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Pictures and Illustrations.

George B. Merrick

William R. Tibbals

Facsimiles of Early Business Card and Tickets — From Merrick's Old Times on the Mississippi. Courtesy of A. H. Clark Co.

Steamer "Milwaukee," 1856; 550 Tons — From Merrick's Old Times on the Mississippi. Courtesy of A. H. Clark Co.

Steamer "War Eagle," 1852; 296 Tons — From Merrick's Old Times on the Mississippi. Courtesy of A. H. Clark Co.

View of Bad Axe (Now Genoa), Wisconsin — Scene of the last battle fought by Chief Black Hawk against the Federal Government — From Merrick's Old Times on the Mississippi. Courtesy of A. H. Clark Co.

Daniel Smith Harris

William Kelly


Genesis of Steam Navigation on Western Rivers.

By George Byron Merrick and William R. Tibbals

In a former compilation by one of the writers of this paper it was the aim to give as far as possible, the histories of the steam-propelled-vessels on the upper Mississippi — their names, tonnage, where built, description, etc. In the present paper the endeavor will be to rescue from oblivion the names of the officers who manned those boats from 1823 to recent years, and to give as many details of their activities as it is possible to gather from such ephemeral contemporary records as the newspapers of the day, or from the memories or diaries of the few surviving members of the craft who yet remain in their snug-harbors along the banks of the great river between St. Louis and St. Paul. From this latter source much of worth and interest has been gleaned. Such survivors, despite the burden of years pressing upon them — most of them having passed the four-score mark — have generously devoted time, thought, and strength to the perfecting of this record.

More than this, both of the present compilers have had actual river experience — Mr. Merrick's extending through a term of


only seven seasons; but Captain Tibbals's including more than fifty years of active service as pilot and master.


When, in 1808, the successful trips of Robert Fulton's "Clermont" and other steam-driven vessels on the Hudson had demonstrated the practicability of the application of steam to river navigation, the interest of capital was at once attracted to this new line of investment. The exploitation of the Hudson and other Eastern waters was soon under way; but the Western rivers were before long recognized as offering a larger field for such investments.

Fulton himself was able to command the influence and capital necessary for the undertaking. In December, 1810, the Ohio Steamboat Navigation Company was incorporated by Daniel D. Tompkins, Robert R. Livingston, DeWitt Clinton, Robert Fulton, and Nicholas J. Roosevelt to operate steamers on the Western


waters under the Fulton-Livingston patents. N. J. Roosevelt was a brother of former President Theodore Roosevelt's grandfather.

This company sought to monopolize the business of steamboating on the Western waters, and to this end obtained from the legislature of Louisiana the passage of a bill granting them the exclusive right of navigating the waters of that State with steam vessels for the term of fourteen years, with the privilege of renewing their charter at the end of that time. Any one violating this monopoly was subject to a fine of $500 for each offense — that is to say, for each time a steamboat entered Louisiana waters.

In the year 1811 the new company established a shipyard at Pittsburgh and there built their first vessel. Fulton's company transferred, intact, both the model and the motive power of their successful Eastern vessels to the radically differing conditions of the Western waters. The Hudson is a tide-water stream for nearly half its course, with but little current; it is of uniform depth, and in its entire navigable length is framed with rocky shores that preclude any great changes in its channel. The "Clermont" and her successors were built on sea-going lines, with a minimum draft of about eight feet of water. The boilers were placed in the hold, and the vertical cylinder was bedded upon the keelson. The power was applied to the side-wheels, which at first were attached to a solid shaft extending from side to side, by the vertical oscillating cylinder connected with a "gallows-frame" walking-beam. With this equipment it was possible to secure but two motions — both wheels revolving ahead or backing


at the same time. This feature did not permit the pilot to turn his boat in its length, and made it difficult to handle a steamer in the tortuous and contracted channels of Western rivers. To overcome this difficulty in turning the vessel, the "Clermont" and other Eastern boats were rigged with two masts, carrying sails, by whose manipulation the boats could be turned in the more expanded and deeper waters of the Hudson.

All of these features were transferred to the Western waters and incorporated in the "New Orleans," the initial boat built in 1811 by the Fulton-Livingston Company at Pittsburgh. Fulton seems to have realized the advantages to be derived from independent wheels, and had secured this to a partial extent by means of clutches, by which one or the other of the wheels could be disconnected, and the power applied to one wheel only, so that the vessel could more readily be turned. The editor of a St. Louis paper, writing from New York, says:

The machine which moves her wheels is called, we believe, a twenty-four horse machine, or equal to the power of twenty-four horses, and is kept in motion by steam from a copper boiler eight or ten feet long. The wheels are on each side, similar to those on water-mills, and under cover. They are moved backward or forward, separately or together, at pleasure.

The "Clermont" made her initial trip in 1807; the improvement noted above appeared in 1808, indicating that the genius which had applied Watts's steam-engine to the propulsion of vessels was actively engaged in perfecting the work so begun.

There are discrepancies in the accounts of Fulton's first boat on Western waters. Most authorities agree that she was named "New Orleans," but some call her the "Orleans." One presents a wood-cut showing a steamboat bearing the name "Orleans." It is a stern-wheel boat. There can be no doubt but that this is an error as regards the style of boat; for the first three boats built by the Fulton-Livingston company adhered to the Fulton


model — side-wheel and vertical engine. The vertical engine could not be used in connection with a stern-wheel.

Following the "New Orleans," the "Comet," a small boat of twenty-five tons, was launched in 1812; and the "Vesuvius" two years later. These were of the same sea-going model, with engines and boiler in the hold, and each drew far more water than the river afforded at any season except that of the early spring or after the beginning of the autumn rains. They went down the river after long delays at the Falls of the Ohio (Louisville), but were unable to return owing to too great draft and lack of power.

The "Enterprise," seventy-five tons, was built in 1814 under the Fulton patents at Brownsville, Pennsylvania. She reached New Orleans, where she was impressed by General Jackson and used in repelling the British attack upon that place. In May,


1815, she cleared from New Orleans for Louisville, where she arrived after a trip of twenty-five days. Both the Mississippi and the Ohio were "bank-full" at the time. In an ordinary stage of water she would not, with the draft she was carrying, have been able to get above Natchez.

It remained for Henry M. Shreve to improve upon both the Fulton and the French patents, which had governed the equipment of the nine boats heretofore built at the Pittsburgh yards. Instead of placing the boilers and machinery in the hold, Captain Shreve decked the hold over and placed his machinery on what has since been known as the main deck. Heretofore the cylinders of all boats had been of the vertical and oscillating pattern. Captain Shreve laid his cylinders down upon solid bed-timbers, and transferred the vibration to the pitman.

The "Washington," as his boat was named, was equipped with double high-pressure engines, with cranks at right angles attached to the stern-wheel shaft at either end, so that a steady motion of the wheel was maintained, as against the halting motion of the side-wheels, driven by a single engine, where the crank turned over the dead centres.

Captain Shreve also added David Prentice's invention of the cam cut-off, and by adding flues to his boilers, saved a third of his fuel. Thus equipped, the first stern-wheel boat started on her initial voyage to the Gulf. September 24, 1816, she passed over the Falls of the Ohio. There Edward Livingston examined her, noted the many improvements, and remarked to Captain Shreve: "You deserve well of your country, young man, but we shall be compelled to beat you in court if we can."


The monopoly rights of Fulton, Livingston & Co. had already been taken into court by Captain Shreve. December 14, 1814, with the steamboat "Enterprise," he had entered the forbidden waters of Louisiana. Immediately upon landing at New Orleans he retained counsel and procured bail, in case of seizure, which took place the next day. Bail was entered and a suit commenced against the boat and her owners in an inferior court, where a verdict was found for the defendants. The case was then removed by a writ of error to the supreme court of the United States. Before the question was decided by this court, Captain Shreve returned to New Orleans with his new steamboat, the "Washington," which, as expected, was also seized by the Livingston company, to whom she was surrendered without making any difficulty. Upon application, however, to the court an order was obtained holding the company to bail to answer to any damages that might be sustained by the detention of the vessel. To this Livingston demurred. The company feeling the weakness of its case, and foreseeing the downfall of its colossal monopoly, made repeated overtures through its counsel and individual members of the firm to admit Captain Shreve to an equal share in all the privileges of the patent right, provided he would instruct his counsel so to arrange the business of the defense that a verdict might be found against him. The bribe was rejected with scorn, and the case fought to a finish, the court finding against the monopoly in every point. The three years litigation cost Captain Shreve a fortune; but the result opened the Mississippi River once and for all to any one who wished to embark in the carrying business on Western rivers.

Having been released from durance, the "Washington" returned to Louisville, and March 12, 1817, started on her second round trip, which was accomplished in forty-one days. This successful run demonstrated the practicability of steam navigation up-stream. First to prove the success of river navigation by steam, the "Washington" was also first in the long list of explosions which were to wreck hundreds of boats and bring death


or wounds to thousands of passengers and crew. June 9, 1817, soon after leaving Marietta, she exploded her boiler, with a loss of twelve killed and as many more seriously scalded — Captain Shreve, master, and Mr. Clark, engineer, being among those wounded.

Within a few months a score of shipyards were established along the Ohio and its tributaries. Pittsburgh, with its foundries and machine shops, offered the best facilities for equipping the hulls as they were turned out at the yards. Brownsville, Elizabeth, Shousetown, McKeesport, California, Belle Vernon, and Wheeling turned out boats by the score; while Marietta, Cincinnati, and Louisville engaged in the business to a great extent.

Two other improvements, credit for which I am unable definitely to assign, although the weight of evidence points to Capt. Henry Shreve as their author, completed the Western steamboat practically as it was used in the fifties, when Wisconsin, Iowa, and Minnesota were the fields of its greatest activity. The first improvement was building a wide, light, flat-bottomed hull which would draw less than two instead of six feet of water, thus adding immensely to its adaptability to the shallow channels of Western rivers. The other was the adoption of independent engines for each side-wheel, enabling one to come ahead while the other was backing. This permitted the pilot to turn his boat in its length, as well as greatly assisting him in navigating crooked and dangerous pieces of the river.

The growth of the business was marvelous. In 1819 there were sixty-three steamers on Western waters; in 1832 there were 230; and in 1842, 450, with a total of 126,278 tons; while by 1855 no less than 800 steam vessels were in commission.

Between the years 1817 and 1848 there "were 233 boiler explosions, great and small, with a loss of 2,563 lives, and 2,092 seriously wounded. From 1848 to 1871 there were 66 explosions, with a loss of 3,033 lives. The loss of the "Sultana," in 1865,


near Memphis, was the most terrible of all. She was loaded with Union soldiers returning North. Of these, 1647 men so far as accounted for, lost their lives either by scalding or drowning. It was estimated at the time that the number exceeded two thousand. The remarkable decrease in the number of accidents from 1848 to 1871, as compared with those of the earlier period, is due to the more rigid inspection of boilers by the federal government; also to the greater care in granting licenses to engineers.

The pioneer steamboat upon the waters of the Mississippi above the mouth of the Ohio was the "Zebulon M. Pike," built in 1815 by Mr. Prentice, of Henderson, Kentucky. The "Pike" made her first trip to Louisville a distance of 250 miles, in sixty-nine hours — a rate of about three and one-half miles an hour, against the current. Her hull was built on the model of a barge or keel-boat. The cabin was built inside the running-boards of the barge. In stemming a rapid current the crew reinforced the steam power by getting out their setting-poles and pushing her against the stream as in keel-boat navigation. The boat was driven by a low-pressure engine, with a gallows-frame walking-beam. The side wheels had no wheel-houses. She had but one smoke-stack and used wood for fuel.

Her first trip from Louisville to St. Louis consumed six weeks. She ran only in daylight, lying at the bank wherever night overtook her, in order to replenish her stock of fuel. Her coming to St. Louis had been announced by an overland mail from Louisville.


The first notice of the expected arrival of the "Pike" says:

A steamboat is expected here tomorrow from Louisville. There is no doubt but what we shall have regular connection [with Louisville] or at least with the mouth of the Ohio, by a steam packet.

August 2, 1817, the following advertisement appeared in the same newspaper:

The steamboat "Pike" will be ready to take in freight to-morrow for Louisville, or any town on the Ohio. She will sail for Louisville on Monday, the 4th of August, from 10 to 12 o'clock A. M. For freight or passage apply on board.


The first step in conquering the upper Mississippi was thus taken. The keel-boat, however, still ruled above St. Louis.

During May, 1819, the steamboat "Independence" left St. Louis for Franklin, on the Missouri River, from whence she returned thirteen days later. Other boats followed the same year. June 9, of that year, Captain Hewes of the "St. Louis" gave an excursion to the mouth of the Missouri. The newspaper report thereof declares that "Captain Hewes has gratified the citizens of St. Louis with a sail to the mouth, of the Missouri. The company on board was large and genteel, and the entertainment very elegant."

The first mention of regular traffic on the upper river appears in a St. Louis newspaper of April 19, 1822:

During the past week our wharf has exhibited a greater show of business than we recollect ever to have seen, and the number of steam and other boats arriving and departing has been unprecedented. The immense trade which has opened between this place and Fever River, Illinois, at the present time, employs, besides a number of keel-boats, six steamboats, to-wit: the "Indiana," "Shamrock," "Hamilton," "Muskingum," and "Mechanic." The "Indiana" and "Shamrock," on


their return trip have been deeply freighted with lead, and several keel-boats likewise have arrived laden with the same article. Judging from the thousands of people who have gone to make their fortunes at the lead mines this spring, we should suppose that the quantity of lead produced this year would be ten-fold greater than heretofore.

The next upper river steamboat was the "Virginia," Captain Crawford, known to have been at Fort Snelling May 10, 1823. All authorities agree upon this; but upon those of the next ten years there is a diversity of opinion. Rev. E. D. Neill, in his "Occurrences in and around Fort Snelling from 1819 to 1840," mentions fifteen boats as having arrived at that fort, but gives the dates for but three. Following is Neill's list, as amended by the late Capt. Russell Blakeley of St. Paul and by the writer hereof:

1. "Virginia," Captain Crawford, May 10, 1823. Among her passengers were Major Biddle and Lieut. John Russell, of the Army, Major Taliaferro, United States Indian Agent, and Count Giacomo C. Beltrami, an expatriated Italian of noble family.

2. "Neiville." Nothing more known of this boat.

3. "Rufus Putnam," Capt. David G. Bates, arrived April 5, 1825. Four weeks later she made a second trip with goods for the Columbia Trading Company, at Land's End, on the Minnesota River, where the company's post was located.

4. "Mandan." Boat owned by American Fur Company, and probably


loaded with their supplies. The master's name is not given. Capt. Joseph La Barge was in the employ of the American Fur Company at this time, and may have been in command. The boat arrived at the fort prior to 1827; she was a side-wheeler; was snagged and sunk in Missouri River in the early forties, Capt. Phil Hanna being in command at the time.

5. "Indiana." Arrived at fort prior to 1827. In Galena trade 1828, Captain Fay commanding.

6. "Lawrence." Arrived May 2, 1826. Captain's name not given. Not mentioned elsewhere.

7. "Sciota." Not mentioned elsewhere.

8. "Eclipse." Not mentioned elsewhere.

9. "Josephine." At Fort Snelling 1827, Capt. J. Clark commanding. Captain Clark appears the next season in command of "Missouri Fulton," in the Galena trade, and also as captain of "Josephine," and again in 1829 commanding "Josephine."

10. "Missouri Fulton." Captain Culver, first part of season; later, Capt. J. Clark. Arrived again May 8, 1836, Capt. Orrin Smith. In Galena and St. Peter's trade, 1837, Capt. Orrin Smith.

11. "Red Rover." Capt. Joseph Throckmorton. In Galena and St. Peter's trade, 1828-30.

12. "Black Rover." Not mentioned elsewhere.

13. "Warrior." Built in 1832 by Capt. Joseph Throckmorton. Arrived at the fort June 24, 1835 with supplies for the garrison, and a pleasure party. Among the passengers were Captain Day and Lieutenant Beech of the army, Catlin, the artist, and his wife, Gen. George W. Jones, J. Farnsworth, Mrs. Felix St. Vrain, Miss Farnsworth, Miss Crowe, Miss Johnson, and others. On July 16 the "Warrior" was again at the fort.

