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Pictures and Illustrations.

Mercy Exchange of St. Louis

Steam Snag Boat

Eads and Melson's Steam Wreck Boat

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Barnum's Saint Louis Hotel

Virginia Hotel

King's Hotel

St. Louis Agricultural Works, Warehouse and Seed Store

Branch, Crookes

John Cook, Wagon and Cart Manufacturer

H. N. Kendall

David Nicholson's Grocery Establishment

Empire Plow Works

M. S. Mepham

Dr. Isaiah Forbes, Dental Surgeon

Great Mail, Express and Passenger Route

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Excelsior Stove Works



In offering to the reading public the SKETCH BOOK OF ST. LOUIS, we have endeavored to meet a demand which has long existed for a work which would reflect the interests of the city in a true light. How well we have accomplished the task we leave you to determine; but should we lag behind your expectations, we beg your kind consideration, promising when we next appear before you to endeavor to be more worthy; in the mean-time we remain the public's faithful servants,




On p. 258, in the article about Mr. George N. Lynch's Undertaking Establishment, we speak of the decease of Mr. Wm. A. Lynch. We are informed by the gentleman himselef that it is a mistake, on teh contrary he is enjoying the best of health and bids fair to live many years. Such an error upon our part is unpardonable, and we can only plead, as an excuse, the incorrectness of our information.

A Notice E. W. Warne, Marble Works will be found on page 392, and we beg to call the readers attention to that article.


Chapter I. Introduction.

THE commercial importance of the territory acquired by the United States under the treaty between this Government and Mexico, is calculated to produce many extraordinary changes in the commerce of the entire continent; but in no other part of the country will the effects resulting from this acquisition be so extensive and important as in the Valley of the Mississippi. Believing, as we do, that the events of the present age will compel the construction of a railway from some point in the Valley of the Mississippi to the Pacific ocean, we are forced to the conclusion that the principal seat of commerce will be transferred from the coast of the Atlantic to the banks of the mighty Mississippi. Admitting the probability of such an event, it is natural to inquire where the great commercial city of this region is to be located; and, as the merits of the different points on the river have been pretty thoroughly discussed through the columns


of the daily papers, we have come to the conclusion to furnish the reading community with a "SKETCH BOOK OF ST. LOUIS," wherein all the different kinds of business receive from our hands a fair and impartial notice.

To fulfill more completely the object in view, we have, at no little cost and trouble to ourselves, visited many of St. Louis' most extensive and prominent business, mechanical, manufacturing and mercantile houses, and have endeavored to give a faithful and accurate description of them, together with the facilities possessed for the transaction of business.

St. Louis, as a commercial emporium, has been for some years regarded as advancing more rapidly than any other place in the West. A few years ago, and some, perhaps most, of the old cities on the Ohio river were in advance of her. Many of our old citizens recollect very well when the merchants of the western portion of Illinois, and even of Missouri, purchased many kinds of goods at Cincinnati and Louisville, and brought them round here for sale. St. Louis, in point of population, of manufactures, and commerce, was behind either of the cities we have mentioned. But a mighty change has taken place. St. Louis in ten years has advanced with giant strides, and never in her history has she done so large a business or had as extended and prosperous commerce, notwithstanding the monetary crisis which hung, with leaden wings, over the entire country, as the year just closed in. Never were prospects for a heavy Spring trade more bright or promising than the one just ushered in.

St. Louis merchants, as a class of men, have not, probably, their superiors in the country. Prompt, honorable, high-minded, well informed men, not condescending to the little tricks which, to a considerable extent, mark some business


men, or rather, men in business, in some other places; they seek by legitimate means to extend their operations, and by large sales and fair profits build up at the same time an extensive and influential business and an ample fortune.

Very many of our merchants have done both, and by their integrity and probity have given a high and exalted tone to the mercantile character of the city. We could point to many, who, having devoted years to business in this city, have maintained, throughout the whole period, such a reputation as any honorable man would be pleased to leave as an inheritance to his posterity.

Now, our wholesale dealers, in the various branches, have conducted their business so prudently, as to have extended sales into all portions of the West, from Minnesota to Texas — from the great Lakes to New Mexico and Utah — and to bring about this result, there has been a cordial co-operation between our merchants and manufacturers.

St. Louis may not only feel proud of her position, as a place of business concentration, but she may and does feel proud of the men, in all branches, who are engaged in the business of the place.

But the commercial greatness and importance of St. Louis is not only evidenced by the number, the probity, and the extensive operations of her merchants, but also in her vast commerce, the number, size and beauty of her steamboats. The vast increase in the number and costliness of these "floating palaces" in the past few years, show how rapid and healthy must be the growth and business of St. Louis as a commercial emporium.

Such a work as we now offer to your favorable consideration must necessarily be meagre, yet it is sincerely hoped that we shall be able to convey to the reader a partial


knowledge of the immense amount of business transacted annually, as well as the vast resources which St. Louis possesses.

In furtherance of the object in view, it has occurred to us that a short sketch of the early settlement and progress of St. Louis would prove interesting. Such a history must necessarily be condensed, as we have not the space to more than mention the different incidents. A history complete in all its parts would fill a volume much larger than we purpose making ours.


Chapter II. Early History.

It was on one of those dark, gusty days, that so often clothe, in a western clime, the latter portions of November with a penumbral mistiness, that a party of boatmen, caroling in native sweetness their sweet and simple songs, might have been seen winding around the point of what is now known as Duncan's Island. The day throughout had assumed all of the fantastic ebullitions of passion and change, that mark the ever-changing footsteps of some spoiled, yet beautiful coquette. One moment suffused with the sweet smiles of love and tenderness, with the dimpling sunshine resting in playfulness on the cheek, an hour of rest too long to last, the frenzy of madness seizes on the brain, and all within is dark and gloomy, with sudden drifts of clouds flitting as shadows along the sunshine of life. So had been the day; one moment, all of the rich glow of an Indian summer, and all of its mild warmth, smiled the affections of love on the earth, to be succeeded by fitful gusts of wind, cheerless and disconsolate. Many had been the changes that had passed along the earth that day. The distant thunder, as it rumbled along its folds of clouds, and the raindrops, as they pattered on the half withered flowers below, were all succeeded too soon by the rich gorgeousness of an autumnal sky. Such was the day, and such the scene, on the banks of the mighty Mississippi, on the 9th of December, 1763


The party who were sending forth their songs of joy were none others than Pierre de Laclede and a half dozen sturdy voyageurs, who were prospecting the country for the purpose of selecting some point, contiguous to the mouth of the Missouri river, suitable for a depot for merchandise. M. Laclede was the acting manager for a company of merchants, who, at that time, had obtained a monopoly of the Indian far trade on the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. Passing by the then more extensive towns and villages, which dotted here and there, though miles apart, the banks of the majestic Mississippi; here he planted his tent-poles, and felled the trees to clear the spot, which in his prophetic soul he declared should "prove, in time, to be one of the greatest towns in America."

Our party remained here for several days, encamped upon the spot where Barnum's Hotel now stands, and having "broken sod" they named the site St. Louis, in honor of the French King, Louis XV. Finding the winter advancing with rapid strides, they set out on their return to Fort Chartres. On his arrival at that point, M. Laclede set about making preparations for the settlement of his new post at an early a day as possible. He dispatched a couple of young men from New Orleans, Auguste and Pierre Chouteau, with a suitable outfit of men and materials, and soon followed himself. They arrived here on the 14th day of February, 1764, and at once took possession of their old camping ground. M. Laclede's whole soul was engaged with the idea that he had selected the very spot destined to be the commercial emporium of the West, and although he was not permitted to see his prophecies fulfilled, his descendants have lived to see it rise to the proud position, which he, in his then supposed to be "castle in the air building," allotted it. Since his day it has progressed in all the arts of civilization. The buffalo hunting ground has become the site of busy thrift,


and on Mill creek now stands a manufactory of the "staff of life." Where was a vast forest of huge trees, now stand palatial dwellings or gigantic storehouses. Churches erect their spires towering to Heaven, and, with the gifts of princes and princesses, they are decorated to the glory of the God who decreed us the greatness we possess. Our seminaries are established, and our schools founded, under liberal patronage and magnificent endowments. Our newspapers circulate to the ends of the earth, and our honorable and upright merchants trade with credit, and are sought in traffic by their brethren of the "ilk," wherever ships do trade or men do wander.

This city, St. Louis, which, within the life of a man almost, was a barren waste, settled by Indians and Missouri boatmen, to-day boasts on the assessor's books an estimated valuation of sixty-six millions of taxable property. Since 1853, when she had thirty-nine millions of such property, she has doubled her capital and her population. What, then, are her prospects in the future? Established as the city of the Mississippi Valley, known as a vast commercial emporium, regarded for years as advancing more rapidly than any other western mart, what is her destiny? From the history of the past, present ages glean the glory of the passing and future. If this be true, what a magnificent end is in store for us!

Adam Smith, when he wrote that great and lasting monument of human research, which treats on "Political Economy," set out with the remark, that a great city must have for a foundation, Agriculture, Commerce and Manufactures. He tells us that, to a certain finite extent, a city might be successful in two, or even one of these; but to achieve great and permanent wealth and lasting prosperity, all these elements must combine within its province. St. Louis possesses all these, and more.


With them she stands erect and points to their foster parent, Industry, and all and each of these she cherishes and upholds to a remarkable degree. In the centre of an agricultural and mineral region as vast as rich, and whose richness is not excelled by any soil of equal scope upon God's footstool, surrounded with every material necessary to manufactures, and situated advantageously at the central point of the navigation of the mighty "Father of Waters," with the restless Missouri running by her limits, what else can she do than increase in greatness, till she becomes one of the cities of the world?

Nature has with lavish hand bestowed her gifts upon the chosen mound. To our west, within our very grasp, lie extensive beds of mineral ore and coal. Here are fine forests of timber and fertile lands for tillage and for pasture. There lies the route of the immense emigration to the land of Deseret, to the wide-spreading plains, and to the golden sands of California. There is the trail of the Santa Fe and the Indian trader, and there, too, is the valley of the Missouri. On our left stretches the rich valley of the Maramec, and yet further on the valleys of the Gasconade and the Osage. The Maramec and the Gasconade endowed with mighty forests of the yellow pine; the eighteen thousand square miles on the Osage, teeming with, and belching forth its minerals, and bursting with the richness of its agricultural resources. Add to the catalogue, among its very many advantages, the fertile territories of the Indian tribes, the future Eden of America, the great plains and their countless herds, the new State of Mexico, the mountains and the territory of Oregon, and say, what more can she need?

From the time of its establishment up to the year 1768, St. Louis had grown apace. The population had become settled; they had erected dwellings of a comfortable character, and had improved and cultivated the neighboring lands. Everything,


in short, connected with their prospects, warranted the anticipation of a peaceful and happy existence.

The mildness of the form of government, the liberal spirit with which grants of valuable lands were made, in connection with the advantages which the trade of the country presented, soon attracted immigration from the Canadas and Lower Louisiana. Settlements were formed along the Missouri and Mississippi rivers; and as early as 1767, Vide Poche, or Carondelet, was founded by Delor de Tregette. In 1776 Florissant, afterwards St. Ferdinand, in honor of the king of Spain, was founded by Beaurosier Dunegant; and in 1769 Les Petites Cotes, now St. Charles, was established by Bianchette Chasseur and numerous other small settlements sprang up on the borders of the two rivers before named and in the interior of the country.

In February, 1779, the inhabitants became alarmed, owing to the rumored movements of the northern Indians, and for the better security of life and property commenced the erection of temporary works for defence. The territory on which St. Louis stood — that on which several other towns had been located — and the surrounding country were claimed by the Illinois Indians; but they had acquiesced in the intrusion of the whites upon their hunting grounds, and had never molested them; but when the rumor of an attack upon the town began to spread abroad, the people became alarmed for their safety. The town was almost destitute of works of defence, but the inhabitants, amounting to a little more than one hundred men, immediately proceeded to enclose it with a species of wall, framed of the trunks of small trees, planted in the ground, the interstices bejng filled up with earth. The wall was some five or six feet high. It started from the half moon, a kind of fort in that form, situate on the river near the present Floating Docks, and ran from thence a little above the brow of the


hill, or what might now be called Fifth street, until it reached the river at a short distance below the present gas works. Three gates were formed in it, one near the lower end, about where Second street now runs, and two others on the hill, at the points where the roads from the north-western and south-western parts of the common fields came in. At each gate was placed a heavy piece of ordnance, kept continually charged and in good order. Having completed these works and hearing no more of the Indians, it was supposed that the attack had been abandoned. Winter passed slowly away, and spring came; still nothing was heard of the Indians. The inhabitants were led to believe that their apprehensions were groundless, from the representations of the commandant, Leyba, who did every thing in his power to dissipate their anxiety, assuring them that there was no danger, and that the rumor of the proposed attack was false. The month of May came, the labor of planting was over, and the peaceful and happy villagers gave themselves up to such pursuits and pleasures as suited their taste.

