennessee.




Tennessee is 470 miles in length and 138 miles in breadth. On the west it is separated from Missouri and Arkansaw by the Mississippi river. On the east it is separated from North Carolina by an irregular line running in a north-east direction along a range of the Allegheny mountains from the Hiwassee river. Its northern boundary is the line of 36 degrees 30 minutes of north latitude, which separates it from Kentucky and Virginia. Its south boundary is the line of the 35th degree of north latitude which separates it from the States of Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia — striking the Mississippi river seven miles below the mouth of Wolf river — or four and a half miles above Fort Pickering, which is on the lower Chickasaw Bluffs.

RIVERS. Tennessee is the largest stream that flows into the Ohio — the actual length being estimated at 1100 miles, though our maps do not exhibit it more than about 800. It rises in Georgia state near the head waters of the Alabama river (which flows into the gulf of Mexico) and likewise near those of the Savannah river (which flows into the Atlantic ocean.) After passing the Georgia line it runs west and somewhat northerly until it approaches the Cumberland mountains. It then runs along those mountains south-west until it crosses the south boundary line of the state at the Black mountain, which point is the north-western angle of Georgia state. It then runs nearly 200 miles through the Alabama state, returning into Tennessee at the point which divides the Alabama from the Mississippi state. It then runs nearly north through the Tennessee state, and passing across the south-west corner of Kentucky state enters the Ohio 60 miles above its confluence with the Mississippi, and 13 miles below the mouth of Cumberland river. For more than 400 miles from its, mouth it receives no large stream except Duck liver, which enters about 100 miles from the mouth. Hiwassee enters in East Tennessee about 50 miles from the Georgia line. This is the only river which flows into it on the left (or south) side, through the whole extent of its passages; twice across the state. On the right side it receives Holston, which seems to be properly the mainstream. Its principal sources are in Virginia. Four miles below Knoxville it receives the French Broad river (which comes from North Carolina) and about 60 miles below Knoxville it unites with the


Tennessee proper. Clinch river likewise rises in Virginia amongst the Cumberland mountains, Powel's mountain and Clinch mountain, and flaws into the Holston at Kingston.

The broad shallows of the Tennessee river, called Muscle shoals, are nearly 250 miles from its mouth, and are included within the limits of Alabama state. The great Whirl is in this state 180 miles above the shoals. Thirty miles above the Whirl is the Shallow ford, a shoal at which the river is 1200 yards broad. All the head branches of the Tennesse are greatly obstructed by rocks. In 1819 a number of persons were employed in removing the obstructions of the Holston branch.

Cumberland, or Shawnee or Shavoran river is next in size to the Tennessee. It rises in Kentucky near the sources of the Great Sandy, and enters Tennessee state near the town of Price. After running S. W. it turns and runs north-west, preserving some parallelism with the Tennessee river — the range of Cumberland mountains lying between them through the chief part of their course. On the right or north side it receives no large stream in this state except Red river, which enters near the Kentucky line at Clurksville — ninety miles from the Ohio. On the left side it receives Obles or Oby river, Caney-Fork, Stone river, Harpath and Licking rivers, all of which, besides a very grout number of creeks, have their sources in the Cumberland mountains. The part of Cumberland river included in Tennessee is estimated at 200 miles.

The Mississippi receives — within this state — Bayou river near the northern boundary, and Wolf or Margot river near the southern.

FACE OF THE COUNTRY. About three-fourths of Tennessee consists of mountains generally irregular and rugged, but often beautifully picturesque and sublime. The eastern half of the state is almost entirely mountainous, but there are many level and fertile vallies in it, particularly along the Tennessee river. The western half, though intersected with mountains in every direction, presents large districts of level land, extremely rich and finely situated; particularly in the country, around Nashville. Towards the western border the country becomes rolling and in many places flat. The mountains of Tennessee form the southern termination of the great Appalachian chain which separates the Atlantic portion of the United States from what we call the "Western Country" or "Valley of the Mississippi." The lines of its ridges are not only more broken and irregular, but they are likewise more fertile and less elevated than the central parts of the range in Kentucky, Virginia, Pennsylvania or New-York. Many of the wildest steepest "knobs" present a fine black mould, and are covered with beech, tulip tree or poplar, sugar tree and oak, all of great size; while the plants are ginseng and others indicative of a deep rich soil. The Dark glens called Coves are numerous all


over the east end of the state. They are filled with cane brakes and trees of greater magnitude, and often exhibit on their sides the alternate strata of the earth and limestone which encircle them. Nothing can be more wild and lonesome than the appearance of such places where not even a breath of air disturbs the silence of the solitude. In the summits of some of the mountains there are large conical holes resembling the craters of volcanoes, and which probably had been the saves whose roofs were broken down. They are called sinks in the flat lands, because in some places the streams sink through their opening, and afterwards pursue subterraneous courses. They are found only where limestone rock in the substratum of the soil — but that is the case over the greater part of the state as in Kentucky.

There is a great number of caves in this state, some of which contain salt petre abundantly, one of them — on a peak of the Cumberland mountains — is so deep that a stone thrown into it returns no sound. The central parts of East Tennessee — that is the country around Knoxville, present wide rich vallies much diversified abounding more in fine picturesque scenery than any other part of the United States. There are no swamps in Tennessee, at least none large enough to deserve notice. The river bottoms resemble the rich lands of Kentucky, both as to fertility, dryness and productions — being generally covered with cane. The second rate soil has black walnut, hickory, beech, linn, sycamore, elm, black locust and honey locust, oak, poplar, wild cherry, papaw, spice wood, with grape vines, similar, &c. On the most barren hills and high plains there are generally pine, cedar and oak.

CLIMATE. Tennessee is regarded as the healthiest state in the union, and, with regard to temperature, it is probably the most agreeable. There is however a very great difference in this respect, between the northern and southern parts of it. The chain of the Cumberland mountains passing, as was said, between the two great rivers of the state, and dividing the north from the south side, presents, even within the distance of a few miles, the climate of Kentucky with its frosts and snows on the north and the climate of Alabama on the south.

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS. Limestone constitutes the chief basis of this state. Plaster of Paris has been obtained abundantly in Greene and Carter counties, and probably may have been found in many other parts of the state. Copperas is manufactured in West Tennessee. Iron is abundant through the whole state, and some lead mines have been discovered.

CURIOSITIES. "There is a remarkable ledge of rocks in the Cumberland mountains, about 30 miles in length and 200 feet thick, with a perpendicular face of the south-east. The whirl is more grand than the irruption of the Potomac through


the Blue ridge. The Tennessee which a few miles above is half a mile wide contracts here to one hundred yards, and forces its way through the outer ridge of the Appalachian, forming a pool by striking against a large rock." So says Barton on the authority of Morse. Loaded boats ascend the river at this whirl or suck by towing — a process which boatmen call "cordelling."

The salt-petre caves are many of them remarkable. Several contain petrifactions and stalactites. Some of them contain streams of water. In White county there is a water-mill in one of them.

The Enchanted mountain is near the headwaters of Tennessee river about, 100 miles south from Knoxville, and about 2 miles south from Brasstown. It presents numerous rocks of steatite which are covered with tracks of turkies, bears, horses and people. The impressions are as distinct as if formed in clay or snow, and with such resemblance, to real tracks, that if they were sculptured they must have been have thee labour of the most exquisite art. In one of the prints the foot seems to have slip aside, and again recovered its hold in a substance which at the time must have been clays. The human tracks are very large — one of them 16 inches in length, and all of them present six toes, except one which seems to have been the track of a negro. The tracks made by one pf the horses are 3 inches by 10 in size.


East Tennessee COUNTIES Population of 1810 CHIEF TOWNS.
  Anderson 3,959  
  Bledsoe 8,839 Marysyille
  Blunt 3,259 Maryville
  Campbell 2,668  
  Carter 4,190 Elizabethtown
  Claiborne 4,798 Tazewell
  Cocke 5,134 Newport
  Granger 6,397 Rutlege
  Green 9,713 Greenville
  Hawkins 7,643 Rogersville
  Jefferson 7,309 Dandridge
  Knox 10,171 KNOXVILLE
  Rhea 2,504 Washington
  Roane 5,571 Kingston
  Servier 4,595 Sevierville
  Sullivan 6,843 Blountville
  Washington 7,740 Jonesborough
  Total 101,367  
West Tennessee Bedford 8,242 Shelbyville
  Davidson 15,608 NASHVILLE
  Dickson 4,516  
  Franklin 5,370 Winchester
  Giles 4,546 Pulaski
  Hickman 2,583  
  Humphrey 1,511  
  Jackson 5,401 Williamson
  Lincoln 6, l04 Fayetteville
  Montgomery 8,021 Clarkesville
  Maury 10,359 Columbia
  Overton 5,641 Monroe
  Robertson 7,276 Springfield
  Rutherford 10,265 Jefferson
  Sumner 13,792 Gallatin
  Smith 11,640 Dixons-Springs
  Stuart 4,261  
  Wilson 11,902 Lebanon
  Williamson 18,121 Franklin
  White 4,028 Sparta
  Warren 5, 720 McMinnville.
    160, 360  
    261, 727  


TOWNS. Nashville is the largest town in the state and contains about 3000 inhabitants. It is lat. 36ş 4' N and longitude 10° west from Washington. It is situated within a large bend of the Cumberland river — on the south side — upon a elevated plain; and is surrounded by beautiful groves of cedar. It is perfectly healthy; and great commercial advantages in the midst of rich settlements, it must soon become an important city. Cumberland college, the only literary establishment in the state worthy, is located here.

Knoxville is the chief town of East Tennessee, and is nearly as large as Nashville. It is in N. lat. 35ş 55' and 2 longitude 6° 51'. It is situated on the north shore of the Holston river, near the mouth of the French-Broad river, in the midst of a country whose scenery is delightfully and romantically diversified. Its great advantage will be that the route of communication between the great Atlantic sea ports and the lower Mississippi and Alabama country must pass through it.

SCHOOLS. While Tennessee was a territory three colleges was incorporated in it — one in Washington country called Washington college — one in Greene Country called Greenville — and one in Knox county called Knoxville college. The U. States made a donation of 100,000 acres of land for their support; but they are not in a flourishing condition. The new college at Nashville will no doubt become a very respectable institution. Its property is valued at 50,000 dollars.

The U. States made a donation to this state of 100,000 acres for the purpose of establishing academies in all of the counties which were at the time organized.

AGRICULTURE AND COMMERCE. Cotton is the great staple of trade. It is cultivated to as much advantage here as in any part of the United States: but it is inferior in quality to that which is produced in warmer climates — being too short in the fibre.

Hemp grows luxuriantly here, and has of late been raised in large quantities. Flax grows well, but it is raised only for domestic use.

No part in the United States is better suited for Indian corn; and is largely cultivated here for the supply of the southern countries. Wheat, rye, oats, barley and buck-wheat are also produced sufficient for the use of the state, and generally in considerable quantities for exploration.

Apples, peaches and most kinds of fruit are abundant and good.

Salt-petre from their caves, crude and manufactured, is becoming an article of export. Salt is made at several sprints, but not in quantity sufficient to supply the state. Coal abounds in many parts.

Bacon, beef, pork, lard, butter, tallow and leather are exported to Natches and New Orleans. Allum, copperas, lead


and iron are said to be in quantity sufficient for domestic supply.

SETTLEMENT. Tennessee was included in the second charter granted to the proprietors of Carolina by Charles II. At the division of that province, which took place subsequent to the second charter, the territory constituting this state was included in the part called North Carolina.

The first settlements of white people were commenced at the Watauga river about the year 1770. The settlers lived under laws and regulations of their own enactment receiving no protection from the government of N. Carolina, and remaining entirely unnoticed. They took part in the revolutionary war in concert with the settlers of Kentucky — which then belonged to Virginia. They were invited to join the British standard but rejected the proposition unanimously. In consequence to that decision they were invaded by an army of Cherokees in 1776; but by united efforts and great bravery they defended themselves and completely defeated the savages.

Tennessee was placed under a territorial government in 1790, and in 1796 it became a state — the sixteenth in the union,

CONSTITUTION. The governor's elected by the people for the term of two years; but may not be elected more than three times within any term of 8 years. He is commander in chief of the militia and navy (it there be any) of the state, except when they are in the service of the U. States. Contested elections for governor are to be decided by the legislature.

The general assembly consists of a senate and house of representatives. The senators and representatives are elected every two years. To be eligible to either house a man must be a citizen of the U. States, at least 21 years of age, and must have resided within the state 3 years — one year immediately preceding the election in the county for which he is elected. The number of representatives is to be fixed by the general assembly once every seven years. The number in the senate shall not be less than one third, nor more than one half of the number in the lower house; the number in the latter shall not exceed 26 until the number of taxable inhabitants in the state amounts to 40,000. Bills may originate in either house. When vacancies happen in either of them the governor shall issue writs of election. The representatives have the power of impeaching, and the senate the power of trying.

The judicial power is vested in courts of law and courts of chancery.

When two-thirds of the general assembly shall deem it expedient to alter the constitution, they are to recommend to the people to signify their opinion by a negative or affirmative vote at the general election next ensuing. If the affirmatives prevail the general assembly, at the session following, must proceed to call a convention for the purpose, which must consist of as many members as the general assembly, and be elected in the same manner.


Sketch of Arkansaw Territory.


Arkansas is bounded on the south by the line of N. lat. 33ş which separates it from Louisiana state; on the east by the Mississippi river, which separates it from the states of Mississippi and Tennessee; on the north by tire line of N. lat. 36° beginning at the Mississippi river, and running west to the river St. Francis, and by a line running up the middle of that river to lat. 36° 30', then by that line of latitude running west to the meridian, that intersects the mouth of the Kanzas river, which latter lines separate it from the state of Missouri. On the west the boundaries are undefined.

RIVERS. The St. Francis is navigable about 660 miles, running nearly parallel with the Mississippi, and at no great distance from it. Near its heads it is a beautiful stream, but for 3 or 400 miles of its lower part it flows through a flat marshy country, has little current, inundates its banks, and communicates with numerous lagoons and lakes in its course; so that navigators unacquainted with it are often liable to be carried out of its main channel. Its mouth is about 900 miles below the mouth of the Ohio.

White river enters the Mississippi about 75 miles below the St. Francis. It is navigable about 1000 miles, but is remarkably crooked. It presents no shoals or rapids, and in depth varies very little with the change of the seasons, as the springs it irises from are generally of great magnitude and purity. Its western branch rises in the Black mountains which divides it from the Arkansaw. Its northern branch rises near the heads of the Osage, Gasconade and Merrimack rivers. Its principal branches are, Rapid river, John river, James river, Red river, and Black Fiver. The latter enters on the eastern side, about 400 miles from the Mississippi, and is navigable 4 or 500 miles Spring river, one of the branches of Black river, is formed out of a few grand fountains which rise contiguous to each other, and unite into a kind of lake. At first it is 250 yards wide, but gradually diminishes to the fourth part of that breadth. It is however navigable for boats to its source. Those springs afford great abundance of most excellent fish, and during the winter months are resorted to by immense flocks of wild geese and ducks.

The Arkansaw debouches 20 miles below the White river.


and communicates with it by a lagoon through which a current runs from the one to the other alternately, according as either one happens to be surcharged. This is a larger stream than the Ohio, and of all the branches of the Mississippi is inferior only to the Missouri. It rises near Lit. 41° in that part of the Caous or Cordillera mountains which give rise to the Rio del None of Texas, the Colorado of California, the Platte and Yellow-Stone branches of the Missouri, and the Red river of Louisiana. It is 2000 miles or upwards in length, though the distance from its source to its mouth is only 11 or 1200. It is generally very shallow near its mouth in summer and autumn; but for 4 or 500 miles its upper part affords good navigation in the driest seasons. The same is observable of several rivers south of this. The reason, of it is, that the country bordering the mountains at its source, is clayey and gravelly for a breadth of 7 or 800 miles; but between that and the Mississippi there is a sandy region which absorbs the rivers. Its chief branches are, 1 the Nagracka, 2 Neskalonka, 3 Grand Saline or Newsewketonga, 4 Strong Saline, S Verdigris, 6 Grand river, 7 Des Illinois, 8 Canadian river or West Arkansaw, 9 Pottoe, 10 Riviere au Millieu, 11 Bayou Marcallin.

For several hundred miles the Washita through this territory before it enters the state of Louisiana, receiving the Bayon Cerne, Cypress, Saline and Hachias branches.

This territory is like wise watered by several unimportant streams which flow into the Big Red river on the north side.

FACE OF THE COUNTRY. Two ranges, of hills extend through territory, from the Chippewan mountains (a portion of the Cordilleras) The first, called the Masseme ridges, divide the waters of White river from those of Big Red river, and terminate near the centre of Louisiana. The second; improperly called the Black mountains, divide the waters of White river from those of the Missouri.

The eastern portion of the territory consists chiefly marshy flats of great breadth extending along the St. Francis, the White river, the Arkansaw, and their tributaries. The land fit a distance from these great streams consists of level sandy prairies, intersected with dry gravelly ridge and occasional tracts of rolling woodland. A great portion of the flats are subject to annual inundation, and are extremely unhealthy.

The south side of the territory is mostly hilly, rugged bare, and sterile; presenting a gravelly soil and stunted timber. The river bottoms are rich, and generally broad; and there are few tracts of fertile upland.

The interior and west side of the territory consists of prairie intersected by strips of woodland along the streams, and dry barren ridges with a few rich flats.

Towards then or the bottom land is chiefly rich and well-timbered, but full of thickets, cane brakes, and marshes. The trees are walnut, oak, ash, maple, sycamore and mulberry. A


a distance from the rivers are wide beautiful prairies, encircled by heavy wooded plains, or sterile limestone ridges often irregular and precipitous, with many agreeable sloping vallies of considerable fertility.

The basis of the territory is chiefly stratified limestone, resting probably upon quartzy rocks, seldom alternating with clay slate, and containing few magnesian fossils.

PRODUCTIONS. Salt is, in many parts of the territory, plentiful to excess. On some of the northern branches of the Arkansaw the hills are penetrated with beds of rock salt, sometimes pure and white, and sometimes of a reddish tint. The salt plains of Arkansaw are great natural curiosities. One of them, which has been minutely described by Dr. Sibley is situated about 280 miles south of fort Osage. It is about 30 miles in circumference, and is encircled by a narrow marshy prairie. It is level, hard and dry, being composed of a reddish coloured sand. When the weather is dry and warm it is covered with beautiful white salt from two to six inches in depth, slightly encrusted upon the surface. When the sun shines upon it in the morning, the watery vapour which ascends, magnifies to an astonishing degree the view of all the objects seen through it. In the same quarter there are several other similar plains, and some which are occasionally covered with salt petre.

Some of the springs of this country are, from their taste and operation, supposed to contain Glauber's salts (sulphate of soda) many are sought to contain sulphur, probably sulphuretted hydrogen. Chalybeate waters (that is springs containing carbonated oxide of iron) are numerous every where, and many other minerals are conjectured to exist in the springs of this territory, though none except the Hot Springs of Washita have been analyzed. Most mineral substances dissolved in springs, are of course precipitated when they emerge into the atmosphere; but here so many are still retained in solution, that the rivers are often very sensibly impregnated by them.

The Hot Springs are regarded as the main source of the Washita, and are in N. lat. 34° 30' and W. long. 18° 30'. They are much resorted to, both by the white people and Indians of the Mississippi and Arkansaw countries, and are celebrated for curing chronic pains and paralytic affections. They are six in number, all issuing from the same hill. Their water varies in temperature and quantity with the temperature of the season, being coolest and most abundant in winter. It rises nearly to boiling point in summer. It is clear, tasteless, without smell and in every respect more pure than spring water is in general, It contains a very small portion of kitchen salt — less of carbonic acid and sulphate of lime than is commonly found in springs; a portion of iron which Dr. Mitchell says was scarcely perceptible; which of course we would suppose to be less than the fiftieth part of a grain in each gallon. In this water, near boiling heat, Dr. Hunter found a green plane growing (a species


of conferva no doubt) and an animal of the shell-fish kind adhering to it and living.

Near the Arkansaw river, in the side of a hill, there are five holes about 18 inches in diameter and two feet deep, which are continually filled with salt water without ever overflowing, nor can the one diminish the quantity in them by lading ever so much out.

Salt-petre caves similar to that of Kentucky, abound in the western parts of the territory, and many of them stalactites and stalagmites.

Considerable mineral wealth may be expected in the Arkansaw country, particularly in the northern and western portions of it.


The Village of Arkansaw is in lat. 33ş 58' on the north side of the river of Arkansaw, about 60 miles above 60 above its confluence with the Mississippi, and about 40 miles from the mouth of the White river by the way of the cut off, or 25 by the overland route, which is practicable only in the times of low river.

It was established above 40 years ago by the French, but made little progress until of late, since it have become the seat of the territorial government. It is situated upon the first high land which we meet in ascending the river. At two plates below this Spanish attempt to establish garrison, but they were drowned out by the high river. In the town, at the distance of 3 miles, a prairie commenced which extends 90 miles towards the head of the White River. The land whose village is built consists of a dry [unknown] [unknown] which is washed by the rains of the deep ravines which greatly incommode the inhabitants and injure the appearance of the place. The trade of this quarter is increasing rapidly, and must become important as the river is navigable for steamboats for a great distance beyond the village, though a tract of country abounding in furred animal and probably in valuable minerals.

At the late census there were, in this territory, 10,000 males and at the last election for delegates 1263 votes were given.


State of Louisiana.




Louisiana lies between N. lat. 29° and 33°. It is 300 miles in length, from east to west, and 240 in breadth, having an area of 48,220 square miles, or 50,860,000 acres.

On the west it is separated from the province of Texas by the Sabine river, as far north as lat. 32 degrees; and by a line running from that point directly north to lat. 33. On the north it is separated from the Arkansaw country by the line of the 33d degree of latitude. The division between this state and Mississippi state is the Mississippi river, from the point of lat. 33 deg. to lat. 31deg. thence the line of lat 31 as far east as the Pearl river: and through that river to its mouth. The south boundary is the Gulf of Mexico.

RIVERS. The Mississippi waters this state about 700 miles but only constitutes its eastern boundary for a part of that distance — i. e. above the mouth of Red river. As this river and most of its tributaries have been already described in separate portions, a better idea of its extent may fee communicated by the following list of its main branches.

Of the streams that flow into it either immediately or through those branches, the whole number large enough to he entitled rivers, may amount to about five hundred.

  Miles long.    
Mississippi 2400   The first column of figures shows the length of the different rivers. The second shows the distance of their mouths from the mouth of the Mississippi; but those included in brackets being tributaries of the Red River, Ohio and Missouri, the second column shows how far the mouth of each of them is from the mouth of the river which receives it. It is to be remarked concerning of the Mississippi, that the best late maps and the best descriptions of them are very contradictory.
Red river 1500 354  
Washita 400 30  
Arkansaw 1100 650  
White river 800 670  
St. Francis 600 945  
Ohio 920 1250  
Tennessee 1100 60  
Cumberland 450 71  
Wabash 460 136  
Kenhawa 300 693  
Allegheny 300 920  
Monongahela 180 920  
Missouri 3100 1445  
Osage 600 133  
Kanzas 1200 300  
Platte 2000 600  
Yellowstone 1100 1800  
Illinois 500 1463  
Wisconsin 600 1800  


Thus it appears that the Mississippi is the largest river in the world, though Pinkerton and the other geographers have assigned that distinction to the Maranon of South America; and have even contended that the Kian-ku of China, and the Ob of Siberia, are longer than any river in North America. Neither of the latter can exceed 2000 miles. Pinkerton estimates the Maranon at 2300 — but, even admitting Ulloa's conjecture that it is 3300, still the Mississippi exceeds it by more than 1100 miles; for counting from its mouth, at the Balize, to the source of its main branch (the Missouri) it is 4545 miles in length.

It is likewise probable that it evolves a greater quantity of water than any other river. Admitting the Maranon to be 60 miles wide at its mouth; the St. Lawrence, which is far inferior to any of those great rivers referred to, is 90 miles wide at its mouth. But those mouths are estuaries with scarcely any perceptible current, and with all the characteristics of inland seas. The wideness of a river's estuary only proves the barrenness of the country it flows through. The width of the Maranon proper may be assumed at three miles. It is 5 or 600 feet deep for several hundred miles above its mouth, yet it has but, little current in that distance, and the tide reaches above 600 miles from its mouth. The current of a river is always greatest at the surface. When it is of very great depth it has little or no current near its bottom. The average width of the Mississippi, from St. Louis, to its mouth, is about one mile, though in many places it is only half that distance. For the last two hundred miles it is from 150 to 200 feet deep, and its current 4, 5 and 6 miles an hour. From the month of the Ohio to the Baton Rouge sits depth varies from 30 to 60 and 20 feet. That impetuous current is its great evil, and the cause of almost all its dangers and inconveniencies; yet with all it is indisputably the most important river on our globe. "It winters with its tributaries" says Melish, "nearly 1,500,000 square miles," that is "above the two thirds of the whole United States' territory:" a part of which exceeds the rest even more in fertility than in extent.