14. "Enterprise." Small stern-wheel boat. At the fort early in the


season of 1832, and again on June 27, 1832. Sunk at the head of Enterprise Island, 1843.

15. "Volant." Not mentioned elsewhere.

Other boats, under charter by the federal government, made trips to the fort annually up to 1842, or even later; but as there was as yet no population to feed nor products to export, there were no boats engaged in independent traffic before this date above Galena, Cassville, and Helena. At these points the mines furnished a return cargo of lead to the steamboats bringing in the necessaries of civilization for the rapidly-increasing mining population. Impetus given by the opening to settlement of northern Wisconsin, and the rise of lumbering interests on the Black, Chippewa, and St. Croix rivers caused a rapid growth in steamboating above the mouth of the Wisconsin. It reached its culmination in 1858, during the rush of settlers to the newly-opened lands and growing settlements of Minnesota.

Among the earliest to engage in this regular steamboat trade on the upper river was Count Agoston Haraszthy, a refugee from political oppression in the old world, then dwelling at Sauk City on Wisconsin River.

The "Rock River" was a small boat, built in 1843 at Mazatlan, Illinois. She was owned by Haraszthy and Bryant of Sauk City; and commanded by the former with his compatriot, Edmond Rentdorff, as clerk. The name of the engineer is not given; the captain probably did his own piloting. This boat during the season of 1843 made three trips from St. Louis to St. Peter's (now known as Mendota, Minnesota), and two trips from St. Louis to Fort Winnebago (at Portage, Wisconsin). She was frozen in at Prairie du Chien in November of that year, and lay there during the winter, notwithstanding the heroic efforts of the crew to extricate her and sail her to her home port at Sauk City. The next season she ran to Fort Snelling with supplies and troops, and did a general freighting and passenger business on the upper river — the first boat regularly in that trade. She was frozen in at Wacouta, Minnesota, at the head of Lake Pepin, in the fall of 1844, and lay there during the winter. In the


spring she went south to New Orleans and did not again appear in the North, being sold to run on the slack-water bayous of the lower river, with the current of which she was better able to cope than with the swifter water of the upper Mississippi.

The names of a few men appear pre-eminent in the history of navigation on the upper Mississippi. Among these were the Harris Brothers of Galena, whose given names were Daniel Smith, Robert Scribe, Martin Keeler, James Meeker, and Jackson respectively. Daniel Smith — or "Smith" Harris, as he was called the length of the river — was the eldest and best known. These five were the sons of James and Abigail Bathrick Harris. Daniel Smith Harris came to Galena on the keel-boat "Colonel Bumford," arriving in June, 1823. The next three brothers came from Cincinnati in the spring of 1824. Jackson was born at Galena in 1828. Two of the brothers, Robert S. and Martin K., became engineers; Daniel Smith was interested in lead-mining. In 1832 the brothers built at Galena their first boat, the "Jo Daviess," the machinery for which had been picked by Robert Scribe Harris the engineer, from a scrap-heap in Cincinnati. Their further investments are shown in the register, post.

Next in importance to the Harris Brothers was Joseph Throckmorton. His work on the upper Mississippi began in 1828, four years before the Harrises launched their first boat at Galena; and ended in 1848, when he transferred his business to the Missouri. During these twenty years he built and commanded nine steamboats. He was the best-known man on the upper river, his boats being engaged in transporting troops and supplies from St. Louis to the several United States forts located between Rock Island and Fort Snelling; also to Fort Winnebago, on the Wisconsin. One of his boats, the "Warrior," took part in August, 1832, in the battle of Bad Axe, where she rendered very active and efficient service. It is to be regretted that more is not known of


Throckmorton's life. The writer has been unable to find any trace of his descendants, or any contemporary who knew his history. He died poor in 1872 at St. Louis, after having won for himself several competencies from the profits of his business, only to lose all through the destruction of his boats by snags and fire. He was peculiarly unfortunate in this respect, even at a time when such losses were expected to befall any boat within four years from its launching.

The Atchison brothers, George W., Joseph, and Pierce, were also prominent in steamboat circles during the forties and fifties. They were Kentuckians, coming to the upper river from the Ohio. Joseph died in 1850 of cholera, on board his boat, the "Highland Mary," This disease raged that season the length of the river, claiming hundreds of victims, principally among the deck passengers. The dead were taken ashore and buried in shallow graves on the islands, from which they were torn at the first "rise" of the river and seen no more. The remaining Atchison brothers transferred their business to the Missouri soon after this calamity, taking the "Highland Mary" with them.

Another trio of brothers very active in upper river affairs were the Lodwicks — Kennedy, M. W., and Preston, who commanded


many of the finest boats in the Minnesota Packet Company's fleet during the whole of its existence, being themselves largely interested either as owners of boats or stockholders in the corporation.

As to the general character of the men who officered the early steamboats, judgment varies according to different standards. An editorial in the Prescott Paraclete of June 15, 1855, favors them with the following depreciation:

Human life is thought little of by the men on the river, and human comfort, convenience, or respect is disregarded altogether. In most cases of this kind [anent the drowning of a young man from the "City Belle" on her up-trip a few days before, of which the editor was a witness], there is little feeling or concern expressed by steamboat officers at the loss of passengers, especially if it be a steerage [deck] passenger — as little, in fact, as there would be at losing overboard a boy's hat or a lady's handkerchief. The river is navigated, with but few exceptions, by a class of lowbred, ungentlemanly, and sometimes ruffianly vagabonds, who seldom, if ever, treat a person with as much respect as a well-bred hound deserves. This we know from personal observation on the best boats on the river.

Capt. Charles J. Allen, corps of engineers, U. S. A., in his report for the year 1866, on the work of the River Improvement Association, gives it as his opinion that "most of the river pilots are possessed of but little knowledge beyond that required in turning the wheel."

The writer knew, personally, two of the officers of the "City Belle" at the time when the young man was lost from the boat — Capt. Kennedy Lodwick and Chief Clerk Edward V. Dawley. Both were educated gentlemen, and I presume as kind-hearted as any business men in any other line of endeavor. I also knew, personally, the writer of the editorial. He was a young man just out of Yale, who had never seen anything more strenuous in the way of life than a cane-rush on the campus. He did not realize that a man who fell overboard in front of the wheel on a side-wheel boat, was in most cases never seen again. Any attempt to recover his body would be only a loss of time to the hundreds of passengers who were hastening to their new homes in the North, and would be entirely ineffectual in any event. He also made the mistake of gauging the breeding and personal deportment of Mississippi River captains by the standards of New England


civilization; just as Captain Allen made the mistake of judging the educational attainments of the river pilots by the standards of West Point.

One of the prime recommendations of either a clerk or a captain on the river was, that he should have a gentlemanly address and be able to make himself agreeable to his passengers. In most cases, they fully met the requirement. That they had kind hearts is evidenced by such incidents as the landing of Capt. Russell Blakeley's steamer at an out-of-the-way point, and the sending of a boy up the bluff to get a pitcher of fresh milk for a sick baby; or the holding of Capt. William H. Gabbert's boat for many hours for a woman whose child was born during the interval. The courage shown by Capt. W. H. Laughton, who, during his forty or more years on the river, jumped overboard and saved from drowning nine persons; or, the conscientious scruples of Capt. Orrin Smith, who would not run his steamboat on Sunday, but tied up at midnight Saturday and remained at the bank until midnight Sunday, always holding a meeting on board his boat on Sunday morning. Such instances show that the river men had as many ideas of morality and kindness as their contemporaries.

The following compilation gives the names, and so far as obtainable the official rating, of some of the men who helped to open up the states of Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Minnesota, from 1823 to 1870, together with the name of the boat to which each was attached, and the date of such service. The compilers regret that despite all their efforts their list is not more complete.

Officers on the Upper Mississippi, 1823-70.s

Able, Dan. 1847 and 1850 capt. "Anthony Wayne;" 1848 capt. "Ocean Wave," at St. Paul.

Adair, J. S. July 20, 1858 clk. "Falls City," at La Crosse.

Ainsworth, J. C. 1846-48 capt. "Iron City," at St. Paul.

Ainsworth, S. March 25, 1848 clk. "Iron City," at St. Paul.

Alford, Pliny A. 1854 capt. "Grey Cloud;" 1857 capt. "White Cloud;" 1858 capt. "W. H. Denny;" 1858-62 capt. "Northerner;" is buried at Hamburg, Ill., on a high hill overlooking the river.


Allen, —. 1857 capt. "Harmonia," at St. Paul.

Allen, J. T. 1845 clk. "Potosi," at Burlington.

Allen, M. S. 1867 clk. "Bannock City;" after leaving river was sheriff of Jackson County, Iowa until his death at Sabula, Iowa.

Allendorff, Gus. 1866 engr. "Northern Light" when she sunk in Coon Slough.

Allen, L. C. Upper river pilot — one of the best. Is now (1911) living at ease on his 300-acre farm opposite Dutchman's Island, above Fort Madison, Iowa.

Altea, William. July 21, 1843 capt. "Mendota," at Dubuque.

Anderson, Tom F. Aug. 27, 1845 capt. "Osprey," at Burlington.

Andrews, —. 1857 capt. "Ocean Wave," at St. Paul.

Andrews, Edward. Engr.

Andrews, Lee. Engr.

Andrews, Lemuel. Built "Clarion" from wreck of "Brazil," sunk by ice near Davenport, 1841; capt. lived at Davenport.

Armstrong, James. Engr. in Minnesota Packet Company.

Armstrong, Joseph. 1850 pilot "Yankee," Capt. M. K. Harris; 1854 pilot "Galena," Capt. Russell Blakeley; April 5, 1855 died at his wheel on "Luella" while crossing Beef Slough bar.

Arnold, John P. Owner, capt., and pilot on Illinois River in the 40's. Later, pilot from St. Louis to Galena; 1852 learned river to St. Paul on "Nominee," Capt. Orrin Smith; 1853-54 pilot "Nominee;" 1855-56 pilot "Fanny Harris," Capt. Jones Worden; 1857-60 pilot "Key City." In 1861 went South, being in government service as capt. and pilot of transports till close of war; in Missouri River trade two seasons; capt. of tow-boats for several years in St. Louis and New Orleans barge line; died Memphis, 1883, One of the best pilots on upper river.

Artas, J. Clerk.

Arthur, James. 1841 clk.

Asbury, D. R. Capt. "Golden Eagle" when she burned on Missouri River below mouth of Quiver; died on board his boat of cholera, 1850; buried at Galena, Ill.

Atchison, George W. 1836 capt. "Dubuque," at Dubuque; 1839 capt. "Glaucus;" 1842 capt. "Amaranth." During his river service he built and owned, wholly or in part, "Irene," "Ione," "Glaucus," "Governor Dodge," "Amaranth," and "Missouri Belle."

Atchison, Joseph. 1845-47 capt. and owner "Lynx;" 1848-50 capt. and owner "Highland Mary;" died 1850 of cholera, on board his boat.

Atchison, Mark. 1842 capt. "Ohio," at Galena.

Atchison, Pierce. 1845 capt. "Fortune;" 1855 capt. "Golden Era;" died at St. Louis, 1855 or 1856.

Atchison, W. H. 1847 capt. "Kentucky," at Dubuque.


Austin, E. P. Clerk.

Aymond, F. 1859 capt. "Jeanette Roberts," in Minnesota River trade.

Bab, E. H. 1846 on "Uncle Toby," at Savanna.

Bacon, Charles. 1848 on "Edward Bates," at Burlington.

Baldwin, —. 1849 capt. "Prairie State; 1855 capt. "Fire Canoe."

Ball, J. J. F. 1856-57 clk. "War Eagle," at La Crosse.

Ball, S. Oct. 9, 1846 clk. "Bridgewater," at Savanna.

Barger, —. 1845 clk. "Lynx;" 1846-48 capt. "Red Wing;" 1853 capt. "G. W. Sparhawk."

Barnard, George. May 14, 1843 capt. "Boreas" at Burlington.

Barnard, James. Sept. 11, 1843 on "Boreas" at Burlington.

Barnes, Charles L. Steamboat agent; born 1827 in Canton, N. Y.; 1855 came to Hastings, Minn., agent for Minnesota Packet Company until 1857; removed to Prescott where till his death June 19, 1903, was agent for all the principal steamboat companies. He seldom missed meeting an incoming boat, day or night, for forty-five years; it was asserted on the river that pilots always "held on" his tall silk hat when making a landing at Prescott.

Barry, —. 1857 capt. "A. G. Mason" at St. Paul.

Barthona, A. G. 1819 on keel-boat; 1827 on "Trenton;" 1838 founder of packet line St. Louis and Keokuk; 1854 clk. "Wisconsin."

Bartlett, R. F. May 14, 1848 on "Lucy Bertram" at Dubuque.

Bates, David G. Born in Virginia; came to Galena in 1819 on a keel-boat with a crew of Frenchmen; 1822 engaged in Indian trade and smelting at Dubuque; 1824 bought at St. Louis "Rufus Putnam;" 1825 to Fort Snelling; later built "Galena," on which he made the trip to Fort Snelling in 1828; Capt. Russell Blakeley says that "he was a very genial gentleman;" died at Galena, Nov. 22, 1850, aged 58 years; buried in the old cemetery.

Bates, Walter. Capt. and owner "Adelia," which he sold in April 1857 to Capt. William Gillette of Dubuque.

Beasley, Benjamin F. Engr. "Bannock City" at Galena.

Beebe, Edward H. 1847-49, capt. "Dubuque" at Galena.

Beedle, Hiram. 1852-53 pilot "Enterprise," Capt. W. H. Gabbert, on Wisconsin River; 1859 pilot "Grey Eagle" and "Northern Light;" 1860-61 pilot "Northern Light;" died at Bellevue, Ia.

Beedle, Hiram Jr. Pilot several years; now boating on the Yukon, Alaska.

Bell, Edwin. 1859 capt. "Anson Northrup;" 1861-63 capt. "Pomeroy," both in Minnesota River trade.

Belt, William S. 1848 capt. "Edward Bates" at Burlington.

Berdeau, J. F. June 13, 1843 clk. "Rosalie" at Burlington.


Berger, Jacob. Learned his trade with "Billy" Hamilton; ran many years on river; 1911 chief engr. Davenport ferry.

Bersie, Hiram. 1838 capt. "Irene;" 1844-45 capt. and part owner "St. Croix;" 1846-48, capt. and owner "Bon Accord;" after leaving river lived at Buffalo,Ill., where he died in 1859.

Bert, Thomas H. Sept. 1, 1843 clk. "Iowa" at Dubuque.

Biesong, Andrae. Old-time raft pilot; lived and died at Prairie du Chien.

Bigelow, Volney A. Owner and capt. "Alfred Toll;" in the rafting business for several years; later built and commanded "Jessie B" La Crosse. Known as one of the best raft-towing pilots on the river; was in partnership with Lafayette Holmes, of La Crosse; together they built and ran as rafter "Quickstep;" died April 16, 1904, at La Crosse; his fine collection of steamboat pictures now in possession of the Wisconsin State Historical Society.

Bill, E. C. Steamboat builder, born in Connecticut 1821; early emigrated to Ohio; employed on Great Lakes sailing vessels; 1855 emigrated to Indiana and became lumberman. About 1866 moved to Read's Landing, Minn.; 1867-68 built "Buckeye" used for rafting logs and lumber; later capt. "Jessie Bill," a small stern-wheeler named for his granddaughter. During his later years agent at Winona for the Diamond Jo Line; died at that place, Oct. 15, 1902.

Bill, Fred A. Son of preceding. 1868-71 clk. "Buckeye;" later clk. "Dakota," on Red River of the North, between Moorhead, Minn., and Winnipeg, Canada, Capt. Jerry Webber; 1873 clk. "Imperial," of Diamond Jo Line; 1874 clk. "Ida Fulton;" 1875-80, clk. "Josie" and "Libbie Conger," with short periods on "Arkansas," "Diamond Jo," "Tidal Wave;" 1880-93 at Dubuque as general passenger and freight agent Diamond Jo Company; is living, 1911, at Minneapolis.

Bipell, James L. 1850 pilot "Bon Accord," that later sunk above Mundy's Landing on the Missouri.

Bipette, Paul. 1815-20 keel-boatman; 1820 pilot "Oben C. Pike."