In May, 1779, numerous bands of Indians, living on the lakes and the Mississippi — Ojibeways, Menominees, Winnebagoes, Sioux, Sacs, &c., together with a large number of Canadians, amounting in all to upwards of fourteen hundred, assembled on the eastern shore of the Mississippi river, a mile or so above St. Louis; and having crossed the river on the 26th day of May, they made an attack on that portion of the men who were engaged in the fields. The citizens of St. Louis repelled the attack with spirit and bravery; but the greater portion of a company of militia, that had been brought from Ste. Genevieve to assist in repelling any attack, acted in a most cowardly manner, and hid themselves in garrets and cellars during the attack. Lieutenant Gov. Leyba, who, it is shrewdly suspected, had been bribed by the British, was guilty of the most


open acts of treachery. From 18 to 20 of the citizens were killed and a number wounded; but we are unable to learn that the assailing party suffered any loss. This epoch forms an important era in the history of St. Louis, and has been ever since designated by the inhabitants, as the "year of the blow" — "L'année de coup."

Leyba, aware that representations of his course had been specially forwarded to New Orleans to the Gov. General, and unable to bear up against the disgrace that he knew awaited him, and urged on by the scorn and contempt of the inhabitants, committed suicide. Upon his death, Cartabona performed the functions of government until the following year, when Cruzat returned to St. Louis, and assumed the command as Lieut. Governor a second time.

It was during the second administration of Cruzat that was witnessed the rise of the Mississippi river, which formed an epoch with the ancient inhabitants, and which from its extent was called "the year of the Great Waters" — L'anneé des Grandes Eaux. The river rose thirty feet above the highest water-mark ever known. The town of Kaskaskia was nearly swept away; the low lands on the eastern shore of the Mississippi, as far back as the bluffs, were so completely overflowed that men went through the woods to Kaskaskia in barges and boats.

On the 9th day of November, 1809, two-thirds of the taxable inhabitants of the village of St. Louis presented their humble petition to the Court of Common Pleas for this district, with which Court the Honorable Legislature of the Territory of Louisiana, by "an act concerning towns in their territory," had left discretionary power, to be incorporated as a town, and on that day signed by the Judges of the Court, to-wit: Silas Bent, President, and Bernard Pratte and Louis Labeaume, Associates. A charter was granted, giving the necessary


franchises and creating the certain officers proper to regulate a municipal government. These officers were named trusteeships, and were composed of five persons, to be elected by the vote of the tax-payers. The limits were as follows: "Beginning at Antoine Roy's mill on the bank of the Mississippi; thence running sixty arpens west; thence south on said line of sixty arpens in the rear, until the same crosses to the Barriere Denoyer; thence due south until it comes to the Sugar Loaf; thence due east to the Mississippi; from thence, by the Mississippi, to the place mentioned."

We find that our town was but small, for by reference to the census list we see that the population of St. Louis in 1810 was only fourteen hundred.

Thenceforward prosperity, before dawning, blossomed, until in 1820 the population reached 4,132; — 1830 saw an increase of fifty per centum, when the growth in people rose to 6,694, and so on to this day as follows:

Population of St. Louis in 1820 — 4,123
" " 1830 — 6,694
" " 1840 — 16,649
" " 1850 — 74,439
" " 1852 — 94,000
" " 1857 — 150,276

So in like proportion did the soil and the city grow in wealth and worth; the following being the assessed valuation from year to year, for the following years, as certified to by the Assessors;

1840 — $8,682,506 00
1842 — 12,101,018 00
1844 — 13,999,914 50
1846 — 15,055,720 99
1848 — 19,506,497 85
1850 — 29,676,649 24
1851 — 34,433,529 21


1852 — 38,281,668 96
1854 — 39,397,186 33
1855 — 42,991,81200
1856 — 59,609,285 00
1857 (estimated) — 65,570,21300

While she progressed thus rapidly in wealth, so she advanced in the liberality of her charters. The people remained content with their trustees, elected by the popular vote, until January, 1815, when they prayed the Legislative head to grant an extension of power to their executive officers. Then provision was made for the laying out of streets and their being opened; and to the Trustees was delegated the power of licensing ferries.

In December, 1822, St. Louis, proud in her advancement, applied to be incorporated as a city, and at the Legislative session of that year her petition was granted. On the twenty-second day of that month the town became a city, and to her was given "a Mayor, Aldermen, and citizens," with perpetual succession, a common seal, and all other immunities, franchises and conveniences of a city proper. Nine members constituted the Aldermanic legislature; to them were delegated the duties of conservators of the peace, and with them was deposited the right to tax property, save and except wearing apparel, necessary tools, or implements of trade. The office of Register was appointed, as a sort of historian of the deeds of the Mayoralty, and preserver of musty records. A city constable was also provided for, who might execute and return all process issued by the executive or legislative departments of the civic administration.

In 1831 this act was added to, and some further privileges were extended to her citizens. An Assessor was named as being an officer of the government, and due provision was made to give him plenty of business by regulating the power to open, widen, regulate and pave streets, alleys and lanes.


In 1817, the General Pike, the first steamboat that ever ascended the Mississippi river, made her appearance at St. Louis. Those who lived here at the time can well remember the fear and consternation of the people who saw the craft breasting the sturdy current of the river without the help of sail or oar, and they also bear in recollection the execrations and forebodings of the nervous and hardy voyageurs, who felt and knew that the days of the warp and cordelle, and of the red feather in the cap, were to pass away and be numbered with other reminiscences of early days on the Mississippi. We find the following in the Missouri Republican, published in 1826, and transfer it to these pages on account of its retrospective value:

"A lapse of twenty years, during which I have had a residence in this rising town, have effected so wonderful a transformation in its appearance and prospects, that I can not better employ a leisure hour than by giving you my reminiscences of the intervening time. Twenty years! In this brief period the whole face of our country — its laws, manners, customs, morals, every thing — has undergone a change as salutary as it is surprising.

"Twenty years ago, scarcely any one, in his wildest speculations, thought of the eminence to which this flourishing town has already attained. Then, it did not appear to possess even the germ of the materials which have since been so successfully used in making it the mart of commerce and the seat of plenty. Then, with some exceptions, it was merely the residence of the indolent trader or trapper, or more desperate adventurers. (I am speaking here of the most numerous body of its inhabitants.) Then, there were no indications of public spirit, or any desire other than that of accumulation with the least possible exertion. Twenty years ago, there were no brick


buildings in St. Louis! The houses were miserably constructed — comfortless and tasteless. They were generally of wood, built in a fashion peculiar to the country, and daubed with mud. There were, however, some of the better order, belonging to the first settlers of the town, but whose massive walls of stone were calculated to excite the wonder of the modern beholder, giving the idea of an antique fortress rather than that of the residence of secure and light-hearted Creoles. What was then called Chouteau's hill, but which has since lost that distinctive appellation in the change it has undergone, was nothing else than a barren waste, over which the wind whistled its unobstructed course; if we except only an occasional cumbrous fortification, intended for defence, and evidencing the poverty of the country in military, as in other talent. These, the only monuments of that rude age, are now nowhere to be seen. Then, and for a long while after, the streets were intolerably bad — resembling the roads in Ohio, where it is related of a man, that his hat was taken from his head just as he was about disappearing forever in the regions of mud.

"Twenty years since, and down to a much later period, the commerce of the country was carried on in Mackina batteaux and keel-boats. A voyage performed in one of these latter kind was a fearful undertaking; and the return trip from New Orleans was considered an expeditious one if made in ninety days. When an increase of commerce took place, our streets were thronged with voyageurs, of all ages, countries and complexions. They were a source of constant trouble to a weak and inefficient police, with whom they delighted to ‘kick up a row.’ Deprived, by the introduction of steamboats, of their usual means of living, and, like the savage, averse to settled life, they have almost entirely disappeared. At the time of which we write, the traveller who made a journey to the


Atlantic States, did not resolve upon it without mature deliberation. When this had been done, weeks, sometimes months of preparation were required. Kind wishes for a prosperous journey and safe return were then offered — all, however, prepossessed with a foreboding that he would be seen no more. It then required from thirty to forty days to travel to Philadelphia. Then, the fashions of the town were simple and devoid of that refinement which now marks them. The natural dimensions of a belle were not then screwed, by the aid of a milliner, into a decanter-like shape, possessing neither comeliness nor gentility. False hair did not decorate the head — false teeth fill the mouth; nor was the vinegar-barrel exhausted to reduce them to a proper size. Females appeared as nature made them, and were not loved the less for being so. In those days, it could not be said of a man that a ‘tailor made him’ — because he was often seen dressed in tight leather unmentionables, and these surmounted by a blanket capote. The morals or religion of the people can not be defined. They had, it is true, vague notions of such things, but they were of so quiescent a character as easily to be set aside when placed in opposition to their pleasure or their interest. There was but one church, and after a resort to this, it was no uncommon thing to pass the remainder of the Sabbath evening in dancing, or whist. It then contained, at most, but a few hundred people.

"Now, ‘look upon this picture.’ We are, comparatively, a wealthy, moral and fashionable people. Our town is but in its infancy — is prospering and will go on to prosper. Its citizens are intelligent, enterprising and industrious. At every corner, and in every nook, houses, great and small, are built up, and finished, before you are aware that they have been commenced. Real property has advanced at an astonishingly rapid rate. Houses are going up in every direction on ‘Chouteau's


Hill;’ and from the magnitude of the buildings, the width and regularity of the streets, and the delightful view afforded of the river and adjacent country, the hill must become a charming place of residence. The court-house, estimated to have cost fourteen thousand dollars, is a handsome edifice, and reflects much credit upon the architect who designed it. The market and town-house, erected at a cost of $20,000, and now nearly finished, is another ornament of the city. Of other public buildings, the Presbyterian and Episcopal churches take the next rank — and a Methodist church is now being erected, the one heretofore used not being large enough for the congregation. The Catholic Cathedral, as you see it, is the mere shell of what it was designed to be, and is a very unfanciful affair. It was originally intended to add two wings to the present building to give it shape and proportion. This design, I am told, has been relinquished, and it is now the intention of the society to erect another structure near the site of the present one, which is to be demolished. The Baptist church is an uncouth building, although put up at great expense. It has been perverted from its rightful uses, can be of little benefit, and ought to be taken down. In other public buildings, the town is deficient. A college edifice has been erected, four stories high, in which a liberal French education can be acquired. More regard should, however, be paid to education generally — provision for which has been liberally made by the government.

"St. Louis contains about 6,000 inhabitants, and the State probably 120,000. No probable estimate can be formed of the amount of capital employed in its trade. It may be sufficient to say, that it is the depot from whence the citizens of this and the adjoining State receive their supplies of necessaries and luxuries — for which they dispense their money liberally. It is here that the wealth arising from the fur trade is concentrated,


and here they obtain their annual supplies. The greater part of the riches derived from the lead mines on the Upper Mississippi fall into our lap, in exchange for our commodities. It is selected as the most favorable place for the repair of steamboats, and many annually visit us for that purpose — although it is but twelve or thirteen years since the first of these vessels, rudely constructed from a keel-boat, glided into our port. It is becoming the resort of the residents of the South, who choose to spend their summers in a less glowing climate than their own. Useful manufactories are establishing daily. To crown all, health, that great boon, has been enjoyed here for several years past as extensively as in any other town of the Union.

"Imperfect as this sketch is, you can not but see and acknowledge the advantages St. Louis possesses. Its course is onward. Nothing can retard its advance in wealth and population.

"It may excite your sympathy when you are told, that, in the short lapse of twenty years, property has almost entirely changed hands — the rich have become poor, and the more fortunate have succeeded to their riches. Their names and their estates have, indeed, been written on water, and are now only referred to as evidences of imprudence — ‘to point a moral or adorn a tale.’"

Previous to the year 1829 there was no Protestant church in St. Louis; but in that year the first Presbyterian church was built, and the Rev. Artemas Bullard engaged as the minister. Mr. Bullard was a man of rare attainments and a great favorite with all classes of people. There were places where the Methodists, Presbyterians, Baptists, Universalists, etc., held divine service, but none of them possessed church edifices until


this year. So we learn from an article in the Western Journal and Civilian.

In 1844, another flood, equalling that which took place in the days of Cruzat, visited the Mississippi. The river rose rapidly until the entire American bottom was submerged. Steamboats and all description of water-craft were to be seen winding their way through the woods opposite the city, conveying passengers to and from the coal hills on the Illinois shore, a distance of about twelve miles. This flood was very disastrous in its character, almost totally destroying Illinoistown, which had become quite a village of several thousand inhabitants. The damage done was immense, while not a few lives were lost among those who were unable or unwilling to leave their homes until it was too late. Houses, barns, and fences were swept away by the ruthless torrent, while thousands of hogs, horses, cattle, sheep, fowls, &c., were drowned; and when the waters subsided the entire American bottom was one scene of ruin and destruction; distress was plainly visible on all sides; many who, before the flood, were in affluent circumstances, found themselves beggared. This was a marked event upon the trade of St. Louis, and she had scarcely recovered from the effects when another calamity befel her. Late in the fall of 1848, that dreadful scourge, the cholera, made its appearance in our midst, and began its work of death; the approach of cold weather stayed, in a great measure, the ravages of the disease, although during the winter we heard of an occasional case. But as the genial smiles of spring began to fall upon the city the disease developed itself in full force, and, like the famishing wolf, whose appetite is whetted by the taste of blood, it was doubly fierce and unsparing. The general cry was — "Hush up! Don't alarm the people! You will frighten them into the disease. It is all humbug ! It's only a slight sickness among deck hands and poor laborers, who eat poor


food, and live in illy-ventilated houses," &c. And so it was determined to ignore and discredit the existence of the disease. But the formidable and insidious malady would not consent to be ignored. All the while it was furtively and gradually disseminating its poison — sowing the seed for a rich harvest of death — filling up the wards of the city hospital, and thinning the crowds of laborers on the levee. The very small number of our citizens who ever took the trouble to examine statistics of mortality, began to be alarmed; but they were frowned down as panic-makers, and the disease — the existence of which was admitted — was pronounced to be ship-fever, which threatened only sailors and steamboat men.