It is a singularity in this river that in ascending from its mouth to the mouth of the Ohio we find its average width regularly increasing. Notwithstanding the immense volume of water afforded by the Red river and the other large lower branches, its rise in times of floods is far less near its mouth an it is several hundred miles above. At the outlets the rise is scarcely perceptible; at Orleans (100 miles) it is usually 13 feet; at Baton Rouge (200 miles) about 30 feet; and at Natches (300 miles) about, 50 feet. Every year, about the month of May, it rises slowly and regularly to the same height — at least never varying more than a few inches. Of late years, it has been a little higher than it had been formerly; a change evidently caused by the channel of its great outlet, the Atchafalaya being nearly filled up. This outlet, or bayou, or river usually carried


off to the ocean three fourths of the surplus, water which the Mississippi received from the spring floods of its tributaries. The crevasse (or bursting of the embankments) which did so much damage at Orleans in 1816, was attributed entirely to this cause.

The Mississippi has frequently changed its channel. The most remarkable places of its change are at the mouth of the Yazoo river, at the mouth of Homochitto, and at Point Coupee, about 30 miles above Baton Rouge. The first of these is small; the Cut-off at Homochitto has formed an island seven leagues in circumference. At point Coupee the river, a fear years ago, formed nearly a circle somewhat larger than the latter; and soon Canadian traders dug a small channel across the neck of the peninsula. The river soon opened a passage for the whole volume of its water, and now the old bed is filled up, being dry land except when the river is flooded.

Some, judging from the facts, maintain that this river has been continually making great changes in its course, and that the lakes, lagoons and marshes so numerous though all its bottoms have each in turn constituted its main channel. But Mr. Darby, whose authority should have great weigh, contends that the bed of that river has never made any material alteration at least in regards to its location.

It has evidently debouched, at some remote period, through an immense estuary, for its bottoms consist of the same materials which its water still continue to deposit on its shores; that is sand and gross particles in the upper position, and a fine tenacious black clay near its mouth. When the river is low the water has a milky tint, but in the time of floods it is very muddy. So impure it is that when the floods are abating, that by filling a glass with it, and letting it stand still a few minutes, it deposits a muddy sentimental nearly equal to the one eight of the whole quantity. The immense mass of matter thus carried downward has therefore formed its flat and still continues to raise them higher. It has likewise protruded its shores above a hundred miles into the gut, and has besides formed shoals which have embarrassed vessels far at sea. From its mouth there is a perpetual current tending westward to the Texas coast. This is evident by the direction of the gulf shoals, and still more by the inconceivable quantity of the driftwood which covers the shores many hundreds of miles westward, which not an atom is carried eastward.

Beside the numerous lagoons which leave the Mississippi far from its mouth, and carry its surplus waters to the sea, there are six outlets called passes, though which the main stream discharges itself. They are the west, southwest, south, southeast, north and Passe a Loutre. Before the mouths of these there are curved bars which are still changing their positions and depth. The south east is usually called the main pass; and its mouth the Balize. Of late years its bar has generally been about 12 feet deep. The southwest past is the longest and narrowest. For several years its bar had 18 feet water, but rose until it had only 8 — but of late it usually has about 12. The Passe a Loutre has about 8 feet, and on account of its direction, is often taken by the smallest surf of eastward bound vessels.


The bars of the passes consist entirely of earth deposited form the water of the river. It is a hard dark coloured, tenacious clay, somewhat resembling pitch. Several persons of information have recommended a plan for destroying them — it is thus; rendering the mouth of the passes very narrow by pipers composed of piles driven into the ground, compelling the current to wear a deep channel for itself. This plan has succeeded completely at St. Johns river, where the bars had become impassable. St. Johns is the pass from New Orleans to lake Ponchartrain.

Vessels ascending the Mississippi are often long detained at the Bend Plaquemine or Perssinon, the site of fort St. Philip, 70 miles below New Orleans; and again at he English turn 11 miles below New Orleans, because the same winds which enable them to arrive at these turns will not carry them any further.

Red river is the only large stream that enters the Mississippi on the west side within this state. I have stated its length at 1500 miles, upon the authority of Darby; but Mr. Brown says us navigable for that distance. It rises in the Caous mountains, near the sources of the Rio del Norte. Its waters are always muddy, of a reddish tint, though most of its tributaries that have been examined are clear. Salt springs are abundant in the country through which it flows. Its water is in consequence so brackish that it cannot be used for either drinking or cooking. It is deep, with a current contemporary gentle, and from its connections with numerous lakes in its neighbourhood is excellent for navigation, but in time of low-water it is somewhat obstructed at a bar, called the Rapide, which is 95 miles above its mouth. This bar is a ledge of sandy soapstone, nearly, of the consistence of pipe clay, and could be easily cut into channels. Beyond the state line there is another similar Rapide.

A great raft of driftwood has for some years been stationary upon this river, about 300 miles above Nachitoches, but it is said that boats can pass by it, though no floating timber can. This is by reason of the number of indirect channels through which the river flows.

The general course of the Red river is south east. The point where it crosses the line of lat. 33 degrees, is the north west angle of the state. It is there 400 yards wide. About 30 miles below the state boundary it separates into several branches, and runs through chains of lakes and swamps which have communications with the main stream, but no where below this are its wavers all included in one channel, except at Natchitoches, and there only in time of low water. After passing that town the river breaks into what has not inaptly been called a labyrinth of bayous. No main stream can be well distinguished, and the channels are very numerous, besides many of them being very crooked, and some often obstructed with drift wood; for which reasons every boat passing either up or down this river, must be conducted by an experienced pilot. This evil can be easily remedied by the publication of a good chart, as the proper route presents no dangers.

Several small outlets flow into the Compty river, and into what is called the Grand Ecor, near Natchitoches. These channels enter Saline and Black Lake rivers, and again return to Red river by Rigolet de bon Dieu. Other outlets leave this Rigolet and enter the Hietan river. This latter is likewise a tributary, of Red river


but before it debouches it discharges a part of its water, when high, by the Bayou Rapide, which enters Red river below the town if Alexandria. Hemphill creek enters the bayou Rapide, and when the rivers are low one part of its water passes out at the west end of the bayou, at Alexandria; and the remainder is discharged at the east end. But without maps it is impossible to convey any distinct ideas of this net work of natural canals. It is understood that the Red river will afford a channel for a trade of very great importance between these states and the Spanish silver districts around Santa.

A great many small streams enter the Red-river within this state, and they all debouche by forming lakes and ponds along the border of the river flats. Its larger tributaries are the Dacheet, Saline, Hietan, and Black Lake rivers. These all enter on the north side.

Washita or Black Lake flows into the Red river 30 miles from the Mississippi. About 50 miles above its mouth it receives thee Ocatahoolu on the west side, and the Tensaw on the east; both at the same place. Below that it is usually called Black-lake river or Black river, and Washita river above; but the same name should be applied to the any of it. Its current is gentle, and its channel unobstructed, its water generally clear and its shores interesting. It is said to bear great resemblance to the Ohio; but during the later part of summer it is too shallow even to admit large boats.

The main course is easterly until it receives the hot springs creek from that it is south nearly 390 miles. Only the last 200 are included within this state. On the west receives the Derbane and Ocatahoolu rivers; the latter is formed by the union of the Dugdamini and Little rivers. On the east it receives the Barthelemy, Bonidee, Boeuf, and Macon rivers.

Atchafalaya is sort of great bayou which leaves the Mississippi on the west-side, two miles below the month of Red river. That it once constituted the bed either of the Red river or of the Mississippi is maintained by every one who has visited it. It is perfectly stagnant except as it is affected by the tide near its mouth and when it receives the surcharge of the Mississippi, during the spring floods. Its outlet has been gradually filled up, so that at present it does not receive a very great volume of water.

About 12 miles below its efflux there is an immense raft of driftwood extending about 20 miles along it and covering its entire surface for about the one half of that distance. The position and appearance of this raft is continually changing. It began to form between 40 and 50 years ago, and it still increases; The greatest depth is about eight feet, and it is estimated by Mr. Darby that it contains 2,250,000 of solid cords. Towards the close of summer the greater part of it becomes covered with plants and flowers; and then the hum of the wild bees upon it, in some measure, relieves the dreary loneliness of the scene. Five miles below this great raft the Courtableau enters on the west side. Immediately below its confluence there is a small raft through which five people of Opelousas have several times cut a passage; but it is still liable to be closed. Cow island is 20 miles further south, and is about five miles in length.

The Atchafalaya here diverges into different channels, and about 1.5 miles below Cow Island it receives on the east side another outlet of the Mississippi called Plaquemine, ten miles below this confluence


is the lower raft. At this place there is an outlet which, leads into lake Natchez. The lower end of that lake returns another into the main river; 20 miles below thai is the lake Chetimaches, and 3 miles lower down the Teche river enters on the west side. The Atchafalaya flows into the gulf of Mexico 20 miles below the month of the Teche, being in the entire length about 190 miles. Its main course is at first south, but the great part inclines two or three points eastward. When it is flooded its current is often at the rate often or twelve miles an hour above the Great Raft.

The name "Big river" is sometimes applied to that part of the Atchafalya which lies between the mouth of Plaquemine and Cow island. One of the outlets which leave it here, separates into two branches: one of these branches is the common route to Opelousas, and the other leads by bayou Fusilier, to the landing at the Acadien Point. The latter bayou is one of the branches of the Teche.

As the Plaquemine, like the Atchafalaya, receives no supply from the Mississippi in time of low water, the point of its efflux being then a dry bar, there is a portage for four miles from the parent stream to the head of the tide water in that bayou.

About 70 miles above New Orleans there is another efflux called Lafourche river, or the Forks. It generally has a little current in the times of lowest water. Its extent, from the Mississippi to the golf of Mexico is about 60 miles.

Thus, when the Mississippi is flooded the surcharge of water is first thrown through small outlets and lagoons into the Bayou Macon and Tensaw river; from them into the Black-lake river; and from that into the Red river, which returns it again to the parent stream. From, that it immediately regorged, partly into the efflux of Atchafalaya, and partly into those of Plaquemine, Iberville, and Lafourche; and through their branches above described, it is then conveyed into the gulf of Mexico.

Bayou Rapide is connected with Hemphill creek, one of the branches of the Red river. Several outlets leave this bayou and unite to form Bayou Boeuf, which sends forth other branches that unite with the Bayou Crocodile, and by that junction form Courtableau river. This has already been noticed as a branch of the Atchafalaya, entering on the west side four miles below the great raft.

Teche river is another branch of the Atchafalaya which enters on the west side below lake Natchez. The Teche, Courtableau, Vermillion, and Mermentau rivers appear to have their main sources at the same place. There is a wood called Isle au L' Anglois, isolated within a prairie, a few miles north west of Opelousas church. From a marsh beside the wood the water runs past the church and there divides — one part running eastward into Bayou Bourbee, contributes to form the Vermillion; while the other runs westward into Bayou Plaquemine Brulee; and from thence into the Mermentau. The Bayou Grand Louis has its sources 90 miles north-west of Opelousas church. After receiving a stream from the prairie at isle au L'Anglois, it is called Bayou Carron. From thence there is bayou dischanging into the Courtableu, and below that another


returning from the same. Below this confluence the united stream is edited Bayou Bourbee. Eight miles below Opelousas church it receives Christine Bayou. From this point it runs south east a few miles, and then divides. The east branch is called Bayou Fusilier. The west unites with a branch of the Atchafalaya and forms the Teche. The whole length of this river, for its mouth to the source of the Grand Bayou St. Louis, is about 170 miles. It is a very extraordinary stream, having, through its whole course, the appearance of a canal both in the regularity of its bank and its current.

The branch of Bayou Bourbee which separates from the Fusilier runs south, and after receiving the Bayou Carrion Crow called the Vermillion river. It runs south; and when it approaches the Gulf coast it expands into a wide shallow lake, from which there is a short narrow outlet into the Gulf. Two bays or inlets of the Gulf, are connected with this, and they, together with the lake aforesaid, are called the bays of Vermillion. West of these is the Mermento whose sources, as already noticed, are connected with those of the Teche. Its tributaries are the Bayou Plaquemine, Brule Gane, Nezpique and Queue Tortue. Before it enters the Gulf it expands into a large shallow lake which bears the same name and debouches like the Vermillion by a short narrow stream.

The Calcasiu, on the west side of the latter river, rises in Lat. 31ş 30', near Nochitoches (of Red River) and running south forms a lake before it enters the Gulf, in every respect similar to the others.

The Sabine which forms the principal part of the west boundary of the state, is larger than either of the four above named rivers; At its mouth it has a lake about 30 miles long and 8 wide, & in general only 3 feet deep. Above the lake its channel is about 200 yards wide.

On the east side of the Mississippi Bayou Sara enters, 5 miles above Point Coupee, and Thompson's creek 12 miles further down.

The lberville or bayou Manchac is discharged from the Mississippi 15 miles below Baton Rouge. It is navigable for boats generally three months every summer, while the Mississippi is flooded, and is dry all the rest of the year. It flows eastward into lake Maurepas which discharges itself into lake Ponchartrain. This last communicates with lake Borgne which opens into the Gulf of Mexico.

This chain of lakes receives on the north side, the rivers Amite Ticktah Chefuncti Tangipaho and Pearl. Of these the two first flow into Maurepas, the third and fourth into lake Ponchartrain, and the last divides into several mouths called the Rigolets which join the latter lake with lake Borgne.

The Amite rises in the Mississippi state and is navigable far north of the boundary The Tickfah rises near the line (lat 31). The Pearl River though it has only 9 feet of water at the Rigolets is in general very deep and is navigable about 150 miles. It rises near the centre of Mississippi state, and constitutes the boundary between these two tales from lat. 31 to the Rigolets.

LAKES. Maurepas in about 20 miles north west from New Orleans. It is 12 miles long and 8 wide.

Ponchartrain is directly north of New Orleans, and communicates with it by the Bayou St. John's which runs out of the swamps that lie behind the city, and into which a canal passes from the


basin behind the N. Orleans Charity Hospital. This Lake is 35 miles long, 25 wide, and in general from 10 to 15 feet apart. Besides the St. Johns it receives the Bayous, Castain, Lacombe, and Boucafouca.

Borgne is 55 miles long and 12 wide, but much deeper than Ponchartrain. Its communication with New Orleans is by a bayou to which Vileres' canal is joined. It was through this the British forces passed in 1814, to attack the city. The Pearl river enters it by several mouths called the Rigolets which form a connection between it and lake Ponchartrain. Besides the Rigolets, there is another pass between these two lakes, called; the Chefmenteur; but it is of little importance us it has several bars which generally present only about four feet of water. The Iake itself is in general no more than two feet deep, except in the channel along the northern shore I have stated its length (i. e. from Bayou Beinvenu on the west to Cot island on the east) us 35 miles upon the authority of Darby, but according to Brown, it is only 23. It has three passes into the Gulf: viz. 1 Christian, 2 Marianne, and 3 the south east pass.

Barrataria lake is on the Gulf coast,, west of the Mississippi. It is an inlet of the sea opposite the island of Barrataria.

Vermillion, Mermentau, Calcasiu and Sabine lakes (each at the mouth of a river bearing the same name) have been already noticed.

Chitlmaches lake, is an expansion to the Atchafalaya, and is noticed in the description of that river.

Ocasse lake is in the lied River bottom 40 miles Natchitoches. It communicates with the river by a bayou. Between this and Nachitoches there are two other lakes the largest of which is about 50 miles in circumference.

Lake Noiz is, 10 miles above Natchitoches. It is likewise about 50 miles in circumference. Along its shores are numerous salt licks the water of which is remarkably strong. All the salt used in the Red River country is manufactured here, and the supply might be incalculably increased. The outlet of this lake is called by Rigolet de Bon Dieu. It is navigable during the greater part of the year. Spanish lake 8 miles above this is about the same size.

Lake Bistenau (60 miles above the latter) is about 50 or 60 miles in length, extending along Red River at a distance varying from 3 to 15 mites. The Dacheet river flows through it, or rather it is an expansion of that stream. Its medium depth is from 15 to 20 feet, and it is never lower than 12, though there now stands in it the remains of a cypress forest, the trees dead and generally with their tops broken off. No tree, not even the cypress, can live, if its roots are covered with water during the whole year, — an incontestable proof that this lake was once dry land. The same phenomenon characterizes other lakes in this quarter. A similar forest submerged by the sinking of the ground was observed by Lewis at the Columbia river. Bistinau has two outlets, the Bayou Dachect, and Bayou Channa.

Cattahoola lake, near the mouth of Washita is about 40 miles in circumference.

BAYS. Barrataria and Vermillion bays are the only ones considered of any value in this state.


Chandeleur Bayis a kind of Bayou, north cast of New Orleans — extending into the marshes of lake Borgne.

ISLANDS. Barratana lies between the mouth of the Atchafalaya and the Mississippi. It is encircled by the two outlet through which lake Barrataria communicates with the gulf. It is remarkable for its healthiness, its natural means of defense against invasion, and the abundance of shellfish contained in its waters. In 1811, it was fortified by a band of pirates under the command of the celebrated M. La Filte, who for a long time greatly annoyed the southern commerce of the United States. It has a fine harbour for small vessels.

In Lake Borgne, and along the gulf coast opposite to it, there are several islands, but the most of them are included within the limits assigned to this state, and likewise within these of Mississippi state. They are Marmanne island, Cat island; Ship island, Dog, Horn island, Isle auz Petites Bois, and Dauphin island. They are composed chiefly of sand apparently barren, yet in fact tolerably fertile. At the Rigolets (month of Pearl river) there are a few other small islands, which also seem to be composed of clean sand, through they produce corn, cotton, tobacco, sugar, &c. in rich luxuriance.

FACE OF THE COUNTRY. That part of Louisiana which lies on the east side of the Mississippi, is naturally divided into two parts by the lberville outlet, and the chain of Lakes through which it passes Maurepas, Ponchartrain and Borgne. The southern part being completely insulated is generally called the island of Orleans. The northern part being much the largest shall be first described.

The hill ranges which limit the bottoms of the Mississippi, and form the bluff's along its eastern shore do not enter this state, but terminate near the line (lat. 31.) The country along the east of that, river from lat. 31, as far south as the Iberville, and for the breath of 40 or 50; miles, is rich and gently undulating, chiefly covered with large timer, oak, hickory, magnolia, sassafras, black walnut and poplar: with undergrowth or cane. It is excellently suited for the cultivation of sugarcane, long staple cotton, rice, tobacco, &c. The bottoms long the streams are mostly liable to inundation, and in many places marshy. Good springs are rarely to be found. That district called Feliciana is considered the best part of the state. There are a few prairies here but they are chiefly dry and rich. — Between this and Baton Range there is one 6 miles long and a mile wide, beautifully bordered with groves and plantations.

The country east of this extending across the rivers Amite, Tickifsh, Chefuncti & Tongpaho, as far as the Pearl has in general as sterile appearance. The most elevated parts are chiefly timbered with yellow pine, very lofty, and in some places having underwood of oak, &c. The soil is sand with a subset of marly clay, but often at great depth. Naturally it is covered with wire glass, and when cultivated it is tolerably fertile, by reason of the genial climate. The bottoms of the streams are mostly low and either marshy or else subject to annual inundation. The dry bottoms and the borders of the marshes are very rich and filled with cane brakes. Between these and the pine lands there are intervening tracts, timbered with palm, cotton wood, magnolia, ash, live oak, sweet gun, sweet bay,


&c. with willow, cypress along with the flats. Portions of the "Hammock land" occur frequently: that is such has oak with a variety of timber in patches distinctly limited amidst the wide pine forests. They are generally along the lines where the delivities desend upon the flats — for hills there are none.

Good springs are rare in this tract, and the wells are impregnated with nitre; probably because they are seldom deep. The low praries are apparently richer than the pine line, and are covered with exuberance of a moderately good kind of meadow grass. They are often present pools and spots of copse wood of hawthorn and other shrubbery. They are composed of sand lying upon clay, and are apt to become vegetable mould and intermingled with marl, chalk, flint. They generally have natural springs. The prairies of the Boguechitto (a branch of of the Pearl) are perpahs the best in the state.

That part of the district which extends laong the northern shores of the lakes Borgne, Ponchartrain &c. is dry, fertile and perfectly lvel for the beadth of 10, 15 and 20 miles. But like the rest of the country is contains too much sand.

The south shores of those great lakes are chiefly morasses intersected with boyous, lakes and lagoons, and timbered with cypress. The only part of the island of Orelans fit for cultivation is the immediate shore of the Mississippi, which is dry and very fertile. The sugar plantations occupy both shores (which are similar) in uninterrupted succession as far down as Pointe le Hache. Below that are some more rich land in a settlement which extends along an outlet of the river, and is called Terre aux Beufs (Ox land.) Just below this is the English Turn. There are some detached farms further down — as far as fort St. Phillip, at which place the great swampy district appraoches almost to the margin of the river. From that to the Balize there are no farms — the land being a wild, wide, irrecolaimable morass, except upon the very shore which consists of barren sank banks, scarecless elevated above high tide. The miserable huts of fisherman and pilots appear at long intervals — relieving the loneliness of unvaried, dreary scene. In passing northerword along the gulf coast towards the outlet of lake Borgue, there are some pint traots, but no land fit for cultivation.

On the west side of the Mississippi, the gulf coast generally resembles that at the Balize — a flat sandy desert full of lakes, lagoons and morasses with clumps of cypresses and martyle. The shore, four hundred miles, is covered with trunks of trees which have been thrown in by the sea surf, and forever forbids the approach of commerce on one side on human habitation on the other. The traveller's eyes find along it no limits on the level waste that surronds them. At rare intervals he starts a straggling deer, and seldom ever seens any other animal, except the sea birds, whose unceasing appearance hardly cheer t the solitude of a region more disheartening than any other, which our continent presnts. Pressing from the


shore towards the interior we begin to meet with pine and oak forest, changing occasionally into rich cane brake land.

The part of this state which is one the west side of the Mississippi and Alchafalaya is divided into four quarters. The south ease corner (adjoining the Alchafalaya and the gulf) is called Attacapas or Tuckapaw; the south-west corner (adjoining the Sabine river and the gulf) is called Opelousas. The Red river country is on the north west, and the Washita country on the north east, constitute the whole northern portion of the state.

The district between the Alchafalaya and the Mississippi differs very little from the island of Orleans. Though full of bayous and lakes it contains a great deal of land extremely rich, and highly suitable for all the most valuable productions of this climate. That part of it however which borders the gulf coast is like the rest of the western coast.

Mr. Darby states the extent of the Attacapas district at 5100 square miles. It extends 115 miles along the coast (i.e. from east to west) and 90 miles from the coast towards the centre of the state.

Attacapas consists of elevated rich plains surrounded by immense tracts of morass which are diversified as usual with lakes, bayous, ponds, pine forest, cypress swamps, cane brakes and palmetto brakes — with strikes of water cane (arundo aquatica) along the borders of the streams. The principal streams of this of this district are Vermillion and Teche. Alone the former there is much fertile land, but the immediate shores consist chiefly of inundated flats: the banks of the Teche are, on the contrary, rich, dry and elevated — generally with a slight descent backwards, in short, they every way resemble those of Mississippi.

In passing north westward from the outs of these river we emerge from dismal marsh and tangled wet-flat-forest land into prairies of unparallel beauty, which extend with occasional interruptions, westward far beyond the boundaries of the state. The first large on in the range is the Attacapas prairie. It likes between the Teche and Vermillion rivers: is about 40 miles in length and from 2 to 25 miles wide. It commences about 30 miles south of New Iberia, and extends northward to the confluence of the Teche and Bayou Fusilier. A great part of the prairie is too wet for cultivation; but its soil is naturally rich, and in the dry parts highly productive — Along its borders there are several beautiful hills from 70 or 800 to 100 feet in height, which being very different from the plain both in soil and timber, greatly resemble islands in a wide sea. The most remarkable of them are Peitite Anae, Cote Blanche, Grand Cote, Caroline, Isle Cypriere Bell Isle and Point Perdue. The trees upon them are live oak, walnut, hickory, sweet-gum, dog-wood, iron-wood, hornbeam, with a variety of shrubbery scarcely any of which is to be seen elsewhere in this quarter. These islands (or so they are called)


have been converted into farms; and though they are all surrounded by marsh land they are the most healthy portions the district.

The Prairie Grand Chevreuil is on the east side of the Teche nearly opposite to the latter. It is 52 miles long and only 2 miles wide upon an average. It is likewise fertile, chiefly dry; ail or it fit for cultivation, and most of it cultivated.

North-west of this lies the Prairie Laurent included between the Teche, Bayou, Bourbee and Bayou Fusilier It is 11 miles long and 3 wide. The soil of this is drier and therefore more valuable than that of the preceding two.

North of these are several small prairies — Romaine, Petite Bois, Bare, Alabama, Wickoff's Carroll's Le Alelle's and some others.

Opelousas district extends from the south-west corner nearly to the centre of the state, bounding a part of the Attacapa district on the north. Darby estimates its extent at 7600 square miles. It consists chiefly of prairie and morass in the south part, and pine forest on the north.