Bisbee, —. April 15, 1868 capt. "Ida Fulton," at McGregor, Iowa.

Bissell, James. 1852-54 capt. "New St. Paul;" 1857-58 capt. "J. Bissell."

Black, James T. 1859-62 pilot "Fanny Harris," "Key City," "Golden Era," and other boats of the line; in Minnesota Packet Company; 1862 went down river and was pilot "Eugene Avery," owned by Eugene Avery, sutler of the 9th Iowa Infantry, one of the first boats to go in Yazoo Pass, conveying troops in the rear of Vicksburg; 1868 died at Cairo, Ill.

Blair, Walter A. Successful steamboatman, now living (1911) at Davenport, Iowa; learned the river under George Tromley, pilot;


large owner in, and general manager of Northern Steamboat line, of which ex-Gov. S. R. Van Sant, of St. Paul, is president; season of 1911 was captain of side-wheel packet "Morning Star," between Davenport and St. Paul.

Blaisdell, Nathan. 1856 Engr. "Kate Cassell" lived at Prescott, Wis.

Blaisdell, William A. Engr.

Blake, W. H. 1857 capt. "James Lyon;" capt. and owner "Lake City;" established the St. Louis & Memphis Packet Co.

Blakeley, Russell. 1847 clk. "Argo;" 1848 clk. "Dr. Franklin;" 1852 capt. "Dr. Franklin;" 1853 capt. "Nominee;" 1855 capt. "Galena,;" 1856 appointed general agent of Minnesota Packet Co. at Dunleith, a position which he held for several years; he wrote a very interesting and valuable paper on the "History of the Discovery of the Mississippi River and the Advent of Commerce in Minnesota," which was published as part 3, vol. viii, Minn. Hist. Colls., April 1, 1898; died at his home in St. Paul about 1902.

Blakeley, W. 1844 clk. "Western Belle," at Burlington.

Blakesley, Lud. Twin brother of Willis Blakesley, pilot for many years before the war; lived at Quincy, Ill., where he died.

Blakesley, Willis. Pilot for many years before the war; 1859 pilot "Northerner" in her great race with the "Key City" for the championship of the upper river, from Stillwater to Prescott, which was won by a length by the "Key City;" 1877 pilot "Minneapolis;" lived at Quincy, Ill., where he died.

Blanchard, W. H. Secretary and treasurer of the Minnesota Packet Company at Dunleith, Ill., for several years.

Blish, George C. Clk. in Minnesota Packet Company for many years; 1853 on "Dr. Franklin;" 1858 chief clk. "Galena," when she burned at Red Wing landing; reported as living, but place not stated.

Bloomer, Edward. Clerk.

Blopond, C. D. On "Archer," at Burlington.

Boggs, William. Many years engr. on Mississippi and St. Croix rivers; 1858 engr. "H. S. Allen;" lived at Prescott, Wis.

Boland, James. Capt. in Diamond Jo Line; 1881 capt. "Mary Morton;" later capt. "Pittsburgh."

Boland, William. 1859 began river life as deck-hand on "Northern Light," in company with Dan Hall, John Killeen, and Harry Leitch; died on Missouri River.

Boon, B. H. 1843 clk. "Boreas," at Galena.

Bouchea, Peter F. Early raft pilot, settled at site of Hudson; married Indian woman; died at Hudson.

Bowen, C. J. 1844 clk. "Waverly," at Davenport.

Bowers, E. E. April 26, 1859 clk. "General Pike," at La Crosse.


Bowman, Robert. Dec. 3, 1856 mate "Adelia," at La Crosse.

Boyce, Samuel. Aug. 26, 1853 clk. "Dr. Franklin," at La Crosse; May 1854 clk. "Galena;" 1856 capt. "Luella."

Boyd, J. F. 1855 capt. "Ben Bolt."

Brady, —. 1857 capt. "Editor."

Brassau, George. Pilot and captain for many years in rafting trade between Stillwater and St. Louis; now (1911) living in retirement at Stillwater, Minn.

Brickle, —. 1857 capt. "La Crosse."

Brierley, F. H. 1840 clk. "Chippewa."

Briggs, —. July 20, 1836 capt. "Olive Branch," at Dubuque.

Briggs, William. 1857 engr. "Grey Eagle."

Brisbois, William M. 1864 cub pilot "Ocean Wave;" ran for many years on Northern and Diamond Jo lines; 1911 living at Prairie du Chien, aged 72 years.

Brooks, John. Clk. in Minnesota Packet Company; 1853 on "Nominee," at La Crosse; 1854 capt. "Admiral;" 1855 clk. "Admiral; with E. V. Holcomb and others bought the "Admiral," and sent her up the Missouri, where in 1856 she was snagged and sunk; raised and ran for several years thereafter on the Missouri.

Brooks, Leonard T. 1841, 1843 clk. "Rosalie."

Brown, L. 1855-59 capt. and owner "Wenona," on Minnesota and St. Croix rivers.

Brown, Lewis. Steamboat clk.; born in Vermont, May 12, 1833; came to Wisconsin in 1852, and settled in Hudson; entered river service about 1861, retired in 1868; clk. "Ida Fulton," "Bannock City," and other boats of the Diamond Jo Line; died Feb. 22, 1869, at Lawrence, Kans. His sister, Mrs. A. Comebacker, is living at Hudson, 1911.

Brown, Sherman. Pilot in Diamond Jo Line; 1877 pilot "Minneapolis;" was in pilot house of "Libbie Conger" when Andrew Coleman dropped dead at his wheel on the upper rapids, taking the wheel as Coleman fell; died at Pleasant Hill,Ill., about five miles inland from opposite Louisiana, Mo.

Bryant, —. 1856-57 chief clk. "Mansfield."

Bryson, Alonzo. Former pilot and capt; living (April, 1911) at Davenport.

Buffington, G. A. 1859 capt. and owner "Chippewa," running between Read's Landing, Minn., and Eau Claire.

Buford, L. D. Sept. 14, 1851 clk. "Excelsior."

Buford, Thomas J. 1861 capt. "Metropolitan;" later in season, "Henry Clay;" afterwards supt. of Northern Line, with headquarters at St. Louis; his home was at Rock Island, where he died.

Buisson, Joseph. Raft and steamboat pilot on upper river for many


years. Is living (1911) at Wabasha, Minn., engaged in writing a history of his experiences on the river.

Bunk, R. C. June 28, 1848 clk. "Lucy Bertram."

Burdeau, I. F. June 13, 1843 clk. "Rosalie," at Burlington.

Burke, William. 1857 capt. "Montauk." Commenced as deck-hand, then mate, and later captain of many boats of the Davidson White Collar Line. After Davidson retired, Burke went into the Diamond Jo Line, and is now (1911) capt. "Dubuque," of the Streckfus Line, successor of the Diamond Jo. Captain Burke has been very successful; his home is in St. Louis.

Burnham, O. J. June 4, 1841 clk. "Eliza."

Burns, Thomas. Born Boston, 1836; came to Galena 1842; at age of 21 licensed as pilot between Galena and St. Paul, in Minnesota Packet Company; on "War Eagle," "Key City," "Itasca," "Fanny Harris," "Kate Cassell," and many other boats; 1861 raised a company for 45th Illinois Infantry; was at capture of Ports Henry and Donelson; discharged for disability; went back to piloting until 1888, when he was appointed by President Cleveland local inspector of steamboats at Galena; 1895 died in office, and is buried at Galena.

Butler, William. 1863 capt. "G. H. Wilson," at La Crosse.

Byrne, Joseph P. April, 1859 clk. "Pembina," at McGregor.

Cahalin, Edward. 1844 pilot "St. Croix;" 1856 pilot "Brazil," and later in season "Adelia;" uncle of William Kelly, of St. Louis.

Campbell, Benjamin H. One of the Campbell Brothers, of Galena, Steamboat owners and wholesale grocers 1850-60; 1852 built "Ben Campbell;" largely interested in Minnesota Packet Company.

Campbell, George W. Firm of Campbell, Jones & Co., wholesale grocers, Galena; stockholder in Minnesota Packet Company; died in Chicago, 1882.

Campbell, Iran R. 1819 on keel-boat "Traveller."

Campbell, James W. 1857-61 capt. "Henry Clay;" in spring of 1861, towed barge of war material from Fort Snelling to St. Louis; barge struck island at head of Coon Slough and sunk, cargo being a total loss; died at Fort Madison, Iowa, 1909. More than 50 years on river.

Cameron, —. May 18, 1836 capt. "Quincy," at Dubuque.

Carlton, E. 1857 clk. "Envoy."

Carlyle, —. 1828 capt. "Red Rover."

Carran, A. 1852 clk. "Audubon."

Carroll, Charles D. Clerk in early days; living at St. Louis 1909.

Carroll, James H. Pilot for many years in the Davidson Line; pilot on lighthouse tender "Lily;" died in Chicago.

Carver, J. L. April 6, 1877 engr. "Diamond Jo."


Casey, —. 1857 clk. "Saracen."

Chamberlain, Clarence A. Clerk; died at Eau Claire, Feb. 17, 1911, aged 55.

Chambers, Ludlow. 1847 capt. "Monona."

Champlin, A. T. 1854 capt. "Navigator;" 1857 capt. "City Belle."

Cheek, U. Clerk.

Clark, J. 1827 capt. "Josephine;" 1828 capt. "Missouri Fulton;" 1828-29 capt. "Josephine;" owned a fine farm at Buffalo, Ill., where he lived winters, and where he died.

Clark, Warren L. Brother of preceding; bought the "Ben Campbell" from Minnesota Packet Company; it was soon after burned at Clark's Landing, near Buffalo, Ill.

Clifford, A. A. 1864 clk. "Island City."

Clifford, Ray P. 1831 clk "Astoria."

Cline, —. 1848 capt. "Odd Fellow."

Clune, Steve. 1850-60 engr. in Minnesota Packet Company; living at Galena, 1861.

Cochrane, John. 1854 clk. "Galena;" 1856 clk. "Ocean Wave;" 1858 clk. "Milwaukee;" 1860-61 capt. "Milwaukee;" 1863 capt. "Northern Belle."

Coffin, Charles A. 1857-58 clk. "War Eagle."

Cole, George B. 1835 capt. "Dubuque;" 1836 capt. "Palmyra," at Fort Snelling; 1845-46 capt. "Uncle Toby."

Coleman, Andrew. For many years rapids pilot, stationed at Davenport to take boats over upper rapids; 1851 pilot "Mary C.;" died at his wheel on "Libbie Conger," going into Moline Chain, on upper rapids.

Coleman, James. Brother of preceding; for many years before the war pilot in Minnesota Packet Company; in Northern Line Company after war; lived at Davenport.

Coinstock, M. C. Capt. before war; lived at Galena.

Conager, William. Dec. 3, 1856 mate "Adelia," at La Crosse.

Condler, J. July 26, 1853 clk. "Excelsior," at La Crosse.

Conger, Ben A. 1836 on "Laclede;" later clk. in Northern Line; April 6, 1877 capt. of "Diamond Jo;" was living in 1909.

Connelly, P. 1842 clk. "Amaranth;" 1845 capt. "Galena."

Connelly, Thomas. Engr. in Minn. Packet Co.; later in Diamond Jo line.

Conner, Thomas D. 1856 capt. "Lady Franklin" early in season, later yielding command to Kennedy Lodwick; 1861 agent of Minnesota Packet Company at Galena.

Connolly, M. April 12, 1832 clk. "Don."

Conway, William. Mate "Key City;" 1857 capt. "Excelsior."


Cook, Samuel. 1857 clk. "Kate Cassell;" 1858 clk. "Fanny Harris;" 1859 clk. "Northern Light;" 1860 clk. "Ocean Wave;" 1861-66 clk. "War Eagle;" also for short periods clk. "Itasca" and "Key City."

Cooley, K. C. 1857 clk. "Northern Light."

Cooley, O. H. P. 1866 clk. "Northern Light" When she sank in Coon Slough.

Coones, —. 1845 capt. "St. Louis Oak."

Cooper, J. C. July 14, 1857 clk. "Northern Belle."

Cordry, Thomas. July 1, 1858 mate "Galena," when she burned at Red Wing landing.

Cormack, Gideon. French pilot with Minnesota Packet Company, in 40's and early 50's.

Cormack, John. French floating-raft pilot in the 40's; living at St. Cloud, Minn., about 1880.

Cormack, Pleasant. French pilot engaged in rafting in the 40's; afterward pilot with Minnesota Packet Company between Galena and St. Paul.

Cossen, —. 1849 capt. "American Eagle," at Galena.

Cowin, A. H. 1856 clerk.

Cowles, Charles W. Clk. in Diamond Jo Line for many years; built "Diamond Jo" at Woodman on Wisconsin River; 1902 died at McGregor.

Crapster, W. H. 1852 capt. "Badger State;" 1858-59 capt. "Chippewa;" for several years capt. lighthouse tender "Lily;" died at St. Louis, Mo.

Crossle, Henry. Nov. 13, 1836 on "Wisconsin," at Burlington.

Crowley, —. May, 1858 clk. "Henry Clay," at La Crosse.

Culver, —. 1828 capt. "Missouri Fulton," at Galena.

Cupp, William. One of the earliest pilots on upper river; special rapids pilot for both rapids; in Minnesota Packet Company; 1844- 47 capt. and owner "St. Croix."

Cushing, Thomas. Pilot in Minnesota Packet Company; 1861-62 pilot "Fanny Harris;" 1863 capt. "War Eagle;" later capt. "New St. Paul;" was an opera singer in New York before coming West; died in La Crosse.

Dales, —. May, 1856 chief clk. "Brazil," at Wyalusing.

Darst, —. May 24, 1853 clk. "Ben Campbell," at La Crosse; May, 1854 clk. "Admiral," at Wyalusing.

Davidson, M. L. One of founders of La Crosse and St. Paul Packet Company and Northwestern Union Packet Company.

Davidson, Peyton S. Brother of preceding; 1856 mate "Jacob Traber;" 1860-61 capt. "Favorite;" 1863 capt. "McLellan;" supt. of Northwestern Packet Company and later of Northern Line Packet Company,


in both of which he with his brothers was largely interested; established a ship-yard at La Crosse where some of the finest boats were built and repaired.

Davidson, Thomas L. Half-brother of preceding; capt. of many boats in the Davidson lines.

Davidson, William F. Born in Lawrence County, Ohio, Feb. 4, 1825; father steamboatman on Ohio; instructed in river matters; capt. "Gondola" at age of twenty; 1856 with his brother Peyton established a steamboat line on the Minnesota River, with "Frank Steele" and "Favorite," on that river, and "AEolian" as a connecting boat between St. Paul and La Crosse; 1859 added "Moses McLellan," "G. H. Wilson," and "Winona;" in autumn of 1861 La Crosse & St. Paul Packet Company consolidated with the Minnesota Packet Company; May 1, 1866, White Collar Line and Northwestern Line consolidated under the name of Northwestern Union Packet Company, Captain Davidson president, John Lawler of Prairie du Chien general manager, George A. Blanchard of Dubuque secretary, William H. Rhodes of St. Paul treasurer, William E. Wellington of Dubuque, P. S. Davidson of La Crosse, superintendents; becoming interested in religious matters Captain Davidson abolished the bars from all the boats which he controlled, and did personal work to reform his employees; continued in the steamboat business until his death at St. Paul May 26, 1887; left one son, Edward E. Davidson, of St. Paul, and a daughter, Sallie, who resided at the old home in Ohio.

Dawley, A. H. Son of D. V. Dawley; clk. for many years; still living (1911) at Le Claire, Iowa.

Davis, Charles. 1864 pilot "Damsel," with William Fisher for partner.

Davis, Daniel. Early raft pilot; among first to begin "towing through;" lived at Le Claire, Iowa.

Davis, John B. Began on Ohio River, where he was capt. at age of nineteen; 1859 capt. "Freighter;" attempted to sail during high water, across height of land from Big Stone Lake, Minn., to Red River of North, boat grounded on prairie and wrecked about ten miles from the lake; machinery taken out and put in new boat on Red River; 1860 capt. "War Eagle;" 1861 capt. "Northern Light;" later capt. in Diamond Jo Line for several years.

Davis, T. B. River capt.; is still (1912) on river, in sand and gravel business at Rock Island.