The disease now assumed a more bold and formidable appearance, and, instead of stalking through dirty lanes and filthy alleys, it boldly walked the streets. It was proclaimed in a thousand forms of gloom, sorrow, desolation and death. Funeral processions crowded every street. No vehicles could be seen except doctors' cabs and coaches, passing to and from the cemeteries; and hearses, often solitary, making their way towards those gloomy destinations. The hum of trade was hushed. The levee was a desert. The streets, wont to shine with fashion and beauty, were silent. The tombs — the homes of the dead — were the only places where there was life — where crowds assembled — where the incessant rumbling of carriages, the tramping of feet, the murmur of voices, and the signs of active, stirring life could be seen and heard. Physicians were kept continually on the move — on visits of mercy — going hither and thither, with no hope of fee or reward, except that which will be awarded them in an after-world; some reeled through the streets like drunken men, from sheer fatigue and exhaustion; many touched not a bed for weeks, their only moments of sleep being while going from sick-bed to sick-bed, in hopes that they might be the means of relief to some poor wretch. To realize


the full horror and virulence of the pestilence, you must go into the crowded localities of the laboring classes — into those miserable shanties which are the disgrace |of the city — where the poor immigrant class cluster together in filth, sleeping half a dozen in a room, without ventilation, and having access to filthy wet yards, which have never been filled up, and, when it rains, are converted into green puddles — fit abodes for frogs and sources of poisonous malaria. Here, you could find scenes of woe, misery and death, which will haunt your memory in all time to come. Here, you could see the dead and the dying, the sick and the convalescent, in one and the same bed. Here, you could find the living babe sucking death from the pallid breast of its dead mother. Here, father, mother and child die in one another's arms. Here, you find whole families swept off in a few hours, so that none are left to mourn or procure the rites of burial. Offensive odors frequently drew neighbors to such awful spectacles; corpses would thus proclaim their existence and enforce the observance due them. What a terrible disease! Terrible in its insidious character, in its treachery, in the quiet, serpent-like manner in which it gradually winds its folds around its victim, beguiles him by its deceptive wiles, cheats his judgment and senses, and then consigns him to grim death. Not like the plague, with its red spot, its maddening fever, its wild delirium, but with a guise so deceptive that none fears the danger till it is too late — it marches on!

While the disease was raging at its fiercest, the city was doomed to another horror — the city was burned — fifteen squares were laid in ashes. The fire commenced on the steamer White Cloud, lying between Wash and Cherry streets. At the commencement the wind was blowing stiffly, forcing the boat directly into shore, which circumstance contributed seriously to the marine disaster. As we have said, the wind set into the


wharf, and although the cables of all the boats were hauled in, and they drifted out into the current, yet the flaming vessel seemed to outstrip them all in the speed with which she travelled down stream. We were standing to the south of her on the levee; she seemed determined on getting in among and destroying the fleet of vessels now loosened from their fastenings and driven about with the sport of the wind and waves, and no one on board to control them. In a very short time, perhaps thirty minutes after the conflagration commenced, twenty-three had been given up to the fury of the flames; nearly half a million dollars' worth of property was destroyed. So devastating a fire was never known in the United States. So magnificent a spectacle — but one so full of pecuniary injury to a large class of meritorious citizens — was never presented to human, eye. It was a scene for the painter, which may not have been preserved, but which can readily be pictured by any man having a taste for the wild and the wonderful, and the fantastic forms and tracery presented in flaming boats, the island forest, the houses and the hills in the distance on the Illinois shore, and the numberless warehouses, and thousands of people lining our wharf. Fifteen blocks of houses were destroyed and injured, causing a loss of ten millions of dollars. Olive street was the commencement in the city, and with the exception of one building, the entire space down to Market street was laid in ruins. The progress of the flames was stayed by blowing up a portion of buildings below Market street with powder; in doing this, although timely warning was given, several persons lost their lives. A fire also was communicated to the buildings on the corner of Elm and Front streets, which destroyed nearly the entire block. The water gave out, and the fire had all its own way. The list of sufferers made eight or ten columns in the Missouri Republican.


Chapter III. History Continued to Present Time.

The charter under which we are now existing is liberal, although sometimes indefinite. It is true that some of the powers are not very clearly defined, and that several "coaches and six" may drive through gaps; yet it for the present serves its purpose, and, with some little amendment, may be set down as a mighty good carte blanche to do as we please.

In 1851 when this charter was adopted and approved, St. Louis had grown up to a fine healthy lad. It included "all that district of country contained within the following limits, to wit: Beginning at a point in the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi river, due east, to the south-east corner of St. George, in St. Louis county; thence due west, to the west line of Second Carondelet avenue; thence north, with the said west line of said avenue, to the north line of Chouteau avenue; thence northwardly, in a direct line to the mouth of Stony creek; thence due east, to the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi river; thence southwardly, with the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi river, to the place of beginning." Which district was divided into six wards. She was then allowed to maintain, for her protection and clearance, a Hospital, Poor-house and Work-house. The City Council, now increased to twenty-four members, with two boards with officers, as we now find them. The stated sessions, and all the powers, of which we shall elsewhere have occasion to speak,


were set down; their right to appropriate was limited, and they were generally held to check in their doings. In like manner, the particular duties of the Mayor and the ministerial officers, heretofore or now created, were laid down, and the election of the lot provided for. So additional powers were granted as to the improvement of streets, the maintenance of a police force, and so on, generally, to the last chapter.

But experience, frequently, if not oftener, taught the good citizens that they had not yet reached perfection. A slip was found here and a rent there, and so we find constant appeals made to the Legislature for more legislation. Some companies were not taxed, and a remedy was ordained March 5, 1855. Provision was not fully made for the payment of costs of street improvements, and so on the same day was approved an act to set aside this source of loss to the "Mayor, Aldermen and other citizens." At the same session provision was made, thus far with but little labor for him to perform in that line, for a fund commissioner, to reduce the city debt. A House of Refuge became, if not a necessity, at least a labor of love, and an act was procured establishing that institution. Fires became frequent and cisterns were allowed.

Again the people felt their efforts were pent up in too narrow limits, and December 5th, 1855, was approved "an act to extend the limits of the city of St. Louis, and for other purposes." Then she attained to the magnificent proportions which to-day astonish the visitor. What had been "out of town," became simply "uptown." The Boards of Delegates and Aldermen swelled to twenty each, and what is now called the "extended new limits" came in, on a hard fought polling, under the privileges we enjoyed, with at the same time a right to help us pay the taxes of our joint affairs.

So much for the advance in chartered rights. It is needless


for us at this time to discuss the merits of our "calf-skins." The subject has been before the City Council for some twelve months, has been subjected to the scrutiny of certain lawyers of the Boards, who have sat on the egg so long without hatching a scheme of improvement, that we can well afford to leave our opinions unexpressed until some unpleasant stop occurs to clog the worthy patriarchs of our city, in some administration scheme, when we may say with more effect our say.

Next in order of importance to the liberality of the charter under which we exist, as a municipality, is the mode and method of our government. The effect of a proper administration of the affairs of a growing community upon its prosperity is beyond calculation. The agitation of politics, and the introduction of sectional measures into legislation, upon the condition of a city, being the abuse of a temporary power, can not but materially affect its well-being and check its growth. Should this or that portion of such a city be paved or cleaned to the neglect of another, it must prevent the general growth, force an unnatural strength upon a small space, and cause disease in the less respected districts. We are thankful that, thus far, these abuses have been somewhat prevented by the size of our Councils; that, by equal strength in ward representations, we have a city flourishing through its entire extent, and only working to exceeding advantage in such spots as a greater amount of trade, or more eligible sites for residences of the opulent, warrant.

Our city's history as a municipal government has been already briefly sketched; how from a village she rose to the dignity of a town, and then commenced the adequate fulfillment of her destiny by applying for and receiving a civic organization, we have seen. Let us now look to those who have governed her, and how they did it — with what aids, by what means, and to what effect.



The first charter bears date, already mentioned, December 9th, 1822; since that time the succession of Mayors has been as follows:

1823 to 1829 Wm. Carr Lane.
1829 to 1833 Daniel D. Page.
1833 to 1835 John W. Johnston.
1835 to 1838 John F. Darby.
1838 to 1840 Wm. Carr Lane.
1840 John F. Darby.
1841 John D. Daggett.
1842 George Maguire.
1843 John M. Wimer.
1844 to 1846 Bernard Pratte.
1846 Peter G. Camden.
1847 Bryan Mullanphy.
1848 John M. Krum.
1849 James G. Barry.
1850 to 1853 Luther M. Kennett.
1853 to 1855 John How.
1855 Washington King.
1856 John How.
1857 John M. Wimer.

The appreciation of the people of the services of these men is amply shown by the frequent re-election of many of the occupants of the Mayoralty chair.


Every improvement that is made in the conduct and government of the Police Department is one step gained for the better order of our citizens, and for the greater protection of our lives and property. Some such improvements have of late been made, and although it may be that some men of strong passions and hardened hearts have sacrificed to their lusts and criminal


intents the lives of others within a few weeks past, we must not place the blame to the Police Department, but weigh well the chances, and see whether the deeds could have been prevented; and if not prevented, how the murderer might best have been caught.

The prevention of the capital crime is beyond the power of human ingenuity. When the passions that are sternest and least to be influenced injjthe human heart are aroused, there is no earthly power that can subdue the longings for blood. The idea of revenge for wrongs, real or imaginary, is so firmly rooted in a vicious temperament, that the experience of thousands of years has taught us that the vigorous rule of blood for blood does not even serve to appal the murderer, or to save the victim. How then can officials, unaware of the thoughts of erring humanity, prevent it? Who can stay the hand uplifted to seek a brother's life? The prevention of homicide is in the law, as its punishment is in the hands of the servants of that law.

The Police force at present consists of Major Rawlings, the City Marshal, two Captains, four Assistant Captains, ten Sergeants, one hundred and ten night watchmen and ninety-five day men, all of whom,are immediately responsible to the Mayor. The first is appointed under the new ordinance, with a salary of $3000 for one year. The remaining officers hold their positions for the same period, and receive pay as follows: Captains $1000, Assistant Captains $800, Sergeants $650 and Policemen $600. Little enough pay when we remember how nearly the pay came up to these present prices years ago, when food and clothing was procurable at rates at least fifteen per cent, cheaper than now.

This jurisdiction extends more immediately over the city, including a population of 126,276 — of whom 2,822, being


negroes and mulattoes, are under special laws — all residing and doing business in 14,260 buildings. The extended limits of the city give us a superficial extent of nearly sixteen miles, divided into blocks, with alleys and intersections. To carry out the calculations, allowing that there are 20,000, and the odd number living beyond the old limits or the more closely guarded portion of the city, that gives for the night watch to keep ward over the conduct of 1100 persons per ward, to examine the doors and shutters, and note the peculiarities existing around 167 buildings, not enumerating the care of sundry coal and lumber yards, docks and steamboats, covering for each man a beat averaging one-fifth of a mile, cut up into blocks with alleys, intersecting streets and other obstacles.

The difficulty is further increased by a necessary order that each patrol shall visit each portion of his beat at least once in each half hour, entailing the necessity of a walk of fifty miles during each term of duty. This does not allow anything for sickness in the department, although it is a fair presumption that a thousand days' services are lost in the course of a year, i. e., that at least three men are on an average on the sick list.

The appropriations (not including for overdrafts) for and expenditures of the department since 1850 are as follows:

1850-1 $27,800 00 $27,638 94
1851-2 26,50000 26,49978
1852-3 33,50022 33,44159
1853-4 41,21710 54,54118
1854-5 53,67592 58,44431
1855-6 56,64362 64,48754
1856-7 94,000 00 93,36682


Chapter IV. — Public Buildings.


Among our public buildings the first to present itself is, of course, the Court House. This building is only partly finished, and is now receiving some large additions designed to accommodate the various courts that sit here, and the offices attached to them. The building, which is massive and durable as brick, stone and iron can make it, presents a front on four streets, Market, Chesnut, Fourth and Fifth, and will be, when completed, the finest building in the United States. The appearance of the different fronts is very imposing, and strikes the eye with fine effect. From the dome, one of the most beautiful of nature's panoramas is to be seen. The eye can take in at a glance the extent of territory spread out for miles upon every side. The city lies at your feet, with its busy and industrious population; the river, with its dark bosom dotted by palatial steamers, flows by on the east; the long trains of cars as they thunder along through the American Bottom; the hills which rear their brows against the sky in the west — all combine to render the scene lovely and picturesque. The cost of this building will be upwards of $1,000,000.



This building is in course of completion, and will probably be finished during the present year. It is built of Missouri marble, and is intended to be fire proof. When completed it will add much to the appearance of Third street and be an honor to the city.