The Opelousas prairie extends northward near 80 miles containing about 1,200,000 acres, and occupying the greater part of the country between the Vermillion and Mermentau rivers.

The southern part of it — about 30 miles square — is the marsh of the gulf shore. It contains long lines of low ridges, running parallel with the shore, covered with live oak and apparently fertile; but it is with great difficulty that they can be approached, as they are not joined to any tracts either of good dry land or fair water. On the north side of this marshy land the prairie rises in a regular line of elevation which seems to have constituted the gulf coast at some remote period. All the grand expanse north of this affords abundant pasturage for immense herds of cattle, buffalo and deer, but is in general too wet for cultivation. Several long lines of prairie, which are called Bays, extend from the main Opelousas prairie. These are Bellevue and Queue-Tortue prairies, the Cove Plaque nine Brule and Prairie Mellet. The Bellevue is about 30 miles long and 6 wide; extending eastward past St. Landres church to the Penault settlement in Tuckapaw. The others are still smaller. They receive their names from the several streams to which they are adjacent.

Grand prairie is on the north of the Opelousas prairie. It is about 200 square miles in extent. It is moderately dry and fertile. Like prairies in general it is destitute of springs, but affords excellent well water. It is surrounded by wide groves of oak, ash, hickory, dog-wood, pine, magnolia, linn, cherry and maple.

Mamou prairie is on the west side of the latter, and is about equal in size, though inferior in soil and situation. It is included between the Nezpique and Plaquemine Brule — two branches of the Mermentau river.


Calcassiu prairie occupies the greater part of the space between the Mermentau and the Calcasiu rivers. It is about 20 miles wide, and extends from the gulf northward about 70 miles, comprehending 1400 square miles. That is 896,000 acres, of which above 600,000 are supposed to be dry enough to cultivation. However the best parts are more sterile than the country east of it already described. The groves around it consist of oak, hickory &c. passing northwardly into wide tracts of pine.

The Sabine prairie extends from the Calcasiu to the Sabine river, and differs little from the latter in any respect — probably because it is somewhat inferior in regards to fertility.

The district which extends northward, from the great prairies of Opelousas to the bottoms of the Red river, is occupied chiefly by pine forest, with occasional tracts of oak and other timber. Near the prairie it is level; passing northward it becomes undulated and then divides itself with a chain of ridges, called the hills of St. Saba, which separates the tributaries of the Red river from those of the Sabine. This district is sterile, and nearly destitute of good springs. Near the head waters of the Sabine the land varies in its appearance, spreading into broken ridges, covered with black jack and other poor oak, but pine rarely. Between the St. Saba halls and Red river the country is generally rugged — the hills sterile, and the few streams bordered by flats that cannot properly be called bottom land.

The alluvion of the Red river seems to be too new for cultivation. It is all low and flat, so that during the spring floods it presents the appearance of a wide lake extending hundreds of miles north-westward from the Mississippi.

The country on the east side of the river is much superior to that of the west. The hills are more elevated, but regular and gently inclined — forming no barren cliffs. The soil is moderately fertile, as the trees are oak, ash, hickory, dog-wood, &c. with but a few tracts of pine. The bottoms along the streams in this quarter are the only ones in the state that resemble the bottoms of the Ohio country. In this part and through the whole Washita district good springs are generally abundant.

The Masserne hills separate the tributaries of the Red river from those of the Washita. They cross the north boundary of the state (lat. 30ş) at about 16ş of W. longitude from Washington, and at that point preserve a single line, but presently divide into three branches. The western branch separates the waters of the Black-lake river from those of the Dacheet and lake Bistineau, and terminates near the Red river flats at late 32ş. The middle branch passes between the Black lake river and the Saline nearly parallel with the meridian. The south-eastern branch again divides — One range extends to the Red river and terminates at Ecor a Cheve, 15 miles S.E. of Alexandria: the other passes between the [unknown] on one side, and those of Dugdomini and Little [unknown] on


the other — terminating near the court house of Ocatahoo la in latitude 31ş 42'.

Massernes are sometimes called mountains though improperly, for their elevation cannot be any where very great. They are generally rugged and sterile, as is the country for a considerable distance on each side of them.

The greater part of the good land watered by the Washita is included within this state. The northern portion is much varied with small prairies, rich bottoms, barren hills, marshes, lakes, poor pine tracts, and good upland, with oak, hickory, walnut, beach, elm, locust, ash, &c. Nearly all the good land is in the vicinity of the large streams.

The centre of the state (including 200 miles of the lower part of the Washita, with its tributaries, and a still greater length of the Red river from its mouth, together with its numerous bayous, &c.) resembles, in every respect, all the grand bottoms of the lower Mississippi; being flat, chiefly marshy, submerged by the spring floods and having its highest, driest, richest soil upon the immediate margins of the streams. As to elevation, a very few exceptions may be made of the inland isles on the south side of the Red river, which differ little from the Petite Anse and little Cotes of Tuckapaw.

The bottoms of the Tensaw and lower Washita (Black-lake) appear to be only expansions of the Mississippi bottoms which are of very great breadth on the west side through the whole of this state. On account of their numerous lakes, marshes, &c. they have been little explored.

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS. These are few, and with the exception of the salt they are unimportant. There are hardly any metallic indications, except of iron — no coal, limestone, except perhaps it exists in small portions through the hills between the Amite and Pearl, which is questionable.

A mass of native iron was found in the St. Saba hills near Red river, which weighed 3000 pounds. It is 3 feet 4 inches in length, and 2 feet 5 inches in breadth. The specific gravity is 7.40. It contains nickel and therefore it is probably meteoric. It is not as easily oxidated as common iron. In some parts it is very soft and in others nearly as hard as steel. Its interior contains octahedral crystals, the largest of which is above half an inch long. They are situated like magnetic iron, and are so soft that they may be easily cut with a knife. The shape of the mass is irregular — the surface deeply indented, and the whole covered with a dark crust.

Salt licks are so numerous along the tributaries of the Red and Saline rivers that it would be superfluous to describe any of them. The best, it is said, are on the shores of lake Noiz, and the supply of salt for the state is chiefly manufactured there. It is a curious fact that a salt lick has been found upon the Petite Anse at which a salt manufactory is established.


Few animals, if any, are peculiar to this state; the most remarkable of those found in it is a species of alligator in the Mississippi which doctor Barton following the phraseology of the boatmen, calls the Hellbender.

GEOLOGY. The geological structure of this state is very simple. The Masserne and St. Saba hills with all their branches are secondary — probably composed of sandstone more or less micaceous alternating with clay state, without even any primitive masses. It is questionable whether any of the sandy hills between the Amite and Pearl are secondary; but at least it is certain that all of the rest of the state south of these consists of alluvion chiefly very recent.

It has already been noticed that the Masserne hills are boundary in the state between the secondary and alluvial formations.

CLIMATE. The average temperature appears to be higher on the east side of the state than on the west, at the same latitude. On the Mobile the live oak extends as far north as lat 31. At the Mississippi it reaches only to 30ş 30': On the Atchafalaya to 30ş 20'. The lines of its disappearance passes nearly in the same course to the Mermentau, and terminates a few miles beyond the river. This difference is apparently owing to the exposure — as the west side of the state, and the region beyond it consists chiefly of prairies bordered by pine woods. Tracts of this sort are peculiarly frosty in all climates, but here they have a double effect by affording a wide open scope to the cold north west winds. The live oak mark the limits of the country in which snow is not to be expected; however snow and severe frost do sometime appear there. The late instances were in 1779, 1807, 1812, 1814, 1817; for no part of the United States can be compared with this in the regard to the extreme irregularity of the seasons. It is said that snow is never seen along the gulf coast, though frosts are frequently. In the north part of the state snow falls almost every winter, and often remains upon the ground several days at a time.

Sugar cane cannot be cultivated advantageously north of the live oak region, and it is understood that the olive will be limited by the same boundary. The Orange tree is liable to annual damage by frost, even along the coast, and for the same reason peaches are a more precarious fruit here than upon the confines of the Canada.

The change of temperature is regularly very great betwixt the night and day. It may be said winter and summer return ever 24 hours: Otherwise the winters here in general resemble the mild autumns of the northern state. The heat at the summer here never rises perceptibly higher than in England; but its seasons is of longer durations.


With regard to salubrity we must draw some very strong lines of distinction — between the different parts of the state. The parts most valued and best settled; to with the borders of the Mississippi, are unhealthy as they have grassy, weedy marshes through almost the whole of their extent: of course intermittents, &c. prevail in the latter months of every summer. The same places produce musquitoes in swarms that infest all the neighbouring regions, and make it impossible for any one to sleep exposed to them. It has long been held that the effluvia of stagnating water do not cause disease unless they contain, vegetable or animal water. In accordance with this old, opinion we find the country westward and eastward of the Mississippi bottoms as healthy as any other part of the United States — for the lagoons, lakes and ponds along the gulf coast contain no vegetables. The same is the case along the northern shores of lakes Maurepas Ponchartrain and Borgne. As for the inundated lands along the Red river they become dried and even parched up during the summer. The marshes of Teche and Vermillion differ little from those of the Mississippi.

How far the influence of marsh miasmata extends is yet a matter of doubt. The distance cannot be very great. Elevated situations, it is said, have been found healthy at the distance of less than a mile from large unhealthy marshes.



[Extracted (with some alterations) from Darby's Emigrants' Guide.]
PARISHES. Square Miles, Acres. Arpents. Population l810 TOWNS.
Plaquemine 1,500 960,000 1,134, 300 1,549  
Orleans 1,300 832,000 83,060 24,552 N. Orleans
St. Bernard or German coast 400 256,000 302,480 1,020  
St. Charles or Bonet Quarre 300 192,000 226,860 3,291  
St. John Baptiste of Cantrells 150 96,000 113,430 2,990  
St. James' of the Acadien coast 170 108,000 128,554 3,955  
Ascension 350 224,000 264,670 2,219  
lberville 350 224,000 264,670 2,679  
East Baton Rouge 500 320,000 378,000   Bat. Rouge
West Baton Rouge 850 554,000 642,770 1,463  
Point Coupee 600 384,000 453,720 4,539  
Avoyelles 700 448,000 529,340 1,109  
Concordia 2,100 1,344,000 1,588,020 2,875 Concordia
New Feliciana 1,050 672,000 794,010    
St. Helena 1,300 832,000 983,060    
St. Tammany 2,000 1,280,000 1,512,400    
La Fourche 2,500 1,600,000 1,890,500 1,995  
Assumption 500 320,000 378,100 2,472  
St. Mary's and St. Martin's in Attacapas 5,100 3,264,000 3,856,620 7,069 New Iberia, St. Martinesville
St. Landre (Opelousas) 7,600 4,864,000 5,747,120 5,048 Opelousas, St. Landre
Natchitoches 10,600 6,784,000 8,015,720 2,870 Natchitoches.
Napides 2,300 1,472,000 1,739,262 2,300 Alexandria
Occatahoola 2,000 1,280,000 1,512,400 1,164
Washita 4,000 2,560,000 3,024,800 1,077 Fort Miro.
  48,220 30,860,000 36,463,964 75,556  

The first 14 parishes in this table extend along beginning at the lowest part of settlement — at fort St. Phillip.

The country east on the Mississippi and north of the lakes Maurepas, Panchartram and Borgne, comprising the 4 parishes of E. Baston Rogue, N. Feliciana. St. Helena and St. Tammany, had a population of 10,000 in 1810, thus making a total of 85,550.


THE CITY OF NEW ORLEANS was founded in the year 1720. It is on the east side of the Mississippi, 109 miles from the Balize, or mouths of the river; and in N. lat. 29° 57' 27".

The present size and condition of this place is not well known as no good account has been published since that of Major Stoddard, which appears to have been written ten or twelve years ago. In 1803 (when purchased from France) it contained 1000 houses and 8000 inhabitants; including all classes. In 1816 it was a mile and a half long, and a mile wide; with a population estimated at 30,000: and it has since increased more rapidly than during any preceding period. In 1818 its population was estimated at 40,000.

The streets are thirty-seven and a half feet wide. The longest ones are parallel to the river. These are crossed at right angles by others which run north 32 degrees east. The ground is an inclined plain which descends about six feet from the shore to the palisades in the rear of the city; and from thence, about three feet to the level of St. Johns' creek at low water mark.

The old houses were chiefly built of cypress logs, one story high; and had an ordinary appearance. A considerable portion of the north west end of the town was burnt in 1794, and has since been rebuilt in a much better style. The new buildings are generally of brick, and they constitute a large proportion of the city on riverside. On account of the hurricanes which are so frequent in the south end of this state there are hardly any of the houses raised higher than two stories, and as the brick used here is all ill burnt they are commonly preserved by a coating of stucco or plaster; sometimes white and sometimes coloured.

As the ground on which the city stands is extremely wet there are no cellars dug as in other towns. The first floors of the houses are elevated, generally five or six feet above the level of the streets, and beneath them, they have apartments, above ground, which are called cellars.

The most remarkable public buildings are the cathedral, the town-house, three banking houses, the governors' house, or palace as it is called; a theatre, convent, hospitals, arsenal, jail, custom houses, two churches, barracks, &c.

The cathedral is of brick, 90 feet by 120 — having two towers on the corners of the west end. It has an organ, but is in other respects ill decorated. Between it and the river there is an open square about 400 feet long. The revenues of its establishment are derived from some southern bishopric. The bishop receives an annual salary of 4000 dollars, the canons 720 dollars, and the priests 360.

The convent is a large brick structure, built by the French. It has a small chapel attached to it — a school where female children are taught gratuitously by the nuns; and another, small house divided by a partition, with, double gratings, through which stranger may converse on, business with the


nuns or boarders. The nuns belong to the order of St. Ursula — the number of them is generally 40 or 50. There are always several young ladies in the convent boarded there for education. Public worship is regularly held in the chapel of the convent; but the nuns are separated from the audience in it by a partition of lattice work. Each nun on taking the black veil deposits, if she is able, 1500 dollars, which are added to the common fund.

The barracks are at the lower end of the convent. They have a large area surrounded by a brick wall, and a handsome parade ground extending from the area to the river.

The "King's Hospital" was originally intended for sailors and soldiers but it has become a common asylum. It is fitted for the accommodation of 150 patients.

The Charity Hospital admits gratuitously the poor of the city, and even sometimes strangers, if they are utterly destitute — otherwise those who are able are required to pay 50 cents a day for their maintenance.

The city was fortified during the administration of Carondelet (from 1791 to 1796.) It had five bastions with banquettes, parapets, covert ways, glacis, &c. The ramparts inclosed the whole city. They were of earth and had a curtain of palisades. These works were said to be constructed, ill supplied with ordnance, and very inadequate for the defence of the place against any powerful attack.

The Levee in front of the city is a public promenade, and is crowded every evening with citizens and strangers from all nations.

In early times the citizens of the place, and the traders who resorted to it, bore a very bad character, both as to manners and morals: but the causes may be chiefly attributed to the demoralizing territorial government then established here. The Creole character will soon be extinguished, and few evils will then remain but the grand insuperable ones connected with slavery.

The class of mulattoes are remarkably numerous. The various degrees of "mixture in their blood" are accurately specified by uncouth terms of classification as far as they can be ascertained; though a great many of the "best blooded" cannot be distinguished from the white people by their colour.

The females of purest blood constitute a regular professional order different in their mode of life from any class of people in this country, though they resemble the temporary squaw wives of the North Western, Territory. They are maintained by the traders, and by many of the regular residents of the city, in a kind of concubinage, entered into for stipulated periods — sometimes for a few weeks, sometimes for years, according to the convenience of their keepers. They are said to be remarkably faithful during the time bargained for; but as soon as it expires they have no scruples about accepting the offers of other keepers. They are educated for this profession from


their infancy, and are distinguished from those who sell indiscriminate favours by a public respect which we hardly know how to account for. The excuse for them is, that from a variety of circumstances and prejudices it is almost impossible for any one born of that class ever to get regularly married; and they are so numerous that they could not in any less exceptionable way be, tolerably supported. The men of the mixt bloods generally either become boatmen, or sailors, or herdsmen in the prairies, when their situation does not permit them to keep wives.

After New Orleans there are few places in the state that can with propriety be called towns — most of those which courtesy has so entitled are only villages. The reason of this is that the farmers of this country generally carry their own produce to New Orleans, and procure in return the goods they need; so that the shopkeepers and handicraftsmen so necessary to the formation of towns find no employment here.

Natchitoches is situated on the right bank of Red river, 166 miles from its mouth, and 407 from New Orleans, by the river. Formerly it had considerable trade as an entrepot between the Mississippi country and Texas. That communication has been interrupted since 1844, by the disturbances which then commenced in the northern Spanish provinces. In 1817 fort Clairborne was built here by the United States, upon a hill in the rear of the town.

Alexandria is at the rapids of Red river, about 100 miles from its mouth. Its importance is owing to the circumstance that it is at the head of barge navigation during the periods of low water. In 1818 it contained 20 stores, and a proportionate population which is rapidly increasing.

Madisonville on the north shore of lake Ponchartrain, opposite to New Orleans; and upon the important route form that city to Stephens. Packet vessels daily ply across the lake from this town to the canal.

Baton Rouge is situated on the east shore of the Mississippi, 115 miles above New Orleans. It has long been well known through an inconsiderable village. The district around it is beautiful and highly cultivated. From this pace to New Orleans the farms adjoin each other along the shore uninterruptedly. On the west side they extend 30 miles higher — to Point Coupee.

St. Martinsville, in the parish of St. Martins in Attacaps, is a fine flourishing village, situated upon the Teche.

New Iberia is likewise upon the Teche, a few miles south of St. Martinsville. It is inferior to the latter in size and commerce, but much superior as to the beauty of its situation.


SETTLEMENTS. A great portion of the state remains yet unsettled, and emigrants will be deterred from coming hither until all the great disputes relative to claims obtained from the Spanish government and from the Indians shall be completely decided. Nearly all the settlements extend along the borders of the rivers — propably one half the population will found upon the shores of the Mississippi. The rest is chiefly along the Red river, the Teche, Vermillion, Washita, Tensaw, bayou Manchac, and the north shore of Ponchartrain.

There are some ranges of farms on the eastern side of Opelousas; but nearly all that extensive district is occupied by people who live a pastoral life exclusively, keeping herds of cattle upon the prairies. Many of the planters of the Attacapas keep stock farms (vacheries) along the Mermentau and Calcasiu. The herdsmen ate chiefly blacks or mulattoes who generally receive a stipulated portion of the produce for their care and labour. Three or four men, with six or eight horses, are able to manage a flock that produces annually four or five hundred calves. The keepers almost entirely subsist upon the meat, milk, cheese, &c of the cattle; while the natural grasses of the prairies furnish abundance of food for the herds and horses in every season.

INDIANS. Most of the aboriginal tribes are somewhat mingled in blood with the French; and as they are daily becoming more dispersed and diminished in number it is at present a difficult matter to ascertain their number or condition. They may be enumerated thus —

1. The Natchitoches who formerly lived near the town of Natchitbches, but of late near the lake De Muire, 25 miles further up the Red river. They number about 30 souls.

2. The Conshattas at the Sabine, about 400 souls.

3. The Alibamies at Opelousas, near the Caddo towns, about 70 families.

4. Pacanas on the Quelquechose, about 30 warriors.

5. Tunicas at Avoyelles, about 140 souls.

6. Pascagolas, on Red river, 24 warriors.

7. The Houmas formerly owned the island of Orleans. They are now united with the Attacapas, and infest the neighbourhood of New Orleans — amounting altogether to about 200 souls.

8. The Opelousas, at the prairie so named, about 150 souls.

9. The Boluxas (from Pensacola) at the mouth of the Rigolet de bon Dieu, about, 30 warriors, a quiet friendly race.

10. The Tensaws at Bayou Boeuf.

11. The Appalaches at Bayou Rapide, 14 families.

12. The Chactoos at Bayou Boeuf where they have always resided.

13. The Wachas, five or six individuals who live as servants in some of the female families.

All of these Indians have emigrated at different periods to


this state from the Floridas, except the Natchitoches, Chactoos, Houmas, Attacapas, and Wachas.

IMPROVEMENTS. Nature has done much in establishing facilities for connection together every part of the state by internal navigation, but the inhabitants of it, though plethoric with wealth, have done little. The city of New Orleans communicates with the great line of lakes Ponchartrain, Borgne, &c. by the canal of Carondelet, which is two miles in length; extending from a basin behind the Charity Hospital of that city to the bayou St. Johns. It is about 20 feet wide and, according to the changing of the winds, its depth varies from three to nine feet. From the mouth of the canal the bayou passes about 6 miles through beautiful ranges of country seats and orange groves to the lake Ponchartrain. It then debouches over a bar which of late years has been depended by the increase of current caused by two piers that approach each other upon it from the opposite shores.

The LEVEES are artificial embankments or mounds of clay generally faced with cypress palings. At present they extend up the river to Point Coupee — 190 miles above New Orleans. They are constructed in a manner of the embankments along the Delaware for excluding the tide from the flats of that river. Those on the Mississippi vary in height from 3 to 12 feet, and at one place McCarthy's 6 miles above New Orleans, they are 15 feet high, 30 feet broad at the face and 6 feet on the top. The usual size however is 5 feet of height with a base 12 feet, and a flat top, wide enough for a common foot path. They are uniformly highest and strongest at the bends of the river, on the concave shore, as the current is always violent in such places. When the river is flooded some water oozes through the levee, some breaks in [unknown] through the holes that craw-fish live in, and through places rendered porous by the rains. The water is collected in the ditch immediately behind the levee, and it is carried off in covered drains and sewers, across the fields to the marshes in the rear of the river bottom. The levee follows the sinousities of the river; in many places changing course over 30 or 40 yards. When first constructed its general distance was about 30 yards from the shore, but in some places the river has receded from it, and at others approached and even undermined it. When the river washes its shore close to the levee another one is raised in the rear of the first. The double levees as they are called, appeared in a great many places. The plantations extend along the river the whole length of the levee, with scarcely an interval, leaving between the fences and the ditch of the levee a space through which the great public road passes.

Every plantation owner is required to keep the levee opposite to his land in good repair. In each parish there are commissioners bound to examine it at stated periods, and if necessary repair it at the expense of those who happen to be negligent in regard should to it, and during the seasons of floods it is guarded by watchmen day and night.

When the river rises above the levee, or obtains a passage through


the perforations made by craw-fish the current soon washed away several rods not only by the levee, but of the solid ground for a great depth beneath it and bursts through with inconceivable violence and rapidity, foaming and roaring like a cataract; sweeping away houses and every thing that happens to be in the way; inundating the neighbouring country, and causing immense destruction of property. The river continues to flow through the crevasse until the floods abate. It then leaves the bottom after having washed away great quantities of the richest of the soil, and covered them with huge piles of draft wood.

When the alarm of the crevasse is given the people collect them from the surrounding country, and sometimes, though rarely, they succeed in closing up the breach. When the water is just beginning to break through, every effort is made, but if they do not check it in a very short time, they presently abandon all ideas of resisting it.

AGRICULTURE, &c. The sugar cane is the most profitable article that has yet been produced in this state, but there is only a few small districts that are well suited for it: It is easily destroyed by frost, and it cannot thrive upon a light or wet soil. Upon rich, dry alluvion it produces about two hogshead of sugar and 59 gallons of rum per acre. The hogshead generally contains somewhat more than 1000 pounds. Twenty eight hands have been known to raise manufacture and transport to market 200 hogshead in one season: but this is much above the average quantity. A mill expensive enough to grind case for 200 hogshead per day — that is one working at the rate of 300 gallons per hour, can be erected for some but more than 1000 dollars. The price of slaves cannot be stated.

From Darby's statistical account of Louisiana, accompanying his map of the state, the following table is extracted:

Profits arising from the employment of fifty workmen (slaves I suppose) upon a farm in Louisiana in cultivating either of five great staple commodities of that state

STAPLE. Quanitity. Price. Whole Amount. Annual Revenue from each hand. Acres. No. of acres in the state suited to each staple.
    Dolls. Dolls. Dolls.    
Sugar 150,000 lb. .08 lb. 12,000 240 150 250,000
Rice 700 bb. 600 bbl. 4,000 84 100 250,000
Cotton 60,000 lbs. .75 lb. 9,000 180 250 2,400,000
Indigo 7,000 lbs. 1.00 lb. 7,000 140   2,000,000
Tobacco 60,000 lbs. 10, owt 5,375 12˝ 107   1,500,000

The same author supposes that of the whole state one fifth may be deducted for swamps, rivers, lakes, pine barrens, besides other tracts unfit for cultivation and irreclaimable. Sugar cane requires the richest soil and warmest climate. Tobacco needs as rich a sun but thrives in a cooler climate. Indigo is not of good quality except in the warmest climate, and on a soil at least moderately rich. Cotton also improves in staple with the heat of the climate, but does not require the


richest soil. Rice is grown only in a warm climate and on inundated land.