Dawley, Daniel G. May 4, 1841 capt. "Indian Queen," at Burlington.

Dawley, Daniel V. 1855-56 clk. "Golden Era;" 1856 clk. "Galena;" 1857 clk. "Henry Clay;" clk. of many other boats of Minnesota Packet Company; died at Le Claire, Iowa.

Day, Henry R. 1848 and 1851 capt. "Uncle Toby."


Day, James S. April 20, 1838 on "Quincy," at Burlington.

Dayer, W. June 15, 1833 on "O'Connell," at Burlington.

Dean, William, 1859 mate "Golden Era;" later on several other boats of Minnesota Packet Company and Diamond Jo Line; fell from boat and was drowned at Dubuque.

DeMarah, Louis. French-Indian pilot, at first raft pilot from 1830 to early 40's; lived at Prairie du Chien.

Deming, R. G. 1854 clk. "Admiral," at Wyalusing.

Denny, John. Dec. 3, 1856 carpenter "Adelia" at La Crosse.

Dickinson, —. May 18, 1836 capt. "Banner," at Dubuque.

Dierdorff, William O. 1850 on "Wisconsin," at Burlington.

Dikeman, W. W. Pilot, living (1908) at Lansing, Iowa.

Diley, George. 1868 engr. "Ida Fulton," at McGregor.

Dinan, —. 1857 clk. "Montauk," at Wyalusing.

Dinan, J. W. 1845 clk. "Galena," at Galena.

Dintock, W. Clerk in 40's.

Dodge, Leroy. 1836 clk.; later pilot; still later capt. of one of his boats, "Ben Campbell;" 1842 on "Ione."

Dodge, Tom. Engineer.

Dolson, L. Engineer, brother of following; lived at Dubuque.

Dolson, Stephen. 1852-60 pilot in Minnesota Packet Company; later, until about 1906 in Diamond Jo Line; died (about 1907) at Dubuque.

Dolson, Thomas. Brother of preceding; in Minnesota Packet Company, Northern, and Diamond Jo lines; lived in Dubuque; for a number of years pilot on Yukon.

Dolson, William. Pilot in Minnesota Packet Company; lived in Dubuque.

Drenning, Thomas G. 1850-60 pilot in Minnesota Packet Company.

Dubois, Joseph D. Clk. in Minnesota Packet Company for many years; 1857-59 clk. "Northern Light."

Dunn, Charles. April, 1841 clk. "Monsoon," at Burlington.

Durant, E. W. Pilot, at Stillwater, Minn.; engaged in rafting, as owner.

Eddy, Charles. Chief clk. "Northern Light," when she sank in Coon Slough, April, 1866; in Minnesota Packet Company several years.

Eden, Robert C. Younger son of English baronet; editor Oshkosh Northwestern; 1859 capt. and owner of "Enterprise," small side-wheel boat from Lake Winnebago; 1864 major of 37th Wisconsin Infantry, serving in the 9th Army Corps until end of war; returned to England and entered the ministry; is now dead.

Estes, J. B. 1855 capt. "Hamburg."

Fanning, John. 1856-57 engr. in Minnesota Packet Company; lived at Dubuque.


Farley, John P. 1864 chief clk. "Damsel;" also clk, on "Key City" and "Northern Light;" for many years agent of Northern Line at Dubuque; died in North Dakota.

Farris, Charles H. Son of following; 1869 began life on river as "cub" pilot "Minnesota;" later made a specialty of rapids piloting, in which he continued until 1897; took the "Gem City" over the rapids in one hour and one minute — the best time ever made; living (1911) at Montrose, Iowa.

Farris, Robert. Born May 4, 1824; commenced steamboating on the Des Moines River; 1851-61 capt. and pilot "Alice," "Colonel Morgan," "Clara Hine," "Ad. Hine," and "Des Moines City;" 1862 began piloting on Des Moines rapids on "Bill Henderson," later on "Dan Hine," also piloted packets over the rapids until the United States canal opened in 1876; appointed lock-master of the guard lock at head of rapids, serving several years; afterwards pilot on several government boats; lived at Farmington, Iowa; 1905 came to Montrose, and there died at the home of his son, May 13, 1908.

Faucette, William. 1854 chief clk. "War Eagle;" 1861 capt. "Fanny Harris;" 1862 capt. "Alhambra;" lived at Galena.

Fay, —. 1828 capt. "Indiana," at Fort Snelling.

Ferrall, John. 1841 clk. "Falcon," at Burlington.

Finney, John. March 20, 1845 clk. "Dubuque," at Burlington.

Fisher, William. Born in New York state; served as seaman on great lakes; 1852 came to Galena; learned the river on "Ben Campbell," Capt. W. Lodwick; 1853 on "War Eagle" with William White and John King; served on "Ben Campbell," "Audubon," "Banjo," "James Raymond," and many other boats; with Capt. Brock of St. Louis as partner, took "City of Quincy," sixteen-hundred-ton New Orleans packet, from St. Louis to St. Paul and back; served three years in the Union army; lived at Galena where he died in 1908.

Fithian, Thomas M. 1843 on "Boreas," at Burlington.

Flaherty, Thomas F. July 20, 1836 capt. "Emerald," at Dubuque; later in season capt. "Wisconsin," at Burlington.

Flanigan, P. 1870 engr. "Red Wing," at Burlington.

Ford, Rufus. 1844 on "Patriot," at Burlington; 1853 capt. "Di Vernon."

Forse, William. 1845 on "Iron City."

Franz, August. Retired pilot, living at La Crosse.

Frasier, D. M. 1844 on "Hannibal."

Frazier, William N. 1844 clk. "Hannibal," at Burlington.

French, —. 1857 capt. "Kate French," at St. Paul.

French, —. 1862 clk. "Canada," at St. Paul.

Frick, C. J. 1874 clk. "Gate City," at Galena.


Fulton, L. 1859 capt. "Chippewa Falls," running from Read's Landing to Eau Claire.

Furman, Charles. 1857 clk. "Editor," at Wyalusing.

Gabbert, William H. Born Memphis, May 14, 1823; 1846-47 bartender "Yankee;" 1848 clk. "Yankee;" 1849-51 capt. "Enterprise," from Galena to Portage; 1852-53 capt. "Clarion," Wisconsin River; 1856 capt. "Alhambra;" 1857 capt. "Granite State;" 1858-59 capt. "War Eagle;" 1860 capt. "Fanny Harris;" 1861 capt. "Golden Era;" 1862 and 1866, capt. "Northern Light;" died at Davenport, Iowa, 1906.

Gaines, John. 1824-34 keel-boatman.

Galland, W. 1845 clk. "Mermaid," at Burlington.

Galvin, Dennis. 1850-60 engr. in Minnesota Packet Company; lived at Galena.

Gardapie, Joe. French-Indian raft pilot from Prairie du Chien; later on "War Eagle;" 1868 on "John C. Gault;" his sister-in-law, Mrs. Bernard Scofield, is living (1911) at Prairie du Chien; and his daughter, Mrs. F. Wettenhall, at Wabasha.

Gaynor, Patrick. Pilot "Ocean Wave," when she burned about 1868 at Frontenac, Minn., no lives lost. Captain George Knapp, of Osceola, and Captain William Tibbals, of Dubuque, each attempted to get the bell of the "Ocean Wave" — the sweetest-toned bell on the river; Captain Knapp got the bell, but it was cracked and worthless. (See Merrick, Old Times on the Mississippi, p. 33.)

Gear, H. H. Capt. for many years, also in lead-mining at Galena.

Gilbert, —. 1855 capt. "Falls City," at St. Paul.

Gill, Charles F. Oct. 16, 1856 on "Minnesota Belle," at Burlington.

Gillett, William. 1856 clk. "Adelia," at La Crosse; April, 1857 capt. and owner "Adelia," just bought from Capt. W. Bates, at Dubuque.

Gilman, Sam A. June 15, 1843 clk. "Osage," at Burlington.

Gilpatrick, Henry. Pilot in Minnesota Packet Company for many years.

Girdon, George W. Born May 13, 1814; 1835 came to Galena; same year capt. "Heroine;" capt. on river for a number of years; appointed hull inspector at Galena, holding the office several terms; died in Galena after 1878.

Girdon, G. R. Nephew of preceding; 1850 clk. "Yankee;" 1856 clk. "Hamburg."

Gleim, Ben. V. Clk. in 40's.

Gleim, E. H. 1832-35 clk. "Warrior," was in battle of Bad Axe; May 18, 1836 capt. "Warrior," at Dubuque, succeeding Capt. Throckmorton; June 22, 1836 capt. "Wisconsin," at Dubuque; 1846 capt. "Monona;" 1854-56 capt. "Royal Arch;" 1856 capt. "Ocean Wave;" also "Pawnee"


and "Highlander;" died of consumption, at De Soto House, Galena, June 17, 1856; was known as a very capable officer.

Gleim, E. H. May 5, 1846 clk. "Bridgewater," at Burlington; 1856 clk. "War Eagle," at Wyalusing; 1857 chief clk. "Grey Eagle."

Glenn, William. Known as "one-eyed Billy" Glenn; 1857 chief engr. "Hope No. 2."

Gody, Alexander. Pilot in Minnesota Packet Company for many years.

Goldsmith, B. 1844 on "Mermaid," at Burlington.

Goll, Cephas B. On river in 1838; capt. "Galena;" 1854 capt. "Henrietta;" 1856 capt. "Greek Slave;" 1861 capt. "Henry Clay."

Goll, John. Pilot; knew the river from New Orleans to St. Paul; one of the best pilots on the river; was on watch when "Nominee" was snagged and sunk at Britt's Landing, 1854; died at St. Louis.

Goodell, —. 1857 capt. "Progress," at St. Paul.

Gorman, M. E. 1844 clk. "General Brooke," at Burlington.

Gossett, John. Pilot in Minnesota Packet Co., 1850-60.

Gossett, William. Pilot in Minnesota Packet Co., 1850-60.

Gray, —. 1839 capt. "Gipsy," at Fort Snelling.

Gray, Isaac. 1860-62 capt. "H. S. Allen," on St. Croix River; killed by fall from his house, in Oregon.

Gray, R. C. Born in Allegheny County, Pa., Sept. 24, 1822; clk. "Louisville," St. Louis to New Orleans; 1841 clk. "Lehigh," Capt. U. C. Gray his brother; 1842 clk. "Evaline," St. Louis and Pittsburgh; 1843 clk. "Allegheny," capt. William Dean, St. Louis and Pittsburgh; 1857-60 capt. "Denmark," of which he was owner; 1856 capt. "Henrietta;" 1860 built "Hawkeye State," of which he was captain; later made his home in Pittsburgh where he conducted a shipyard; he introduced the calliope on the river, putting one on "Denmark;" died at New York, May 28, 1888.

Green, —. 1846-68 "Red Wing."

Green, —. May, 1856 clk. "Luella" at Wyalusing.

Green, Asa B. Capt. and owner of "Equator," wrecked on St. Croix Lake, 1858; came from Chippewa River; was a Methodist minister, served as chaplain of the 30th Wisconsin Infantry.

Greene, Montraville. 1856 clk. "Luella;" 1858-59 capt. "W. L. Ewing;" 1860 capt. "Muscatine."

Greenlee, —.1857 capt. "Chippewa," at St. Paul.

Gregg, Cephas. Clk. in Minnesota Packet Company, living in 1909.

Griffiths, James. 1850-60 engr. Minnesota Packet Company; living at Galena, 1861.

Griffiths, Thomas H. 1840-1841 capt. "Chippewa;" 1852-55 capt.


"York State;" 1857-59 capt. and owner "Pembina;" living in St. Louis, 1909.

Grinnell, S. Sept. 12, 1852 clk. "Hindoo," at Burlington; clk. in Northern Line; later on "St. Paul" Capt. William Burke; died at Keokuk, Iowa.

Haines, Ben E. 1856 on "Jenny Lind," at Burlington.

Hale, —. 1863 capt. "Pearl," frozen in at Newport, Minn., Nov. 14, for all winter.

Halliday, Edward W. Oct. 1856 clk. "Golden Era," at Wyalusing; May 1855 clk. "Lady Franklin;" 1903 was living at Cairo, Ill.

Hall, Alfred. Born in Attica, N. Y.; lived at Hudson, Wis.; entered the steamboat service at the age of thirty-one and served as clerk for about fourteen years, retiring about 1876; was on "War Eagle," "Phil Sheridan," "Keokuk," "City of St. Paul," and "Winona;" died Aug. 25, 1895. His wife, Mrs. Mary B. Hall, is living (1911) at Hudson.

Hall, Dan. 1857 deck-hand "Hope No. 2;" later on "Camden;" 1859 deck-hand "Northern Light;" later in season second mate of same; 1864 second mate "Northern Light;" also on "G. H. Gray" and "Mollie Mohler;" later first mate "Northern Belle," and "Belle of La Crosse;" was living April, 1910, at Trufant, Mich.

Hall, Peter. 1851 capt. "Black Hawk," on Wisconsin River; Capt. Hall spent many winters in a small boat drifting down the river as far as New Orleans, collecting Indian relics and other curiosities for the museum at Davenport, where he lived.

Hall, Wilfred F. Pilot in the 40's.

Hamilton, William H. Engr. in Minnesota Packet Company for many years; 1860-61 on "Fanny Harris;" on "Galena" when she burned at Red Wing, July 1858; entered United States service in 1862 as engr. on gunboats; was mentioned in general orders for bravery in handling his engines while under fire; died near St. Louis in the 80's.

Hann, Peter. Pilot; 1853 on "Di Vernon," on special excursion St. Louis to St. Paul.

Hardesty, John. Engr. in Minnesota Packet Company.

Hargus, Charles. One of the best clerks on the river; 1850-60 chief on many boats of the Minnesota Packet Company including "Royal Arch," "Golden State," "Kate Cassell," "Fanny Harris," and "War Eagle;" lived at Dubuque, where he served as city recorder for many years, and where he was highly respected and greatly esteemed; died at Dubuque Aug. 10, 1878.

Harlow, Sam. Pilot and capt. 1854; 1855 capt. "Luella;" 1856 capt. "Kate Cassell;" lived in Dubuque.

Harold, George. Early raft pilot.


Harold, Pembroke. Early raft pilot.

Harris, Daniel Smith. Born in Courtright, N. Y., July 24, 1808; came to Galena on keel-boat "Colonel Bumford;" engaged in lead-mining and steamboating; built, owned (wholly or in part), and captained the following: 1832-34 "Jo Daviess;" 1835 "Hermione;" 1836 "Frontier;" 1837 "Smelter;" 1838 "Pre-emption;" 1839 "Relief;" 1840 "Sutler;" 1841-44 "Otter;" 1845 "War Eagle" and "Time and Tide;" 1846-47 capt. "War Eagle;" 1848 "Senator;" 1849 "Dr. Franklin No. 2." During low water in 1848-50, when his larger boats could not run, commanded the little stern-wheel "Enterprise;" 1850-51 "Nominee;" 1852 "New St. Paul," "Luella," "West Newton;" 1853 capt. "West Newton;" 1854-56 capt. "War Eagle;" 1857-61 capt. and owner "Grey Eagle," the finest and fastest boat ever on the upper river, which in May 1861 struck the Rock Island bridge and sunk in seven minutes, a total loss; Capt. Harris thereupon retired from the river, never to return; died at Galena in 1892.

Harris, Jackson. Youngest brother of preceding, born (1828) at Galena; 1841 "cub" pilot "Otter;" 1859-60 pilot "Northern Light;" 1861 pilot "War Eagle;" 1866 pilot "Northern Light," which he sunk in Coon Slough by swinging her into sharp anchor ice.

Harris, James Meeker. Brother of preceding; conducted a boat-store at Galena from 1845 to 1861.

Harris, Martin Keeler. Brother of preceding; 1841 engr. "Otter;" 1845 engr. "Time and Tide;" 1847 capt. "Light Foot;" 1850 capt. "Yankee;" 1852 capt. "St. Paul."

Harris, Nathaniel. Capt. "John Rumsey."

Harris Oliver. Clk. on revenue cutter, at Burlington.