This literary Institution, situated in an agreeable and airy part of the city of St. Louis, was founded in 1829 by members of the Society of Jesus, was incorporated by an act of the State Legislature in 1832, under the name and style of the "St. Louis UNIVERSITY," and empowered to confer degrees and academical honors in all the learned professions, and generally to have and "enjoy all the powers, rights and privileges exercised by literary institutions of the same rank." It has experienced uninterrupted prosperity, and has progressively improved so as to offer advantages not surpassed in the West.

The Institution possesses a valuable Museum, which contains a great variety of specimens both of nature and of art, collected from various quarters of the Globe, but especially from our own country; also a, very beautiful and complete Philosophical and Chemical Apparatus. The Library belonging to the Institution numbers over 15,000 volumes, embracing almost every branch of literature and science, and containing many very rare and interesting works. The select libraries, open to the students, form a collection of over 3,000 volumes.

To improve the students in public speaking, debating societies have been organized, and for years have been in very successful operation. To add solemnity to the celebration of


religious, national and literary festivals, and to afford the qualified student the advantages of performing a part in concert music, the Philharmonic Society has been established.

Under the guidance of Father Koning, the polite and gentlemanly Professor of Chemistry, we spent a couple of hours in looking through the Library and Museum. We found many quaint and ancient volumes, some printed as long ago as 1542. We were shown a MS. that was written before the invention of printing. The execution of it was faultless, the characters being German text, the coloring being black, blue, pink and gold; all of which, with the exception of the black, (which begins to fade,) looks as bright as new, while the parchment has the appearance of great age. In the Museum we were shown the dagger of Cortez, the conqueror of Mexico. This is a beautiful specimen of antiquarian mechanism. The blade, which is about fourteen inches long, is composed of two pieces nicely fitted together; a spring secreted in the hilt causes the two divisions of the blade to separate, showing the reservoir wherein the poison was secreted. Take it for all in all, it is a formidable looking weapon.

No person should visit St. Louis without examining this institution, as it is one of the most attractive places in the city.


Few buildings anywhere can excel, in massiveness and beauty, the "Church of the Messiah," on Olive street, under the pastoral charge of Mr. ELIOT. This house and ground is said to have cost $100,000, and yet there is nothing gaudy about it; it is built of brick and iron, of which metal there was used in the construction of this noble edifice some seventy tons of pig iron. It is of a very imposing appearance; the material is the very best hard brick, with heavy grouted walls, on the construction


of which no pains or expense was spared — every part built to last for ages, to go down to posterity as a monument to be admired. We have never witnessed such extra pains in securing a good and excellent job, as was manifested in the erection of this large edifice. It was not built by contract, but all the material was selected by the committee, and all parts done under their supervision by the workmen employed for the purpose. The ground plat is about ninety by some one hundred and twenty feet, and about seventy-five feet high, surmounted by a beautifully proportioned spire one hundred and sixty-seven feet high. The internal finish corresponds with the external, and is really beautiful, tasteful, yet devoid of glitter or mere show.


On Locust street towers up, in stateliness and solemn grandeur, the Union Presbyterian Church, under the pastoral charge of Rev. Mr. HOMES. This edifice is unlike in its style of architecture any other church in the city, indeed any we have ever seen. It is said to be the pure "Lombardic style," and its solemn appearance, with its internal beauty, produces a fine effect. This house was commenced in 1852, the Society having been organized in 1850, and dedicated to the worship of God in January, 1854. The building is about eighty feet wide by about one hundred and twenty feet deep, and the main church room is some sixty-three feet by one hundred. The pews, of which there are one hundred and seventy-six, are capable of seating some nine hundred persons on the main floor, exclusive of gallery for choir and organ, and the height from floor to ceiling is about sixty-two feet. This church has two towers, according to its style of architecture, one on either side — the one is one hundred and four, the other one hundred and sixty feet high. The organ in this church is doubtless the finest insturment


in the West, and cost, it is said, some $5,000; while the cost of the entire edifice, we have heard, is $70,000. This magnificent edifice, we have been told, was built entirely at the expense of H. D. BACON, Esq.; the Society, of which he was one of the members, not being called on to do anything towards paying for it until after it was finished and dedicated. He then proposed that if they would raise $30,000, he would make a deed of the entire property to the Trustees of the Society, making his donation for the object $40,000. This noble proposition was met by the friends of the church, and we recollect to have heard it said at the time, that the whole $30,000 was promptly raised within three days after Mr. Bacon made the proposal. Thus was this magnificent edifice relieved, by this benevolence, from any pecuniary embarrassment.


This church, of which the Rev. Mr. NELSON is pastor, is situated on Lucas Place, and is probably the finest church in the Western States. The building is eighty-four feet front by one hundred and thirty feet deep, and has been built and furnished in the most artistic manner, with a tower and spire two hundred and twenty-five feet high. This is much the tallest spire in the city, independent of the consideration that the church is located on about the highest ground within the city limits. This spire is visible in every direction for many miles, and presents a splendid appearance. There are many novel, yet useful, improvements made in the construction and equipment of this noble structure, the cost of which, we have been informed, was over one hundred thousand dollars. This church was mainly erected through the exertions of the lamented Rev. Dr. Bullard, who lost his life in the Gasconade tragedy.



Of which the Rev. SAMUEL PARSONS is pastor, is located on the corner of Eighth street and Washington avenue. This splendid church is sixty-five feet wide, one hundred and six in length, and seventy-four feet in height. The upper floor, or main audience room, is about sixty feet wide by one hundred long, having a height of about forty feet, and capable of seating from one thousand to twelve hundred persons. It is a plain but very substantial building, is handsomely finished, and is in every way well adapted to the purpose for which it is designed. While under the charge of the Rev. Mr. Parsons this church became a favorite resort of our church-going community.


This institution is now in course of erection, the corner stone having been laid in the summer of 1857. This is intended to be in the nature of a high school for boys and girls — rather something between the ideal high school and the college. It is to be an institution of learning of a high order. The public are indebted to the Rev. Mr. ELIOT for his spirited efforts in establishing this institution. The grounds selected for the college buildings are at the head of Washington avenue. Connected with this, as a department, is to be "The O'Fallon Industrial Institute for Boys," where all who are unable to procure a good plain education may be boarded and taught gratis. The feature, however, of this department is, that every boy is to be also instructed in such mechanical branch as the bent of his mind or inclination may suggest. Here mechanism will be taught in all its branches, not only in theory but in practice. Proficients in the various branches will be employed, and shops erected for the various branches, and the whole will be a regular


school for the gratuitous, yet thorough, instruction of all youth, both orphans and others, who may desire, by the acquisition of mechanical knowledge, to fit themselves for useful stations in society. All who attend this school are to be on an equality, so far as payment for services rendered is concerned; the work done may pay, perhaps, for the material used, but all are to live together and be supported alike; and, for the purpose of meeting the expense, we understand, Col. O'Fallon has set apart lands and lots now valued at upwards of $50,000. All who may wish to enjoy the advantage of this school will not only be required to conform with all its regulations, but to bring with them the best testimonials both as to industry, morality and probity. The whole will be under the personal supervision of the officers of the Washington Institute.


This school is supported by the voluntary contributions of the ladies who have taken it in hand, and such donations as they may receive for the purpose. They take those little girls that may be found about the city, whose parents pay but little if any attention to them. They do not propose to interfere with the legitimate office of the "Orphan Asylums," but if the children taken there are orphans, they do the best they can to make provision for them, until other arrangements are made. The little ones are taken to the house — they are cleaned, combed and neatly though plainly dressed, and all the morning is devoted to teaching them to spell and read and write; at noon, they all partake of a good dinner together, and the afternoon is employed in teaching them all the household duties — to sew, knit, wash, cook, &c., so that they may ultimately sustain themselves. At night, they all go to their various homes, except those few who, for certain periods, are required to remain in the


house at night; and as the performance of the severalduties is alternated, so all in their turn perform every part. Thus these children will obtain lessons in the practical duties of life, while habits of personal cleanliness and attention will be induced, much to the ultimate good of all who are there educated. The lady who has charge of these children seems well qualified for her difficult task; kindness and attention appear to be the means of her success, and I doubt not great good will be the result of this benevolent effort.

This enterprise has only been in operation for about four years, yet it has done wonders, and promises still further to grow and prosper in the good graces of the people. They are now occupying commodious buildings on Morgan street.


Which stands on the corner of Chesnut and Second streets, is a handsome brick edifice, and answers the purpose for which it is used very well, although it is not sufficiently large for the increasing business. As soon as the Custom House is completed the Post Office will be removed to apartments provided in that building. The present Postmaster has had a difficult task to perform, but has rendered pretty general satisfaction by the faithful manner in which he has discharged his duties.


The buildings of this institution are situated on the corner of Twentieth and Morgan streets, and are handsome and commodious, the main building being a superior edifice, and is in every way creditable to the State. Although unfinished, they are occupied and contain now about forty inmates, with capacity for one hundred. The pupils generally seem to be as happy and contented with their lot as could be expected; they possess


much information and are making rapid progress in their studies. In music, particularly, many of them excel. This institution has only been established a little over six years, but promises to exert a wide influence in bestowing benefits upon those unfortunate youths who are deprived of their eyesight. The affairs of the institution are controlled by a board of trustees, while the immediate supervision of the pupils is left to the fostering care of the kind and efficient Mr. E. W. Whelan, assisted by his accomplished wife.


This is the largest church, in the city, of any denomination. It is a massive stone building, and has a truly ecclesiastical appearance. The front is of polished free stone, and fifty feet in height. It has a fine portico, supported by four columns of the Doric order, with corresponding entablature, frieze cornice and pediment. The spire rests upon a stone tower, which rises from the foundation to a height of forty feet above the pediment, and is twenty feet square. The shape of the spire is octagon, and is surmounted by a gilt ball and cross ten feet high. There is a splendid chime of bells, (the largest in the city,) consisting of three — weighing severally 3,600, 1,900 and 1,500 pounds. In the tower is also a very large clock, which strikes the hours and quarters on the bells. The interior of the church, though not showy, evinces true ecclesiastical taste. The splendid altar piece, representing the Descent from the Cross (a copy from Rubens), first strikes the eye. This was painted by Mr. Pomerade, a St. Louis artist of the highest standing. The altar itself is very chaste and beautiful. On the west side is the throne of the Archbishop, over which is a large and splendid canopy. Opposite the throne, on the other side of the sanctuary, is a fine painting of St. Louis, presented by Louis XVIII, King of


France, in 1818, to Bishop Du Bourgh, who then ruled this Diocese. There is a chapel of the Blessed Virgin on the east side, and one of St. Bartholomew the Apostle on the west, containing paintings of the Holy Virgin and the Apostle of very great merit. That of St. Bartholomew's martyrdom is a masterpiece. The Stations of the Cross are small but very well executed oil paintings. The church is one hundred and thirty-six feet in length by eighty-four in breath. In the edifice are two rows of Doric columns, separating the nave from the aisles. There are five on each side, each four feet in diameter and twenty-six feet high, painted in imitation of rich marble. The organ, which cost over $5,000, is one of the most powerful in the country; but time has somewhat injured it. This church is free from those side galleries that injure the appearance of so many of our most expensive ecclesiastical edifices. As therapid growth of St. Louis leaves this edifice in the business portion of the city, it is said that a magnificent new Cathedral is in contemplation, which, from the number of wealthy Catholics in St. Louis, ought to, and doubtless will, surpass any such structure in the Union.


Built, owned and sustained by the city — is emphatically a charity; it is in truth a home for all nations, and it is astonishing what a congregation of nationalities is there; It shows, however, what apoint of concentration St. Louis is. It is curious to observe in the returns from this establishment made to the city officer who has the charge of, and who regularly publishes those returns, the various countries from which the persons come who are admitted there. Not only is almost every State in the American Union, but almost every country in North and South America, the various countries of Europe,


and even parts of Asia are represented there. A short time ago, among the number, we noticed one from Syria. This establishment is indeed worthy to be spoken of, and is a noble charity to which the city may point with pride, as evidencing the philanthropy of the people. Few hospitals, public hospitals, in the United States can compare with this. It is admirably arranged, in a high, airy, eligible position, and withal, as clean and neat, and quiet as a private dwelling. No pains are spared to make it every way pleasant and agreeable, and doubtless much is due for its admirable management to the Steward and Matron, who sustain an exalted reputation for care and attention. It is not to Be forgotten, however, that the city, through its Mayor and Councils, takes great pride in this important and valuable establishment; and the "Board of Health," representing each ward, especially watch over its arrangements, while the regular physician and his assistants, paid by the city, endeavor to make it all that the city wants — the very best of hospitals.

The city first built what we may call the old hospital some years ago, It was supposed to be amply sufficient; it was one hundred and seven feet long by fifty feet deep, and three stories high, divided into suitable wards and apartments for the various classes of invalids. But in the rapid increase of population, and the flood of immigration, it has been found inadequate. The original plan contemplated enlargement, without disturbing the existing arrangements, and the City Council having passed an ordinance therefor, part of the enlargement is now progressing. When the new part, now building, is finished, the front will be two hundred feet, the new one being ninety-three feet long, three stories high and fifty feet deep; and besides this, one of the wings is also constructing, with a depth of one hundred and seven feet by a width of fifty feet, also three stories high. This latter building fronts south, the


east, and it is contemplated to have, eventually, similar buildings both north and west. This entire structure, built of the best brick, is to be finished in the very best and most substantial manner, with ample supplies of water, bathing apparatus, and every convenience for the restoration of health and promotion of comfort that modern science and philanthropy has been enabled to devise, will be found there. Attached will be a drug store and other appurtenances, furnished by the city, the whole so arranged as to be capable of furnishing ample accommodations to some six hundred patients.