The sugar cane is reproduced from layers. Every year, about the middle of October, the quantity of cane intended for the crop of the succeeding year in placed in stacks to preserve it from the frost. Early in the spring they are laid in furrows, and young canes then grow from every joint.

Cotton is the article next in importance. Good land in this state yields from 500 to 1000 pounds of seed-cotton per acre, livery four pounds of cotton with the seed products one pound of clean cotton wool.

It has been thought by many that the cultivation of the olive along the gulf coast would be an object of great national importance; and there is strong reason to believe that both the climate and soil are perfectly suited to it. A great portion of Darby's Emigrants' Guide is occupied with statements and conjectures relative to this subject, but our limits will not permit us to give even a moderately brief exposition of it.

The chief advantages of rice are that it will grow upon inundated land that can produce nothing else; in fact it cannot be profitably raised on any other kind of land. The water is not needful for the growth of the rice, but it saves the trouble of weeding, as rice is the only plant which can grow upon ground immersed in water.

Hardly any kind of grain is raised here except Indian corn; and there is very, little of that.

COMMERCE. The exports of Louisiana consist almost exclusively of sugar, cotton, rice, indigo and tobacco. Of sugar the annual quantity, of late years, has been estimated at 10,000,000 pounds. Of cotton 20,000 bales were exported in 1812. In the amount of each staple there has yearly been a regular increase.

The exports from New Orleans alone were estimated at 20,000,000 dollars for the year 1818. From the lst of June to the 1st of Sept. in that year the total export of tobacco was 28,526 hogsheads — of cotton 81,469 bales.

The imports from Europe need not be enumerated. The articles obtained from the states and territories north of this are flour, corn, oats, potatoes, carrots, peas, bacon, beef, pork, lard, candles, tallow, butter, cheese, whiskey, beer and porter, cider, hogs, horses, horned cattle, peltries, bearskins and other hides, soap, beese-wax, flaxseed, oil, ginseng, pecan nuts, cordage, rope yarns, linens, bagging, paper, guns, castings, grind stones, powder, and salt petre.

From the Floridas and Mobile country timber, planks, &c, rosin, pitch, tar, turpentine, bark, coals, sand, lime, shells, corn, peltries, hides, &c.


State of Mississippi.




Mississippi is about 340 miles in length, from north to south, and 150 in breadth; containing about 45,000 square miles, or 30,000,000 of acres.

It is bounded on the north by the 35th degree of latitude, which separates it from the state of Tennessee; on the east by the Tennessee river as far as the mouth of Bear creek and from thence by a line running nearly south, to the northeast corner of Washington county of Alabama, and from thence directly south to the gulf of Mexico. These constitute the dividing line between it and Alabama state. From the later named point the gulf of Mexico, is the boundary as far as the mouth of Pearl river (all islands within six leagues of the shore included.] The boundary between this state and Louisiana is the Pearl river as far north as lat. 31° — then that line of latitude continued west to the Mississippi river — lastly that river is the west boundary from lat. 31 deg. to 35 deg. and separates this state from Louisiana and the Arkansaw territory.

RIVERS. The Mississippi waters the western border about 570 miles. For nearly two thirds of that distance — that is from the Tennessee line to the mouth of Yazoo river, it receives no considerable stream on the east side.

Yazoo river rises near the Tennessee line, intermingling its sources with those of the Tombigby. Its general course is nearly; west by south. It is navigable for a great distance, but it is little known, as a great part of it is included in a country which belongs to the Chickasaws, and has not been explored whitemen. At its mouth it is about 280 yards wide and has several considerable tributary streams.

Black or Lousachitto river enters the Mississippi at the Grand Gulf about 60 miles above the Yazoo, and 50 above Natchez. It is about 170 miles in length and runs nearly a south west course.

Between the latter river and Natchez are Bayou Pierre, poles' creek and Fairchild's creek; and 20 miles below Natchez is St. Catharine's creek. Each of these is about 40 yards wide.

Homochitto river is about 70 miles in length, and 60 yards wide its mouth. It flows a south west course, and enters


the Mississippi 14 miles above the south west angle of the state. Near its mouth is a kind of lake which was once the channel of the Mississippi. She miles below of Homochitto is the mouth of Buffalo creek

Amite river rises in this state, and in two branches runs nearly south; uniting two miles below the boundary line (lat. 31.)

The other streams east of the Amite which rise in this state, and pass the same line into Louisiana are Tickfaw, Pongipaho, Chefuncti, Boguechitto, Pearl, Benasouah, Hatcha-Leecha, and Pascagola.

The Pearl river rises near the centre of the state. It may be rendered important but at present it is obstructed by shoals and driftwood.

Pascagola river, though not so long as the Pearl, is a far more important stream, containing a greater volume of water and navigation for schooners drawing six feet far as the confluence of Chickasawhay and Leaf rivers. Beyond that point it loses its name. From its estuary, the bay of Pascagola, there is boat navigation 150 miles. The general course of the stream is south.

Chickasawhay, is the largest branch of the Pascagola, rising near the heads of the Pearl. Its general course is south east; The Leaf river runs generally south.

The Hatcha-Leecha enters the Pascagola on the west side about 20 miles from the gulf of Mexico. Dog river rises in the Alabama state.

Many of the western tributary streams of the Tombigby rise within the eastern border of this state.

BAYS. That part of the gulf of Mexico bordering this state presents the three bays of St. Louis, Biloxi, and Pascagola, which are resorted to as summer retreats by the people of N. Orleans; and are remarked for their healthiness. Small vessels sail to these from the city through the lakes Ponchartrain and Borgne. At the east end of the latter, beyond the pass Christian, is the bay of St. Louis.

ISLANDS. There are a great number of islands in the Pascagola bay and along the gulf coast, but they are chiefly barren banks of sand, scarcely, if at all, inhabitable; as they exhibit no vegetables except "a few dwarf pines and sea-myrtle bushes;" but they are important as they afford a perfectly safe well sheltered passage for small vessels along the coast. That coast channel leads through Pass-aux-Herons into Mobile bay. It communicates with the gulf by navigable passes between Cat island (the most Western) and Ship island; between Dog and Horn island; and between Horn island and Petite Bois. East of these is Dauphin island which however affords no pass. The two clusters of islands in lake. Borgne called Malheureux and Marianne together with St. Josephs and Cat Islands (opposite


lake Borgne) are included within the limits assigned to Louisiana state, and within those lately assigned to this state.

LAKES. There are, along the gulf coast, numerous small lake passing into marshes and wet weather ponds. The cast end of lake Borgne belongs to this state.

FACE OF THE COUNTRY. There are no mountains in this state. The northern parts (as far as they have been explored) are hilly; the middle region greatly diversified with tracts very dissimilar to each other; the southern part in general little elevated and not very uneven. The range of hills which passes across the north of Alabama state, separating the waters of the Tennessee river from those of the Coasa, Cahaba, Black, river and Tombigby, turns southward after it enters this state, and passes towards the gulf of Mexico nearly parallel with the Tombigby, dividing the streams that enter the Tombigby from those that flow West into the Mississippi. About the middle of the state this hilly range divides. The main branch of it passes between the Pasengola and Tombigby, still approaching towards the latter, and at last it terminates at Mobile bay near the town of Mobile. Another branch lies between the Pearl and Pascagola rivers. Another runs into different lines between the Pearl and Black rivers; and an other separates the Black river from the Yazoo.

The bottoms of the Mississippi — the flat land subject to periodical and at least partial inundation, has been stated at an average, breadth of 20 miles. The bill ranges which include this plain run nearly in straight lines. The river is generally near the east side of the bottom, never approaching the west hill range, but running in several places abruptly against the hills on the east side; forming precipices which are here called bluffs. They are the Walnut bills, Grand and Petit Gulf, Natchez cliffs and Loftus' heights — all below the mouth of the Yazoo.

Through the Mississippi bottom there are numerous bayous, lakes, lagoons, ponds, swamps and marshes, but the soil is very, rich and generally too dry, even to the very margins of the ponds, except in the season of the floods. It is a deep mixture of sand and vegetable mould, with a clay base in the more elevated parts.

The trees are willow, box elder, water elm, water ash, cotton, wood pawpaw, honey locust, sycamore, and buckeye, with long cane on the driest richest parts, and cypress in the swamps — though rare in the northern districts. The shores are fringed with willows, scrubs, grass rushes and other grasses. The great, breadth of these bottoms, together with their uniformity, render their appearance very dreary to those who descend this river. The cypress ponds and marshes usually occupy that part of the bottom most distant from the river, and are far more dreary than any of the scenes which a boat voyage presents to view. The extent of the Mississippi bottoms in this state which are subject to occasional inundations Mr. Darby estimates at 600 square miles.

The northern section of the state is much the most fertile besides, being perfectly healthy; but as yet it is retained by the Indians. For the distance of a hundred miles south ward, of the Tennessee


boundary no marshy land, or scarcely any appears. The greater part of the country is covered with tall cane. The more hilly parts have poplar, oak, hickory, elm, buckeye, hackberry, maple and walnut. The cane chiefly occupies that upland portion of the state which is nearest to the Mississippi, which gradually decreases in breadth as well as in fertility as we proceed south towards the mouth of the Yazoo river.

With the exception of a tract 20 or 30 miles in a breadth along the Mississippi river the south half of this state is chiefly a sterile pine forest. In one instance the pine land approaches within three miles of the forest, above Natchez, but it is the pitch or yellow pine, the best of the pine family, and the soil is better usually belongs to it, indicating that oak would soon supplant the present timber. The Mississippi border above mentioned is generally fertile, possessing a great variety of trees, and very great diversity of soils.

Like Louisiana and Alabama states the pine districts are diversified with “hammock land” (tracks of oak, gum, dogwood, &c.) on the hill slopes, together with prairies, savannahs (or low wet glades) cypress swamps and bay galls.

As we proceed towards the gulf coast the land becomes more flat, the prairies more extensive, and scarcely any trees appear but the pine and the cypress of the marshes. The country through level is in general dry. The wet land is generally near the streams, and no where in extensive bodies as in Louisiana. The line of lat. 33 deg. and the Pearl river very accurately separate the flat lands of Louisiana from the dry pine forest of the state. The gulf coast east of the Pearl, though poor of agricultural purposes is perfectly healthy, and is annually resorted to on that account.

GEOLOGY. The northern and eastern parts of the state no doubt have like Alabama a base chiefly of limestone. With regard to the west part the subject admits of many doubts. Mr. Hutchins says that “between Petit Gaufre, 32 miles above Natchez, and the Balize (mouth of the Mississippi) there is not a stone to be seen any where near the river.” Mr. Cramer, in his Navigator, says that “there are considerable rocks of granite kind, at the very lower end of Natchez, seen at low water, but which appear to be of recent growth, and probably formed since Mr. Hutchins' survey of the river”. Granite of recent growth is a geological bull. Granite is the oldest kind of primitive rock. When the same materials — feldspar, quartz, and mica enter the oldest kind of stratified rock they lose the name and are called gneiss. Mr. Cramer says the stone is about an inch thick – then it is fletz; he adds that the earth above and below it is fine sand and clay. Then it is grey sandstone, such as is common in West Pennsylvania, being a fletz very new formation of materials which had once constituted micaceous rock.

It has already been noticed that the northern part of this state is of secondary formation, and that the southern alluvial.

Mr. Darby, whose observations are entitled to much credit says that stratified stone is seen no where along the Mississippi below the Lotus' heights (at the south west corner of this state.) It is there the same kind of stone which is found in all bluffs below the mouth of the Ohio. He says it is a breccia or pudding stone of


recent formation, with an argillaceous cement, and generally mingled with petrifactions. This he concludes is the base of all the west side of the state. This pudding stone then most have been formed in the presence of metallic bases, that abstracted from its materials, some of the substances with which they had been saturated, In some instances, says Mr. Darby, it is hard enough to form millstones. Numerous springs emerge immediately above the pudding stone, and though they are clear and look well they are said to be unwholesome.

The surface of the country is chiefly sand lying upon clay. Near the Mississippi the clay and sand are often found mingled into a good loam, and in such places generally covered with a layer of vegetable mould, as in the northern states. Over the greatest part of this state, however, the sand is very purely separated from the clay and frequently in that clean condition it is found highly fertile: but in such instances the clay beneath it is at no great depth; and thus the nutriment of the vegetables is preserved near the surface

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS. If mineral wealth exists within this State, no one knows where to find it. There may be some iron in the northern parts, and in the southern there is plenty of clay suitable for the best kinds of pottery. But manufactures cannot be expected to flourish north of latitude 35.


COUNTIES. Square Miles. Population of 1810. Population of 1816. TOWNS.  
Formed before 1810. Warren 414 1,114 1,570 Warrrenton
  Clairborne 396 3,102 3,500 Gibsonports.
  Jefferson 540 4,001 4,900 Greeneville, Huntston, Union.
  Adams 414 10,002 10,000 Natchez, Washington, Selestron
  Franklin 378 2,016 2,700 Liberty.
  Wilkinson 612 5,068 7,270 Woodville, Fort Adams, Pinkneyville, Sligo.
  Amite 972 4,750 5,060 Liberty.
  Wayne 1,800 1,253 2,080 Winchester.
Since 1810. Pike 720   2,620 Jacksonville.
  Lawrence 1,000   1,780 Monticello.
  Marion 828   1,700  
  Hancock 2,100   1,000 St. Louis, Biloxi.
  Greene 1,866   2,080  
  Jackson 1,050      

TOWNS. Natchez, which is dignified with the city, is the only considerable town in this state. It contains about 3000 inhabitants and above 300 houses. It is situated in N. lat 31 deg.33 min., and W. long. 14 deg. 20 min. upon one of the Mississippi bluff hills about 200 feet high. It declines from the river and therefore does not afford a view of it except upon the brow of the bluff. The houses are chiefly of frame work one story high, and contain numerous windows for the admission of fresh air in times of hot weather. The streets are regular and intersect each other at right angles, but the ground is even. The new houses are chiefly brick. Between the mil and the river there is a flat about 200 yards wide, called "the landing", it is occupied principally by taverns and trading houses. As this shore, like most of those on the lower Mississippi, is composed of a loose sandy soil it will probably be soon washed quite away by the river. The road from the lands to the city has rows of orange and liquor shop up the hill side that seem


to stand on the brink of destruction. In 1815 some of the bluff slided down and overturned a parcel of them.

Natchez is a valuable commercial depot, but judging from its position, we must conclude that other towns not yet laid out in this state will rise and eclipse it, when the Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Cherokees' claims shall be purchased.

Washington is six miles east of Natchez, and within the same county. It is agreeable summer residence, upon the shore of St. Catharine's creek. It contains about 1000 inhabitants, and is in the midst of a rich beautiful settlement. For 15 years this place was the seat of the territorial government.

Monticello is at present the seat of the government. It is directly east from Natchez, and about 95 miles distant from it. It is situated upon, the Pearl river.

The other towns of this state are very small and not very promising. They are chiefly the seats of justice for the counties to which they belong.

SETTLEMENTS. About three fourths of this state is yet owned and occupied by Indians. The United States' possessions are in the south west corner of it and on the gulf coast.

The Chickasaws claim the country on both sides of the south boundary of Tennessee. They have eight towns in that quarter, and live chiefly by keeping cattle and hogs. They are very hospitable, considerably civilized and many of them rich in black slaves and in stock. They count about 1800 warriors, and 4000 women and children. One of them "George Colbert, is proprietor of the ferry where the road leading from Nashville to Natchez crosses the Tennessee river. It is worth 2000 dollars a year. His charge is 50 cents for a footman, and a dollar for a man and horse." Besides the ferry he owns a fine tract of land four miles square. His bill against the United States, says Mr. Brown, or ferriage, horses, provisions &c. furnished to the Tennessee militia, during the last war, amounted to 75,000 dollars.

The Cherokees claim the north east part of this state. They were 12,359 in number according to a census taken in 1809 by R. J. Meigs, sen. Indian agent for that quarter. He estimates their present number at 14,500 and their warriors at 4,000. This number however is inclusive of a colony that emigrated from this state to settle in the Arkansaw territory. They raise great quantities of horses horned cattle, hogs, sheep, and poultry. They likewise attend to agriculture and manufactures. They not only raise grain but cotton and indigo. Two years ago they had "upwards of 500 looms; most of which they had themselves made. They had about the same number of ploughs. They perform all the processes from the first production of the materials to the dying and finishing of their cotton


and woolen fabricks. Many of the men and all of the women dress after the fashions of the white people, and are even more cleanly than the generality of the whites. Bathing was formerly a religious rite among them; it is now practised from habit, and as a domestic duty. They have several schools which have been established, by the United States, and most of their children have acquired some knowledge of reading, writing and arithmetic. They are at least equal to whites in docility and ingenuity, and in general much superior to them in the elegance of their persons. Among the tribes in the northern territories, though the men have fine forms the women are uniformly clumsy; rendered so no doubt by the heavy burdens which they have almost continually "hoppast" upon their backs."

The Chactaws claim the middle and south easterly parts of the state. They are move numerous than the Cherokees, but their number is now not well known. A few years ago they had 43 towns, 4,041 warriors, and a population of 12,123. Their increase of late years has been very considerable. Their country is not very rich — extending along the Chickasaka as Chickasawhay, Yazoo, Pearl and Pascagola rivers, but their farms are numerous and in good condition. Along the roads they keep taverns most of which are little inferior to the inns of Ohio and Kentucky, and superior, to the greater parts of the road taverns of West Pennsylvania.

During the disturbances which of late years have occurred along our southern border, these three nations have conducted themselves towards the Americans in the most peaceful and friendly manner; and truly they are in all respects an honour to the Indian race. Their condition is the more surprising, and the more creditable to them, when it is compared with their uncomfortable and abominable habits of living so general amongst the other tribes.

CULTIVATION AND COMMERCE. Cotton, tobacco, indigo, hemp, rice, flax and peas are the only articles cultivated here to advantage. The two first constitute the nine tenths of the export trade. The sugar cane has been often tried, but always without success: the gulf coast, is too sterile, and the Mississippi coast is too cold for that plant.

SLAVE LAWS. In 1819 an act was passed requiring every slave Imported into the state to be registered in the county clerks office, and exacting from the importer an path, that such slave has not been guilty of any capital crime. For neglect of this regulation there is a penalty of 500 dollars. For every slave imported into the state for sale there is a tax of 20 dollars; but citizens may import their own slaves free from the tax, unless they bring them from Louisiana or Alabama. A negro emigrating to Mississippi state must give security for his good behavior in the sum of 500 dollars or else he is liable to be sold at auction for the term of one year.


State of Alabama.




Alabama is 325 miles in length and about 150 in breadth. It lies between N. lat. 35° and 30° 20'. Longitude not correctly ascertained.

It is bounded by a line "beginning at the point where the 31st degree of north latitude intersects the Perdido river; thence east to the western boundary line of the state of Georgia; thence along said line to the western boundary line of the state of Tennessee; thence west, along said boundary line, to the Tennessee river; thence, up the same, to the mouth of Bear creek; thence by a direct line to the north-west corner of Washington county; thence, due south to the Gulf of Mexico; thence, eastwardly, including all islands within six leagues of the shore, to the Perdido river; thence up the same to the beginning." — [Act of Congress, March 2, 1819.]

RIVERS. This state is watered almost entirely by the Alabama and Tombigby rivers and their tributaries, and by the Mobile which is formed by their confluence.

Alabama, is the eastern, one of the two great rivers that unite to form the Mobile. The name like most of names of rivers in this state has not yet been definitely located. Under the present acceptation the two rivers Tallapoose or Okfuskee on the east, and Coosa or Cahawba on the west unite just below fort Jackson and form the Alabama. The name Coosa is applied by some to a river which enters the Alabama on the north — 40 or 50 miles from its mouth. Melish and others apply the, Okfuskee to the whole of the eastern branch of the Alabama, but others call that river the Tallapoose and apply the name Okfuskee to a large branch of it which enters on the east side, By Jackson's treaty the name Coose or Coosa is a applied to the great western branch of the Alabama, and of course the name Cahawba or Cahaba must be applied to the river which flows through the country between the Goosa and Tombigby. The Coosa, Tallapoose and Okfuskee (under the last location) rise in the western parts of Georgia state and all flow nearly a south-west course.

The names Estenaury, Connesangah and Hightour are sometimes applied to the Coosa; but Connesangah is properly only a branch of this river which rises near the Tennessee border, and is connected with the Amoy, a branch of the Hiwassee of


Tennessee river, by a portage of about ten miles. Boats can descend the Tallapoose with some risk, but cannot by any means ascend it on account of the falls of Wetumke above fort Jackson. From these falls there is a continuation of rapids for in about 50 miles to fort Williams, but it is supposed that the navigation might be rendered very good at a trifling expense.

The Alabama is navigable for boats through its whole length, and for schooners for about 40 miles — to the head of tide water; at which place the town of Fort Claiborne has lately been built.

Tombigby or Tombeckbee rises near the Tennessee line and flows nearly south. Near its junction with the Alabama it recieves the Basse-Bagrie river — and about 40 miles above that the Opalee. About 40 miles above that stands fort St. Stephens. This is the head of tide water, and is the highest point of schooner navigation. In low water the Megrois shoals 7 or 8 miles above this, interrupt the passage of boats. About 80 miles above St. Stephens the Black Warrior river enters the Tombigby on the east. This has lately been made a channel of commerce. Boats ascend to the falls, which are about 120 miles distant from Huntsville — a new town or the North side of the Tennessee river. The Tombigby, above the mouth of Black Warrior, has by some been improperly called the Natarchucky. The ignorance of the Indians has occasioned confusion in our geography by giving different names to several portions of the same river. The whole length of the Tombigby is estimated at 450 miles. The Senelee, Nooxabba and Salabamaby are branches of it, but are little known at present. — In fact the geography of this state is very imperfect, particularly with regard to the Tombigby country.

These rivers, rising from a country whose chief basis is limestone, are therefore greatly changed by the changes of the seasons.

Mobile river is 45 miles in length and its estuary, called Mobile bay, is 30 miles — that is 75 miles from its commencement at fort Stoddart to its mouth at fort Bowyer or Mobile point. Its main course is south. Six miles below fort Stoddart it divides, one branch retaining the name Mobile while the other is called Tensaw or Appalachee river — a gross impropriety as they are different parts of the same stream. Six miles from the head of Tensaw it divides again and sends off a bayou or branch called Lizzard creek which runs into the west branch of the Mobile. Lizzard creek sends out another bayou, called Middle river or bayou Mathieu, which unites with the Tensaw just above the town of Blakely.

There are six long narrow islands in the northern end of what should properly be called Mobile bay, but the several channels which surround them are called rivers. The town of Mobile is on the western shore, just opposite to the largest of these islands, and the most western channel by it is called Mobile, while that on the east side is called Spanish river. Just below the junction of the Tensaw and Middle river a bayou called the Raft river runs off west-ward


and enters Spanish river; another enters in the same manner a little further south, and is now the main channel through which vessels pass up the Tensaw from the bay.

At the mouth of the bay there is a double island called Dauphin and two others opposite its east, end called Pelican islands. The whole cluster is surrounded by a shoal or sand bar. The coasters from lake Ponchartrain and bayou St. John, enter the bay on the west side of Dauphin island, through a channel which has only six feet water. The only other channel is on the east side of the island, between it on Mobile point, the scite of fort Bowyer. This passage is only a few rods in breadth, but it draws 18 feet of water. From thence passing upwards the channel is through the middle of the bay and has generally 14 feet of water. The Mobile channel has only 8 feet at its mouth, for which reason it is usual for the vessels bound to Mobile, to pass up the Spanish river, which has 13 feet of water,, and entering the Mobile to drop down to the town. The lower part of the bay is 14 miles wide, but as you proceed upwards it contracts to 8 miles.

Of the vessels bound for any of the towns in the Tombigby or Alabama rivers some take the eastern channel — the Tensaw river, by going past the town of Blakely. For this purpose they take the lowest right hand branch of Spanish river. But the greater part of the vessels keep up the Spanish river, and from that take the west or Mobile branch, because the wind best suited, for ascending the bay will always be most favourable for that route. From that they enter Lizzard's creek, the mouth of which is about 20 miles above the town of Mobile because the Mobile channel has a shoal of about 7 feet water just above that creek. They then pass through Middle river into the Tensaw.

On the west side of Mobile bay there are three small streams called Dog river, Riviere Au Chervenil, and Aux Poules. On the east side just below Blakely, is Minet creek; and below the bluffs of the east shore, Fish river. Further south is the Bon Secours which has a large estuary or bay at its mouth. Bayou Batrie enters the Gulf to the west of Mobile Bay.

Perdido river enters the Gulf of Mexico 20 miles east of the Mobile, forming a large Bay which debouches into the gulf by a narrow crooked channel only 3 feet deep.

Further east are the head waters of the Escambia, Cunecuh and Rio del Almirante; all of which, flow into the noble bay of Pensacola within the boundaries of Florida. Near the south east corner of the state are the head waters of the St. Rose which likewise flows through the west end of Florida and debouches into the bay of St. Rose.