Harris, Robert Scribe. Brother of Daniel Smith Harris; came to Galena on keel-boat "Colonel Bumford" in 1824; in 1831, while engr. on the Ohio, bought some old machinery and brought it to Galena, where he and his brothers built the hull of the "Jo Daviess," on the cut-off between Fever River and Harris Slough — the first of some twenty boats to be built and run by the Harris brothers. 1829-31 engr. "Galena;" 1832-34 engr. "Jo Daviess;" 1836 on "Frontier;" 1837 on "Smelter;" 1838-40 capt. and owner "Pizarro;" 1841-43 engr. "Otter;" 1844 capt. "Otter;" 1845-47 engr. "War Eagle;" 1848 engr. "Dr. Franklin No. 2;" 1849 engr. "Senator;" 1850-51 engr. "West Newton;" 1852-53 engr. "Dr. Franklin No. 2;" 1854-56 engr. "War Eagle;" died at Dubuque between 1880 and 1885.

Harton, T. M. Clk. in 40's.

Hartshorn, W. E. June, 1854 clk. "Grand Prairie," at Wyalusing.

Harwood, E. Clk.; lived at Dubuque 1868.

Haskins, H. 1846 capt. "Little Dove," at Galena.


Hatcher, J. R. 1859-60 capt. "Frank Steele;" 1861 capt. "Winona;" 1862-63 capt. "Keokuk."

Hatcher, N. S. Clk. in 40's.

Hatcher, Pole. Clk. in Northern Line, on many of best boats; April 5, 1877 clk. "Minneapolis," at Dubuque.

Havlin, A. 1859 clk. "Davenport," at Burlington.

Hawkins, H. C. 1848 clk. "St. Peters;" June, 1854 clk. "Grand Prairie."

Hawkins, J. F. 1845 on "Confidence," at Burlington.

Hay, —. 1857-58 capt. "Minnesota."

Haycock, —. 1854-56 capt. "Globe," Minnesota River trade; 1861, 1863 capt. "Stella Whipple."

Hays, J. P. 1857 clk. "Excelsior."

Hazzard, Daniel. 1844 clk. "Di Vernon," at Burlington.

Hazzard, George H. Many years on the river, serving first as pantry-boy, then second clerk, "cub" engineer, mate, first clerk, pilot, and capt. on "H. S. Allen," "G. H. Gray," "Mollie Mohler," "Stella Whipple," "Moses McLellan," and many other boats; was steamboat agent at St. Paul, freight agent for Great Northern Railway, and in other lines of transportation; is now engaged in the insurance business in St. Paul; represents Minnesota as park commissioner for St. Croix Interstate Park.

Henderson, "Billy." Owned bar on "Excelsior" for many years, sold fruit etc.; later, bought up the bars on a dozen other boats, hiring bartenders, but keeping a general personal supervision; he was a well-known river character.

Henderson, R. M. 1846 on "War Eagle," at Burlington.

Henderson, William. 1834 clk. "Olive Branch;" 1854 clk. "Grey Cloud."

Herdman, —. 1857 capt. "Arizona," at St. Paul.

Hewitt, I. 1834 clk. "Brazil," at Burlington.

Hewitt, Stephen. 1856 clk. "Henrietta;" 1857-59 capt. "Milwaukee."

Hickman, Nathaniel P. Engr. in 40's at Burlington.

Hight, Washington. Pilot in 50's; 1856-57 on "Brazil," with Edward Cahalin for partner; 1877 on "Diamond Jo;" pilot on both rapids; in service many years; died 1909 in Illinois.

Hight, William P. Brother of preceding; pilot between St. Louis and St. Paul long before the war; pilot on both rapids; capt. in Northern Line many years; died in St. Louis.

Hill, Thomas B. First-class engr.; 1857-59 capt. "Minnesota Belle;" 1860-61 capt. "Pembina."

Hillhouse, William. Capt. "Dubuque," at Burlington; capt. one of


the first government boats on the upper river, with Norman C. Tibbals as pilot.

Hills, F. J. 1856 clk. "Alhambra," at Wyalusing.

Hinde, Charles T. Clerk in Minnesota Packet Company for many years; living 1903 at San Diego, Cal.

Hine, Adams. 1836 on "Science," at Burlington.

Hine, Louis L. 1857 capt. "Clara Hine," at Burlington.

Hinman, R. B. 1854 on "Ben Campbell," at Burlington.

Holcombe, Edward V. August 26, 1853 pilot "Dr. Franklin" at La Crosse; 1854 pilot "Nominee;" 1855 pilot "Northern Belle;" 1860-61 capt. "Keokuk;" 1862-63 capt. "Milwaukee," frozen in at Pine Bend,, Minn., for all winter.

Holcombe, W. 1835 capt. "Olive Branch," at Burlington; June 3, 1837 capt. "Olive Branch," at Dubuque.

Holland, Perry. 1857-58 mate "Northern Light;" 1866 mate "Northern Light," when she sunk in Coon Slough; 1866 mate "Belle of La Crosse."

Hollcroft, —. 1856 capt. "Diamond," at Wyalusing.

Hollowell, N. K. Aug. 20, 1842 capt. "Leander," at Burlington.

Holmead, C. S. 1844 clk. "Highlander," at Burlington.

Holmes, Lafayette. Pilot with Minnesota Packet Company, from 1853; 1846-60 lived at Galena; 1860-67 at St. Paul; and since that time at La Crosse; 1881 agt. Keokuk Northern Line.

Holmes, William S. Clk. in Davidson Line; 1881 living at La Crosse.

Hoffman, —. 1856 capt. "Clarion," at St. Paul.

Hooper, W. H. 1843 capt. "Otter;" 1846 capt. "Time and Tide;" 1848 capt. "Alexander Hamilton." Capt. Hooper married Electa Harris, sister of the Harris brothers; in 1848 went to Salt Lake City and allied himself with the Mormons; was sent several times as delegate to Congress.

Hopkins, E. R. 1842 and 1844 clk. "Iowa," at Burlington; 1845 clk. "Hibernian;" 1846 clk. "Huntsville."

Horton, Charles. 1857 chief clk. "Itasca," at Wyalusing.

Hotelling, Peter. 1845 capt. "Maid of Iowa," running between Galena and Fort Winnebago, at Portage.

Humbertson, George. 1851 built, owned, and commanded "Badger State" running between Galena and Portage; 1854-56 capt. "Minnesota Belle," with W. R. Tibbals pilot in 1855.

Hunt, Campbell. Born on Illinois River just above its junction with Mississippi; learned the river with John Goll; pilot between Cairo and St. Paul; is now serving on lighthouse tender "Lily;" home at St. Louis.

Hunt, Hiram. 1867 chief engr. "Grey Eagle."


Hunt, James S. July 1, 1858 chief engr. "Galena" when she burned at Red Wing levee; living (1911) at Savanna,Ill.

Hunt, John. May 6, 1846 on "Monona," at Burlington.

Hunt, Phil. K. July 30, 1831 clk. "Winnebago," at Burlington.

Hunt, W. E. 1857 capt. and owner "Courier," at St. Paul.

Hurd, J. Y. 1856 capt. "Granite State;" 1858-60 capt. "Northern Belle;" 1862 capt. "Itasca."

Hustleby, John. Pilot in Minnesota Packet Company; 1857 partner with Captain Tibbals on "Golden Era."

Hutchinson, A. M. Commenced boating on Minnesota River before the war; capt. and supt. in Davidson Line; died at Keokuk.

Hutchinson, O. S. Clk. on "H. S. Allen," "Ariel," and other boats; lived at Prescott.

Hynson, George W. July 1, 1857 clk. "Golden Era," at La Crosse.

Irvine, —. 1857 capt. "Rescue."

Isherwood, Thomas G. Steamboat carpenter; 1853 came from the Ohio; on "Lamartine," later on "A. G. Mason," and other boats; now (1911) 76 years old, watchman on Rock Island ferry boat.

James, —. 1857 capt. "Ocean Wave."

Jameson, —. 1857 capt. "W. S. Nelson."

Jenks, J. B. 1857 capt. "Tishomingo;" 1860 capt. "Metropolitan."

Jewell, Charles. Pilot, lived at Prescott; ran to St. Croix Falls; 1854-62 on "Equator," "H. S. Allen," "Wenona," and other St. Croix River packets.

Johnson, E. A. 1861 clk. "War Eagle."

Johnson, Mason. May 10, 1841 clk. "Vandalia," at Burlington.

Johnson, W. C. July 7, 1847 clk. "Ocean Wave," at Burlington.

Jones, J. Russell. For many years secretary of the Minnesota Packet Company; 1860 lived at Dunleith, Ill.; later moved to Galena; died in Chicago, April, 1909.

Keach, John N. 1856 clk. "J. McKee," at Burlington.

Keath, John R. April 1859 clk. "Pembina," at McGregor.

Kelly, William. Born Galena, 1839; educated in Sinsinawa Mound College; 1856 "cub" pilot "Brazil" with his uncle, Edward Cahalin, and Washington Hight, pilots; 1857-58 on "Pembina;" 1859 was given license signed by Daniel Smith Harris, William White, and Thomas L. Griffith; later, learned the river from St. Louis to New Orleans, claims that he is the only man who took a boat from St. Paul to the jetties at the Gulf of Mexico, as he did with the government steamer "Patrol." Pilot "Centennial," the largest boat in the upper river trade; pilot "Alexander Mitchell" with William Fisher when she was


struck by cyclone at Wells Landing above Dubuque; pilot and capt. in government service for twelve years; retired in 1909 after 53 years continuous service during which time he piloted or commanded more than fifty different boats on upper and lower river; now (1911) secretary of the Mississippi and Ohio Pilots' Association in St. Louis; has written interesting articles for papers and magazines relating some of his varied experiences on the river.

Kempland, A. May 1, 1841 clk. "Chippewa," at Burlington.

Kennett, S. M. July 9, 1842 capt. "Rapidan" at Burlington; 1844 capt. "Lewis F. Linn."

Kent, —. Capt. and owner "Nellie Kent," of Osceola, where he lived.

Ketcham, Mack. 1866 chief engr. "Northern Light," when she sunk in Coon Slough.

Killeen, John. Began on river as deck hand in 1856; passed through all grades to capt.; finally retired to become vice-president and general supt. of the Diamond Jo Line at Dubuque, where he is living (1911).

Kinestone, James. 1857 chief engr. "Northern Light."

King, George L. 1845 capt. "New Haven," of Galena.

King, John. Pilot in Minnesota Packet Company for many years; a first-class pilot, one of the best on the upper river; died at Portage, Mo.

Kingman, A. T. Apr. 7, 1857 capt. "War Eagle," at La Crosse.

Kintnor, John A. Engr. In Minnesota Packet Company.

Knapp, George B. 1857-61 capt. and owner "G. B. Knapp," on St. Croix Lake and River.

Knapp, Oscar F. Commenced on river 1860; in St. Croix River trade chiefly; retired 1910 to his farm near Maiden Rock.

Knight, —. Apr. 1856 clk. "Galena," at Wyalusing.

LaBarge, Joseph. 1840 pilot "Omega," owned by American Fur Company; 1841 capt. "Emelia;" 1845 bought "General Brooke" for Missouri River trade; capt, "General Brooke" until burned in 1849 on the Missouri River.

LaBlanc, Thomas. Early raft pilot; lived at Prairie du Chien.

LaChappelle, Gabriel. Raft and steamboat pilot for many years; living (1911) at Prairie du Chien aged 70 years.

Lafferty, James. June 15, 1836 capt. "Adventure," at Dubuque; 1837 capt. "Pavillion;" 1841 capt. "Sarah Ann."

LaGrew, Joe. 1838 settled at Willow River now Hudson, Wis.; raft pilot on St. Croix and Mississippi with Peter Bouchea and John B. Page.


Lamar, Charles. 1856 capt. and owner "Hamburg;" capt. and owner "Luella."

Lamb, —. May, 1856 chief clk. "Luella," at Wyalusing.

Lamont, Alexander. Began on upper Mississippi in the 40's; 1877 capt. "Minneapolis;" took the steamer "Reserve" for the government from New Orleans to Mobile by way of the Gulf of Mexico; capt. "BenHur," 1911; is 87 years old, living at Upper Alton, Ill.

Lamont, George. Capt. in Northern Line; living (1904) at Rock Island, agent for Northern Line.

Lamont, W. H. Agent for White Collar line at Davenport, 1911; nephew of Capt. Alex. Lamont.

Lancaster, John. For many years pilot and master on upper river; is now (1911) owner and master of "Eclipse," passenger packet between Dubuque and Prairie du Chien; his two sons are with him on the boat, as pilot and engineer.

Lannings, James. 1865 clk. "Canada."

Lansing, R. G. May, 1854 chief clk. "Admiral" at Wyalusing.

LaPointe, Charles. French-Indian raft pilot in the 40's; lived at Prairie du Chien.

La Rock (La Rocque), Joseph. French-Indian raft pilot in the 40's; lived at Prairie du Chien.

Laughton, William H. Born in London, 1823; 1844 settled in Platteville; 1846-47 seaman on Great Lakes; 1852 began river life as mate "Nominee;" 1852-54 mate "Galena;" 1854-56 capt. "City Belle;" 1857-58 capt. "Galena" that burned at Red Wing, Minn., July 1, 1858; 1859-60 capt. "Golden Era;" 1861-62 capt. "Northern Belle;" 1863 capt. "Milwaukee;" 1864 capt. "Alex Mitchell;" 1865 capt. "Lucy Bertram;" 1872-73 capt. "Alex Mitchell;" 1882 capt. "Belle of Minnetonka," on Lake Minnetonka, Minn.; 1883 died at his home in Platteville; during his life on the river he saved nine persons from drowning, in many cases at imminent risk of his own life; an engrossed set of resolutions, and a silver loving cup made by Tiffany, were given Captain Laughton by the passengers on the "Nominee," April 20, 1852, in token of his bravery in jumping overboard and saving the life of a little girl who had fallen over the rail.

LaVeille, Eugene. Mar. 19, 1845 pilot "Mendota," at Burlington.

LaVeille, Thurdan. On river in the 40's with his brother Eugene.

Lay, John. Engr.; lived at Prescott and ran on St. Croix River boats; 1858 chief engr. "Equator" when she was wrecked on Lake St. Croix.

Lackland, James R. Oct. 14, 1842 clk. "Osage," at Burlington.

Lackland, R. J. May 15, 1842 clk. "Oregon," at Burlington.

Lee, John. August, 1846 capt. "Atlas;" 1848 capt. "Montauk."


Leidz, F. W. Feb. 24, 1840 clk. "Ohio," at Burlington.

Leitch, George. Engr.; lived at Keokuk.

Leitch, Harry. 1859 began as deck-hand "Northern Light;" 1867-68 mate "Canada;" 1869 mate "Huron;" 1910 living at Quincy, engaged in the coal business; was draw-tender at Quincy bridge for several years.

Lewis, George. 1868 engr. "Ida Fulton," at McGregor.

Lewis, William T. Sept. 1853 clk. "Alice," at Wyalusing; 1857 clk. "Itasca."

Lightner, J. H. Clk. in the 40's.

Lindley, R. J. Raft pilot; April, 1911 living at Le Claire, Iowa.

Littleton, M. 1829 capt. "Josephine," at Burlington; founder of first packet line between the rapids.

Lodwick, Kennedy. 1846 capt. "Argo;" 1856 capt. "City Belle" and "Galena;" later capt. "Lady Franklin."

Lodwick, M. W. 1847 capt. "Argo;" 1849-51 capt. "Dr. Franklin;" 1852 capt. "Blackhawk" and "Ben Campbell;" 1853 capt. "Ben Campbell" and "Dr. Franklin;" 1854 capt. "Northern Belle."

Lodwick, Preston. 1854, capt. "Dr. Franklin No. 2;" 1856 capt. "Northern Belle;" 1857-60, capt. "Northern Light."

Long, Gabriel. 1822-29 French pilot of keel-boats, lived at Prairie du Chien.

Looney, A. H. Born (1830) Randolph County, Ill.; came to Wisconsin in 1836, and lived first in Lafayette County; 1852 at La Crosse; has followed the river as pilot ever since.

Looney, Frank H. Pilot, son of preceding; living (1881) in La Crosse, aged 27 years; is in Davidson Line.

Looney, Morrell M. Brother of preceding; living (1881) in La Crosse; pilot in Davidson Line.

Looney, Robert. July, 1856 capt. "Falls City;" living in La Crosse.