(Under the charge of the Sisters of Charity, from Emmelsburg, Md..)

Is on the corner of Fourth and Spruce streets. The buildings are ample, and possess every requisite necessary to alleviate the sufferings of the sick. The Sisters' Hospital has been many years in operation, and was the first establishment of the kind west of the Mississippi. It has been judiciously managed, and has acquired, as it doubtless richly deserves, the confidence of the community. It is not, however, a public charity in the general acceptation of that term; the public use it, but it is self-sustaining; very many go there and pay for attendance, preferring it either to a public or private hospital; and this is especially the case with strangers, and persons who have no homes of their own, and prefer good nursing and attention, and are able to pay for them. There, they can have their room, their attendant, their own physician, if they wish it, or, if they have no preference, the services of those (among the best) who are physicians to the Hospital.

Institutions of this kind are of a higher character than is generally conceded to them. The principal cities throughout Europe, and even in Constantinople, have one or more of them,


where they are held in high estimation for the manifest charities they are daily administering.

The present Hospital was established in this city in 1828, at which time there was no other institution of this class here. The ground on which this building stands was the gift of the late John Mullanphy, Esq. The family of the deceased holds the gift of four charity patients, which will continue through the life of the family of the donor.

Patients requiring private rooms are charged from five to seven dollars per week, exclusive of charge of their own physicians and medicines. A ward is also provided for the second class at three dollars per week, in which medical attendance and medicines are furnished gratuitously.

Separate apartments are appropriated for the blind, insane and cases of a chronic character. The number in this department varies from forty to sixty patients, most of whom are life patients, depending solely upon the benevolence of the Sisters.

At the request of the Most Rev. Archbishop Kenrick, other departments have been opened, to be devoted exclusively to the indigent sick. These will be considered the Thornton Ward.

The management is under the entire supervision of twenty-one Sisters, with one Superior, having also the assistance of male and female nurses, as may be deemed necessary for the separate wards.

The following are the names of gentlemen of eminence, and Professors of the St. Louis Medical College, who attend to the wards of the sick daily:

Surgeons — Drs. Charles Pope and E. Gregory.

Physicians — M. L. Linton, J. B. Johnson and T. Papin.

It should be here stated that the professional services of the above named gentlemen are administered to the poor of the Hospital gratuitously.


On January 1st, 1857, there were 210 cases remaining. From this date to Dec. 1857, were admitted 1979, during which time 1881 were discharged. No. of deaths 160. In Hospital to date, (Jan. 13th, 1858) 148.


This Hospital was erected at the expense of the United States; it is eligibly situated near the river, just south of the Arsenal; the buildings are stately, and present a beautiful appearance. Here are treated, at the expense of the United States, those sick and disabled boatmen who have no home here, only on their boat, who pay their regular fee, or "hospital money," to the Collector of the port, and have a certificate thereof. Our best physicians are engaged to attend to the unfortunate sick here, and devote much time to this hospital.


The building heretofore known as Wyman's Hall, but latterly the "Odeon," is now used for the purposes of this institution. It is situated on Market street, opposite the Court house, and was erected in 1848, at a cost of some $28,000, including furniture, &c. It is a substantial yet ornamental building, of about forty-four feet front by some one hundred feet deep. The first story is arranged for stores, and is about twelve feet high in the clear; the second story contains the concert hall, and is twenty-one feet high in the clear, is furnished with a small yet ornamental gallery all around, constructed of iron, and a neat stage furnished with splendid scenery. The whole room is tastefully fitted up, furnished with gas, &c., and capable of accommodating twelve or fifteen hundred people. It was in this room that Jenny Lind gave


her concerts while in St. Louis; and it has, from its central position, always been a favorite place for concerts, exhibitions, &c. The third story is fitted up as an exhibition room, and is finely adapted for the purpose; it is large, airy, well lighted, and well ventilated, and is seventeen feet high — while the fourth story is divided into three rooms, and devoted to the splendid collections of oil paintings, dissolving views, dioramas, &c. From this story, which towers high above most of the surrounding buildings, a beautiful panoramic view of the city may be had, especially looking to the east, south, and south-west, extending below the Arsenal, and over the city common — while a pure, healthy breeze constantly circulates through the upper portions of the buildings. We have never examined a building better adapted for the purposes to which it is devoted than this one; and it will, we doubt not, repay the liberal outlay which has been made for its erection. There are specimens from almost all lands — while rivers, lakes and ocean furnish their portion. Mr. Bates, the curator, works steadily, quietly, yet with all the enthusiasm of a true devotee to the science of his choice in the tasteful preparation and arrangement of this beautiful cabinet. The collections, especially in the department of Ornithology, are as fine as we have ever seen anywhere; probably finer than can be found in this country, both for the great number of specimens and for their beauty, their rarity, and the tasteful manner of their preparation and display. The animals and birds appear as bright, and almost as lifelike, as if sporting in their native wilds. We almost expect to hear warblers sing in the cases. Colors more fresh, pure, natural and gorgeous can scarcely be found in the living denizens of the land or the sea. The artless attitudes, and the charming arrangement of the creatures, with the effect of the whole, fill the careful observer with delighted wonder. We


confess that, personally, we feel deeply indebted to the shrewd head and hand which have reproduced so beautifully, and disposed within so small a compass, such a world of natural loveliness. Again and again may the observer revisit these attractions, and the more attentively and often he observes, the more warmly will he admire them.

We will mention a few prominent features of this beautiful resort, each of which is well worth the price of admission, viz: The great Zeuglodon, Gallery of Oil Paintings, superb Statues of Venus and Mercury, Egyptian mummies, Indian curiosities, &c., &c.

GEN. GREEN, the smallest dwarf in the world, is permanently engaged and holds daily levees — while the THAYER FAMILY, the only Female Sax Horn Band in the world, are also permanently engaged. These ladies are beautiful, accomplished, and splendid musicians.

In the concert room each evening a splendid band of Minstrels hold their "Soirees d'Afrique," and convulse the audience by their side-splitting jokes, witticisms, &c. A performance is given every Saturday afternoon for the accommodation of family parties and children. The admission to the entire building is only fifty cents. Children and servants, twenty-five cents.

True delights are cheap, exhauatless, and ever at interest. False ones are costly and self-destructive. At few places may higher enjoyment be purchased than at the Museum. And yet, till the grave the sooner receive them, multitudes must spend hundreds to satiety and weariness, rather than dimes for purifying, revivifying and ennobling bliss. True pleasures alone increase by repetition. To children and youth and to those who still retain the priceless inheritance of unvitiated tastes, we say, visit the Museum. Visit it often, and there


and elsewhere humbly peruse rather the significant volume of nature — her original volume — than those second-hand interpretations of the Divine will which are made by dogma-blinded men.


This Institution was founded in 1840 by Professors Joseph N. McDowell, John S. Moore, and others not now identified with it, for the purpose of affording the medical student who designed practicing his profession in the West a practical knowledge of the diseases incident to the climate, as well as a thorough knowledge of medical science generally. From the time of its establishment until 1846 it was recognized as the medical department of Kemper College. This connection continued until it was deemed prudent to form a connection with the University of the State of Missouri. This step was taken at the earnest solicitation of the latter institution, and continued till 1856, when, by an act of the Legislature of Missouri, persons practicing any of the learned professions were prohibited from holding a position as professor in this State University! As all of the professors of the Medical Department were engaged in the practice of Medicine or Surgery, the continuation of; the Medical Department of the State University became impossible.

It was this event which caused the institution to assume its present name. A charter was granted to Dr. Jos. N. McDowell, Thomas Watson, Wm. Milburn, Archibald Gamble and John S. Moore, and their successors, as Trustees of the Missouri Medical College, in 1846, conferring upon them the privileges granted to all similar institutions, and under which they now confer degrees.

This institution is now one of the most flourishing in the country, and we are certain the Faculty have not their superiors in


0the United States, embracing many of the most eminent men of the country. We are induced to insert their names for the benefit of those interested in such matters.

Jno. S. Moore, M. D., Prof. Theory and Practice of Medicine; Jos. N. McDowell, M. D., Prof, of Theory and Practice of Surgery; Abner Hopton, M. D., Prof, of Chemistry and Pharmacy; Jno. Barnes, M. D., Prof. Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Medical Botany; Jno. T. Hodgen, M. D., Prof, of Anatomy and Physiology; E. S. Frazer, M. D., Prof, of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children; S. G. Armor, M. D., Prof, of Pathology and Clinical Medicine; J. Drake McDowell, M. D., Adjunct Prof, of Surgery; Jno. J. McDowell, M. D., Demonstrator of Anatomy.

The College building is large and commodious, situated in on of the most delightful portions of the city, at the corner of Eighth and Gratiot streets, and from the dome commands a beautiful view of the surrounding country.

The Laboratory Room is 45 by 70 feet, with elevated seats, in order that the audience may be able to witness every experiment of the lecturer. The Chemical and Philosophical Apparatus is one of the most complete in the country. The common lecture room is 45 by 70 feet and 15 feet high, and is neatly furnished, the walls being covered with splendid oil paintings appropriate for the place.

The Anatomical Amphitheatre is seventy-one feet in diameter, octagonal, with a ceiling fifty-two feet high; light, airy, and has ample accommodations for one thousand persons. A large Dissecting Room, 45 by 85 feet, well ventilated, warmed and provided with tables, gas light, &c., is attached to this apartment. The Library Room is of the same size and shape as the Amphitheatre. It is elegantly furnished, and contains a superior collection of books, paintings, engravings, specimens, statuary, &c.


The Anatomical Museum is provided with a large number of dried and cut preparations of various parts of the human body, elegantly prepared — showing the osseous, ligamentous, muscular, vascular and nervous systems; also a fine collection of pathological and embryological specimens — the latter showing the various stages of development almost from impregnation to birth. Also a sufficient number of monstrosities to give variety to the collection.

The general Museum contains an immense collection of fossils, illustrating the Geology of the Mississippi Valley in its various parts, admirably arranged by one of the best Geologists in the country; a vast collection of minerals; a magnificent collection of ornithological specimens, embracing all the birds of North America, with a considerable number from the Southern half of the Western Hemisphere, and many of the gay feathered representatives of Africa; a good collection of fishes, reptiles and mammals; many curious and interesting things as specimens of art and manufacture, with a larger number of Indian curiosities than can be found elsewhere in the Valley.

Visitors in the city can not spend a few days more pleasantly or profitably than in visiting this collection. The doors are always open, and visitors admitted free of charge, and afforded every facility for gratifying a worthy curiosity.

The medical lectures in this institution begin on the first of November of each year, and continue four months. Fees, as usual in other respectable institutions of a similar kind.


This College was gotten up mainly through the instrumentality of Dr. G. A. Pope. It is a handsome brick building, with a front of some one hundred and thirty feet by a depth of one hundred feet, and is at least seventy-five feet high.


This beautiful structure was built entirely by the munificence of Col. John O'Fallon, at an expense of about $80,000, and is settled, or to be settled, on the Faculty or Trustees, as we learn, for the purposes for which it was erected, forever. The fitting up — museum arrangements and instruments — cost Dr. Pope at least $30,000 besides. This establishment is as perfect in its adaptation to the purposes for which it was erected, as enlarged scientific attainments, great energy and perseverance, and ample means, can make it. The museum, especially to the medical students, or even to the lover of art and nature, is almost invaluable. There are a vast number of illustrations of disease in all its various phases, both in wax and painting — numerous beautiful plates and representations, which make matters palpable to the eye, and impress the intellect. These are all, we are told, from the most celebrated establishments in Paris, and the collection is still being augmented. Besides these, another large and elegant room is devoted to the numerous collections of natural history, geology, mineralogy, botany, &c., &c. Many of these specimens are not only rare but beautiful, procured at great cost, and necessarily very attractive and useful. We apprehend this collection — although the college itself is of very recent origin — will favorably compare with the museums and collections for similar purposes in any of the older institutions in the country. These institutions, in so comparatively new a country as is this distant part of the great west, in a city so young as is St. Louis, with so many older, thoroughly established institutions to come in competition with, argue strongly, in their success, in favor of the advantages of our position, as well as the thorough scientific attainments and the persevering energy of their professors. No longer need the people of this valley look eastward for know ledge — no longer need their sons be taught in schools away


from the seat of the diseases they have to combat in the west — beyond the Mississippi; they may be instructed with a skill equal to that existing anywhere, and with practical knowledge of the peculiar diseases of the country.