The Tennessee river enters this state at the north east angle and leaves it at the north west angle. Forty or fifty miles from the latter it is 8 miles in breadth — shallow and full of islands for the distance of 7 miles, and there it receives the name of the muscle shoals. Bear creek or Occachoppa enters it just above the Chickasaw landing. From the mouth of that creek the western boundary commences.

FACE OF COUNTRY, SOIL, &c. The country along the Gulf Coast — 78 or 80 miles in breadth is nearly alike, consisting of


close forests; of long leaved pine and loblolly interspersed with tracts of cypress swamps generally a small distance from the streams, and rich cane and between the swamps and shores, or directly in the rear of the swamps.

The pine land is apparently of barren sand but by reason of the genial climate is tolerably productive. For a distance of 20, and in some places 30 miles from the Gulf shore, the country is quite flat, and in the rainy seasons almost entirely covered with water, so as to make travelling, very disagreeable in it. The water is retained upon the sand by a deep compact body of clay which forms, the subsoil wherever there is pine and cypress. To that clay is imputed the portion of fertility which the pine sands possess. The cypress and bay galls are wet at all seasons and good for nothing, besides being unhealthy. Through the greatest part of this flat, tract there is live oak found near the ponds, with dwarf saw palmetto and other evergreens. In some parts the margins of the swamps and ponds are elevated several feet, and in such places though the pine prevails the soil is chiefly clay and gravel covered with whortleberry hushes. This is irreclaimably sterile, but seldom of great extent, for it gradually recedes into the sandy pine flats covered with wire grass and saw-palmetto. Small portions of it are one degree better and exhibit sour orange tree.

The borders of the rivers have generally tall cane and the creeks reed cane, with cotton wood, magnolia, laurel and gum. Such land is always dry though always near to wet land; and it is uniformly and inexaustibly fertile. Sometimes it is of a black mould, and sometimes of the colour of strong ashes; and the latter sort is considered rather the best. The rich lands produce poplar, hickory, cherry, oak of various kinds and sometimes walnut with China briar and other rich weeds: sometimes grass, and in some places fringed with orange trees. Cane however is the chief vegetable in the very best soil. There are few cane tracts near the Gulf, but they become more numerous as we proceed north through the whole extent of the state. The river bottoms, are generally from a mile to two or three miles in breadth through the northern and middle parts of the state, but in the flat country now described they some times extend eight or ten miles. The most elevated parts of them are along the shores — that is the cane land: but from the shores they decline gradually and near the usual level of the water; they become cypress swamps with bay galls, &c. Along the gulf shore there is little else than dry sand banks with pine and, marshes of this character.

Nothwithstanding the unpromising general appearance of that region, there are along the shores of Perdido and the Mobile bays, particularly on the former, many delightful situations sufficiently remote from marshes to be perfectly healthy, and enjoying local advantages (with regard to commerce) which gave them inestimable value.

The termination of the coast country is not very distinctly marked, but at 70 or 80 miles from the gulf the surface of the land becomes undulating, the soil better, and the tracts of oak gaound numerous, and of extent sufficiently inviting.

The country becomes still more uneven as we proceed northward so that the central part of the state may be reckoned hilly, and the


northern border rugged yet the greatest average quantity of rich land lies to the north.

All the rivers and creeks through the middle and northern sections, present rich beautiful bottom, seldom exceeding two miles on the largest streams, and proportionally narrow on the smaller ones. These bottoms differ very little in the different parts being generally a deep black, or else an ash coloured mould, inexhaustible to cultivation and generally dry at least along the immediate shores. — The timber, black walnut, poplar, cherry, hickory, cotton-wood and mulberry, with luxuriant fields of the tall cane, and occasionally reed cane. Where there is no cane: the ground is covered with pea vine, and an almost impenetrable growth of rich weeds. The uplands, particularly between the Alabama and Tombigby, are chiefly of good soil, with oak, hickory, chesnut and dog-wood; but there are large bodies of pine forest, and several prairies, with some savannas or flat wet glade land in that quarter. Through the most extensive tracts of pine country there are stripes of oak land, generally near the streams, and on the slopes of hills. Such insulated portions are there called ‘hammock land.’ The Umber there is post oak black-oak, white oak, chesnut, hickory, &c and like oak-land in the northern slates they seem inferably fertile when first cultivated but they are easily exhausted. Along the eastern border of the state, and south of the Alabama, there are immense districts of pine country and prairie, with hammock land occasionally, and swamps, but with little cane or walnut land.

A range of hills extends from near the eastern boundary, running at first south-west, and finally westward, separating the waters of Alabama and Tallapoose on the north from the Conecah and Escambia on the Florida side. The country on the south and east to these bills is chiefly pine forest interspersed with swamps and ponds. On the margin of the streams there are generally stripes of land, from a quarter to a half a mile wide, bearing oak, hickory and ash. In the rear of this are reed marshes, and in some places ponds, that become dry periodically. Much of the marshy land is sufficiently dry to bear trees, white oak, beech, maple, swamp-red oak, very large and beautiful, — poplar, gum and cypress with undergrowth of china briar, reed, palmettos, ratan and grape vines. Sometimes there is on the borders of these fats pine to rests tolerably rich, interspersed with oak and hickory. From the neighbourhood of the creeks large tracts of what are called "reed brakes" extend towards the pine lands.

As we approach the eastern boundary, little else than pine country and swamps is to be seen. That quarter has been little explored but it is generally believed to be unsuitable for settlement.

The land on the north and west side of the above mentioned I range of hills is chiefly, of the best quality, containing numerous tracts of rich cane land, several prairies fertile and beautiful, covered with grass and flowers; and also, as is usual with prairies, deficient in springs. Water however is generally obtained by digging a little depth. There is little pine land in this part but several beech swamps, wet-weather ponds and reed brakes. The upland bears black oak, post oak, dogwood, hickory, buckeye, poplar &c, the soil black or brown, and very rich. This district becomes comes narrower as we proceed westward, until at last it terminates


near the mouth of the Cahaba, where the Alabama makes a great bend southward, cutting across the hill range. On the north side of the river that range receives the name of the "Alabama heights."

A district of very elevated hill land extends across the state, between the waters of the Tennessee river, and the head waters of the Tombigby and Coose rivers, which though it approaches the mountainous character, presents tracts of great fertility. There is a large body of land south and west of the Muscle Shoals, extending from thence along the heads of the Tombigby which is represented as superior in fertility to any other part of the United States. That district which lies on the south side of the Tennessee boundary and within the great bend of the Tennesse river is very hilly and very deficient of springs, but extremely rich, and has of late attracted great attention.

According to Mr. Darby, the pitch pine covers two thirds of the whole region including the states of Mississippi Alabama, and the western parts of Georgia and Florida.

The live oak which is no where plentiful, is found no further north in this quarter than the latitude of 31 degrees, which is the extreme limit of the flat gulf coast country.

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS: Limestone abounds in almost all parts of the state. In the prairies south of the Alabama river, there has been found blocks of it very pure and beautifully white; some of them marked with marine shells.

There is a bank of shell limestone which commences in N. Carolina, passes through S. Caroline, Georgia, part of this state and terminates at the gulf coast. In some places the calcareous matter, of this formation is washed out, leaving the silex which had formed its cement. This porous flinty rock is used for millstones, and is very suitable for that purpose.

Indications of iron have been observed in many particularly along the chain of Alabama hills. In the same quarter a black stone resembling lava have been found.

Coal is found through all the northern parts of the states that have been examined, and it is only in that quarter that mineral wealth may be expected.


Divisions by the act of 1819.
COUNTIES Representatives Free Inhabitants TOWNS.
Madison 8 8780 Huntsville, Merdian.
Monroe 4 4307 Fort Mim, Fort Montgomery,
Blount 3 3229  
Limestone 3 3473  
Shelby 2 3287  
Montgomery 2 3464  
Washington 2 2147 Fort St. Stephen
Tuskalooska 2 2365  
Lawrence 2    
Franklin: 2 2253  
Cotaco 2 2101  
Clark 2 2674 Republicksville
Baldwin 1 504 Fort Stoddert,
Cahauba 1 1031  
Conecuh 1 1692  
Dallas 1 1320  
Marengo 1 1164  
Marion 1    
Mobile 1 982 Mobile
Lauderdale 1 1698  
St. Clair 1    
Autaugo 1    
44 45,871  

Divisions at the Census of 1816. Census of 1818.

Counties Whites. Slaves. Total Population,  
Madison 10,000 4,200 14,200 White males over 21 9,974
Monroe 2,593 1,603 5,296 do. do. under 21 14,749
Clarke 2,763 1,338 4,196 do. females over 21 7, 549
Washington 1,888 671 2,559 do. do. under 21 13,599
Wayne 1,566 517 2,083 total whites 45,871
Greene 992 729 1,721 total slaves 21,384
Mobile 867 433 1,300 free blacks, &c. 339
Jackson 714 255 969    
Baldwin 411 752 1,163 total inhabitants 67,693

NOTE. Those counties opposite the blank lines are new ones and have their population enumerated in the counties out of which they were formed.


TOWNS. Mobile stands at the head of Mobile bay — on the west side, in N. lat. 30° 40' immediately above, Fort Conde. It is upon elevated dry-ground in a commanding situation, but otherwise not favourably placed with regard to trade, as the larger vessels have to approach it through a circuitous channel. The harbour is good, well sheltered, and; safe from attacks. It is surrounded, by a sterile, unhealthy, unsettled pine country. This circumstance, together with the rivalship of Blakely and other well situated towns in that quarter, will prevent it from ever rising into importance. It was one of the first towns established by the French in Louisiana. By the census of 1818 it was inhabited by 604 whites, 149 people of colour, and 375 slaves — total 1127. But it was almost depopulated by the fever in 1819.

Blakely is situated on the east side of Mobile bay, nearly opposite to the town of Mobile. It appears likely to become a place of great tirade. Its main advantage over Mobile, is that the same wind which enables a vessel to enter the bay will, carry her to its wharves, but not to those of Mobile. It was surveyed off in, 1816; in 1817 it had one house. In 1816 it had; 10 large warehouses, 80 dwelling houses, above 300 inhabitants; a newspaper printed twice a week — (The Blakely Suit and Alabama advertiser) 80 vessels with an aggregate tonnage of 4000 tons.

Fort St. Stephens is at present the seat of government. It is situated on the west shore, of the Tombigby, in N. lat. 31° 33'. Besides its other advantages of position, it is the head of schooner navigation, which, is a circumstance of the utmost importance, and will no doubt in a short period render it a fine commerciality. The country round it is tolerably fertile; in most parts, and income places highly so. The number of inhabitants in the neighbouring counties of Clarks, Baldwin and Washington is already considerable and rapidly increasing.

Cahaba has been designated as the seat of government. It is situated at the confluence of the river of the name, with the Alabama river. At the May sales (1819) 183 half acre lots in this town were put up and "101 of them were bid off an aggregate of upwards of 96,000 dollars. The highest price given for a lot was 5,025 dollars, another sold for 5000; none sold for less than 500 dollars, with the exception of one which being low and wet went a little under 300 dollars."

Fort Claiborne is likewise a very, new town, located on the Alabama river at the head of tide water, or the point where schooner navigation terminates; that is about 60 miles from the mouth of the river. If it is said to be a place of promise nearly equal to St. Stephens, but as yet the country around it contains few inhabitants, though the lands are generally of excellent quality.


Fort Stoddart is situated on the west shore of the Mobile, 3 miles below the confluence of the Tombigby and Alabama. It enjoys little trade, as the country around is neither rich nor well settled.

Huntsville is situated upon Indian creek in Madison county, between the Tennessee river and the Tennessee boundary. It has lately attracted great notice; but the geography of that part of the state is very imperfect. The people of this town in 1818 subscribed 7,200 dollars for rendering Indian creek navigable.

Fort Jackson is situated just below the rapids of the Goose and near the Tallapoose. Fort William is likewise on the Coose 50 miles further north — at the head of the rapids of that river.

From Mobile to fort Stoddart (mouth of Alabama) is 40 miles; from thence by land to the Alabama heights (fort Clairborne) 60 miles; from thence by land to Cahaba 70 miles; from thence to the confluence of the Coose and Tallapoose 60 miles.

POPULATION. The increase of population in one year, (1818) is stated at 35,000. During 1819 the emigration was still greater, and the increase it was supposed would be at least 40,000. The eagerness evinced by so many to acquire property in this state has, in some measure, retarded the settlement of it by raising excessively the price of lands. At the sales held in May 1819 at Cahaba the prices of upland were from 15 to 35 dollars per acre — choice river tracts 80 and 90 per acre. At the Tombigby sales, in the preceding April, the prices of river land were from 20 to 40 dollars per acre — of upland from 35 to 20 dollars, and choice tracts from 80 to 90 dollars per acre.

ALABAMA COLLEGE. A tract of 20,000 acres adjoining the Tennessee river, was granted by the U. States for the support of this institution. The value is estimated at $500,000.

CULTIVATION. This state has no cultivated hay or pasture; what is called the range (that is the cane and natural grasses, weeds, &c.) is still very abundant, so that stock costs nothing except the trouble of looking after. Small grain is grown, but not to much advantage. Wheat is less suited to this soil and climate than any other sort of grain. Corn grows very luxuriantly particularly on the bottoms. Fields of 4 and 500 acres have already, been seen here bearing corn from 18 to 22 feet in height. Rice is raised in the wet flats, and no doubt an immense supply could be produced from the district of the gulf coast. In the central and southern parts the cotton plant grows, three times as high as it does in Kentucky and Tennessee. That this climate is much better suited for the production of that article than any countries; northward is evident from the circumstance that here the green seed cotton has a perpetual


tendency to turn into black seed, while the reverse takes place in Tennessee, Kentucky and Illinois.

It is much to be wished that some attempts were made to cultivate the vine and, olive on the dry sandy ridges of Tombigby and Alabama.

COMMERCE. In 1817, 209 vessels were entered at the port of Mobile, and 152 cleared. In 1818, 280 were entered and 360 cleared. The amount of importations in 1819 were estimated at $3,000,000.

CONSTITUTION. The governor is to be elected every two years, but is not eligible for more than four years in, any period of six. In cases of vacancy occurring in offices at the disposal of the legislature during their recess he shall, grant commissions which are to expire at the end of the session ensuing. If he returns a bill as disapproved it may be reconsidered and passed by a majority of the number elected to both houses.

The representatives are elected annually (on the first Monday of August). The qualifications are — being a white male citizen of the U. States, who has resided two years within the state, the last year within the district for which he is chosen — and at least 21 years of age. Their number must not be less than 44 nor more than 60.

The senators are elected for the term of three years — The qualifications the same as above, except that they must have attained the age of 27 years. The number of senators shall not be less than one-fourth nor more than one-third of the number of the lower house.

None shall be eligible to the general assembly who hold any lucrative offices, excepting post-masters, justices of the peace, or militia, officers without annual salaries. Delinquent collectors or holders of public monies are excluded.

The judicial power is vested in "superior and inferior courts." The superior to have appellate jurisdiction — the judges of it hold also the district courts.

Sheriffs to be elected by the people every three years. Clerks of the courts to be chosen by the courts.

All elections are to be vive voce. Soldiers, seamen and marines are excluded from the privilege of suffrage. A voter must be a male citizen of the U. States — at least six years of age, and must have resided within this state one year immediately antecedent to the election.


Sketch of Florida.

BOUNDARIES. Florida is bounded on the east by the Atlantic ocean, on the south by the gulf of Mexico, on the west partly by the same, and partly by the river Perdido. The north boundary is, 1st. the line of North latitude 31, extending from the Perdido to the Chittahoochee. 2d. by that river from latitude 31 to the point where it unites with the Flint river to form the Appalachicola. 3d. by a line extending from the mouth of Flint river to the main source of the river St. Mary's, and then down that river to the Atlantic. — Its extreme length is about 600 miles. Following the sinuosities of the shores it has about 1000 miles of sea coast. It lies between 25 deg. and 31' of N. lat.

RIVERS. St. Mary's and St. John's are the chief rivers on the east side of Florida. The former rises in a swamp upon the north boundary. The latter rises in a marshy tract near the centre of east Florida, and after running southward debouches about 40 miles south of St. Mary's. There are several expansions, or rather lakes in its course and in general it has very little current. The Gulf of Mexico receives several considerable streams from east Florida but they are little known. The rivers of West Florida are Perdido, Escambia or Cunecuh and Appalachicola.

BAYS. Pensacola bay is well land-locked, with good anchorage and water of sufficient depth for the largest frigates. Its entrance is narrow between the Point St. Rose and fort Barancas, and might be easily rendered impregnable. The bay of Tampa, or Spirito Santa on the west coast of east florida is stated to be the largest and best harbour in the world. The inlet at St. Augustines is beautiful, but shallow.

FACE OF THE COUNTRY, SOIL, &c. This country is very level, consisting chiefly of prairies intersected with marshes, lakes, sluggish streams, and small tracts of forest land. There are some districts highly fertile, on the borders of the rivers where walnut and mulberry trees are abundant, but a great portion of the dry lands produce pine, live oak and cedar; white cypress, is of course the most plentiful tree in the marshes. The pine of Florida is celebrated as being far superior to that of any other country for the purposes of ship building. In the interior of the peninsula there is a prairie 50 miles in circumference encircled by a hilly forest. Bartram describes the Indian town of Cuscowilla, in the same quarter, its being amidst scenery of exquisite beauty.

Palms are commonly found along the borders of the streams and lakes; and they, like most other trees in this genial climate, attain to a great magnitude. It is here only that the pride of American trees, the grand-flowering magnolia flourishes in all the magnificence of its perfection. The live oak, which in Louisiana becomes


dwarfish, is here obtained from 12 to 18 feet in circumference. In the rich flats and in the islands of the lakes and rivers there are groves of orange trees, while the indigenous figs, lemons, peaches, limes and prunes, mingle as an undergrowth in the forests.

The greater part of the south coast is sandy, barren, and almost destitute of timber. Even the better portions of the country has an excess of sand in the soil. The light loamy earth generally lies upon a bed of clay. In the richest parts it lies upon marl, chalk, or shelly limestone.

GEOLOGY. The whole of this country is alluvion, interrupted perhaps with lines of secondary formation. Its basis is chiefly calcareous, and consists of marine productions, partly decomposed and reposing in great beds or masses.

PRODUCTIONS. These cannot be well estimated as its resources have been little drawn upon. Its number will be of immense importance, partly from its superiority in quality, but chiefly from its contiguity to the West Indies. Turpentine, tar, rosin, pitch, &c. will also be abundant, though there has been no trade in these articles these 20 years. When the floridas were in the possession of Great Britain, one contractor shipped 20,000 barrels of turpentine from the river St. Johns in one season. In the interior, it will be equal or superior to any of the states for producing sugar, tobacco, cotton, indigo, rice, olive oil, wine, &c. Indian corn, and many other grains grow luxuriantly. Melons, pumpkins, potatoes, and various other eatable roots are already cultivated, and in abundance.

Among these there is an indigenous species of arum — arum quinatum perhaps? — resembling yams in taste and turnips in appearance. The southern portion of Florida will no doubt be found suitable for the growth of coffee, as it extends three hundred miles further south than the lowest habitable parts of Louisiana.

This country acquired its name from the unrivalled beauty and variety of its plants, but as yet they are little known in commerce.

CLIMATE. It is much warmer than Georgia in winter, but on account of the sea breezes it is far cooler in summer. Many parts of it will probably be unhealthy, but St. Augustine and some other places on the sea coast are celebrated for healthiness, and for that reason resorted to in summer by the opulent inhabitants of Cuba.

TOWNS. St. Augustine is situated upon the sea shore at the inlet of Mantansies, a few miles south from the mouth of the river St. Johns. Its scite is a massive solid rock composed of shelly concretions. On the north side of the city this rock is considerably elevated and is occupied by the garrison of St. Marks. The houses amount to about 500, and are chiefly built of the chalky limestone which composes the shore. The population is stated at 5000 souls, but the number seems to have been diminishing for several years. The most of the families in originally emigrated frond Minorca. There is a respectable looking old Roman Catholic chapel, and some other monuments of their departed splendour. The city is separated from the interior and nearly insulated, by an impenetrable marsh which is fortified by six redoubts. The fort is a regular square with bastions


at each corner and encompassed with a glacis. The walls are 20 feet high and 12 feet thick. On these are are mounted 36 guns of 24 pound bull.

St. Marks is an inconsiderable town situated at the bay of Apalache — the north eastern termination of the Gulf of Mexico; 180 miles west of St. Augustine. Mr. Bartram gives the route between them as follows —

From St. Augustine to fort Picolata on the river St. Johns, 27
From thence across the St. johns to Poopoa fort, 3
From thence to the Alachua savanna, 45
From thence to Talahasochte on the river little St. John's, 75
From thence down that river to St. Marks'. 30


Antiquities of the Western Country.

I omitted to notice antique mounds, fortresses, ruins &c. when describing the, districts where they have been found in order to present ail the most important facts and circumstances relative to them in one succinct view.

This subject has been treated in a very interesting manner by H. M. Brackenridge, in a letter addressed to Mr. Thomas Jefferson, and lately published in the transactions of the American Philosophical Society. However I cannot well enter here into discussions about the antiquity of these mounds and dikes, the purposes for which they were intended, or the people by whom they were constructed.

The barrows or little mounds, constitute by far the most numerous class of antique monuments in this country: there is scarcely a plantation upon which they may not be found. They are mere heaps of earth and stones, generally from one to three feet in height, and containing probably in every instance the bones of people. It is so natural to conclude that they have been the common burial places of the Indians who last inhabited this region, that it seems absurd to force conjecture any further. Of themselves they certainly afford no proof that the country was ever possessed by race different from those who have been dispossessed of it by the Europeans.

The breastworks, or lines of circumvallation, are far less numerous and suggest far more doubt, at least in regard to their antiquity. They are dikes of various height, from one or two to twenty feet and even more — generally surrounded by some traces of ditch. Some are round, some square, but the greatest number are of shapes very irregular though there are few instances in which there is any apparent reason their irregularity. Some are only four or five rods in diameter, and others are; a hundred acres in extent.

The greatest magnitude of many of them is supposed to indicate high antiquity. By whomsoever they may have been constructed it is certain that some of them are yet occupied by the Indians off the present day. The villages of Mandan and Arikara are enclosed within breast works similar to those in Ohio state, except that they are sumounted by palisades. Probably no one has carefully investigated whether or not there are


any vestiges of palisades in any of the old fortifications of the Ohio country. Mr. Rice Jones states that he was informed by the old chief Du Coin, that the great mounds and dikes in the American Bottom were raised as fortifications, by the Kaskaskias in their wars with the Iroquois. This testimony might be of no weight if it stood alone, but it is important when it concurs with incontestable facts.

In an old work written by one Lafitau, a Jesuit, there is a plate which represents a mound garrisoned and assaulted by Indians. It is fortified with palisades upon the flat summit, and by beams extending down to the base around it.

The mounds have attracted more notice than any other kind of American antique monuments. They are circular heaps of earth, from ten to a hundred feet in height; the largest about seven or eight hundred feet in diameter, and the smaller ones of the same proportion. Some are round on the top, others flat, or more frequently dish shaped. The sides of the smaller ones are generally, of regular conical ascent; but most of the larger ones are encircled by flat offsets — that is they consist of small mounds placed upon the centre of broad low flat ones. Some have two of those circular offsets or stages, and others three or more. In almost every instance they stand upon level ground generally upon alluvion where, of course, no natural elevation could have been taken to have raised them on In every group of mounds there are two which are much larger than any of the others.

Most of them are composed of materials different from the soil of the plains they occupy. At Bayou Manchac there is one which consists almost entirely of shells.

The interior of many of them have been carefully examined. Some have been entirely demolished. Their contents appear to have been various and very differently disposed in different ones. In general they contain human bones — sometimes mingled with the bones of other animals, but in some no bones of any kind can be discovered. The quantity of bones dug from some of them has been great enough to warrant the conclusion that a single one may have contained a hundred skeletons. In others only two or three skeletons have appeared. Besides these there have been found in them pieces of pottery, apparently broken cooking utensils, pieces of copper, all of which seem to have been ornamental — beads of bone and shell a kind of porcelain beads; arrow heads of flint, axe heads of iron ore, &c. bones carved, shells cut into different shapes — ashes and charcoal, wrought pieces of crystal, jasper, granite, &c. at one near Cincinnati pieces of wrought cannel coal, insinglass (mica membranacea) galena (lead ore;) at one near Harrison, in Indiana, a flat piece of smooth glass, lens shaped: quere, might it not have been rock crystal? It is understood that no article of iron, gold, or silver, has been discovered in any American mound.


In some of the large mounds of Ohio, the earthenware found is precisely, similar in material and manufacture to the ware now in use amongst the Indians of the Upper Missouri country. From all which facts I conclude that neither their antiquity, their size, nor their contents indicate any thing inconsistent with the known habits and characteristics of savage life.

Opon some of them there are trees four or five hundred years old or upwards; and this is the only unequivocal proof of their high antiquity which we know. Some people have undertaken to guess that the trees upon them are second growths. What are the facts that authorise such a conclusion? There is a sort of minds which always show an inclination to magnify every thing that seems wonderful.