Lucas, M. E. Capt. in Minnesota Packet Company for several years.

Lyon, —. 1839 capt. "Ariel."

Lyons, —. 1857 capt. "W. H. Denny," at St. Paul.

McAllister, Duncan. Carpenter on many boats of the Minnesota Packet Company; 1859-61 on "Fanny Harris."

McAllister, R. C. 1839 on river at Burlington; 1841 capt. "Illinois."

McBride, John. Capt., living (1904) at St. Louis.

McCaffrey, John. Born 1842; commenced rafting at age of thirteen; then clerk, pilot, and later captain — his first boat, "Alvira;" later, owned and commanded a number of tow-boats — rafters; was a lumberman and mine owner, and very wealthy.

McCain, J. B. Engr. living (1881) at La Crosse.


McCain, John. Early raft pilot, at Burlington.

McClintock, —. 1857 capt. "Henry Graff," at Wyalusing.

McClune, J. S. Organized the St. Louis & Keokuk Packet Company in the 40's, with other river projects later.

McCoy, B. M. 1847 capt. "Senator," at Galena.

McCoy, J. B. Raft pilot from the St. Croix; 1861 on "Fanny Harris;" an expert boxer, and had a reputation as a fighting man.

McCraney, William. Engr. in Minnesota Packet Company, on "Key City," and many other boats of the line; what was known as a "hot engineer" — carried lots of steam.

McCullough, Joseph. Pilot on upper river for more than twenty years, in Northern and Diamond Jo lines; lived at Fort Madison, Iowa.

McDonald, George. Engr. in Minnesota Packet Company; 1861 on "Fanny Harris;" later in Diamond Jo Line; 1881 on "Mary Morton."

McGinnis, James C. Pilot on upper river in the 40's.

McGuire, —. 1855 and 1857 capt. "Alhambra."

McGuire, R. Dec. 3, 1856 clk. "Adelia," at La Crosse.

McKagan, Edward. 1858 capt. "Medora," at St. Paul.

McLaren, —. June, 1854 clk. "Greek Slave," at Wyalusing.

McMahon, —. 1847 capt. "Revenue Cutter," at Galena.

McMurchy, James. Chief Engr. in Davidson and Diamond Jo lines for many years; U. S. inspector of boilers; now deceased.

McPhail, "Sandy." Early raft pilot; did some steamboat work.

McPike, A. Founder Quincy Packet Company; active in river affairs in the 40's.

McPherson, P. Sept. 17, 1841 clk. "Mermaid," at Galena.

McLean, Daniel. Raft pilot; lived and died in Dubuque.

McVey, J. C. Clk. in the 40's.

Magan, —. April 25, 1841 clk. "Ione," at Burlington.

Mahan, Frank. March, 1853 clk. "Michigan," at Burlington.

Maitland, John H. Clk. in Minnesota Packet Company for many years; 1843 on "Osprey," at Burlington; 1852 on "Nominee," at Wyalusing.

Malin, J. W. 1853 capt. "Lady Franklin."

Mames, P. M. 1907 chief engr. "J. S.;" living at Davenport.

Mames, W. R. 1907 second engr. "J. S.," living at Davenport.

Manning, Charles. Pilot in Minnesota Packet Company for many years; then in Northern Line Company between St. Louis and St. Paul; for several years pilot "Sucker State," Capt. William Hight; died in Portage, Mo.

Maratta, Frank. 1855 capt. "Prairie Rose," at St. Paul.

Marsden, S. R. April, 1874 capt. "A. J. Dorchester," at Galena.

Mason, Isaac M. Born in Brownsville, Pa., March 4, 1831; began


steamboating as second clk. "Consul," 1846 on Ohio River; at the age of nineteen capt. "Summit," between Louisville and Nashville; 1851 came to St. Louis and for fourteen years was clk. or capt. on the upper river; on "Editor," "Australia," "Honduras," "Alma," "Belle Golden," "Vixen," "Denmark," "Fred Lorenz," "Savanna," and "Hawkeye State," in most of which he was part or whole owner; 1865-76 agent Northern Line at St. Louis; 1884 appointed supt. Anchor Line, St. Louis to New Orleans; 1888 elected president of same company; a man of moral worth and integrity, as well as a very successful steamboat man.

Martin, C. D. Born 1824 in Washington County, Ohio; 1841 cabin-boy on Ohio River; capt. and pilot on Ohio and Mississippi ever since; 1857 capt. "Envoy;" 1862 capt. "Moses Mc Lellan;" 1863 capt. "Frank Steele;" 1881 capt. and owner "Silver Lake."

Martin, Melvin. Engr. son of preceding; lived (1881) at La Crosse.

Massey, Louis. Early French raft pilot from the St. Croix; settled at Hudson; had squaw for wife; was in company with Joe Lagrew and Peter Bouchea, who were also rafters.

Mather, Charles C. Clk. in Minnesota Packet Company for many years — one of best on river; June 1856 on "Ocean Wave;" 1858 on "Galena," when she burned at Red Wing; 1862 on "War Eagle;" 1881 on "Mary Morton," of Diamond Jo Line; was living (1903) at St. Louis.

Maxwell, O. H. 1850-52, capt. "Tiger;" 1854-55 capt. "Blackhawk;" 1857-58 capt. "Wave;" nearly all the time on Minnesota River.

Maxwell, Sam. Engr. in Minnesota Packet Company for many years — one of the best.

May, James. Born 1804 in Cape Girardeau, Mo.; 1822 commenced flat-boating on the Ohio, continuing until 1827, when he was given command of the "Shamrock," making a trip to Galena that year — the first purely business trip of any steamboat to the upper river; capt. "Enterprise," bringing General Gaines in 1832 to Rock Island to meet chief Black Hawk; 1832 at Galena with his boat, the "Dove;" 1834 retired from the river going into the grocery business in Davenport.

Melville, George R. Clk. in Minnesota Packet Company; 1852 on "Dr. Franklin No. 2;" 1854 on "Nominee"; 1861 agent Minnesota Packet Company at Galena; served on many other boats of the line.

Merrick, Alfred. Pilot between St. Louis and St. Paul; registered 1855 in St. Louis.

Merrick, George B. [See sketch ante, p. 98.]

Merrick, Laban H. Steamboat agent; born Corinth, Vt., Dec. 16, 1801; June, 1854 came to Prescott from Niles, Mich., and assumed the agency for the Minnesota Packet Company and the St. Louis & St.


Paul Packet Company, which business he retained until sold to Charles L. Barnes, of Hastings, Minn.; continued in the grocery and grain-buying business on the levee until 1865; died Feb. 19, 1866, at Adrian, Mich.

Meyers, William. 1848 chief engr. "Dr. Franklin No. 1;" lived at Galena; served on other boats of the packet company.

Middleton, —. 1837 capt. "Palmyra," at Galena.

Miles, E. R. 1853 clk. "Garden City."

Miller, —. 1845 capt. "Hibernian," at Galena.

Mitchell, A. 1861 capt. "War Eagle," at La Crosse; for many years with Diamond Jo Line; died at Albany, Ill.

Mohler, William B. Old-time river capt. and steamboat owner; now (Dec., 1911) living at Minneapolis.

Montford, A. C. 1850-60 clk. in Minnesota Packet Company.

Montford, A. G. 1845 capt. "Lightfoot," at Winona; 1846 capt. "St. Anthony," at Galena.

Montgomery, Edward. 1847 capt. "Pearl" and "Kentucky," at Galena.

Montgomery, James. Early pilot in the Keokuk Packet Company; died at St. Louis.

Moore, Frank. April 8, 1854 clk. "Admiral," at Galena.

Moore, Seth. Pilot with Minnesota Packet Company for many years.

Moorehouse, D. B. 1854 brought "Galena" (new) from Cincinnati; commanded several other boats in the Minnesota Packet Company.

Moorehouse, Legrand. 1842-45 capt. "Iowa;" 1845-47 capt. "Falcon;" lived at Buffalo, Ill.; later moved to Springfield, Mo., where in 1890 he died.

Moreau, Louis. French-Indian raft pilot; lived at Prairie du Chien, entered on census roll of Crawford County as Louis "Morrow," with a wife and eight children; 1853 pilot of the "Dr. Franklin" with Captain Blakeley, who speaks highly of his ability.

Morland, A. B. Dec. 10, 1841 clk. "Huntsville," at Burlington.

Morrison, Charles C. 1846 capt. "Bertrand;" 1847 capt. "Anthony Wayne;" 1855 capt. "Oakland;" 1857-59 capt. "Aunt Letty."

Morrison, James. 1857 mate "Northern Light," at St. Paul.

Morse, Edward. Pilot in Minnesota Packet Company between Dubuque and St. Paul; died at Dubuque.

Moss, Henderson. 1854 barber on "Key City;" left boat and opened a shop in La Crosse.

Moulton, Isaac H. 1859-61 commenced as clk. "Enterprise;" capt. "Keokuk;" 1865 brought out the new "City of St. Paul;" at various times was in command "War Eagle," "Phil. Sheridan," "Annie Johnson," "Addie Johnson," and "Diamond Jo;" retired from river and engaged in the coal business in La Crosse, where he was living in 1911,


and where he was a leader in everything which makes for the betterment of the city.

Moulton, Thomas. 1859-61 clk. "Enterprise."

Mulford, Charles. 1845 clk. "Boreas," at Burlington.

Mullen, William P. 1855-57 clk. "Montauk."

Newton, J. 1863 capt. "Clara Hine," at La Crosse.

Nichols, George. Pilot in Minnesota Packet Company for many years — one of the best.

Nichols, George S. Son of preceding, pilot for many years; on "J. S." for several years, until she burned June 25, 1910, at head of Bad Ax Island, near Victory, Wis., where he did commendable work in saving the passengers; living (1908) at La Crosse, Wis.

Nichols, Thomas. 1855 pilot "Julia Dean," at La Crosse.

Norris, James C. 1843 clk. "Annawan;" 1863; capt. "Albany."

Nourse, I. R. 1848 clk. "Alexander Hamilton," at Burlington.

Oldenburg, William. 1850-60 engr. in Minnesota Packet Company.

Osborne, Robert G. Pilot between Dubuque and St. Paul for many years before the war; served also as clk.

Owens, Thomas. 1843 capt. "Lynx;" 1854 capt. "Excelsior;" 1856-1857 capt. "Mansfield."

Owens, —. 1858 clk. "W. H. Denney;" 1861 clk. "Henry Clay," at Wyalusing.

Page, John B. A Mormon, from Nauvoo,Ill., one of the first settlers at Hudson; raft pilot and lumberman on his own account; was six feet four inches tall.

Palmer, —. 1855 chief clk. "Julia Dean," at Wyalusing.

Papin, A. D. 1845 on "Lynx."

Parker, J. W. 1853-54 clk. "Nominee;" 1855 capt. "Lady Franklin" and "Golden Era;" 1856 capt. "Golden Era," and clk. "Alhambra;" 1860-62 capt. "Canada;" was also capt. "Fred Lorenz" and "Dubuque;" died on "Canada" while under way.

Parker, N. W. 1842 capt. "Osprey;" 1855-56 capt. "Montauk;" 1858-59 capt. "Dew Drop."

Parkhurst, L. 1848 clk. "Bon Accord;" 1861 clk. "La Crosse."

Parsons, L. S. Sept. 20, 1847 clk. "Clermont No. 2," at Burlington.

Patten, Charles H. Son of Henry M.; engr. on upper river for many years; began river life as cabin-boy on "Wyoming," 1852; retired 1910, and now living at Fort Madison, Iowa; has written many interesting articles relating to river life and history.

Patten, Henry M. In Northern Line for many years as mate and master; lived at Montrose, Iowa, where he died.


Patterson, —. May 18, 1836 capt. "Cavalier" at Dubuque.

Peake, C. G. July 7, 1836 on "M. O. Fulton," at Burlington.

Pearman, —. 1857 clk. "A. G. Mason," at St. Paul.

Perrin, —. Aug. 17, 1836 capt. "Missouri Fulton," at Dubuque.

Philumalee, David. Retired river man, living (1911) at Madison, about 90 years of age.

Phillips, A. Supt. Keokuk Packet Company.

Piatt, James. Apr. 6, 1877 engr. "Diamond Jo," at La Crosse.

Pierce, George S. 1856 capt. "Wyandotte;" 1857-60 clk. "Key City;" 1861 enlisted at Dubuque in the Governor's Grays, and went to the front; afterwards joined the regular army, and was in command at the battle of Camden, La.; was a West Point student before going on river, but did not graduate.

Pierz, N. V. 1853 clk. "Grand Prairie," at Burlington.

Plasterage, —. June 15, 1836 capt. "Galenian," at Dubuque.

Pomeroy, C. W. July 26, 1853 clk. "Excelsior," at La Crosse; Nov. 1856 clk. "Falls City," at Wabasha, Minn.

Primm, Louis. 1823 pilot "Virginia," first steamboat to enter Fever River, at Galena; also first boat to ascend Mississippi to Fort Snelling.

Porter, J. W. 1868 engr. "John C. Gault," at McGregor.

Porter, S. B. 1848 on "Dubuque," at Burlington.

Powers, I. 1852 clk. "Dubuque," at Burlington.

Poyner, Thomas. From Richland Center, Wis.; 1861 on "Grey Eagle" when she sunk at Rock Island bridge; 1866 second mate "Northern Light" when she sunk in Coon Slough; later in same year second mate "Belle of La Crosse;" killed by skiff falling from derrick, at Dubuque, on "Belle of La Crosse;" Harry Leitch, of Quincy, and Captain John Killeen, of Dubuque, speak of Mr. Poyner as one of the finest young men whom they ever knew.

Pratt, O. H. 1845 clk. "Western Belle," at Burlington.

Price, Enoch. 1828 clk. "Illinois," at Burlington.

Price, H. 1853 capt. "Garden City," at St. Louis.

Priest, —. July, 1856 clk. "Galena," at Wyalusing.

Pyatte, Larkin L. July 1, 1858 engr. "Galena," when she burned at Red Wing.

Pym, John S. Clk. in Minnesota Packet Company; 1845 clk. "Lynx," at Burlington; 1857 clk. "Grey Eagle," at St. Paul.

Radebaugh, George. Engr. in Minnesota Packet Company; 1857 on "Northern Light."

Rambo, Joseph. Engr. on upper river.

Randall, George. Early raft pilot St. Croix River.

Randolph, W. L. July 6, 1842 on "Annawan."

Rawlins, John. 1855-56 capt. and owner "North Star," running


above Falls of St. Anthony; 1857 capt. "Governor Ramsey;" also running above falls.

Raymond, D. F. 1848 clk. "Mondiana."

Redlington, John. 1874 clk. "Willie Wilson," at Galena.

Reed, William. 1833 on "Express."

Reeder, C. T. May, 1856 clk. "Diamond," at Wyalusing.

Reid, J. 1856 capt. "Brazil;" 1874 capt. "Willie Wilson," at Galena.

Reilly, E. I. February, 1843 clk. "Lynx."

Reilly, Robert A. 1843 clk. "Chippewa;" 1844-45 capt. "Mendota;" 1846 capt. "Atlas," at St. Paul; 1849 capt. "Minnesota," at St. Paul; 1845 capt. and owner "Wiota."

Reno, —. 1857 capt. "Sam Young," at St. Paul.

Repplin, —. November, 1841 clk. "Ariel."

Reynolds, T. Otis. 1833 capt. "Chian," at Davenport.

Ring, W. B. Sept. 9, 1851 on "Oswego," at Burlington.

Rissue, George. 1855-57 capt. and owner "Kentucky No. 2;" lived on banks of Lake St. Croix above Prescott, where he ran a lime-kiln, the products of which he boated to St. Paul; 1857 lost his boat, cut down by ice, and sunk at foot of Prescott Island.

Ritchey, L. K. Engr. in Minnesota Packet Company.

Rhodes, J. B. May, 1857 clk. "Metropolitan," at St. Louis; 1858 capt "Lucie May;" 1860-61 capt. "W. L. Ewing."

Rhodes, L. B. 1853 capt. "Martha;" later second president St. Louis Packet Company.

Rhodes, Thomas B. 1854 capt. "Grey Cloud;" 1857-59 capt. "Metropolitan;" afterwards president of Northern Line.