We have long thought St. Louis, as a point for prosecuting medical studies, was perhaps unrivalled, standing as it does in the centre of the great valley of the Mississippi, its entrepot, the place of concentration of the vast multitudes of immigrants which pour in here from all lands, and from hence radiate in every direction, to occupy these great western regions. Containing, as the city does, a great population from all climes, a heterogeneous multitude, afflicted with all kinds of diseases, what favorable opportunities must present themselves for the thorough analysis both of malady and remedy! If to these we add the casualties incident to rapid growth, and vast steamboat operations, with the great and very valuable hospital facilities, it must readily be perceived how great the facilities are here for thorough medical studies as well aa practice. To these causes, we presume, is attributable the fact, that these two institutions have grown up here in so short a period, and so early in our history, while their greatly increasing classes, show not only a proper appreciation of the skill employed in teaching, but is a sure index of the success of the enterprise, and the prosperity and greatness of its future.


Is connected with the Medical Department of the St. Louis University. The dispensary is called after one of our most wealthy and at the same time most benevolent and public spirited citizens; for he not only originated the idea, but procured the ground and built the house — a very beautiful and substantial one — with his own means solely; but besides, he has


endowed it for all time as a place for the gratuitous relief of the sick poor, with property worth now some fifty thousand dollars, and constantly increasing in value. This indeed is a noble charity! here, the halt, the maimed, the sick, the poor, will forever be able to obtain medicines and attendance, "without money or price," "fee or reward;" the property being settled on trustees for this purpose, and the endowment went into effect in 1856. This establishment has now been in operation nearly five years, during which time over twenty thousand persons have been treated for various diseases.


Chapter V. Public Buildings (Continued).


The Merchants' Exchange Company of St. Louis, with a liberality that has characterized their whole proceeding, with honor to themselves and greatly to the credit of St. Louis, whose commercial dignity they so worthily represent, have erected a very elegant building on Main street, between Market and Walnut, which merits a particular notice in our sketches. It is not yet completed, but is so far advanced that its general effect may be readily discerned. It is built of a fine specimen of the Allen stone, obtained from the quarry near Allenton, on the Pacific railroad — a fine-grained and shaded limestone, admirably suited to building purposes. The style of architecture is Italian, simple, dignified, and in happy keeping with the design of the structure, as the palace where the merchant princes of St. Louis will hold their daily commercial levees.

The building stands with a facade on Main street, of 153 feet width by 70 feet in height. In depth it is 86 1/2 feet, with a front on Commercial street 92 feet in height to the square of the roof. It is divided on Main street into three stories — the first, fourteen feet and four inches in height; the second, twenty-six; and the third, seventeen feet.

The lower stories are supported by a massive lintel course,


and bold moulded cornice, supported by nine principal piers three feet by two, with handsome moulded caps and base. There are also eight intermediate piers of smaller dimensions, similar in architectural finish, the whole having an air of great strength, for the support of the structure above.

The north and south entrances have projecting porticoes, supported by fluted and carved columns of Corinthian pattern, with bold moulded capitals, with an entablature surmounted by a large carved work, in the centre of which is a medallion with the device or coat of arms of the Chamber of Commerce.

The second or principal story is the chief feature of the building. It presents to the eye of the spectator on the street, a front divided into eight compartments by iron couple-pilasters with handsome moulded caps, supporting eight circular arches enriched by bold moulded architecture. Between the pilasters are eight large circular-headed windows, twenty feet in height by nine in width, indicating by their magnitude the character of the building. These windows are divided into two compartments, as high as the springing of the arch, with a circalar compartment above. The style is one of which our readers have seen examples in the Union church, in the Methodist church on Washington avenue, and in some warehouses.

The third story has large windows of a similar pattern and finish, set on a richly moulded and panelled water-table, forming the sill of the windows. The entire facade is crowned by a massive iron cornice, divided into spaces by large modillions, with intermediate panels enriched with ornaments in terra cotta. The crown moulding is likewise enriched with similar ornaments, representing countenances, said to be lions, but intelligent, grave and dignified enough to pass for what they have been pronounced by some — the portraits of the President and Board of Directors of the Exchange Company. The effect of the


whole gives an idea of great solidity, elegance, purity and repose of form and proportion. The walls are three feet two inches thick to the top of the second story.

Passing into the building, the Exchange Room is reached by a broad flight of steps, thirteen feet from the landing of which the visitor enters the spacious hall of the merchants, which for magnitude and boldness of design will surpass any room erected in the United States for the same purpose. By its very proportions and magnificence, it fittingly symbolizes the extent of our commerce, the enterprise of our merchants and the liberality and public spirit of the founders of this enterprise. This room is one hundred and five feet in width by eighty feet in depth. It has a central rotunda, sixty feet in diameter, with a height to the dome of fifty-eight feet. The interior will be elaborately frescoed throughout, the dome of the rotunda being thrown into four compartments richly painted in fresco, with large medallions, portraying the four quarters of the globe. The south end of the hall is to be fitted with a reading room, elevated about seventeen feet above the main floor, and reached by a circular iron staircase. The room is eighteen feet by eighty, supported by eight Corinthian columns, and enclosed by a second tier of columns and tasteful iron railing. This reading room is exposed and visible from the main floor.

The third story of the building is devoted to offices, twenty-two in number, felicitously arranged so as to form a square around the basin of the rotunda, with a gallery four feet wide, protected by an iron railing running around the entire square. These offices are constructed with an eye to convenience and comfort. They are divided from each other by glass partitions, are seventeen feet in height, spacious, well-lighted and ventilated, and easily accessible from the gallery of the rotunda. For business purposes, no offices could be more advantageously


located or arranged. The Directors and Secretary are provided with very handsome quarters, liberal in extent, finished with elegance and good taste, and cheerful as abundant light can make them.

When this structure is entirely completed, supplied with its massive oak furniture, and decorated by the painter's art, it will be the noblest architectural ornament in the city; in its strength, as substantial as St. Louis credit — in the liberality of the division and height of stories, fitly typifying the broad spirited views of St. Louis merchants — in its general aspect of magnificence, foreshadowing the grandeur of the city that St. Louis is yet to be. Money has not been spared in its construction wherever strength or beauty could be attained. It is a building that can withstand all the ordinary vicissitudes of time, and if not assailed by fire or earthquake, will witness the gradual passing away of the present generation of merchants, the advent within its doors of another and another generation until its thick-clustering associations will speak of hundreds of honored commercial names of those gone to their rest, who once with busy activity filled the place, and with community of feeling and of aim laid broad the foundations of the future honorable greatness of the Empire city of the west.

We should remark in this connection, that this costly structure, involving an expenditure of nearly $150,000 for the house and lot, was projected with no view to profit, but with the public spirited design to erect a building that might in a becoming manner represent the commercial dignity and wealth of the chief city of Missouri, and furnish suitable quarters for the daily transactions of the yearly augmenting business that finds its theatre and centre at the Exchange.

The excellent management of the Exchange Company, however, notwithstanding the liberality of their expenditures, has


been such that the building will prove fine stock, and pay at once a fair dividend, after paying the instalments due the city. The stores on Main and Commercial streets have already been engaged at remunerating rents.

Hall of Merchants' Exchange.

Mr. L. D. Pomarede, the artist of this dome, is by profession a fresco-painter — peintre en fresque. He has not, however, painted this ceiling in true fresco, though the peculiar effect of fresco-painting is nearly obtained, with some advantages that fresco does not possess. The method adopted by him is called encaustic, and consists essentially in the use of oil colors upon a prepared ground, so as to present a dead absorbent surface, avoiding the reflections of light, which render painting in oil unsuitable for such works. There are various styles adopted with this general purpose, encaustic, distemper, and fresco-proper, which consists in using water-colors upon the fresh plaster.

This last — fresco in the strict sense — is in every respect a quite peculiar Walk of art, and has been considered its grandest walk. It is that kind and sphere of pictorial art which touches on to architecture and sculpture, and is designed for the decoration of great public buildings — princely halls, forums, senate-chambers and churches. Michael Angelo pursued this branch of art, and is said to have disdained oil painting as unworthy of a man of genius. It is only in fresco-painting, indeed, that the very grandest achievements of the imagination are possible in the art of painting. The figures are large and colossal, because they are seen at a great height. Hence there is no petty detail admissible. It would be lost. This is especially the case when the art is applied to the ornamentation of domes and ceilings, where indeed it culminates. The ceiling


of the Chamber of Commerce was painted in encaustic by Mr. Pomarede within two months from the first stroke of the brush, and he composed it as he painted. Of course the design as a whole was in his conception. It need not be said that it will not do to compare such a ceiling, thus extemporized (as it were), with the glorious and consummate domes on which patient genius has expended the thought and passion and artistic labor of a score of years — works which money could not buy, and only the blending of artistic enthusiasm with religious devotion could inspire. But the ceiling of Pomarede has its own peculiar merits, and there is not, perhaps, one of the same size anywhere that is in some respects so striking.

The beauty of every work of art consists in its unity with multiplicity. The more it is varied and multiplied, so long as it still impresses and seizes the imagination and the senses as ONE — as an intellectual whole, the finer it is. Now this simple, beautiful unity, is the first thing that strikes in the ceiling of the Chamber of Commerce. As soon as you enter the noble hall, and lift your eye to its dome, you behold a surface, richly ornate, splendid with color and with effective contrast, vigorous forms, action, grouping, symbolism, but all forming one ensemble — one whole, in harmony with itself, and over all the members of which the eye runs delighted, without meeting a shock. The design is simple. Four panels in color, very light and brilliant, are embraced by cornice work of chiaro-scuro, enriched with arabesques, caryatids, and rosettes, while the spandrels (triangular spaces, where the ceiling descends in the corners of the dome) are enriched by grand medallions, with colossal figures, also in chiaro-scuro, or light and shade.

Now here note the effect of the sober grave-stone color of the chiaro-scuro in giving brilliancy and glow to the colored panels, and that of the light and thin colors of the panels in


giving force and relief to the sobriety of the chiaro-scuro. If either of these elements were altered — if, for example, the panels had been painted in deep rich colors like an ordinary oil painting — the harmony and effect of the whole ceiling would have been ruined.

The four panels of the plafond are filled respectively with allegorical representations of the four quarters of the globe.

America (to come to the panels) is a youthful female figure, standing on a platform or pedestal. Her tunic is yellow, and defines a graceful form; her peplum is red, embroidered with stars; her air is animated and gracious; her countenance open and inviting, to represent the freedom of America. At her feet is the eagle. In one hand she holds the caduceus, or or winged rod of Mercury, the god of eloquence and commerce. The arm reposes on the fasces, the symbol of Republican majesty and law. The pose of this figure is extremely elegant, and the neck and bust are really beautiful. On her right hand are representatives of the nations of the Old World, bringing the mechanical arts and productions of commerce to her shores — a Chinese with tea, a Turk with jewels, a Smyrniote girl with perfumes, an Englishman (much idealized) with an anchor and cog-wheel; behind we see a locomotive and the spars of ships, men carrying burdens, and even a monk, who transports religion from the old to the new world. On her left hand stands a half-nude Indian, with arrows and eagle plume — the aborigines; and beyond approach figures representing the European immigration — Labor, half-nude — and three majestic women: Germany, with the emblems of agriculture and the grape — France, with the sciences and arts — Italy, with the fine arts, Germany and France are noble figures, and the whole group is varied, finely composed, imaginative, story-telling, and full of life and poetry.


Next in our order is Europe, another female figure, crowned as a queen and sitting on a throne. Her expression is a little stately; her attitude of ease mixed with command; the right hand holds and rests on the sword, symbol of justice and force; the left is on a globe, sign of her universal dominion and supremacy; her tunic is light blue, her mantle royal crimson; one knee is crossed on the other, which is certainly not conventional, and is intended to represent the ready life of Europe, which is not fossilized into dignity. On her right, Columbus presents to Europe three Indians, figuring the New World; in the background are helmed knights, crusaders, plumed cavaliers, medieval figures, rich and stately — the historic Europe. On her left, three female figures, representing the arts — Poetry, Architecture, Sculpture. Poetry is a figure of perfect elegance — a lovely face, a head bound with laurels, a full yet graceful form. A dreamy, well-drawn aerial personage, floats in from the extreme left, and, by a gesture over the indistinct and misty blue, invites Europe to send the arts to the New World.

Asia comes next, and is opposite to America, to which she offers a complete contrast. Here liberty — there despotism. A magnificent Turk, in rich Oriental costume, and with a parasol of ostrich plumes borne over his turbaned head by a black slave, is the principal figure. Another servant, kneeling behind him, bears his hookah. Before him, on the right of the picture (our left), a Greek pirate, in the picturesque costume of the Arnauts, is leading forward a beautiful Circassian girl, whom he offers for sale; in the background some regular Circassian merchants (we will suppose) are looking on, among whom is a lady, a mother, who, instead of pitying the poor captive, is coveting her lot for her own daughter — all in accordance with the well-known customs of the East. Still further back, the picture is filled up with elephants, with their drivers


loaded camels and distant palm trees. Some persons criticise the blue aerial tint of the elephants, which ought to be a deep and substantial brown, approaching to black, say the critics. They might as well object to the whole scene being represented on the clouds, instead of a solid sandy desert. This aerial lightness is necessary in a ceiling, first, to give perspective; second, not to overpower the chiaro-scuro; it belongs to the style, and one might as reasonably complain that Miss Hosmer's statue is not flesh-colored (inasmuch as all real women are of that hue) as of the aerial tint of those elephants, which, if they were painted after nature in that respect, would seem to threaten to come down on the heads of the people below.