It can hardly be questioned that this country was inhabited by some people thousands of years ago. While that people still remained, some of their forts or villages may have been suffered to fall into ruin. They may have changed their habits of warfare, of sepulture, or of worship. Trees may have been planted, or suffered for ages to grow on those places even while the people were in the actual occupation of them.

The nations of Palestine and the country around it resorted to "high places" for the purpose of worship; and they planted trees or groves upon them. The trees of our mounds therefore prove only how long they have stood, but not how long they have been abandoned.

Artificial mounts or mounds are spoken of in five passages of the Old Testament, and they all have reference to military operations, in Jeremiah, vi. 6. Ezekiel, iv. 2. xxi. 22. xxvi. & and Daniel, xi. 15.

That these mounds have been used as places of burial does not prove that they were merely monumental, nor does it preclude the idea that even a principal intention of their erection might have been for purposes of war, of worship, or of both, or of something else.

In Siberia, in Russia, and in Ireland there are mounds similar to those In America; but as there does not exist even a traditionary account of their use in those countries they can throw little light upon this subject.

When Mexico was first discovered by the Spaniards, every considerable town in it contained mounds, similar in shape and size to those, on the Ohio and Mississippi; except that they were encased with brick or stones, and surmounted with temples. These Solis describes as they appeared at that period, and Humboldt as they appear at present. They were places of burial, of worship, and of defence. Unquestionably those Mexicans were a civilized people. Their unrivalled gardens, their grand cities, their magnificent palaces and temples; their, exquisite ornaments, utensils and furniture in different metals; their books or rolls — every thing known of them is creditable proof of their arts and their literature.


From their civilization, Mr. Brackenridge concludes that mounds in our western country were the works of a civilized people, "The great mound of Cahokia," says he, "is evidently constructed with as much regularity as any of the Teocalli of New Spain, and was doubtless cased with brick or stone, and crowned with buildings, but of these no traces remain." And why should there be no doubt as to a tact of which there is no proof — of which there is neither tradition, trace nor token of any kind?

But the people whom the Spaniards found in Mexico did not raise any new adoratorios or teocalli. None of their mounds had been formed within the memory of any one then living. There was only a tradition among them that they had been raised by a different race of people, whom they called Toultees or Olmecs; conjecturing that they had emigrated from the Mississippi country. Thus we return in this matter to the same utter uncertainty from which we set out.

Besides the earthen breastworks there are some of stone; the most remarkable one of these is upon the level summit of a high hill near Paint creek, 11 or 12 miles west of Chilicothe in Ohio. It is circular and contains about a hundred acres. The wall seems to have been originally 3 or 4 feet thick, and 12 or 14 in height, but at present the stones which had composed it are tumbled into a rude heap. It has ten gateways situated at regular distances from each other. On the outside of one of them there is a well which is walled, but filled up with earth, At the foot of the hill are the ruins of a town, the houses in which hut likewise been built of stone. The foundations and cellars still appear very distinctly. Beside the town there is a mound of earth like the common mounds.

It is to be observed that in all the old walls and other stone works which have been found in this country there is no appearance of lime or mortar, or cement of any kind; nor are the stones hammered or dressed in any way.

The common opinion relative to those antiquities is that they were executed by a race of people different from the Indians who have been found in this country. This seems to be maintained by Jefferson, Bishop Madison, Dr. Cutler, and several other respectable writers, among whom is Mr. Brackenridge, who knew more of the subject than any of them. As I am not in the habit of paying much difference to the authority of great names I cannot accede to the opinion. I think that the question involved in its discussion are very doubtful and not very important.

There cannot be allowed room here for descriptions or for an enumeration of all those works which have been noticed; in fact almost every new settlement gives some additions to the number of discoveries that have been made of the kind.

I subjoin a list of; those best known.

1 Mounds at the Menomonie river (N. W. Territory.]
2 Do on the Gaspard river (N.W. Territory.)


3 Do at the Huron river, 30 miles from Detroit.
4 Do. at lake St. Clair (Michigan.)
5 A fortress near the mouth of St. Clair.
6 Three small mounds at Spring Wells, 3 miles below Detroit, and two fortresses near them.
7 A fortress near lake Pepin (N. W. Ter.)
8 In the Naudoesse country.
9 At the Wabisipinekan. Missouri.
10 Near the mouth of the Platte.
11 At the St. Pierre river.
12 At the mouth of the Osage river.
13 Mounds at the mouth of the Missouri.
14 Do. two groupes and fortresses at Cahokia (Illinois state.)
15 At the mouth of the Merrimack (Missouri)
16 At St. Genevieve.
17 At Bois Brue, fifteen miles below St. Genevieve.
18 Two groupes of mounds, 20 miles further down the Mississippi, on same side.
19 One groupe at Black river.
20 A groupe at New Madrid.
21 Between the Arkansaw and St. Francis.
22 At Red river not described.
23 Near Washington (Missouri state.)
24 At Baton Rouge (Louisiana.)
25 At Bayou Minchac (do.)
26 At Pittsburgh, and two miles below it.
27 At Big Grave creek, 14 miles below Wheeling,
28 At Little Grave creek.
29 Several along the Great Kenhawa (Virginia.)
30 At Marietta.
31 Mounds and fortresses at Granville (Ohio.)
32 Do. do. at Circleville (do.).
33 Do. do. at Chillicothe (do.).
34 Do. do. near Paint creek (do.).
35 Do. do. at the Little Miami (do.).
36 Mounds at Franklinton (do.).
37 Do. at Worthington (do.).
38 At Athens (do.).
39 Some 20 miles south of Athens (do.).
40 At Gallipolis (do.).
41 At the mouth of the Miami (do.).
42 At Cincinnati (do.).
43 Some opposite the mouth of the Little Sandy.
44 Opposite the mouth of the Sciota, in Kentucky.
45 At White river, in Indiana.
46 At Lexington, in Kentucky.

We do not know that the exact number at any one of these places has been ascertained: it cannot be confidently stated here how many there are even in the vicinity of Pittsburgh.

The following particulars may be added.


1 The fortress at the Mississippi, near lake Pepin, is about half a mile long.

2 In the American Bottom, near Cahokia, the mounds are perhaps one hundred in number, the largest that have yet been discovered in this country. The principal one is one hundred feet high and eight hundred paces in circumference.

3 The largest mound near the head of the Ohio is at Little Grave creek. It is 75 feet high, and 380 in diameter at its base.

4 At the Big Grave creek there is one 70 feet high, 180 feet in diameter at its base, with a flat summit 50 or 60 feet in diameter.

5 At Marietta there is one 50 feet high and 160 feet in diameter at its base.

The Mummies found in the caves of Kentucky are the next most remarkable class of American antiquities. Some hundreds were found in one cave near Lexington, but the greater part if not all of them have been lost. They were removed by the early settlers of the country and were not preserved — perhaps could not have been preserved out of their caves. These mummies appear to have been Indians like the present race. They were generally wrapped in cloth or matting made of some kind of bark, and had ornaments about them similar to those which have been found in the mounds.


Systems of Surveying and Selling Public Lands.

The public lands are now surveyed according to an admirable system which originated with colonel Mansfield, late surveyor general of the United States, and now professor, of Natural Philosophy in the Military academy at West Point.

Any suitable point is selected, and from that a line is run directly north or south as far as the tract of country extends which is intended to be surveyed together. This line is called a Principal Meridian and to render it correctly meridional the variation of the compass at the place is ascertained by astronomical observation, and the sights of the compass are adjusted to the true meridian. It is therefore required that the composes used by the surveyors be of Rittenhouse's construction, with a nonius division and moveable sights.

From a point chosen on the principal meridian another line is run directly east and west: that is crossing the meridian at right angles. — This is called the base line. The principal meridian and base line are made to intersect each other near the centre of the body of land proposed to be surveyed, that the ranges of surveys may extend in every direction from them. Along these standard lines, as they are measured from the point of intersection, each point of six miles is marked, either upon trees or, where no trees are found, exactly at the point (as is generally the case.) then a post is fixed into a mound of earth heaped up at least two and a half feet high for that purpose. Other subdivisional points are marked in the same manner every mile along the lines. The six mile points constitute the corners of townships and the mile points the corners of sections. All those standard lines are then crossed by others at the marked points; the, six mile intersections designating the townships, and the one mile points the section: each township composing 36 sections, and each section being a mile square, contains 640 acres. Those township lines which run parallel with the principal Meridian are called range lines. The ranges are numbered, beginning I, II, III, &c. both eastward and westward from the principal meridian; and the several townships' are numbered as they extend both north and south from the base line; each township which joins the base line being No. 1, through the whole route or district — each township which is six miles distant from the base line is No. 2, &c. Thus —


Division of a District

  V IV III II I Principal
  3 3 3 3 3   3 3 3 3  
  2 2 2 2 2   2 2 2 2  
  1 1 1 1 1   1 1 1 1  
            Base Line          
  1 1 1 1 1   1 1 1 1  
  2 2 2 2 2   2 2 2 2  
  3 3 3 3 3   3 3 3 3  
  4 4 4 4 4   4 4 4 4  

Division of a Township

6 5 4 3 2 1
7 8 9 10 11 12
18 17 16 15 14 13
19 20 21 22 23 24
30 29 28 27 26 25
31 32 33 34 35 36

In referring to particular sections they are designated thus — Section No. 1 of township No. 1 south, of range No. 1 east: and so of all other numbers.

Fractional sections and townships are formed by state boundaries, rivers, lakes early located claims, &c. — the latter sort are numerous in Louisiana state, the former every where; and the same numbers are marked on them as would have been had they been complete. The fractional sections are measured round the irregular parts and calculated: afterwards they must be sold for what they contain without division. Full sections are divided into quarters — that is tracts of 160 acres; and sold either entire or in separate quarters, as the purchasers choose. by an act of 1817 the sections numbered 2, 5, 20, 23, 30, and 33 in each saleable township are divided into half quarter sections — tracts of 80 acres to suit such as may choose them.

Notwithstanding all practicable care in measurement by off-sets, by traverse and by trigonometry where necessary, the lines seldom close at the regular estimated distances — a result owing to the unevenness of the ground. As the lines running parallel with the meridional line are commenced always at the east sides of the townships, and the lines parallel with the base line at the south sides, of course all the deficient or redundant sections lie along the north and west sides of each township. Such irregular sections are divided, but their deficiency or excess is ascertained and they are sold, like fractional sections, according to their contents.

By reason of the irregularities in actual measure it frequently happens that the points marked along the north and west boundary lines of the townships, as corners of sections in one range, are not the corners of sections in the townships adjoining, but these may be distinct corner posts or trees a few feet or sometimes a few perches distant. As all the corners


are marked and numbered those persons who examine the surveys upon the ground should carefully attend to this circumstance.

The marks are done thus — the posts at the township corners are cut with six notches — or if there be trees at the corner points they are cut in the same manner. The section corners are cut with as many notches as they are miles distant from the township corners. Courses are also taken to two trees, one on each side of the corner post or tree and as nearly in opposite directions as conveniently may be, and the distance to them measured and noted down. These are called "bearing trees," and they are marked with a blaze notched in the centre on the sides which are towards the corner tree, that its position may be found in case it should be destroyed. The bearing trees are chosen as near as well may be to the actual corner. In prairies and where trees cannot be found, mounds with posts are used.

At the section corners a large blaze is made on a tree, or a post is used where there is no tree, and the number of the township, range and section is marked upon it (with a marking iron Each as are used in mills and warehouses) thus —

This would read — Section No. 20 of Township No. 8 South, of Range No. 4 West.

R 4 W
T 8 S

Quarter section corners are marked in the same manner, except that ź S is added.

The deputy surveyors, are required to note and enter upon their field-books — 1st the courses and distances of all the lines they run; 2d the names and estimated diameters of all corner and "bearing" trees, with the courses and distances of the latter from the corners and the marks placed on them; 3d the names and diameters of the station or line trees; 4th all streams their courses size, Sec. whether rapid, navigable or otherwise; 5th all cascades and falls; 6th all lakes, ponds, swamps, peat ground and other peculiarities of soil: 7th salt licks and springs, mines of metals, coal and of other, minerals; stone quarries: uncommon productions; 8th mounds, ancient fortifications, &c. 9th Face of the country — if mountainous level, or precipitous; 10th the kinds of trees and their undergrowth.

Thus if these instructions be in any tolerable degree complied with, the surveying of the new states and territories will furnish materials for a very perfect geography of them.

Former Methods of Surveying Public Lands

The first public land ever surveyed in this country was the district called the "Old Seven Ranges" which lies in the eastern part of Ohio state. This was done in pursuance of the act


of congress of May 20th 1785. It has 7 ranges of township lying parallel with the east boundary line of the state, which was a meridian line. The east range is No. 1, the next westward No. 2, &c. These ranges widen westward — the 1st have gone township and the seventh fifteen. The sections of these townships are each one mile square, and are numbered thus —

36 30 24 18 12 6
35 29 23 17 12 5
43 28 22 16 10 4
33 27 21 15 9 3
32 26 20 15 8 2
31 25 19 13 7 1

The next body of public land surveyed was the "United States' Military Trace or Army land." It lies immediately west of the first tract and north of N. latitude 40.

Its boundaries begin 1st at the N. W. corner of the 7 ranges and runs south 50 miles; 2d west to the main branch of the Sciota river; 3d northward along that branch, to the Old Indian boundary line; 4th along that boundary to the Tuscarawas branch of the Muskingum; (that is to the crossings above fort Lawrence) 5th up that river to where a due west line from the place of beginning touches it.

The tract appropriated by an act of congress, June 1st, 1796, for satisfying land warrants granted for military services was surveyed into townships five miles square. In this tract the ranges are marked 1, 2, 3, &c. proceeding westward from the east boundary: and the Nos. of the townships are, marked in the same manner proceeding northward from the south boundary. In pursuance of an sct of congress of March 1st, 1800 the secretary of the treasury chose by lot 50 quarter townships; adding to them the fractional sections and reserving them for the military claimants. The remainder of this district was surveyed into mile square sections and exposed to public sale. The townships in it are marked in the new method beginning at the N. E. corner and counting 1, 2, 3, 4 &c. to the west line, and then counting the next tier back towards the east line thus —

5, 4, 3 2, 1
6, 7, 8, 9, 10, &c.

The third body of public surveys was also in Ohio state, between the Great and Little Miami's. In this the ranges run east and west; their Nos. commencing at the south boundary: therefore the Nos. of the townships begin at the Great Miami and proceed eastward.

The fourth body of survey s lies on the west side of the Great Miami, extending from those last described as far west as the old Indian west boundary — a line which run from the mouth of the Kentucky river nearly north to fort Recovery. Part of this body is in Indiana and part in Ohio state — the line which


separates the two states, being what is still called "the first principal meridian." The old mode of numbering the townships northwardly was adopted here. In each of those surveys numerous errors exist, and they were accumulating in each successive one until a change had become absolutely necessary.

In the fourth body of surveys the present system (which is described at the beginning of this article) was adopted. It was in the "Old Vincennes tract;" a district of country lying east of Vincennes in Indiana, and unconnected with any surveyed public lands. By the direction of Col. Mansfield, a standard line, called the second principal meridian was run through the tract. It touches the Ohio river 3 miles below the mouth of Blue river. A Base line was run at right angles to that meridian, beginning at the west line of "Charles's Grant," and running eastward until it touches the Ohio a mile above the east corner of that grant. Continued westward it crosses the Wabash about 3 miles above the mouth of White river. It has since been continued through Illinois state, and at the distance of 121 miles from the 14th range (i.e. 133 from the Wabash) it touches the Mississippi, about 10 miles below St. Louis.

In his fourth body of surveys the number of ranges westward from this meridian line is 14, which extend to the south of the Wabash.

For the Illinois state the third principal meridian was run north from the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, and from that are 10 ranges westward and 10 eastward toward the Wabash. But these ranges do not exactly close with the Indiana ranges (those numbered from the second meridian) for a strip one mile wide is left between the fourteenth range of the second meridian and the tenth range of the third meridian, which slip is called, on eleventh range, the extension of Mansfield's System.

The seventh body of public land is the "military tract," between the Mississippi and Illinois rivers. The fourth principal of meridian has been located there. It commences at the mouth of the Illinois and runs north 72 miles, at which point it crosses that river. From that point the base runs westward 62 miles, at which point it touches the Mississippi. The surveys in this tract include about 2,500,000 acres.

For the Missouri state and the Arkansaw territory a standard and called the fifth principal meridian has been run, beginning at the mouth of the Arkansaw. At the distance of 318 miles it crosses the Missouri, 55 miles west of St. Louis; continued north it touches the Mississippi a little above the mouth of the Illinois. Its Base line begins at the mouth of the St. Francis. At the distance of 27 miles it crosses the fifth meridian; 52 miles from the mouth of the Arkansaw; and 58 miles west of the meridian it strikes the Arkansaw.

The sixth principal meridian is in the Michigan, territory. It runs north from fort Defiance 114 miles; and constitutes the west boundary of the lands ceded by the treaty of Nov. 17,


1807. From a point on this line, 78 miles north of fort Defiance, the Base line runs east until it touches lake St. Clair, 7 miles from the outlet of Detroit. This district was appropriated for military claims but was found unsuitable, and in consequence was reserved.

Modes of Selling Public Lands.

When the lands of any unsold district seem likely to be in demand they are surveyed as above described; and the President of the U. States gives at least three months notice by proclamation of the time and place of sale, and the particular tract that will be offered for sale. In pursuance of this the land is sold to the highest bidder in sections, half or quarter sections, according as they may choose. But no sales can in this way be made except at prices above one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre therefore when there are no bids, above that sum, the sales close, and the same land is net exposed to public sale again unless first sold at private sale, bat it remains open for entry at the land offices of each district.

Hitherto the price of the pubic land disposed of at private sale has been fixed by law at the sum of two dollars per acre; payable in four years at equal yearly installments; but by a law passed at the late session of Congress (1820) immediate payment is required in every instance, and the price is settled at one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre.

Notwithstanding the abolition of the former complicated and dangerous system, it may be to the interest of many emigrants to acquire a knowledge of it; as its terms must yet be complied with, in regard to millions of acres that have heretofore been purchased under it; and it behoves every man, buying from private individuals, to enquire, in regard to the land he buys, how far the requisitions of that system have been complied with.

When any one wished to enter a tract according to the late mode, he enquired of the Register for the district if it is unsold: for the Register keeps a map of the district, and marked A. R. (for Advance Paid) upon every tract sold in it. The applicant then delivered a written application, signed by himself, stating the number, of the section, township, and range which he wish ed to enter; he then went to the office of the Receiver for the district, and paid ten cents for every acre he entered — that is one fifth, of the first installment, for which he obtained a receipt. He then took the receipt to the register's office and had it filed, and the transaction stated in the registry book. If the applicants required a copy of the entry was given to him, together with a map and description of the land entered. Within 40 days the remainder of the first installment was to be paid, or if not paid the land might have been sold to another: and if not paid within three months, the 10 cents per acre first paid was forfeited to the U. S. When the first installment of


50 cents per acre was paid and the Receiver's receipt therefor delivered to the Register, the delivered the purchaser a certificate of purchase, describing the tract, the sum paid on accounts the balance due, and the time when each of three remaining instalments were to become due. The three remaining payments here to he made yearly, paying 50 cents per acre each year; but if the whole sum were not paid within five years the land was liable to be exposed again to public sale; and if it produced more than two dollars per acre, together with costs of sale, &c. the balance would be returned to the purchaser; but if the tract were not sold it reverted to the United States: all original payments being forfeited, and it might be entered again by any person. But at such sale it has not been usual for any persons to bid against the first purchaser.

It has hitherto been usual for government to grant remission from year to year, until at last it seems to be of course, and the people have become indisposed against making payment at all.

When the applicant dues comply with the law, at the each payment of successive instalment, the receipts of the Receiver are carried to the office of the Register and filed with him: at the same time the certificate of purchase is produced by the buyer, and the Register indorses the sum paid, upon it. Or if it suits the convenience of the buyer he may pay any or ail of the instalments to the Treasurer of: he U. States at Washington city.

The purchase, in ranking his payments under the late system was not, and is not obliged to produce a certain amount of money at each time; he may pay in small sums if it suits his convenience, and they must credited to him as "on account" and if he chose to pay the whole amount at once be obtained a discount at the rate of eight per cent per annum on two dollars per acre, as counted on the four annual instalments — that is he obtained the land for one dollar and sixty-four cents per acre if he made immediate payment of that amount at the time of entry.

When the purchaser has completed all his payments the books of the land officers are balanced and closed as to him, and the Register grants him a "final certificate" exhibiting a transcript of his account and stating that on presentation of such certificate to the Commissioners of the General Land Office, a patent will be granted for the and the Register likewise transmited by the purchaser the previous certificates given, and the purchaser delivered them to the General Commissioner, who compared them with the final certificate; and if all were found correct the patent was given — signed by the President of the U. States, and countersigned by the General Commissioners of the Land Office.

Through the whole course of the land office transactions no fees for any services whatever could be required of the purchaser — the officers are all remunerated in another way.

If the man who has entered land assigns his right to another before the payments are completed, the assignment must be acknowledged before a justice of the peace, or other judicial officer; and there must be added the certificate of the clerk of the county (or district) in which the justice or other Judicial officer resides, who takes such acknowledgment, stating his official capacity to do the same: and the certificate must be authenticated by the clerk's seal, Then the first certificate given to the one who entered the


land must be carried along with the authenticated assignment to the Register of the land office, and be deposited with him; and when the assignee completes the payments, the final certificates issue to him, and he procures a patent upon it in the same manner as the first purchaser would have done.

RESERVATIONS AND GRANTS. Besides the public lands which are or may be sold there are others which are reserved and can only be leased. One section (No. 16) in every township is uniformly reserved to be held in perpetuity by the whole township for the support of schools. All salt springs and lead mines are also reserved to the U. States.

Seven entire townships each containing 23,000 acres were reserved by the United States for the support of seminaries of learning, viz. 2 in Ohio state, 1 in Indiana, 1 in Illinois, 1 in Michigan, 1 in Mississippi and 1 in Orleans territory (now Louisiana state.).

In Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Michigan, the U. States have granted 13 townships, i.e. 299,620 acres for the establishment of colleges or schools of the highest grade. In Tennessee 200,000 acres were granted for the same purpose. In 1819 the amount of public lands surveyed was 60,000,000 of acres; the school sections in that quantity would be 1,666,666 acres.

Formerly three sections were reserved by the U, States in each township, but by the act of 26 March, 1804, the number was reduced to one.

One section in each township included within the grants to the Ohio company, and that to J. C. Symmes, was reserved for religious purposes; the only reservation of the sort in the U. States.

The navigable rivers have been likewise specially reserved, to be used in common by every person.

U. STATES' LAND ACCOUNT. Public lands sold in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Michigan, from the opening the offices to the 30th of Sept. 1818, acres 10,175,637 Produce 21,545,797 dollars, of which sum there was due 7,575,092. No returns from three districts of the same.

Sold in Mississippi from Jan. 1st, 1817 to Sept. 30th, 1819, acres 660,595. Produce $1,457,208 — total amount due up to 1818, $2,312,342.

Sold in Alabama during the same period, acres 633,485. Produce $3,995,717 — total amount due up to Sept. 30, 1818, 3,079,398 dollars.

No returns from the great Huntsville sales.

No returns from Louisiana or Missouri.


Trees of the Western Country.

With remarks designating the south and situations upon which they are generally found.

The following article is exceedingly imperfect as far as regards the purpose for which it was written. Few kinds of trees, I presume, will be found in this country that are not noticed in the subjoined list; but him not sufficiently acquainted with their habits to be able to treat this subject as I could wish to see it treated. It is of little importance in Europe, and in this country it has been hardly at all attended to, even by our most assiduous botanical collectors; but it is understood, almost to perfection, by many of our unlettered backwoodsmen. They can tell at once, from the trees, the precise qualities of the land they travel over, and the agricultural purposes for which it is most suitable; but few or none of them are capable of communicating their knowledge to the public in a proper manner.

Therefore I have sketched here the outline of the subject; hoping that it will be amplified into a volume; illustrated and explained, so that it may be comprehended by every class of men — for all classes here are dealers in land. I am not aware that there is in the whole circle of the sciences any one that would be of more general practical utility, in the present condition of the world, than this which yet remains uncultivated.

If this subject be further pursued it may be advisable to give it a systematic shape. I have referred the trees to their classes in the Linnean system — that which arranges them according to the number of their sexual organs: but I had another thing in view, which was to distinguish those that are rare, from those that are common. The most common genera have priority, as have the most common, common species of each genus. It is however to be observed that the most rare species of the most common genera are more rare than the most common species of the most rare genera.