Roatt, V. K. 1851 on "Wyoming," at Burlington.

Robbins, R. M. 1857 clk. "Editor," at Wyalusing.

Robert, John O. 1854 capt. "Greek Slave." Brother of Louis and Nelson.

Robert, Louis. Frenchman — a noted character on the river; 1855-57 capt. and owner "Time and Tide;" 1857-58 capt. and owner "Jeanette Roberts," both boats running on Minnesota River; 1852-53 capt. "Greek Slave," Galena to St. Paul; invested heavily in real estate in St. Paul, and at time of his death in St. Paul in the 80's was very wealthy.

Robert, Nelson. Brother of preceding; 1859 capt. "Time and Tide," running on Minnesota River; lived in St. Paul.

Robinson, A. A. 1857 on "Denmark."

Robinson, John. 1856 capt. "Tishomingo;" 1861 capt. "Denmark," at St. Paul.

Roe, N. C. June, 1858 capt. "Envoy," at La Crosse.

Rogers, Charles H. May 18, 1836 capt. "Galenian," at Galena; 1843 capt. "Sarah Ann;" 1846 capt. "Bertrand" and "Raritan."

Roosevelt, William A. Dec. 3, 1856 engr. "Adelia," at La Crosse.


Ross, Charles. 1843 clk. "St. Louis Oak," at Burlington.

Rounds, —. 1857 capt. "Rosalie," at St. Paul.

Rowe, —. 1856 capt. "Hamburg," at St. Paul.

Rowley, —. 1857 capt. "Commerce," at St. Paul.

Ruley, Russell. Lived at Prescott; 1856 mate "Kate Cassell;" 1858 mate "Equator;" later on "H. S. Allen" and other boats on the St. Croix River, and capt. on Mississippi River; murdered near Red Wing, and body sunk in North Channel.

Ryan, George. 1857 engr. "Hope No. 2."

Saltmarsh, —. 1840 capt. "Indian Queen," at Galena.

Sanderson, —. Capt. in Davidson Line; 1868-69 on "Benjamin McCulloch," was taken with cholera, and turning his boat over to his pilot, Peter Hall, requested that he be buried on the head of Hickory Island, below Keokuk; he died within an hour; Hall buried him according to orders, and reported to the owners of the boat: "I obeyed his order, and by the light of the silvery moon I planted him on the head of that island." His grave was an object of interest to river men for many years before the floods washed it away.

Sargent, G. L. 1850 engr. "Yankee," at St. Paul.

Scott, George W. 1850 engr. "Yankee," at St. Paul.

Scott, John. 1857 capt. "Golden Era" and "Golden State;" 1858 capt. "Ocean Wave;" 1859 capt. "General Pike," at La Crosse.

Segers, John. Born 1834 in Bangor, Me.; 1853 began piloting on Minnesota River; later capt. on Mississippi and Minnesota rivers; went to Canada and ran on Saskatchewan River; was one of four captains chosen by the British government to go to the Nile at the time of the Gordon relief expedition, where he distinguished himself by extraordinary service; on returning from Egypt took part in putting down the Riel rebellion, commanding a boat which he piloted through the engagement; ninety bullets were found in the hay bales with which the pilot-house was barricaded; then went into service with the Hudson Bay Company and piloted boats on the far northern rivers and lakes; later went to the Yukon, where for five years he was capt. between Dawson and St. Michaels; in 1903 built the "Quickstep," which was caught by a tidal wave and landed on top of a warehouse in the city of Nome, by which he lost the savings of years; died April 17, 1909, at Rossland, B. C.

Sencerbox, —. 1863 capt. "AEolian;" commanded several other boats in the Davidson Line.

Shellcross, John. 1823 capt. "Virginia," from Pittsburgh, the first steamboat which reached Fort Snelling in the spring of that year with stores for the fort; 1829 capt. "Lady Washington," at Galena.


Shepherd, J. C. July 18, 1841 clk. "Little Red," at Burlington.

Shiples, P. 1864 clk. "Charles Rodgers," at Galena.

Short, George L. Well-known river pilot, adjudged insane and sent (1908) to Mendota Hospital from La Crosse.

Shovlin, Con. 1859 deck-hand "Fanny Harris;" 1861 second mate "Fanny Harris."

Sire, Joseph. 1840 capt. "Omega," at Galena; went into Missouri River trade, where he became well known, and very successful.

Sloan, —. 1857 capt. "Lake City," at St. Paul.

Smith, E. D. 1853 capt. and owner "Berlin," at La Crosse.

Smith, Henry. Mate in Diamond Jo Line; 1868 mate "John C. Gault," at McGregor.

Smith, I. G. May 11, 1858 clk. "Envoy," at La Crosse.

Smith, J. F. 1854-55 capt. "Editor," at St. Paul; 1856 capt. "William L. Ewing," at Wyalusing; 1857 capt. "Royal Arch."

Smith, J. P. Mate in Diamond Jo Line.

Smith, Jerome. 1854 pilot "Lady Franklin" when sunk in collision with "Galena" at foot of Maquoketa Chute; was on watch at the time; left the river and never returned.

Smith, John C. 1846 capt. "Tempest," at Galena; 1848 capt. "Mary Blane," at Galena.

Smith, John E. From Pennsylvania; lived at Le Claire, Iowa; 1853 capt. "Alice," at St. Paul; 1856 capt. "Royal Arch;" was pilot on both rapids, and during the suit between the railroad and the steamboatmen over the location of the Rock Island bridge, took the part of the railroad company, and handled a boat for them to prove that the bridge was no obstruction, by which he lost caste among river men and was forced to leave the river for several years until the feeling died out, as no captain would employ him to pilot his boat.

Smith, Orrin. Son of preceding, rapids pilot on both rapids for many years; still on duty, living at Le Claire, Iowa; has a great fund of anecdotes relating to river men with whom he has associated for the past forty years.

Smith, Orrin Sr. 1853 capt. and owner "Heroine;" 1836-37 capt. "Missouri Fulton;" 1838 and 1842 capt. "Brazil;" 1849 capt. "Senator" and "Nominee;" 1850-51 capt. "Yankee" and "Senator;" was a very devout churchman, and would not run his boat from Saturday night at 12 o'clock until 12 o'clock Sunday night, usually holding a service on the boat, often reading the service himself if no minister could be obtained; president of the Minnesota Packet Company for many years.

Smith, Orrin Jr., son of preceding. 1855 clk. "Lady Franklin;" agent Diamond Jo Line at Winona for several years.

Smoker, —. 1836 capt. "Dubuque," at Galena.


Spaulding, L. R. 1863 clk. "Milwaukee."

Spencer, C. T. 1863 clk. "Milwaukee."

Spencer, R. M. 1854 capt. "Sangamon" and "Blackhawk;" 1857 capt. "Fire Canoe" and "Orb."

St. Clifton, A. W. July 20, 1831 clk. "Delaware," at Burlington.

Stanton, Frederick K. 1855 clk. "Hamburg," at Wyalusing.

Starnes, —. 1846 capt. "Mendota," at Galena.

Stephens, John. 1845-46 clk. "Galena."

Stephens, R. C. Many years before the war, pilot in Minnesota Packet Company; then in Northern Line, and later in Diamond Jo Line; was rapids pilot on upper and lower rapids; 1877 on "Diamond Jo" at La Crosse.

Stephenson, Charles L. 1858-60 capt. "Henry Clay;" 1861 capt. "War Eagle;" was appointed supervising inspector of steamboats at St. Paul, and was in office for 20 years or more.

Stewart, —. 1857 clk. "Henry Graff," at Wyalusing.

Stewart, C. P. Dec. 3, 1856 pilot "Adelia," at La Crosse.

Stillwell, M. 1828 running keel-boats on upper river.

Stombs, J. H. 1846-81 engr. in Minnesota Packet Company, Northern, and Diamond Jo lines; 1855-81 lived at La Crosse.

Stone, Philo. Early raft pilot.

Storm, C. S. 1857 clk. "Ocean Wave," at La Crosse; later agent of Milwaukee & Mississippi Railway, at St. Paul.

Stran, H. B. 1857 capt. "Saracen," at St. Paul.

Strode, W. F. Nov. 27, 1847 clk. "Eliza," at Burlington.

Strother, R. M. 1834 and 1836 capt. "Olive Branch," at Galena.

Stuart, Charles P. Nov. 1856 capt. "Ben Coursin," at Winona, with $7,500 freight list, from Dubuque to St. Paul.

Swartout, A. M. 1848 clk. "Kate Kearney."

Taylor, W. H. 1848 clk. "Herald."

Tesson, Frank. Pilot. He learned the river under Daniel Smith Harris, with the Minnesota Packet Company, for many years; 1856 was at wheel of "Lady Franklin" when she struck and sunk at Britt's Landing; died at Alton, Ill.

Terrell, H. C. One of two brothers who were clerks on the river before the war; living (1909) at Lake City, Minn.

Thomas, E. H. Printer and reporter before the war; enlisted and served three years; then went on river as "cub" pilot on "New Boston" and "Keithsburg," between Davenport and Montrose; later learned river to St. Louis and ran as pilot and master until 1885-86 when he retired; is now (1911) postmaster 71 years of age at Ottumwa, Iowa; has written some interesting sketches of river life.


Thompson, Orrin J. 1863 raft pilot; 1869 began "towing through," then went to steamboats; living at Le Claire, Iowa, April, 1911.

Throckmorton, Joseph. Born in 1800; 1828-30, capt. and owner of "Red Rover;" 1830-31 capt., and joint owner with G. W. Atchison, "Winnebago;" 1832-35, capt. and owner "Warrior;" 1836-37 capt. "Burlington;" 1838 capt. "Ariel;" 1839-41 capt. "Malta," sunk in Missouri River; 1842-44 capt. "General Brooke;" 1845-46 capt. "Cecelia;" 1846 built "Cora" at Rock Island, commanded her 1846-48; went into insurance business in St. Louis for several years; ran boats on the Missouri; then in government service; 1872 died in St. Louis having been on the river for more than forty years. While commanding "Warrior," he took part in battle of Bad Axe, in Black Hawk War, August, 1832.

Thurston, —. Capt. and owner "Ariel," which he built at St. Paul.

Tibbals, Charles S. Clerk in Diamond Jo Line for many years; 1911 in business in Dubuque.

Tibbals, Norman E. Pilot between Montrose, Iowa and St. Paul; capt. and pilot car-ferry at Winona, for several years; capt. and pilot transfer boat at Helena, Ark., for ten years; died at Dubuque, 1905.

Tibbals, William R. [See sketch ante, p. 98.]

Tipton, David. Pilot. 1820 born on Muskingum River; on Ohio as mate on keel-boats when a mere boy; later, steamboat mate; on Des Moines and Mississippi rivers as special rapids pilot for many years; later on Northwestern Line between St. Louis and St. Paul; after 1873 in government service as pilot and capt.; died at his wheel on snagboat "Colonel A. McKenzie," on Lake Pepin, Sept. 24, 1904, aged 84 years.

Tomlin, —. June 2, 1836 capt. "Heroine," at Dubuque.

Totten, G. B. 1853 clk. "Wisconsin."

Tracy, Charles F. 1847 clk. "Pynx."

Tracy, E. N. July 31, 1843 clk. "Osage."

Tracy, H. W. 1855 clk. "Galena," at Wyalusing.

Tripp, Harry. Pilot in Minnesota Packet Company for several years; 1861 took Tom Burns's place on "Fanny Harris" when latter left for the war; partner with James Black.

Tromley, George. French Canadian pilot; was with Capt. Humbertson on "Minnesota Belle;" also on "Fire Canoe" and other boats; Walter Blair of Davenport learned the river with him.

Troxell, James. Engr. in Minnesota Packet Company, 1861 chief engr. "War Eagle," at La Crosse.

Troy, —. 1857 capt. "AEolian," at St. Paul.

Truett, —. 1855 capt. "Prairie State," at St. Paul.

Turner, J. M. Capt. and pilot, living (1908) at Lansing, Iowa.


Turner, W. J. 1847 clk. "Revenue Cutter."

Turner, W. J. 1855 engr. from St. Louis.

Unsell, E. J. 1856 on "Minnesota Belle."

Upham, R. H. June, 1856 capt. "Equator," at La Crosse.

Van Dyke, W. W. Clerk, living (1909) at Dubuque.

Van Houten, —. 1836 capt. "Adventure," at Galena; 1837 capt. "Adventure," at Dubuque.

Vickers, —. 1855 capt. "Sam Gaty," at St. Paul.

Vorheis, —. 1855-57 capt. "Laclede," at St. Paul.

Walker, George W. Born 1828 on Ohio River; 1842 cabin boy; engr. for 25 years; served in navy during war; knew "Mark Twain" while on river; living (August, 1911) at Tama, Iowa.

Wall, Nick. 1845 capt. "Monona;" 1846-47 capt. "Prairie Bird," at Galena.

Ward, Frank. 1856 clk. "Excelsior," at Wyalusing; April 14, 1857 clk. "Golden Era;" later in season clk. "Golden State."

Ward, James. Born in Southerly, England, Dec. 1814; learned boat-building in England; 1836 came to Brownsville, Pa., and worked in ship-yard until Sept., 1837, when he went as carpenter on "Fayette;" 1838 at St. Louis working in ship-yard for the season; then carpenter "Ione;" 1843 carpenter "Amaranth;" 1844-47, mate and part owner "St. Croix;" 1848-49 capt. and part owner "St. Peters;" 1850-55 capt. and owner "Excelsior;" 1856 capt. and owner "York State;" 1857 capt. and owner "Canada" and "Conestoga;" 1857 capt. "Conewago" and "Red Wing;" 1858-59 capt. "Red Wing;" 1860 capt. "Canada;" was president of the Northern Line.

Wayman, John. March, 1856, "cub" engr. on Ohio River; licensed engr. and served on Ohio, Mississippi, and Missouri; during war, on U. S. gunboat "Monarch;" in foundry and machine business at Plattsmouth, Nebr.; now (1911) at Wyandotte, Mich., aged 74 years.

Webb, L. E. 1857 clk. in Minnesota Packet Company at La Crosse.

Webb, N. F. 1824 capt. "America;" 1856 capt. "Golden State;" 1860-61 capt. "Ocean Wave;" 1862 capt. "War Eagle;" 1868 in government service; for fifty years in continuous service as capt. and pilot.

Webber, Jerry. Minnesota River pilot; 1851 on "Fire Canoe;" 1861 on "Fanny Harris" on trip up the Minnesota to Fort Ridgeley to bring down Sherman's battery; one of the four pilots selected by the English government for service on the Nile for the relief of Gordon, serving two years; died at St. Paul, Dec. 17, 1908.

Webster, Henry. Engr. on upper river.


Weeks, George S. 1862 built "George S. Weeks" at Savanna, Ill.; superintendent of P. S. Davidson's boat-yard at La Crosse in 1881.

West, Edward A. (Ned). 1857-62 pilot "Key City," with Capt. Jones Worden; with the Minnesota Packet Company for many years; 1876 on "Belle of Minnetonka," on Lake Minnetonka, with Capt. W. H. Laughton; with Northern Pacific Railway for a number of years before his death (1904) at St. Paul.

West, Judson T. 1856 pilot "Excelsior;" 1857 on "Royal Arch;" on watch when boat was snagged and sunk at Nine Mile Island, below Dubuque; for many years master and pilot in Davidson Line; 1868 capt. "Phil. Sheridan;" his last boating on "City of Quincy," between St. Louis and New Orleans, when she struck a snag and sunk above Helena, Ark., and became a total loss; died at Hope, Ark.

Whipple, Charles. April 1857 capt. "Eau Claire," from Pittsburgh to Eau Claire; steamer sunk below St. Louis in collision with "South America;" built, owned, and commanded "Jennie Whipple," in Chippewa River trade.

White, —. Nov. 1856 capt. "Falls City," at Wabasha.

White, Hugh. Pilot between St. Louis and Galena; pilot and master on Missouri River for many years before the war; died at St. Louis.

White, S. Owner and master of five keel-boats in the early 20's.

White, William. 1832 pilot "Warrior" at battle of Bad Axe; in Minnesota Packet Company for many years; 1859 on "Grey Eagle."

Whitmore, Henry. 1850-65 engr. in Minnesota Packet Company, chief on "Key City" in the great race with the "Northerner" from Stillwater to Prescott in 1859; one of best engineers on the river.