Last is Africa. A female figure of a light tint, like the complexion of the Nile, with a sort of an Egyptian head-dress, pearl-strings on her neck, naked to the waist, and draped for the rest with rich, barbaric skirts, is the fourth continent. She holds a lance in her right hand, and her left grasps the mane of a Numidian lion; her right hand group is a black warrior or king, who offers for sale a female negro slave, with a baby in her arms, and having only a slight drapery about the hips; and whose soft features and elegant contours are all the more attractive for not being too African. For this, however, the artist has ample authority among the travellers, who describe the women of Upper Egypt black as coal, but with the most supple and seductive contours possible, sweet in features and modeled like the finest statues. This slave-woman in Africa is one of the most charming figures on the panels, and is universally admired. On the left of Africa, are blacks sorting ostrich-plumes and carrying burdens; in the background we have more slaves, Arab merchants, camels, ostriches, palm-trees, and the blue gigantic crystals of the pyramids piercing the sultry sky. A very fine panel, simple but effective, and the inherent difficulties of the subject very well disposed of.


To come to particulars as far as is necessary — Atlantic, in virtue of his ancient fame, is represented by Neptune, bearing his trident and attended by a mermaid. Reeds spring up on his shore, the waves roll around his island throne. Pacific is an ideal figure — bearing a rudder, with reeds and tropical trees on his shore; the form of the mermaid, whose back is turned to us, extremely graceful. Her face is turned to us over the shoulder, reminding us of the coquetry of the Pacific isles. Oregon (we suppose) pours his flood from the urn. Mississippi, is a grand old man, with a beaver and beaver huts among his reeds. The eagle is at his side, and he sits at the confluence of the Missouri. Amazon is an Amazon; woman to the waist, and nude; below the hips, which are draped, assume the masculine type; the hand grasps a spear; the lama protrudes his tall neck and head behind, and the composition is balanced by a sister Amazon, sitting with her back turned, which affords the artist the opportunity of introducing again the finest outline that nature knows. In short, the dignity of the subject is perfectly well sustained, and the meaning is well explained.


The Exchange Rooms of this Association are at No. 63 Chestnut street, between Third and Fourth streets. The avowed objects of this Association are the encouragement, development and promotion of the mechanical and manufacturing interests of the city. The arbitration of all errors and misunderstandings between its members, and those of the community having business with them.

The rooms are kept open on business days from 7 o'clock, A. M., till 6 o'clock, P. M., yet the general assembling hours are from 11 till 12 o'clock, M. Here are found all the principal


builders, manufacturers and mechanics of the city, commingling together, cementing the bonds of good-fellowship which have heretofore existed between them. Each member is entitled to a communication box, the use of the reading room, library, stationery, &c., &c., without extra charge. The terms of membership are ten, dollars per annum, payable half yearly in advance.

The following gentlemen are the officers for the ensuing year of 1858:
W. STAMPS, President,
N. M. LUDLOW, 1st Vice-President,
E. N. LEEDS, 2d
R. M. PARKS, Treasurer.

Commitee of Arbitration. — John Andrews, Wm. Barren, Philip Wilson, Jas. L. Gage, P. Gregory, Jno. B. Gibson, P. Harvey, Andrew Middleton.

Committee of Appeal. — Chas. H. Peck, Sam'l Robbins; W. F. Cozzens, John Evill, W. G. Clark, L. D. Baker, W. H. Markham.

Avocation of Members. — 110 architects, superintendents and builders; 4 hatters and fur dealers; 60 bricklayers; 1 wire manufacturer; 3 boot and shoe dealers; 2 paper hanging establishments; 3 stationers and booksellers; 5 carriage and wagon makers; 9 stone masons; 13 lumber dealers; 8 stone cutters; 9 tin and stove dealers; 3 hardware dealers; 2 wood turners; 7 galvanized iron work; 15 saw milling; 4 stone pavers; 1 varnish manufacturer; 9 terra cotta work; 8 painters; 6 lime burners; 2 cement dealers; 5 gas-fitters; 10 plumbers; 5 planing mills; 2 mastic work; 17 wrought and cast iron work; 20 brick-makers; 11 plasterers; 8 marble dealers; 14


sition, metal and slate roofers; 24 sundry other kinds of business. — Total 401.

Persons not members, residing in or out the city, desirous of exhibiting models or works of art, &c., may have the privilege of using the large hall for that purpose if acceded to by the Secretary or any other officer of the institution.


This Association has been in operation over twelve years, and compares favorably with any similar institution in the Union. The buildings erected for the purpose of a Library hall are elegant, spacious and admirably adapted for the purposes to which they are dedicated. They are situated on the south-west corner of Fifth and Locust streets, having a front of 115 feet on Locust and 127 1/2 on Fifth street, and are 87 feet high to the eaves, and 200 feet to the top.

The first story is arranged for store rooms, and is now occupied as such; it is 12 feet high. On the second floor are to be found the Library hall and small Lecture hall, the former of which is 80 by 64 feet, with a ceiling in the clear of 20 feet; the latter is the same height, with a length of 80 by a width of 44 feet, and has ample room for comfortably seating six hundred persons.

We now come to the grand feature of the building. It is the Grand Hall — the most popular place for concerts, lectures and exhibitions in the city. It was here that Ole Bull, Mme. De Vries, and Paul Julian, held their concerts. It was here that the distinguished lecturer and statesman, Hon. Edward Everett, repeated his famed lecture of "Washington" to listening thousands, and held them spell-bound by his magic eloquence. Here it is that the ladies hold their pleasant strawberry festivals.


It has a depth of 106 feet with a width of 80 feet, the height of ceiling being 36 feet in the clear. A splendid stage is erected in the west end of the hall, while from the ceiling is pendant a series of gorgeous chandeliers, with upwards of a thousand jets of gas which, when lighted, shed their rays with brilliant effect upon the beauty gathered beneath. This Hall is the most magnificent one in the United States, and has capacity for seating comfortably 2,300 persons.

The Library is stocked with a large collection of valuable books, numbering some 14,000 volumes; besides having on the shelves and files all the periodicals, magazines and newspapers of the day. There are a number of magnificent paintings decorating the walls; but a beautiful piece of statuary from the chisel off Miss Hosmer is the most prominent ornament. This is a rare piece of art, and deservedly attracts much attention.

There are 1300 members belonging to the Association, and by reference to the report of the last year's proceedings we learn that in 1857, 17,800 volumes were issued to 1193 members, one hundred and six members having taken nothing.

The following gentlemen are the officers for 1858:
Matthew V. L. McClelland, President; John B. S. Lemoine, Vice President; George H. Loker, Treasurer; George R. Wilson, Corresponding Secretary; Calvin W. Marsh, Recording Secretary.

John Christopher, John A. Brownlee, Robert H. Davis, F. R. Alexander, Sydenham R. Clarke, Sol. Scott, Jr., George W. Tracy — Directors.

Wm. P. Curtis, Librarian; Stephen Massoch, Jr., Assistant Librarian; Samuel Clegg, Janitor.

Mr. Curtis has held the responsible post of Librarian for upwards of ten years. He is a general favorite — so much so as to have had no competitor for the post he fills, for


several years. A more pleasant, courteous and affable gentleman can not be found in St. Louis than Mr. Wm. P. Curtis; and we would urge upon strangers visiting St. Louis a visit to the Library Hall. We are sure they will have a better opinion of us after having done so.


Chapter VI. The Water Works.

St. Louis is supplied with water from the Mississippi river. A steam engine of considerable poiser draws it from the river and forces it to the reservoir. The water is taken out in the upper part of the city, above the entrance of any of the sewers, at a place where the river is deepest and the current swiftest, and therefore the water taken out is the purest that can be obtained. The Missouri river imparts its peculiar muddy caste to the Mississippi at and below their junction, and although the appearance of the water is not clear, and to a stranger is rather disagreeable, yet it is nevertheless about the best river water in the world. It is said to keep longer, and be sweeter on a sea voyage, than the water of perhaps any other stream; indeed it may almost be said never to spoil. The appearance of the water when first taken from the river, or when the supply from the reservoir has not had time to settle, is rather muddy and thick, from the great admixture of light sandy particles, and strangers generally dislike to use it; but it soon settles on becoming stationary, and then is very palatable, and persons soon become very fond of it — preferring it to any other water. It does not, however, agree with all who use it; until they become habituated. Some of those, especially Europeans, who, after a long confinement on ship-board, and a scant supply of water,


find themselves in the midst of such a river, and particularly if the weather is hot, with power to drink just as much as they please, are very apt to be rather seriously affected by its use. But soon these difficulties are overcome; the system becomes habituated to its use, the muddy appearance is rapidly forgotten, and the sweet, pleasant taste renders almost any well or spring water insipid in the comparison, and we long for the supply furnished by the "Father of Waters." Even the stranger loves its use; how much more, then, those who for years have used no other! Supplied from such a source, there can be no apprehension of a failure, although it is not to be disguised that the people are often put on short allowances.

The Water-works belong to the city; all the expense of procuring and distributing is incurred by it, while all the revenue arising from the sale, or rather the permission to the citizens to use the water, is paid into the city treasury, the city having an absolute monopoly in this matter. But although great efforts have been made — and are now making — an ample supply of this necessary element can not apparently be had. This arises from many causes — chiefly the rapid increase of population — the extension of manufacturing establishments, and the too frequent delay in making extensions and improvements, until forced by the necessities of the case, and even then only to the extent of present supplies. There appears a want of forecast, an indisposition to take hold of and surmount difficulties so as to make ample provision for being ahead of the demands for the future; a kind of temporizing policy which would not characterize an effort by individuals associated together for supplying the city amply with water. But there are difficulties in the way, I am well aware, and I am not disposed to find too much fault with our "City Fathers" in all things pertaining to these supplies, for it does seem almost impossible to keep up with


this demand. With a view to the exemplification of our progress as a city, regarding the demand for water as a species of "barometer" by which to measure, I will present some points, contrasting the past with the present and future, and for the data on which to base these views I am indebted to Mr. Pritchard, Superintendent of Water-works.

The first reservoir was built in 1830 or 1831, on one of the mounds on the east side of what is now called Broadway — near the residence of the late General W. H. Ashley. This was capable of containing about 230,310 gallons of water, and was amply sufficient for the wants of the city at that period. But as population increased, and, by consequence, the demand for water, it became necessary to make an enlargement, which was done in 1838, and the quantity was increased to about 290,000 gallons. So that the increase in those seven or eight years was only some 60,000 gallons; but during this period there was not a very great increase of population. If I recollect right, we only increased in ten years, from 1830 to 1840, about 10,000, leaving our population at the latter period about 16,000. Soon after that period (1840) population began to flock in, and manufacturing establishments commenced — so that the supply was again, inadequate — and the wooden reservoir was built on the top of the old one in 1844, capacitated to contain 409,440 gallons. It soon became manifest that this work was not adequate to the supply of the place, nor yet sufficiently elevated to supply the higher parts of the city; nor was, there a possibility of finding in its vicinage a place sufficiently elevated on which to erect a reservoir, ample in dimensions and capable of supplying the high situations. A situation was finally obtained about one mile west of the river, near the northern part of the city, and here, in 1848, the new reservoir was erected, capacitated to contain 7,968,750 gallons.


This it was supposed would be sufficient for many years to come; it is well built of stone, very strong and permanent, and answers an excellent purpose; the only difficulty is, it is not large enough! By this array we see the rapidity of our growth: the supply, deemed sufficient in 1844, is increased near twenty fold in 1848, and in 1854 so utterly insufficient is the supply that the City Council orders another reservoir to be built, which is estimated to be capable of containing 32,248,125 gallons more than four times the capacity of the present, still called the new reservoirbuilt only six years ago. But how long will this one now building supply the demand? probably not five years ! And then others will be required of much greater capacity; for we must bear in mind, that the limits must be extended at the next session of the Legislature, and the thousands of people now without, and who do not receive supplies from these Water-works, will be incorporated in the city, and must be supplied; besides, there are large portions of the present city destitute. Provision should therefore be made in time, and as soon as the City Engineer can place those now constructing in use, provision should at once be made for building up the other fourth of Reservoir square, so as to anticipate the demand. But this, in my opinion, is not the only thing necessary to be done in the premises: enlarged ability in the pumping apparatus is also necessary in order to furnish a full supply. Not very long ago there was put up a beautiful new engine, of some one hundred and fifty horse power, and there had previously been in use, and still on hand at the works, two old engines. These last being nearly worn out, and indeed not very reliable, are only used in an emergency. The new one is the main support. This is capable, we are told, of pumping from the river, and forcing to the reservoir through a twenty inch pipe, about 3,000,000 gallons in twenty-four hours, or


say 21,000,000 gallons per week — while the present demand of the city for all purposes, is about 5,000,000 gallons for every twenty-four hours, during six days in the week; thus the engine has to work day and night, interminably, to keep up a daily supply. The main pipe from the engine to the reservoir, partly laid for other purposes, is rather circuitous, makes a number of rather acute angles, and while it therefore makes the distance greater, say at least one-fourth of a mile, than if it were straight, increases also the resistance, and precludes the working of the full power of the engine lest some accident should happen at the angles. Now, let me ask, what would we do for water if from any cause this engine should become disabled? As it is, we live, as it were, "from hand to mouth."