Though there are 40 genera, yet a few species of about 25 genera are all that need be particularly attended to. Rare kinds, or solitary individuals seldom appear to indicate any thing: as on the other hand a tree universally diffused, like the white oak by occupying almost every variety of soil and situation indicates very little. Some trees that are not greatly diffused — such as sweet gum and persimon, being found on situations extremely dissimilar may be suspected to indicate some peculiar principles in the soils on which they grow. There are trees that are not produced by any degree of fertility, for the existence of some evidently depends upon temperature — some upon moisture. Of such the connoisseur or land takes little notice. Enough is found on every soil that bears trees at all to prove its character unequivocally.

Trees and plant s often changes their constitutions and appearances. Some exotics which at first are kept alive with difficulty in a climate or soil different from those they have been accustomed to yet acquire in time all requisite hardihood and thrive and reproduce like natives.


Trees never exhaust, but always improve the land they occupy, until at last it becomes too good for the particular kinds it has supported: they then disappear and are replaced again by others of better families. As the ministeralists in England tell the emigrating class that they leave the country because it has become too good for them.

Among young thriving trees there is generally little or no undergrowth, and the soil is the weakest that can belong to the kinds of trees which occupy it. As the forest grows old the vegetable soil accumulates, and a young generation of undergrowth rises, uniformly presenting better sorts than those which had preceded. In this way the process of improvement goes on. In this way the oak is exterminating the pine from the continent, to be in its turn obliged to give place to ash, elm, hickory, locust, poplar, cherry, walnut, buckeye, &c. In some of the great pine tracks — particularly in the southern states, the oak is rising as an undergrowth among the pines in other parts it only occupies the open spaces where the pines have died or where they have been cut away.

Where there are very old oaks they are associated with young trees of a better kind grown to full height. This shows a transition in the soil from the strength requisite for the production of oak to a degree or two of greater fertility. Generally those soils are richest which present the greatest, variety of trees mingled together. But there are exceptions to this rule. An extremely rich soil, like one extremely poor, will sometimes give birth only to one or two sorts. So in Kentucky, in some of the best tracts, buck-eye or honey locust have almost entirely excluded all the other kinks of trees.

In preparing the Geography of the western country, the little knowledge which I happen to possess of this subject prevented me in many instances from being led into error by the; statements of others. When a man talks of rich land and trees upon it utterly inconsistent with fertility we learn to appreciate his accounts. So when we read that cedars grew at Lebanon we know that little else could grow there, and we perceive the force of the passage in Isaiah xxix. 17, where the prophet, speaking of the wonders allied would be wrought by the Almighty, says, "Lebanon shall be turned into a fruitful field."

But it will be asked by some, how shall those who are not botanists learn to distinguish one tree from another. Country people — I mean Americans generally know them well enough; but most foreigners and townsmen would no doubt be staggered at the threshold of the subject. The lithographic art might do something for us, but engravings are too costly for a book of this sort, and without them it would be far more difficult to acquire a knowledge of the cumbrous system of definition adopted by the botanists, than to be come acquainted with the several kinds of trees, as much as is requisite by actual inspection. And after all this ocular acquaintance, would be necessary, for a man's knowledge would answer little purpose unless he could distinguish the varieties at great distances. Any one of the tolerable memory might, by travelling two or three days with a backwoodsman, and be able to recognize again each kind of tree that belongs to any one climate.

If any one of my readers knowing this, will ask for the technical descriptions, 1 shall be apt to suspect that he is not aware of the terrible


host of tall dark-visaged words which his request might call up to stalk between him and the light — the heteremorphus, subverticillate subpseudopinnatifid, subfastigiate, setaceously mucronulate and inappendiculate, &c.

THE OAK is of the class Monoecia and order Polyandria of Linneus. It is the most generally diffused tree in N. America, although the whole of the globe south of the equator produces only one species and it is anomalous, (the Quercns Molucca.)

1 QUERCUS alba, (white oak) In all soils except those extremely rich and those extremely barren: generally increasing n size with the increase of fertility. Sometimes it is exclusive or nearly, so, and then it indicates 3d or 3d rate land. When associated with other trees it is scarcely characteristic of any thing.
2 Q. nigra (black oak) with a variety called the Q nigra pumila (dwarf black oak). On soils moderately fertile but not of great depth except where it mingles with a variety of other trees.
3 Q. falcata (Spanish Oak) of this there is on variety called the Q. tribola. This first is almost uniformly within the limits of old alluvion.
4 Q. tinctoria (quercitron black oak) Generally on level upland or dry land which is fertile or at least moderately so.
5 Q. rubra (red oak) On land of Medium quality.
6 Q. illicifolia (blackjack) Chiefly in sandy bottomland not very rich.
7 Q. phellos (willow oak) On poor soils.
3 Q. aquactica or Q. herispherica or nanna (swamp oak) In wet fiats as its name indicates, rarely in those places called swamps, but often on the borders of them.
9 Q. prinus (chestnut white oak) On poor gravely or stony hills.
10 Q. Michauxii (swamp white oak.)
11 Q. palustris (swamp spanish oak )
12 Q. macrocarpa (over cup white oak) On the dry alluvial soil along the lower Mississippi.
13 Q. cinerea (grey oak or upland willow oak) On poor soils.
14 Q. pumila or Q. sericea (running oak) On stony dry barrens; on the borders of glades, &c.
15 Q. virens (live oak) Nowhere north of latitude 31. large and plentiful in Florida: diminishing in size and becoming more scarce as we proceed westward and terminating on the gulf coast near the west border of Louisiana Occupies poor soils in Florida but it attains better soils westward.
16 Q. imbricaria (shingle oak.)
17 Q. lyrata (swamp post oak) On poor wet southern flats in the Mississippi country.
18 Q. olivaeformis (mossy cup oak) Rare and only in the southern states.
19 Q. montana (mountain oak) On poor stony ridges.
20 Q. chinquapin (dwarf chesnut oak) On the driest soils, rare; west of the mountains, but common in the Atlantic country.
21 Q. castanea (yellow oak) On poor dry soil.
22 Q. maritimi (marine oak) Along the sandy coasts.
23 Q. catesbaei (barren scrub oak) In dry sandy barren situations in the southern states.


24 Q. myrtifolia Peculiar (probably) to Cumberland island Florida.
25 Q. discolar 26 Q. coccinea.
27 Q. obtusiloba (upland white oak) with a variety called Q. a depressa peculiar to the barren hills near the Cordilera mountains of U Mississippi, It seldom exceeds 3 feet in height.

The British oak (Quercus pedunculatu) does not belong to an; part of our continent.

HICKORY has been generally classed with the Juglans genus. It is of the class, monoecia, order polyandria. The whole family indicates fertility.
1 CARYA sulcata or squamosa (shell bark history). Generally on rich bottoms, particularly those subject to inundation.
2 C. alba white hickory) Both on hill and bottom land, when least moderately fertile.
3 C. porcina (pignut hickory) Chiefly on dry hill land — not very rich.
4 C. amara (bitter nut hickory.)
5 C. aquatica (swamp hickory)
6 C. myrticaeformis(nutmeg hickory.)
7 C. oliveaformis (pecan nut hickory) Abundant in the rich forest of Illinois and the Missouri state.
8 JUGLANS nigra(black walnut) Indicates deeper richer soil that any other vegetable except cane. Grows both on hill and bottom land but is generally associated with several other kinds of trees.
9 J. cinera or J. cathariica (white walnut or butter nut). One moderately rich land — generally on hills.
10 J. fraxinifolia (red walnut) In the Mississippi and Missouri countries, on rich land.

PINE, [class monoecia, order monadelpbia] This whole genus indicates sterility. Scarcely ever found on bottoms.
1 PINUS strobus (White — or Weymouth Pine) Often exclusive, covering wide barren tracts, occasionally met with from Canada to Florida.
2 P. rigida (black pine) On the better kind of pine land.
3 P. resinosa (pitch pine). Indicates the best soil of any of the pine family — yet such as is hardly fit for agriculture.
4 P. variabilis (yellow pine)
5 P. palustris (broom, or long leaved, or yellow pitch line) In wet southern flats.
6 P. taeda (oldfield or loblolly pine.) Peculiar to the southern states a wet sandy flats.
The Larix and abies are subgenera of the pine family.
7 LARIX microcarpa (American larch)
L. pendula
8 ABIES canadensis (hemlock spruce) Chiefly on the brows of the precipices.
9 A. alba (white sprouce.)
10 A. nigra (black spruce.)
11 A. rubra (red spruce.)
12 A. taxifolia (yewleaved spruce.)
Nearly related to which are the cypress and the cedar, both of the same class and order.


1 CUPRESSUS thyoides (white cedar.)
2 C. disticha (cypress) Peculiar to the southern states and to marshy tracts.
With a variety called C. imbricaria in the ponds of Florida.
Thuja occidental (called sometimes white cedar.)
1 JUNIPERUS communis (common juniper.)
2 virginiana (red cedar) Always on the most barren soils or on rocks almost without soil. Chiefly along the Mississippi — extending from Canada to Florida.
3 J. repens (creeping juniper.)
4 J. prostrata (dwarf juniper) "on the sandy shores of lake Huron," and on the sterile hills of upper Missouri.
5 J. sabina? (savin.)
6 J. excelsa, At the heads of Missouri.
7 J. barbadensis, in Florida.
The yew is also related to the above in the same class, &c.
Taxus canadensis, near lake Frie.
T. baccata? in the islands of lake Huron and Makinaw.
ELM [class Pentrandria, order Digynia.]
It is seldom found on dry situations, most commonly on wet flats.
1 ULMUS Americana (black elm) chiefly along the river shores. On new alluvion at least of medium fertility.
2 U. fulva (slippery elm) on hills and bottoms indifferently; on soil rather rich.
3 U. aquatica (water elm) in marshes, generally in the reef of rich bottoms.
4 U. nemoralis.
5 U. alata {winged elm) peculiar to the shores of French Broad river in Tennessee.

ASH [class Diocea, order Diandria]
It is never exclusive, but mingled with varieties of trees generally are the better sorts of soils; often on very rich.
1 FRAXINUS pubescens (white ash.)
2 F. sombrecifolia (black ash.)
3 F. quaranguiata (blue ash) named from the blue colour its wood gives to water.
4 F. acuminata 5 F. juglandifolia, 6 F. epiptera 7 F. platycarpa.

MAPLE [class Octandria, order Monogynia.]
1 ACER saccharinum (sugar maple) on hills and bottom but chiefly on bottoms. Generally in a rich soil moderately dry, but frequently on lands subject to inundation. Abundant near the northern lakes, rare in the southern states.
2 A. rubrum (red flowering maple) generally on new alluvion, rare on hills. Most abundant on wet situations.
3 A. nigrum (black maple.)
4 A. barbatum, 5 A. striatum, 6 A. montanum
7 A. dasycarpum peculiar to the Upper Missouri country. As a sub-genus we may add.


8 A. negundo (box elder) almost peculiar to the Mississippi shores.
9 A. fraxinifolium, far up the shores of the Missouri river.

BEECH [class Monoecia, order Polyandria.]
Appears always to indicate a clayey soil. Sometimes on dry hills, even precipices, and sometimes on wet flags. On the latter generally mingled with maple. Soil good for pasture.
1 FAGUS sylvatica (white beech) with a variety called F. americana.
2 F. ferruginea (red beech,)

CHESTNUT is of the same class and order with the beech, and is otherwise nearly related to it.
On dry stoney hills where the surface seems somewhat fertile, but where the soil is early exhausted. Sometimes on ridges very sterile.
1 CASTANEA vesca or americana (common chesnut.)
2 C. piumila (chinquapin) on poor dry hills.

LINN, or Linden, or Lime tree [class Polyandria, order Monogynia.]
On new alluvion, on good soils, very rarely on hills.
1 TILLA glabrum (bass wood or black linn.)
2 T. pubescens (downy leaved linden.)
3 T. laxiflora. 4 T. heterophylla.

BUTTON-WOOD or Sycamore [class Monoecia, order Polyandria] There is but one species of it in America the PLANTUS occidentalis There are three other species in the Levant. It is seldom found but on new alluvion, chiefly the margins of the rivers and large creeks. In rich land subject to inundation.

Of the TULIP tree (improperly called the poplar) there is but one species in America, the Liriodendron tulipifera, It is of the class Polyandria, order Polygynia.

Generally on rich land but as often on hills as in bottoms. Seems to affect moisture.

LOCUST [class Diadelphia, order Decandria.] Seldom if ever on poor land. Usually on dry hills.
1 ROBINIA pseudacacia (white flowering locust.)
2 R. hispida. 3 R. viscosa

The HONEY-LOCUS is of another family [class Dioecia, order Pentandria.] In the richest soils; generally in the bottoms, Rare in the upland, except in Kentucky.
1 GLEDITSCHIA triacanthos (common honey-locust) resembling the gleditschia horrida of China.
2 G. monosperma (water honey-locust.)


WILLOW [class Dioecia, order Diandria.] Seldom any of the genus are found but on low wet shores; generally in poor, sand.
1 Salix angustata (narrow leaf willow) the most common on the west sandy shores of the Mississippi, and all its branches excepting the Missouri.
2 S. nigra (black willow) the most common on the wet shores of the Missouri and its branches.
3 S. Candida (white willow.)
4 S. longifolia (long leaved willow )
5 S. tristis,, 6 S. obovata, 7 S. cordifolia, 8 S. lucida, 9 S. rigida10 S. pedicellaris 11 S. viminalis, 12 S.recurvata, 13 S. uvaprsi, 14 S. myricoides, 15 S. discolor 16 S. repens.
The weeping willow (salix babylonica) seems not to be indigenous in this country. There are 130 species of the willow but they belong chiefly to the northern countries of Europe.

POPLAR [class Dioecia, order Octandria.]
1 POPULUS trepida (aspin) sometimes on dry stony hills sometimes in wet flats.
2 P. angulata (cotton wood) chiefly on the rich shores of the Mississippi, and its large tributaries, but most plentiful along the Missouri. No where north of Pittsburgh.
3 P. candicans 4 P. heterophhylla.
5 P. balsamifer (balsam poplar) 6 P. grandidentata.
7 P. pendula (weeping poplar) on the Allegheny mountain,
8 P. laevigata,, 9 P. betulifolia, 10 P. monilifera.

KALMIA (laurel or calico bush) [class Decandria, order Monogynia.] On dry barren ridges and rocky declivities. Sometimes though rarely on dry stony bottoms; usually associated with spruce pine and mountain tea.
1 KALMIA latifolia (broad leaf laurel.)
2 K. angustifolia (narrow leaf laurel.)
3 K. glauca (grey laurel.)
Related to this is the Rhododendron (mountain laurel) of which there are two species in the western country. RHOLODENDRON maximum and R. punctatum.

LAURUS [class Enneandria, order Monogynia] 1 L. catesbaei, 2 L. carohensis, growing in the swamps of Florida; both species rare.
The most plentiful trees of this family are of a sub-genus, called Euosmus.
1 Euosmus sassafras (red sassafras) on land of medium quality generally on dry hills. A shrub in the northern states, but rising to a tree the south.
2 E. albida (wtiite sassafras) with habits similar, to the red sassafras and generally associated with it.
3 E. benzoin (spicewood) on rich soils. In great varieties of


situation from dry hills to wet bottoms. Always a shrub, seldom more than six or eight feet high.
4 E. aestivalis, 5 E. diospyrus.
6 E. geniculata, in wet sands, and on the shores of ponds in the southern states.

PRUNUS (plum and cherry) [class Icosandria, order Monogynia,]
1 Prunus viginiana (common wild cherry); Chiefly in bottoms: always in rich land, but often on situations too wet for agricultural purposes.
2 P. pennsylvanica (red wild plum) chiefly on bottoms.
Most frequently in wet situations.
3 P. canadensis (choak cherry) chiefly on rich wet bottom.
4 P. borealis, 5 P. nigra.
6 P.pygmaea 7 P. pumila (dwarf cherry.)
8 P. chicasa (Indian red plum) only in the southern states, generally near the gulf coast: the original situation not known: apparently cultivated by the Indians.
9 P. depressa (Missouri plum) generally producing fruit at the height of three or four inches from the ground. Growing, on the sterile hills of the Upper Missouri and lake Huron countries; considerably larger in the latter.
10 P. pubescens, 11 P. maritimi.

CORNEL or dogwood [class Tetandria, order Monogynia.]
1 CORNUS forida (white flowering dogwood) generally diffused, but seldom or never exclusive, even on the smallest tracts. On dry soils; chiefly on hills that are not very fertile.
2 C. canadensis, 3 C. circinata, 4 C. asperifolia, 5 C. stricta 6 C. sericea.
7 C. alba (swamp dogwood) with a bitter sort of berries eaten en by the Indians. Only in the middle and southern states.
8 C. sanguinea
CARPINUS americana (horn beam or iron wood) class Monoecia, order Polyandria.)
Chiefly on the borders of small streams, and on moist soils.
OSTYRA virginica (hop, horn beam) same class and order.

BIRCH [same class and order of the latter.]
1 BETULA lenta (sweet birch) its bark has the taste of mountain tea (gaultheria procumbens) and is likewise used as a tea. Chiefly on the poorest soils; often on the dry rocky brows of ridges.
2 B. nigra (black birch)
3 B. papyracea(canoe birch) the Indian canoes are general made of barf of this tree. It is most abundant along the northern lakes.
4 B. excelsa (tall birch)
5 B. granduloso, 6 B. populifolia, 7 B. pumila, 8 B. nana


BUCKEYE or HOUSE CHESTNUT [class Heptandria, order Monogynia.]
1. AESCULUS pavia (common buckeye). On the richest soils, — chiefly on river bottoms in Ohio Virginia, becoming rare as we proceed north. On upland in Kentucky and southward.
2. AE. flava (Ohio buckeye) Nearly like the common buckeye in its habits.
3. AE. pallida
4. AE. macrastachya (dwarf buckeye.)
5. AE. glabra. 6. AE. discolor.

GUM and TUPELO [c. Dioecia ord. Pentandria]
This whole genus belongs to the southern states, and rarely; appears on good land.
1. NYSSA villosa (sour gum).
2. N. aquatica or biflora (tupelo.)
3. N. candicans (ogrechee lime tree.)
4. N. tormentosa (wild olive.)
5. N. Denitculata.

PAPAW [c. Polyandria, order Polyginia.] In rich land — generally in bottoms. Most commonly in the lower Mississippi country. It bears no fruit north of Kentucky.
1. PORCELIA triboba (common papaw.)
2. P. parviflora. 3. P. grandiflora 4. P. pygmaea.
There is another kind of papaw in Florida called the carica papaya [c. Dieocia o. Decandria.]

PYRUS angustifola (wild crab apple) [c. Icosandria ord. Pentagynia.] In rich wet bottoms: on hills rarely — generally on the new alluvion of small streams.

HAWTHORN [c. Icosandria ord. Digynia.] On almost every variety of situation and soil, but in rich tracts.
1. CROTAEGUS apiifolia, 2. C. coccinea, 3. C. glandulosa, 4. C. pyrioflia, 4. C. flava, 6. C. parvifola, 7. C. eliptica, 8. C. populifolia, 9. C. spathulata, 10. C. crus galli., 11. C. punctata.

SUMACH [C. Pentandria ord. Trigynia.] Most common in bottoms that are rich or at least moderately so.
1. RHUS typhinum, 2. R. glabruim, 3. R. pumilum, [Poision sumach] 4. R. viridiflorum, 5. R. vernix, 6. R. copallinum, 7. R. radicans., [poison vine] 8. R. aromaticum — the only species found in the Missouri country.

CERCIS canadensis (red bud or Judas tree,) [c. decandria o. Monogynia.] There is but this one species in America and another one in Europe. Chiefly on dry hills.

MULBERRY. (c. Monbecia ord. Tetrandria)


MORUS rubra (common red mulberry) Chiefly on rich hills: most abundant in the middle and southern states.
M. scabra (Spanish mulberry) Only in the southern states.
The Bermudian mulberry is of another genus (CALICARPA americana) [c. Tetandria, ord. Mohogynia.]

DIOSPYRUS, virginiana Persimon or data-plum (Dioecia Octandria] grows in all situations — dry, barren hills, marshy flats, and dry, rich bottoms. Most common in the southern states.
1. Celtis occidentalis (nettle tree) [c. Pentandria, ord. Trigynia] of this tree there is a sub-species (c. integrifolia) oh the banks of the Mississippi near St. Louis.
2. C. crassifolia (hackberry.)
3. C. tenuifolia (dwarf nettle tree.)

1. ZANTHOXYLUM fraxineum (prickly ash) [c. Dicecia, ord. Pentandria].
2. Z. clava Herculis (tooth ache tree.)
Sorbus americana (mountain ash) [c. Icosandria, o. Digynia,]

1. MYRICA carolinensis, (Pennsylvania wax tree,) [c. Dioecia, ord. Tetrandia] most common on the shores of lake Erie.
2. M. cerifera, candleberry myrtle, chiefly upon sandy shores.
3. M. gale, (gale.)

LIQUIDAMBAR styraciflua sweet gum, [Monocea Polyandria] most common in the southern states but rare individuals are found even as far north as the great lakes Grows in all varieties of land, right and poor high, and low, dry and wet.

HOLLY [Tetrandria Tetragynia,]
1. ILEX opaca, (common holly) with a sub-species — I. idxiflora,
2. I. cassine, 3. I. angustifolia, 4. I. dahoon, 5. I. prinoides, 6. I. canadensis.

CORAL TREE {Dialphia Decandria.]
1. ERYTHRYNA herbacea, and 2. E. corallodendron; both peculiar to Florida generally near the sea, and as an undergrowth in the forests.

MACLURA aurantiaca (bow wood on yellow dye wood) [Dioecia Tetrandria] Chiefly on the west side of the Mississippi from the Missouri to near the gulf coast.

SHEPHERDLA argentea (rabbit berry [Doepecia Ennenandria]
Along the shores of the Upper Missouri on sterile land.
S. canadensisAlong the shores of the northern lakes.
OLEA americana (American olive) [Diandra monogynia] Chiefly along the gulf coast.
CATALPA cordifolia (catalpa tree) [same class and order] peculiar (probably) in the Illinois state, where it becomes a tree — Cultivated in the northern states.


Diseases Incident to Marshy Tracts in a Warm Climate.

Ague, or intermittent fever, as an original disease, is always caused by the bad air which arises from marshes or new alluvion, and by nothing else. There are other fevers which sometimes, for a while before their termination, become intermittent; and in that stage must be treated as original agues. When vegetables are decomposed, in water by heat, they evolve mixtures and combinations of hydrogen & carbonic acid, & together with small portions of hydrogen combined with nitric, phosphoric, and sulphuric acids. None of these appear to possess any virulence but they are probably accompanied by a virus too subtle for chemical analysis, diffused through the air in loose combination with watery vapour.

It is useless to notice here the varieties of agues — the Quotidian, or daily the Tertian, returning every second day — quartan — double tertian, &c. as they all arise from the same cause and require the same treatment. When a fever commences you cannot know, whether it will intermit or not. When the first cold fit conmmences go to bed: take an ounce of chalk in a gill of vinegar. Drink them as soon as they are mixed and while they are fermenting. If you cannot swallow them take a tea spoon full of spirit of hartshorn — or take balm tea or any kind of tea that may make you sweat. If warm, teas will not affect this purpose have warm bricks placed at your feet.

If the hot fit is severe it is usual to lay a blister upon the back — or to take 2 or 3 grains of tartar emetic; and after it operates to take a few drops of laudanum. If delirium comes on (which it rarely does in this country) it is usual, besides blistering and vomiting to bleed the patient, but bleeding is a dangerous resort and should not be attempted if there are any tokens of a remission. Laudanum is most to be relied on in this case, a grown person may take from 25 to 30 drops of it. A continuation of the fever generally produces dropsy or jaundice.

If the hot fit is not unusually severe you need not take anything while it continues, nor even during the first chill. When the second fever is past, if you feel sick take vomit, and then a purge of calomel and jalap: or if you are not very sick the purge will be sufficient. When it has operated take the Peruvian bark which is the grand specific in cases of ague. It is generally given in the form of powder — from one to two tea spoons full every hour or as much the stomach will bear, particularly if the hot fits has been serve and the intervals short between them.

It is best when taken in spirituous liquors, but least disagreeable when taken in milk and swallowed as soon as it is mixed. If nauseated in every form it must be given clysterwise. When the fever has run high, even as much as five ounces have been given during the first interval. Note that the bark must in no case be given during the hot fits.

Children are usually purged with magnesia as a preparative for the bark. The generally nauseate the bark, and in such case you


must rub their backs with opium and soap linnament before the approach of the chill give clysterwise a teaspoon of the bark in powder or half a tea spoonful of its tincture along with 6 or 8 drops of laudanum: or apply a poultice of the bark with camphor to their stomachs and wrists; or boil a large, quantity of the bark in water and bath them in it.

When the bark does not effect a cure in two or three days take another vomit and purge; or at least a purge, and recommence again with the bark. When the ague is cured continue the use of the bark in small doses for 2 or 3 weeks or more.

Ague is often followed by a complaint called the ague cake which is a hardness of the liver or spleen or both; supposed to be caused by a congestion of blood in these viscera, occasioned by the premature use of bark in remittent and intermittent fevers, &c. The British writers agree in recommending the bark to be used immediately after an emetic. Senac, a late celebrated French physician, has exposed the error of this practice, and enjoins the use of calomel to stimulate the liver, in all such cases, as a preparative for the bark.