Whitney, Andrew J. Born in Stow, Mass., Jan. 25, 1828; commenced on river as supt. for Dull & Williams, govt. contractors, 1873; commenced for himself 1879, with str. "Le Claire," and dredges "Lowell" and "Hercules;" built "A. J. Whitney" and "Edith," 1880; built "Nellie" 1883, and "Dick Clyde" 1885; continued in contracting work till 1909, when he retired, after having finished some of the largest dams and shore-protection work on the river between Alton, Ill., and Winona, Minn.; is living (Dec., 1911) at Rock Island, Ill., where he has a beautiful home; Capt. Whitney is an uncle of George B. Merrick. The sounding-pole of the "A. J. Whitney" is in the museum of the Wisconsin Historical Society.

Whitney, F. A. Son of A. J.; engr. for more than twenty-five years between St. Louis and St. Paul; living (Dec., 1911) at Cripple Creek, Colo.

Whitten, David. 1857-61 capt. "Itasca," in Minnesota Packet Company.

Wilcox, Joseph B. Mate and capt. in Diamond Jo Line for many


years; 1859 mate "Fanny Harris;" 1868 capt. "John C. Gault;" 1875-80 capt. "Arkansas;" died in N. Dak. about 1890-95.

Williams, J. B. Dec. 3, 1856 engr. "Adelia," at La Crosse.

Wilson, G. H. 1856 capt. "G. H. Wilson," which he built at La Crosse; Ellis Usher's father was interested with him in building the boat, which sunk in 1863 — a total loss.

Wilson, William. Born in Pennsylvania; ran on Ohio River; later on upper Mississippi; 1861 mate "Fanny Harris."

Wood, J. S. 1854 clk. "Dr. Franklin;" 1855 capt. "Greek Slave;" 1860 clk. "Northerner."

Woodburn, —. 1857 capt. "Red Wing," at St. Paul.

Wilcox, "Bull-driver." 1859 second mate "Fanny Harris."

Wilcox, Joseph B. Brother of preceding; 1859 mate "Fanny Harris;" mate and capt. in Diamond Jo Line for several years; 1868 capt. "John C. Gault."

Woodruff, —. 1857 capt. "Atlanta," at St. Paul.

Woods, Jerry. 1867-68 capt. "Bannock City;" capt. of other boats in White Collar Line.

Woodward, Asa B. Upper river pilot and capt. for fifty years; now (Dec., 1911) living at Fort Madison, Iowa.

Worden, Jones. 1855-56 capt. "Fanny Harris;" 1857-62 capt. "Key City;" owned a large interest in each of the above-named boats; lived at Dubuque; later moved to Alton where he died in 1909.

Worsham, H. M. April, 1857 clk. "Adelia," at La Crosse.

Wright, John. Oct. 13, 1857 capt. "Falls City," at La Crosse.

Wright, Sam. F. 1861 engr. "War Eagle," at La Crosse.

Williams, Rufus. Pilot in Minnesota Packet Company in 50's; 1852 pilot "West Newton;" 1853 pilot "Nominee;" shot and killed a man in the 50's at Davenport; escaped from country and went to River Amazon, Brazil, and never returned.

Young, Jesse B. One of four brothers who owned and ran "Enterprise," above St. Anthony Falls; 1859-61 mate "Enterprise."

Young, Josiah. 1859-61 engr. "Enterprise."

Young, Leonard. 1859-61 engr. "Enterprise."

Young, Augustus R. 1859-61 capt. "Enterprise."

Yunker, Stephen. 1867 capt. "Charles Rodgers," at Galena.



1. Acknowledgments for aid in preparing these records are made to Capt. Isaac H. Moulton, La Crosse; Capt. George H. Hazzard, St. Paul; Capt. Daniel Hall, Trufant, Mich.; Capt. John Killeen, Dubuque; Capt. Harry Leitch, Quincy, Ill.; Capt. William Kelly, St. Louis; Prof. H. E. Downer, Davenport, Iowa; Capt. J. W. Campbell, Burlington, Iowa, deceased; and the Iowa State Historical Society.

2. George B. Merrick, now of Madison, was born in Niles, Mich., Sept. 21, 1841. When thirteen years of age his father removed to Prescott, Wis., where he was agent for the Minnesota Packet Company, so that as a boy young Merrick was interested in steamboat matters. For somewhat more than a year he worked in the office of the Northwestern Democrat, published by D. M. Lusk and William J. Whipple, and in the spring of 1856 shipped as cabin-boy with Sam S. Fifield on the "Kate Cassell." The next season Merrick went on the "Fanny Harris" as "cub" engineer, later supplying the place of second clerk under Charles G. Hargus of Dubuque. The following year, Merrick acted as pilot on St. Croix River; and from 1859 to 1862 was either pilot or clerk on the Mississippi steamers "H. S. Allen," "Kate Cassell," "Enterprise," and "Fanny Harris." During the winters he worked in various printing offices. Aug. 6, 1862, he enlisted in company A, 30th Wisconsin Infantry, serving therein for three years. After two years in the War Department at Washington, he was employed in New York as a steamship agent until 1876, when he took up editorial work at River Falls, Wis.; he also acted as railway agent at the same point. In 1885 he came to Madison, where for five years he was employed as proof-reader in the adjutant-general's office and later in the Madison Democrat office, and since 1897 as accountant for the University. In 1895-96 Merrick was adjutant-general of the Grand Army of the Republic for Wisconsin. He aided in compiling the Roster of Wisconsin Volunteers (Madison, 1886) and is the author of a Roster and Itinerary of the 30th Wisconsin Infantry (Madison, 1896), a Genealogy of the Merrick Family (Madison, 1902), and Old Times on the Upper Mississippi (Cleveland, 1909). — ED.

3. William R. Tibbals was born in Bennington, Vt, June 27, 1832; came to Galena, Ill., in 1851. His first experience on the upper river was a pleasure trip to St. Paul in the summer of 1852, going up on the "West Newton," Capt. Daniel Smith Harris, and returning on the "Nominee," Captain Orrin Smith. The fare was $1.50 for the round trip, the two boats running a strong opposition at the time. In the spring of 1854 Captain Tibbals, started out on the "Nominee" to learn the river from Galena to St. Paul, under the guidance of John Arnold and Joseph Armstrong, both first-class pilots. About the first of June, 1854, the crew of the "Nominee" was transferred to the "Galena," which, with four other boats of the Minnesota Packet Company was chartered by the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad for an excursion to St. Paul, to celebrate the opening of the railroad as far as the Mississippi River, and incidentally to advertise the property. Young Tibbals was detailed to go to Chicago and lay in a stock of wines, fruits, and confections, his purchase amounting to over $3,000. There were about a thousand people on the excursion, including some two hundred women. Among the notables were ex-President Millard Fillmore, Hon. Edward Bates, Hon. John A. Dix, Hon. Francis Blair, Hon. Elbridge Gerry, Rev. Leonard Bacon, Prof. Benjamin Silliman, Thurlow Weed, Horace Greeley, Charles A. Dana, and many other men of national reputation, not less than one hundred of whom were editors of the leading newspapers of the country. On arrival at St. Paul the party was transported to Minnehaha Falls in several hundred Pembina carts; the annual "train" happened to be in St. Paul at the time, and no other means of transportation was available. Captain Tibbals secured his first license in 1855, and until 1904 was constantly employed on the river as pilot or master on many of the finest boats on the upper river. In the fall of 1867, as master of the "Ocean Wave," he took that boat, with a tow of barges, from Winona, Minn., to New Orleans — the first cargo of bulk wheat ever taken down the river. It was shipped to Liverpool in the new ship "John Geddy," waiting for the cargo. In 1890 he was appointed master of the government steamer "J. G. Parke," which he commanded until his appointment in 1895 by President Cleveland as supervising inspector of steamboats, which office he retained until the second year of President McKinley's administration. His last service on the river was in 1904, as captain of the new and beautiful steamer "Quincy," running during the World's Fair between St. Louis and St. Paul, thus completing 51 years upon the river. In summing up his service he says: "After all these years of labor, through storms and floods and seasons of low water, mostly done before the government had spent a dollar for improving or lighting the river, it is, perhaps, permissible for me to add that the only steamboat that was ever injured while in my care was the side-wheeler ‘Keokuk;’ she struck a [sunken] boulder that had rolled from the bluff at Chimney Rock and lodged in the channel without anybody knowing of it. It took three steamboats to pull the ‘Keokuk’ off the boulder; but the injury to her bottom was patched up by her crew, and she proceeded to the ways at Le Claire under her own steam." Captain Tibbals lives in Dubuque, and maintains a lively interest in everything pertaining to the Mississippi River and its commerce. — ED.

4. Archer B. Hulbert, The Ohio River(New York, 1906), p. 330.

5. Missouri Gazette, St. Louis, 1808. The italics are the present editor's.

6. James T. Lloyd, Steamboat Directory and Disasters on Western Waters (Cincinnati, 1856), p. 7. This is one of the earliest and most complete compilations relating to early river navigation.

7. P. S. Bush, an old resident of Covington, Ky., tells of seeing the "New Orleans" in December, 1811, just a century ago, as she passed his home on the banks of the Ohio. His observation confirms the assumption that the "New Orleans" was a side-wheel, walking-beam boat. An alarm having been given of a strange object coming down the river, "all the family immediately ran to the bank. We saw something, I knew not what, but supposed it was a saw-mill, from the working of the lever beam, making its slow but solemn progress with the current. We were shortly afterwards informed that it was a steamboat." — Cited by Hulbert, Ohio River, p. 332.
On Oct. 30-Nov. 2, 1911, there was held at Pittsburgh a celebration in honor of the centennial anniversary of the setting forth of the "New Orleans" upon her trip down the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. A replica of the original — styled "New Orleans" and of the type cited in Hulbert — was on October 31 formally christened in the presence of President William H. Taft and some 50,000 spectators gathered on Monongahela wharf (levee) and the neighboring hillsides. The christening itself was by Mrs. Alice Roosevelt Longworth, a descendant of the original owner. The president delivered a congratulatory address at the wharf, and the "New Orleans" was accompanied on a trip several miles in extent by some sixty of the largest Ohio River packets. On Nov. 2, the little steamer began a commemorative trip to New Orleans, with about twenty passengers. She stopped at the towns enroute, for the holding of celebrations, and tied up over night; finally arriving three weeks later at the city of New Orleans, which was, in honor of the event, in gala attire.

8. Hulbert, Ohio River, p. 334.

9. Henry M. Shreve was born in New Jersey in 1785, and died at St. Louis in 1851. He invented the steam snag-boat, was owner of five out of the first fifty steamboats built for Western rivers, and was in the steamboat and keel-boat business on the Ohio and Mississippi for over forty years. He was employed by General Jackson in several hazardous enterprises, and during the battle of New Orleans served one of the field pieces which destroyed the advancing column of General Keane. He filled the post of United States superintendent of Western river improvements under the administrations of Presidents Adams, Jackson, and Van Buren. — St. Louis Republican, March 7, 1851.

10. Lloyd, Steamboat Directory, p. 44.

11. E. W. Gould, History of Navigation on the Mississippi for Fifty Years (St. Louis, 1889), pp. 164-167; a valuable compilation, but badly arranged, its author being more accustomed to handling a steamboat wheel than a pen.

12. Lloyd, Steamboat Directory, p. 55.

13. Hulbert, Ohio River, p. 236; Lloyd, Steamboat Directory, p. 45.

14. Gould, Navigation on Mississippi, pp. 432-437.
For years after the war there was much discussion regarding the loss of the "Sultana", April 27, 1865. Many people, especially northern soldiers, suspected that the boat was destroyed by an explosion of gun-powder concealed in blocks of coal placed in the boat's fuel supply by some one inimical to the Union cause. A letter from Capt. Charles H. Patten, a veteran river engineer, now of Fort Madison, Iowa, and also a veteran soldier, who was stationed at Memphis in April 1865, seems definitely to settle the question. He says that he went on board the "Sultana" to see Lemuel Wilson, one of the engineers, as the boat lay at Memphis. Wilson told Patten that the boilers were in bad condition, and that before taking on passengers at Vicksburg they had patched the boilers as well as possible for the trip North. It would thus appear that the explosion was due to defective boilers, and not to the malice of Confederate sympathizers. Patten does not say in his letter whether his friend Wilson was among the lost or not. There were on the boat 70 cabin passengers, 1866 paroled prisoners (Union), and a crew of 85, of which number 1647 were lost.

15. Missouri Gazette, July 14, 1817.

16. Ibid. June 9, 1819.

17. St. Louis Republican, cited in Gould, Navigation on Mississippi, p. 116. It would be gratifying had the names of the masters of these first boats been given. But one of these boats, the "Indiana," is mentioned in the list compiled by the present writer; and that at a much later date than above cited. — See Merrick, Old Times on the Upper Mississippi, p.274.

18. Minn. Hist. Colls., ii, pp. 102-117; viii, pp. 376-378; Merrick, Old Times on the Upper Mississippi, p. xxx.

19. Thomas Biddle Jr. was born in Pennsylvania, from which state he was appointed to the army as captain of infantry April 9, 1812, transferred to 2nd artillery July 6, 1812; transferred to artillery corps May 17, 1815; transferred to rifle regiment, May, 1820. He was major and paymaster August 7, 1820; killed in a duel, August 29, 1831. Brevet major August 15, 1814, for gallant defense of Fort Erie.
John B. F. Russell was born in Massachusetts, from which state he was appointed to the army. Second lieutenant light artillery, July 24, 1818; transferred to infantry June 1, 1821; first lieutenant Nov. 1, 1821. He served as captain and assistant quartermaster, March 14, 1828-October 13, 1830. Becoming captain April 23, 1830, he resigned June 22, 1837.
Maj. Laurence Taliaferro was a Virginian by birth, 1794; he enlisted in the army during the War of 1812-15, and at its close remained in service until 1819 when he was appointed Indian agent at St. Peter's, where he remained for twenty-one years. In 1840 he retired to his home in Bedford, Pa., where he was military storekeeper 1857-63, and where he died Jan. 22, 1871.
Count Giacomo C. Beltrami, born in Bergamo, Italy, 1779, was banished in 1821 on account of political intrigue. He came to America, and made his way to St. Louis, where he became imbued with, the desire to find the source of the Mississippi, and he was starting upon, this expedition when we find him listed as a passenger on the first steamboat to reach Fort Snelling.

20. See sketch by Verne Seth Pease in Wis. Hist. Soc. Proc., 1906, pp. 224-245.

21. James Harris was born in Connecticut, Oct. 14, 1777; his wife was a native of Delaware County, N. Y., Mar. 24, 1782.

22. The following extract from the report of Maj. Gen. Alexander Macomb, commanding United States army, relates the part taken by Captain Throckmorton, with his boat, the "Warrior:"
On information being received by General Atkinson that the Indians had quitted the swamps in the neighborhood of the Four Lakes, and moved towards the Mississippi, he despatched instructions to the commanding officer at Prairie du Chien to take measures to intercept them, should they attempt to descend the Ouisconsin, or cross the Mississippi. In consequence of these instructions, a guard and an armed flatboat were stationed on the Ouisconsin about twenty-five miles from its junction with the Mississippi, by which means a number of those who escaped from the engagement on the Ouisconsin were killed or captured. A steamboat in the employ of the Quartermaster's Department, with a field-piece, and manned with about twenty men, was despatched up the Mississippi [from Fort Crawford] to watch the motions of the Indians; and on the 1st of August, discovered a large body of them on the left bank making preparations to cross the river. The Indians at first attempted to deceive our party by declaring themselves to be Winnebagoes, and displaying white flags, at the same time inviting them to land. But the officer in command being aware of their intentions, fired upon them, and killed about twenty five of their number. The fire was smartly returned by the Indians, but without effect. This circumstance fortunately checked the Indians in their attempt to cross the river, and led to the action of 2nd of August. — 22nd Cong., 2nd sess., Exec. Docs., i, no. 2, p. 60.
The "Warrior" carried the marks of the volleys fired by the Indians, as long as she was in service on the river.

23. They are said to have been brothers of David R. Atchison, senator from Missouri, who gave name to the town in Kansas.

24. He died in 1883 at Platteville.