The Peruviun bark obtained from the different species of Cinchona is thought by many physicians inferior to a mixture of the barks of our common willow with that of oak — either black oak or white oak. The willow was celebrated as a febrifuge before the virtues of the cinchona were known: but instead of using its bark physians had the beds of patients in fever hung round with it branches. Such was supposed to be its power in cooling the blood that chair cushions and pillows were stuffed with the down of the salix pubescens are preservative of virtue. Hence the willow is consecrated to celibacy.

If you live in situations which cause ague you should sleep in upper rooms, keeping your doors and windows closed — even during the day, keeping those closed with overlook, the marshy tracts. Use strong nourishing food — chiefly flesh, highly spiced. Drink wine or spiritous liquors with the infusion of bark, particularly in the morning. I am not unaware of the terrible evils of this habit: but it is better to adopt it than to be sick. Never go to work in the morning before eating. Learn to chew abundance of garlic and a little rhubarb. During summer and autumn it maybe well even to chew tobacco; though I think the general use of that poisonous powerful narcotic an evil of greater magnitude to the human race than all the benefits that have resulted from the discovery of America. Put plugs of tobacco in your nose. Never swallow your spittle. Avoid all changes from heat to cold, or from cold to heat. Avoid fogs, east winds and new dews. If you are subject to ague, though not sick of it, take gentle purges at night, two or three time during the ague season; and a dram of spirits containing bark every morning. If you like tobacco, stop your nose, as often as you go out of doors, with plugs of tow


dipt in vinegar in which campfire is dissolved. Wash your mouth with vinegar frequently. Wear camphire and garlic in a girdle round your body.


Of all the complaints incident to marshy tracts in hot climates the most dangerous are those called Bilious. The proximate cause of them seems generally to be a deficiency of bile — sometimes its vitiated condition and rarely a redundancy of it. The remote causes are various — putrid air; the excessive use of ardent spirits; drinking lukewarm water without spirits or other stimulants; want of exercise or of rest; meager diet; food hard to digest, or such as does not contain a proper proportion of animal and vegetable aliment.

The usual symptoms are head-ache, costiveness, squeamishness, inclination to vomit, heart-burn, flatulency — the three first being the most common As these are easily exasperated into violent fever by drinking, by fatigue or by exposures, &c. it is of the utmost importance that they should be removed at soon as they are perceived.

No medicine perhaps can better be depended on in this case than calomel. Its peculiar power in stimulating the liver is generally indispensable for a complete cure; as the indolent state of that part appears to produce the complaint. The usual dose is 10 grains of calomel and 15 or 20 of jalap; but if the symptoms do not seem urgent it is better to take 3 or 4 grains of calomel, and 8 or 10 grains of jalap daily for a few days. The decoction of white walnut bark boiled to a consistency seems preferable to jalap; but a mixture of both will be better than either. Pills made of the dried bile (gall) of cattle are said to be generally beneficial in bilious afflictions.

Where there is great want of appetite, and other tokens of extreme weakness of stomach, it may be advisable to use warm spices, such as ginger or pepper, to stimulate the stomach and pylorus: or a decoction of oak or peruvian bark may be taken.

When the bilious symptoms are very severe it will be advisable to take a vomit of tartar emetic. Three grains are a full dose; but the safest way is to dissolve twice that quantity in warm water, then divide it into 5 or six equal parts, and take portion by portion at intervals of 12 or 15 minutes until it operates. Ipecacuana is perhaps preferable, because if it does not cause vomiting it passes off insensibly — or as purge or sweating medicine; while the tartar emetic, and the other antimonial preparations, greatly distress the patient where they fail of their intended effect.

West of the Allegheny mountains there are, in abundance, two species of Indian physic (Gillenia trifoliata and G. stipulacea) which the country people know well and generally prefer as a vomit, to the antimonial vomits and to ipecaucan. For a


coloured figure of the plant see Dr. W. Barton's Medical Box any, p. 71, tab. 6. The usual dose is the decoction of a handful of the roots.

Pearl ash has been recommended as an excellent medicine to be taken in the commencement of bilious complaints. I have very frequently taken it, and uniformly with the most prompt and decisive success, so that I have not, since I adopted it, had occasions to use any other medicine on such occasions. It neutralizes the acid and acrid contents of the stomach and bowels; restoring their proper tone and condition by the neutral stimulating salts it produces. The dose is half a tea spoonful dissolved in half a gill of water, and repeated at the end of two hours if it is not at first efficient.

Those whose stomachs do not become sour; or whose intestines or stomachs may be disordered by excess of bile, should occasionally take a few drops of vitriolic acid or elixir of vitriol in a glass of water. It will decompose the bile.

When fever is produced by the disorder of the stomach, &c. consequent upon the vitiated condition of the bile, or its deficiency or redundancy, there are generally large quantities of it vomited off, even before a vomit is given; and hence arose the name of this class of complaints.

In fevers of this kind bleeding is resorted to, but is generally considered perilous, as they are apt to sink suddenly from a high inflammatory stage into typhus; in which event the bleeding usually kills the patient off. It is better to begin by cleansing the bowels with a vomit and then a gentle purge. If the skin is moist after their operation take 10 or 15 drops of antimonial wine; or from a quarter to half a grain of tartar emetic. If the stomach is irritated take 8 or 10 drops of laudanum — or if the irritation be violent omit the tartar emetic, and increase the laudanum even to 20 drops. If perspiration comes on, or an intermission of the fever is obtained, give peruvian bark as in the case of common ague. Instead of using tartar emetic for a vomit in the first instance it is usual to take Dr. James fever powders (phosphate of antimony and lime) when they can be procured.

They are purchased in made up papers each containing a dose. When they cause vomiting, promote it by drinking warm water or camomile tea: if they cause looseness check it with opium or laudanum.

The liver complaint is allied to the preceding ones. It is usually cured by bleeding, and by applying blisters upon the region of the liver of what is preferable rubbing that part with mercurical ointment even until it produces salivation; likewise taking calomel in small does.


Dysentery or bloody flux is most common and most dangerous in the neighbourhood of marshes, yet it is sometimes prevalent


in dry situations. It consists of griping pains in the ells, remitting and returning frequently, with evacuations of mucus — sometimes with the faces in small indurated portions. In the progress of the disorder the discharges are apt to become bloody. It is usually accompanied with a little fever and consequent loss of appetite — sometimes with vomiting.

It is caused by putrid air, spirituous liquors, acid or unripe fruit, acrid food or medicines, by whatever irritates the intestines; and one species is caused by exposures which check the perspiration. Sometimes it precedes and sometimes it accompanies fevers, but it is most common as an original disease.

The usual remedies are a dose of tartar emetic, and a purge of Epsom or Glauber's salts, followed by 2 or 3 grains of ipecacuan powder to cause sweating, and 8 or 10 drops of laudanum to allay the irritation of the bowels. Opium or laudanum if used too freely, or if used before the intestines are evacuated of their acrid contents, have a tendency to check the cure, and even to produce an exasperated return of the complaint.

Vegetable jellies of starch, or sago, or marsh mallows, are of great service, by sheathing the intestines. Boiled rice alone has often effected the cure. Tonic astringent medicines, such as columbo root, peruvian or oak bark, &c. often produce much benefit after purgatives have fully operated. The cold bath is resorted to for the same reasons, but it would be injurious before the purging has ceased.

Pearl ash if taken early appears to be superior to every other medicine for this complaint. It rapidly neutralizes the acrid contents of the bowels, and excites them in such a manner that they sheath themselves with mucus. The dose may be half a tea spoonful in half a gill of water, and repeated every two or three hours until it effects a cure. Supercarbonated soda (the prepared natron of the shops) may be preferred by some, but it differs little from the pearl ash in its operation. When taken they both leave a nauseous taste upon the palate, but that may be instantly removed by washing the mouth with vinegar. The vinegar must not be swallowed. Along with the pearl ash I think it advisable to use a purge, and after that a little opium together with, jellies, &c.

While the flux was prevalent in West Pennsylvania in 1819 the common people, from a few accidental cases, began to conceive an extravagant opinion of the virtues of myrtle wax, which is boiled from the berries of all the species of the myrica. As a medicine it is precisely like the common bees wax. Its whole effects result from the circumstance of its being indigestible: in other words its action is mechanical. It is of some service in the last low stages of flux when the bowels are almost empty, and irritated by the emptiness: it produces an agreeable distention in them, and by that means enables them in some measure to recover their natural tone. Bees-wax was a favourite remedy with old Dr. Barton (of Philadelphia) but it has not been very highly esteemed by other physicians. It produces


no benefit in the first stages of the complaint. To be taken it its shaved thin and supped with milk.

When in flux the pulse becomes quick, small and hard, with an increase of fever; the urine high coloured, and a fixed pain in the bowels, there is reason to suspect that they are inflamed. The patient should then be bled freely and placed in a tub of warm water, or what is preferable, have a large blister laid upon his belly. It may also be well to give a clyster of 30 or 40 drops of laudanum in starch jelly. In such a situation medical aid should if possible be procured immediately.

In flux where the fever is subsiding or has sunk, into the low nervous kind (typhus) where the pulse after having been full, hard, and strong, has become weak, then the patient cannot be bled but at the peril of his life. Of late years in this country the fevers in dysenteric cases have often sunk rapidly, so that bleeding in such eases requires a careful attention to circumstances.

Where fluz commences as a cholera morbus, that is with vomiting, promote the vomiting with warm drinks, such as camomile or mint teas; to which may be added a few drops of spirit of hartshorn — if the stomach rejects this let it be given clysterwise. When the stomach and bowels are cleansed take a small pill of opium. If the stomach rejects it let it be given clysterwise until the vomiting be checked. Even as much as half an ounce of opium has been administered in that way before this purpose be accomplished. In obstinate cases it is usual to bathe the feet, blister the legs, or belly, or to bathe if with wine, opium, and camphor or spices.

Exposures to cold often cause a sort of dysentery obstructing the perspiration, through that means producing inflammation of the bowels even when their contents are not at first acrid, Those who have slept upon the ground, or who have been chilled by rains, or by fording streams, or the like; if they are attacked by dysentery immediately after such incidents may conclude that it is of this kind. In such cases let blood, and lay a blister upon the belley; or as a substitute for a blister take the warm bath, or foment with wine or spirits, opium, camphor, &c. as in cholera morbus. Give a clyster of 30 or 40 drops of laudanum in starsh jelly: or it may be safest to precede these remedies with an emetic and purge, together with the pearl ash.

For a habitual flux take small doses of rhubarb or ipecacuan. If they do not remove it take zinc finely powdered, 8 or 10 grains at a dose.

The water of the springs and wells in the western country is often so much impregnated with lime that it is apt to give a lax to newly weaned children; and in that way many lives are lost through ignorance of the cause. Boiling the water will prevent this effect, as it will precipitate the lime by expelling the excess or acid which holds it in solution. Hence tea and coffee are recommended, but milk is preferable. If the purging


is obstinate paregoric may be given two or three times a day; 15 or 20 drops at a time, until the complaint be removed.

And now, gentle reader of mine, if you are migrating to our "land of promise", though I tremble at the responsibility under which I write every word of this article, yet for your sake I shall add one more; conscious that it is full of jeopardy to myself, seeing that I do not belong to that class of men, who in this country have monopolized the title of Doctor. If you become sick in your journey in any of our cities or large towns you will of course apply to a physician. As for those medical practitioners whom you will find in the new settlements; called doctors by courtesy, I am not sure that I can conscientiously recommend them upon an average. However, if you should be forced to apply to some of them, probably you will find frequent occasion to admire the wisdom of that passage in the ancient scriptures, which saith, "Whoso sinneth before the Lord, let him fall into the hands of a physician."


Navigation Tables.

  Miles   Miles    
Hamilton     Waterford or Le Boeuf    
North bend of the Allegheny 20   Outlet of Le Boeuf lake 4  
      Muddy creek 12 16
Allegheny enters Pennsylvania 25 45 Dead water point 14 30
      Meadville 18 48
Warren — mouth of Conewango 20 65 Wilson's bend 6 54
      Little Sugar creek 8 62
Mouth of Tonewista creek 35 100 Big Sugar creek 12 74
Franklin at the mouth of French creek 25 125 Franklin 4 78
Sandy cr. R.S. 10 135 MONONGAHELA RIVER.    
Scrubgrass cr. R.S. 8 143 Clarksburgh    
Falling springs 3 146 Morgantown 40  
Montgomery's falls 4 150 Virginia line 4  
Here is a large rock in the middle of the river; ch. on L. side     Cheat river enters R. S. 4 48
      Here is a dangerous shoal and boats are usually piloted through it.    
Ewak's Defeat, rocky, L.S. 3 153      
Patterson's falls 4 159 Dunkard's cr. enters L. S. 2 50
Nicholson's eddy 2 161 George's cr. R.S. 10 60
A strong ripple here, ch. R.S.     New Geneva.    
Stump cr. E. S. 8 169 Greensburgh, opposite.    
Parker's or Amberson's fall ch. on L. S. 3 172 Big Whitely cr. L.S. 4 64
      Little Whitney cr. L.S. ch. middle. 2 66
Catfish falls, ch. on L. S. 8 180      
Red-bank cr. ch. L. S. 7 187 Brown's run, R.S. 2 68
Cumming's rock, ch. R. S; 5 192 Middle run, R.S. ch. near L.S. 2 70
Mahoning cr. E. S. ch. on R. S. 2 194      
      Cats run, ch. in mid. 2 72
Sloan's ferry 14 208 Muddy cr. L.S 4 76
Crooked ch. E. S. 3 312 Here are two fish dams, ch. of the 1st. near middle; of the 2d, R. S.    
Nicholson's falls, ch. R. S. 3 215      
Kittanning 7 222      
Owing's island, ch. on R. S 4 226 Ten mile creek, L. S. ch. is a chute in the mid. 7 83
Bull cr. W. S. ch. on L. S. 3 229      
Logan's ferry, mouth of Puckety, ch. on L. S. 4 238 Fredrick town 1 84
      James Crawford's ripple ch. near the mid. 1 85
Hullards island, ch. on L.S. 4 237      
Plum cr. E. S. 3 250 Josiah Crawford's ripple ch. near the mid. 3 88
Sandy cr. E. S. ch. on L. S. of the island 2 242      
      Dunlap's cr. R.S. 3 91
Pine cr. W. S. 5 247 BROWNSVILLE, Redstone.    
Wilson's island, ch. on L. S 4 251 Redstone cr. R.S. 1 92
Pittsburgh 1 252 Pigeon cr. L.S. ch. in mid. 18 110


  Miles   Miles    
Williamsport.     Island 16 ch. leftside    
Parkinson's mill, R.S. cr. in the mid. 3 113 — 17 ch. right side    
      — 18 do.    
M'Farland's ferry 6 119 Here is a bar at the foot of the island, ch. right side    
Elizabeth town 2 121      
Peter's creek L. S. ch. close to L. S. 3 124 Herculaneum 6 64
      Islands 19 & 20 ch. R. side    
M'Keesport, R.S. 5 129 Big Platteen; rock and cr. 5 69
Turtle creek 5 134 Island 21 on left side    
Just above the mouth there is a long ripple — at the head of it ch. is R. side, near the middle ch is L. side, at the lower end it returns to the R. side.     a bar opposite, ch. between    
      Fort Chartres 15 84
      St. Genevieve, right side 8 92
      Island 22 ch. left side    
      — 23 ch. both sides    
      — 34 ch. right side    
Braddock fields, R. S. Nine mile run. 2 136 138 Gabarre creek do. Islands 25 & 26 ch. R. S.    
Gordon's ferry, now Calhoun's 2 140 Ferry    
Four mile bar, ch. R. S until 3 143 Islands 27, 21 & 29, ch. L. S Camp Roudy    
Pittsburgh 4 147 St. Lora fiver, right side Islands 30 & 31 ch. L. S    
MISSISSIPPI RIVER From the mouth of the Illinois to the mouth of the Ohio,     Kaskaskias, or Occoa river ch. left side    
        18 110
      Flin's ferry    
An island opposite the mouth of the Illinois.     Islands 32 & 33 ch. R. side    
      River St. Mary left side 4 114
Island 2. ch. left side     Island 34 near do.    
Island 3. do.     — 35    
Island 4. ch. both sides     — 36 & 37 ch. between    
Island 5. do.     — 38 ch. both sides    
Island 6. ch. both sides.     Amite river, right side 14 123
Missouri river 18   Island 39 ch. do.    
Du Bois, or Wood river left side. 1 19 -- 40 ch. both sides    
      — 41 ch. do.    
Islands 7 and 8 between Sancere's house, R.S 3 22 Calvin's creek do. 6 134
      Obraz river do. 4 138
Here is a large sand bar ch. both sides     Grand tower, a rock near right side ch. L. side of the rock 2 140
Island 9 ch. right side 1 23      
Mess river, do. 3 26 Island 42 near right side and bar ch. between them    
St. Louis 10 36      
Island 11 ch. both sides     Riviere de la Pomme R.S. 3 143
Cahokia river     Muddy or Au Vase river, leftside 1 144
Vitepush, ch right side 6 42      
Island 12 do.     Shawnee town, right side 2 146
——— 13 do.     Island 43 ch. do.    
Philip Fines's 8 50 ——— 44 ch. do.    
Merrimack, right side 3 53 ——— 45 ch. do.    
Islands 14 & 15 ch. between     ——— 46 ch. do.    
Little Plateen; rock and creek 5 58 Devil's island, ch. do. 18 164
      Cape Girardeau, do. 4 168


  Miles   Miles    
Island 48 ch. right side     A cluster of five islands ch. left side    
———— 49 ch. both sides          
———— 50 ch. right side     Island 61 at the Grand Turn ch. both sides    
Cape La Bruche right side 4 172   15 195
Island 51 close to right side     Three islands, ch. round both sides    
——— 52 ch. both sides          
——— 53 ch. left side     Three islands, ch. both sides    
——— 54 do.          
——— 55 ch. both sides     Island 68 ch. right side    
Tyawapatia cr. right side 8 180 Mouth of the Ohio 18 213

Rates of Fare established by the Mississippi Steam Boats, Upward passage.

  Miles dolls.
New Orleans to Natchez 315 30
to Warrenton 413 35
to the mouth of the St. Francis 845 75
to Fort Pickering 906 80
to the Little Prairie 1045 85
to New Madrid l078 90
to the mouth of the Ohio 1140 95
to the mouth of Cumberland river 1215 100
to Shawneetown 1300 105
to Hendersoh (Red Banks)   110
to the Falls of the Ohio   125

Children under 2 years of age quarter price; from 2 to 10 half price; servants half price: way passengers 12˝ cents per mile.

Downward Passage.

From the Falls to Henderson $10  
to Shawneetown 12 50
to the mouth of Cumberland 15  
to the mouth of the Ohio 20  
to New Madrid 22 50
to Little Prairie 25  
to Chickasaw Bluffs (in fort Pickering) 30  
to St. Francis 35  
to Warrenton 50  
to Natchez 60  
to New Orleans 75  

Children, servants and way passengers as above.




Page 14, line 15, The direction is to cross over the river to the left shore below the foot of Hog island. That channel has been closed up by sand since this was printed. After passing the point of Whites' bar you must now run parallel with the right shore — keeping to the right of Middleton bar.

Page 14, line 29, it is stated that hogstown bar throws within 5 yards of the R. shore. It should be 25 yards.

Page 15, line 19, the directions in passing the lower part of Kneaslys' cluster should run thus. In the lower chute keep the large rock on your right 10 yards distant: then for about 15 yards, &c. The last part of the paragraph relative to the rock in the foot of the chute is a mistake.

Page 18, line 26, Little Grave creek (3˝ miles below Putney) there is no bar at its mouth as is represented in the chart; but there is a bar in the middle of the river half a mile above it. Channel on the right side.

Page 28, line 11, The logs opposite the head of Brush Creek island do not lie on a bar, as is stated; They lie in deep water.

Page 30, 5 lines from the foot. Instead of a rock; bar opposite Big bone lick — read a large sand bar.

Page 33, The chart is here turned, the upper end down.


Page 47, line 9, West longitude of Pennsylvania instead: of 3° 37' should be stated 4° 37'.

Page 51, line 21. Pyamunting creek. The name is thus spelled in our books and maps, but I am told by a person from the neighbourhood of it that it should be Pymatuning.

Page 75, line 25. Maumee or Maurice river — call it always Maumee, for there is another Maurice river in the N. W. Territory.

Page 99, line 12. The line which runs west from the south end of lake Michigan is stated as separating Indiana from the N. Western territory. It did so; but by the last act of congress on, that subject it is made to separate Indiana from Illinois.

Page 107, line 20. Jeffersonville is not the largest town, in Indians, but the third or fourth in size.

Page 107 line 3 from the bottom. Harmony is not in Gibson country but in Posey, as is stated in the statistical table, page 106.

Page 128, line 9 from the bottom. In some of the copies, the word TOWNS was put at the head of the right hand column instead of COUNTIES.

Page 137, line 2 from the bottom, for latter read lathe.

Page 147, line 7, from the bottom, for Foud du lac read Fond du lac.


Page 153, line 11 from the bottom, for Nandoessee read Naudoesse.

Page 166, The headline Michigan Territory runs by mistake over the article W. Virginia in sonic of the copies.

Page 171, line 15, for breaks read creeks,

Page 172, line 11 from the bottom, for esteemed read estimated.

Page 193, last line, for delegates read delegate.

Page 194, line 10 from the bottom. The distance of the mouth of the Kenhawa from the mouth of the Ohio is stated at 693 miles in is 685.

Page 200, line 15 from the bottom, for Tangipaho read Tongipaho.

Page 201, line 18 for Cot island read Cat island.

Page 201, line 14 from the bottom, for Baton Range read Baton Rouge. Same page line 11 from the bottom, for Tongpaho read Tongipaho.

Page 204 lines 4, 5, and 10, for Alchafalaya read Atchafalaya.

Page 206, line 3 from the bottom, for Echor a Cheve read Ecor a Chene.

Page 209, line 11, for water read matter.

Page 212, line 26, for promenade read promenade,

Page 213, line 9, for when read where.

Page 215, line 3 from the bottom, dele should. Same page line 23 for face read base.

Page 216, line 11 from the bottom, price of cotton, for 75 cts. per lb. read 15.

Page 213, line 9 from the bottom, for above read below,

Page 219, line 8, for Pongipaho read Tongipaho.

Page 220, line 12, for Coasa read Coosa — or rather should be spelled Coozah.

Page 222, last line, for north read south.

[In printing the article on Kentucky, the following description of Frankfort was somehow overlooked. It should have been given in page 179 immediately before Maysville.]

FRANKFORT is situated on the Kentucky river, 60 miles from its confluence with the Ohio, in N. lat. 38° 14', W. long. 7° 40'. It is the seal of the scite government, but not otherwise in place of much consequence. The country around it is far inferior to the vicinity of Lexington, both in beauty and fertility. The river bottoms near it are low broad and subject to inundation — of course the stagnating waters in the warm seasons cause bilious complaints — but since the flats have been drained the place is perfectly healthy. This change seems to have great influence on the present prosperity of the town.

It has a state house of rough marble 86 feet by 54 and three stories in height, besides a court house, jail, &c. superior to the generality of buildings of the kind in this country. The Penitentiary covers one acre of ground and usually contains from 40 to 80 convicts. — Three newspapers — the Palladium, Argus, and Pulse are printed, here. A chain bridge has been erected over the river opposite to the town.



In the hope that some one may make the examination I here add the necessary directions. A clinical analysis not necessary. Reduce the stone to & fine powder. If it does not form an adhesive paste with water it cannot be turned in the latter without the addition of clay. Place a piece o the stone (or if its powder from a paste, place a lump in it) in a common blacksmith's furnace, and give it the highest degree of heat that can be produced in that way (which maybe about 30 degrees of Wedgewood above welding heat). If the stone or lump of paste is not melted at that heat it is kaolin or someone better. If it preserves its whiteness it is invaluable. If it acquires a brownish or reddish tint, which may be expected, it then contains iron. Nevertheless, the iron may be extracted from it by a chemical process.

In the western country many people have taken great trouble in little purpose in searching for crucible clay. All that is requisite for the manufacture of crucibles is a clay will stick in a mass, and bear the highest heat of a blacksmith's furnace. Pure clay, that is argil, is nowhere to be found in a natural state. Those soft ductile substances called clays, contain silex (which is pure flint or rock or crystal) either inn the state of sand or in more minute division. Any portion of less than 70 per cent will do little or no injury. But among other substance the clays always contain lime, and if it is present in the proportion of 5 per cent or upwards it causes them to melt at the heat of a glass furnace.

No clay well suited for the finer kinds of earthenware has yet been discovered in North America (unless it be in the Naudoessee country.) In Europe, ground flint is used and mixed with clay to render it ductile. Flint seldom contains more than a 5 per cent of adulteration.

Pittsburgh Gazette.