Seven days working by the engine supplies six days' use; what the engine pumps up on Sunday has some chancet o settle, and what is pumped at night furnishes a good head for use during the day; but mostly the water has no chance to settle; as it is taken from the river, it is sent coursing through the city, to be used for all the purposes of life.

Indeed, in the more elevated portions of the city, it is now nearly impossible to get a supply of water, and such as is obtained seems to come directly from the river. Now, we ask again, if such is the case, with the most powerful engine the city has ever had — if no time is given for the water to settle, and the supply is inadequate — what would we do if it was to be disabled? If a "prudent man foreseeth the evil and hideth himself" how should prudent City Fathers act in view of such a contingency? We suppose they would at once cause another and at least as powerful an engine to be built and put up, and lay an independent pipe of large calibre on as straight a line as possible to the reservoir, and thus, while guarding


against any contingency, furnish a full supply of water to all parts of the city — to the elevated as well as the depressed. And it seems to us this is only a question of time, anyhow. The City Council does not, surely, expect that the present pumping power can possibly supply the enlarged reservoir. If, then, another must be had, why not procure that other at once, and avoid the hazard we are now running?

Let the old engines be sold; they are entirely too small for any useful purpose to us, if even at some expense put into repair, and let us look the difficulty and expense right in the face, and at once meet and overcome it. We must have ample supplies of water, and the people should not be expected either to use it as it comes from the river without settling; nor yet should the city require people to pay for what they do not get. Many houses now, in the more elevated situations, have not one-fourth of a supply, while there are large populous neighborhoods, both in the north and south, and even in the very centre and oldest part of the city, entirely destitute. Our manufactories must also have ample and continuous supplies, while it is very desirable to cleanse, as far as possible, the street gutters, as has been partially done this summer by letting loose occasionally the fire-plugs; and also, while all these things demand water, it requires no small quantity to sprinkle the streets and supply the public bath-houses at this season of the year. We are well aware, that to keep up with the growing wants of such a city as this, spreading as it does with such rapidity over so great a space, requires great diligence, a large outlay of money, and considerable time. And we are free to admit, that progress has been and is the motto, and this progress is exemplified by a few facts. In May, 1850, the Superintendent of Water-works reported that there was then laid down in the city, and in use, nearly seventeen miles of water-pipe,


and also ninety-four fire-plugs; now, eight years after, there is laid down and in use something over seventy-five miles, showing an increase in eighty years of about sixty miles, or nearly eight miles per annum, of additional pipe laid for the supply of the city. And it must be borne in mind that within these last eight years much the greater part has been of large pipe, say fifteen to twenty inches, of which none, or very little, had been previously put down. And it must not be forgotten that much time and very extensive works are necessary for casting this large amount of pipe, all of which is now done in our city.

In this connection, as illustrative of our progress, we wish to add a few thoughts on the subject of pipe.

Formerly, all the water-pipe used in this city was brought either from the Cumberland or Ohio rivers. We believe the first pipe used was brought from the Cumberland, under a contract made with Mr. John Stacker, and these foreign supplies were continued, unmolested by any home competition, until some time in 1846 or 1847, when proposals by Messrs. Garrison & Bro., for supplying six and ten inch pipe, were accepted by the city. This broke the charm, and these enterprising home manufacturers commenced to render us, in this necessary article, independent of foreign foundries. True, they could not supply the demand, limited as it then was, but they made a beginning; they proved that if "some things could be done as well as others," these things could be as well done at this place as at others. And this start made, was followed up by others, and in the manufacture of large pipe as well as small. In 1849 Messrs. Palm & Robinson, under contract with the city, commenced the manufacture of twenty inch water-pipe for the supply of the new Water-works, and we recollect to have seen the fact stated at the time that their


proposals were to make the pipe here at a lower price than the same was offered to be done for from cities on the Ohio. Two things were thus shown — that pipe, large or small, could be made here, and made as low or even lower than at older cities, at more extensive works. These demonstrated, so far at least as these things were concerned, we were approaching independence. About this time, or perhaps in 1850 or 1851, Messrs. James Graham & Co. entered into the manufacture of water-pipe, and in consequence of Messrs. Palm & Robinson engaging largely in making locomotives, engines and machinists' tools, they do nothing now at water-pipe, and hence the whole supply devolves at present on Messrs. Graham & Co., who, although steadily at work, can not supply the demand; another establishment as large, perhaps two such, are necessary to supply the demand for water-pipe, besides the almost equal demand for the supply of the Gas-works.

We do not know what our Water-works have cost; we do not recollect ever to have seen the amount stated, nor do we suppose the policy to be to make money for the city by the rent of the water; for, although there might be a loss even by the operation, still there should be provided a supply of water, and the rate of charge should be equitable but not oppressive; and besides, the city as an aggregate should bear some portion of the expense, inasmuch as the public offices and the public charities are supplied gratis, and the public health and comfort, as well as safety, require the use of large quantities of water. So that we should not engage in this matter of water supplies only as a "revenue measure," or as an operation merely of "dollars and cents." But we apprehend the revenue from this source will justify even an extension.



The following article from the pen of our esteemed fellow citizen, Mr. JOHN HOGAN, was written by him about four years ago. Although many improvements have been made in the city since that time, it contains much valuable information, which induces us to give it a place in these pages:

"St. Louis, as a manufacturing city, is yet in its minority, I may say, its infancy.

"A few years ago almost all kinds of goods and manufactured wares were brought here from other cities, chiefly from those on the Ohio. The idea seemed prevalent that this was not, and never could be, a manufacturing place.

"It was recognized as a good place to sell goods, but not the place to make them on a large scale. Experience, however, has demonstrated, that the latter part of such sentiment was as fallacious as the first part was true. And why, let me ask, should St. Louis be regarded as not a proper place — a profitable place — for manufacturing? Every prerequisite is here, or, at least, easily attained here.

"Let us note some of those things which are most desirable, indeed necessary, to be at hand, or easily attainable, so as to make manufacturing most productive:

"First, perhaps chiefest, among the prerequisites for large manufacturing establishments, is an abundant supply of food of all kinds, and at fair living prices. To manufacture extensively in all the various branches of mechanism entering into commerce, requires an immense number of hands; to supply these and their families, and all dependent upon them, with food convenient for them, absorbs at the best a large amount of the entire proceeds of their labor. Now, one of the immutable laws of trade is, that where the demand is greater than the supply


the price of the article is enhanced. If, then, there is a large concentration of operatives, who from their avocations are necessarily consumers and not producers of food, unless they are employed nearest to the greatest and most abundant supply, they will find enhanced prices, and, by consequence, the pro rata of wages over the amount expended for food is proportionally decreased. But is there any place in the United States where there is a greater concentration of all kinds of food, at fair, we may say, first hand prices, than at St. Louis? I doubt whether, as an original concentrating and supply-produce point, St. Louis has its equal anywhere.

"And such it must be always, while these vast Western States continue productive — while these mighty rivers flow and bear upon their bosoms the great vessels that annually transport to this mart for sale the thousands of tons of all kinds of produce that men and animals consume. Food, food, food for millions, for hundreds of millions, may be produced in this great productive West, and St. Louis will always be its vast depot. Where it concentrates, therefore, is the place for men to congregate for manufacturing purposes, other things being equal.

"If then food absorbs more than a moiety of the wages of operatives everywhere, it follows as a consequence that where food is most abundant and cheapest the mechanic receiving the same wages can save the largest sum from his daily labor; and if St. Louis is that place, then he is here most prosperous.

"Another reason why this is a proper manufacturing point is its contiguity to the raw material which enters most largely into, and consequently constitutes — next to the price of labor — the largest item in the production of the finished commodity.

"Where can a greater amount or more abundant supply of raw material be so easily concentrated as at St. Louis? Take


this remark in its most minute, or most extended sense, and it is still true.

"There is no spot in the world more productive of mineral than Missouri, especially in iron, copper, lead and coal; and, as these metals, and the combinations of them, enter into the most kinds of manufactures — especially into the machinery used — as hemp and tobacco are among the most important staples of Missouri, finding at St. Louis their place of sale and shipment, and are by consequence in their cheapest form and ready for manufacture — as cotton, another great staple of manufacture, is abundantly grown close to our southern border, and can consequently be brought here at less cost than to any other point where its manufacture can be advantageously carried on — as the important article of sugar is similarly situated in reference to the ease and cheapness with which the raw material can be placed, besides cheap and abundant food for the laborers to be employed in its manufacture, it follows, in my opinion, that St. Louis is the place for manufacturing. If to all these we add the abundance and reasonably low price of fuel, which can be supplied in much greater abundance and at even less cost, by the various railroads which penetrate the vast coal fields of Missouri and Illinois, and have their termini at our city, I think we may say few places in the Union equal St. Louis as a place for the establishment of manufactories. But, once more, it is all important for a manufacturing place, that it possess an ample outlet for its commodities. St. Louis is surely this point, as the entrepot of a vast interior agricultural trade, as the point from which supplies of merchandise are received in return for that produce; where else can the great country north, and west, and south, I may also say of a large portion east, look more legitimately for supplies of various manufactures than to the port at which their entire business is done? And here they do


look, and if we do not manufacture ourselves, we must procure those articles from other points to supply the demands of our great and increasing trade.

"But why not engage in this branch of business? Is it because of the apprehensions it will not be productive? Doubtless those from whom we buy find it profitable, or else they would not continue the business.

"Large profits have accrued to cities on the Ohio and elsewhere from our trade; some of them we have built up and sustained. Ours is their most prosperous trade; in some instances we furnish them the raw material at its cheapest rate, the food which supports their operatives at its lowest rates, and then we receive the commodity back again, in its most costly form, with all the profits added, with double freights added, exchanges, interest and insurance added, all of which we should save and add to our own productive capital. But perhaps we do not thus engage from an apprehended inability to procure the labor necessary. But this cannot be so, for if we can furnish cheaper food and thereby save to the operative a large part of his expenses, he will save more here on the same wages than where he has to pay higher for thenecessaries of support.

"Hence, if suitable inducements are held out, workmen may readily be obtained; besides, there are hundreds of those daily arriving in our city, who are artizans in all the branches of manufacture in the countries whence they have emigrated. Perhaps the reason is the want of capital, and the more abundant and immediately productive uses in which it can be employed.

"Well, I admit that there is much force in that; there is so great a demand for capital in a young and rapidly improving city like ours — so many uses to which it can be put — so few facilities for those who, although they possess the skill and energy to get up such establishments — so few facilities for obtaining means


to carry them through to the remunerating period — that many instinctively shrink from the undertaking. If we had the banking capital and consequent facilities possessed by cities not containing one-fourth of our population or doing one-tenth of our business, matters would be materially changed. Or if we had the advantages of even a suitably constructed ‘limited partnership law,’ the results would be entirely different.

"Indeed, we should not only have a suitable ‘limited partnership law,’ so as to enable the man of capital and credit to invest a certain part of his means to aid the competent and honest man, devoid of capital, in the establisment of a business, without risking the whole of his fortune in the enterprise; but we need, also, a repeal of our present interest law, so that capital may seek investment here without danger, and thus remove the industrious needy from the grasp of the heartless usurer, who will suck his life-blood away because he posesses no fears of the usury laws. We also need a free banking law similar to other States, and these things being had, St. Louis, with her other great advantages, will become the greatest of manufacturing cities. It is a matter, however, of rejoicing to all lovers of her prosperity, that manufactures have been commenced, and are being successfully prosecuted, in St. Louis, notwithstanding the difficulties to which such enterprises are always more or less subjected. These establishments are becoming every day more numerous and extensive. They have prospered also beyond the expectations of their most sanguine friends, and are found most successful competitors with similar works in longer established portions of the country.


"There are few branches of industry, few kinds of manufactures, but what are now being carried forward successfully in St. Louis.

"Here are some twenty extensive flouring mills — perhaps a larger number of saw mills; there are four or more planing mills — some of them equal in extent and character to any in the United States. We have here some twenty-five foundries, engine and boiler manufactories, and numerous machine shops. We have probably the largest and best-managed sugar refinery in the United States; cotton factories whose thread has almost superseded all other yarns in this market, and doubtless would quite do so if they could supply the demand. Here we have two of the most extensive rolling mills, and arrangements making for another; three extensive stove casting works — almost precluding the importation of stoves from the Ohio, whence we were exclusively supplied a few years ago; three or more foundries engaged on railroad work; one extensive locomotive building works; two or more shops constantly engaged on railroad car work; several very extensive saddle and harness works, one of which supplies the United States army; one or more bridle bit and stirrup iron manufactory, where are turned out as fine work as can be made in any establishment in the world, whether of ‘polished or plated ware.’

"There are several extensive saddle-tree manufactories, two very large white lead and oil manufacturing establishments, one or more sheet, lead, bar lead and lead pipe works, two extensive chemical works, one or two woolen factories, besides numerous other works which I have not even space or time to mention; several rope works, two bagging factories, numerous tobacco manufacturers, now exporting largely of manufactured tobacco; one large shot and bar lead works, supplying both


the South and West with these articles. And besides, we, who who a few years ago imported large quantities of soaps, common and fancy, tallow and star candles and lard oil, are now extensive exporters of all these commodities, produced by some six large factories and several smaller ones. Thus we have progressed in about twelve or fifteen years in the important matter of manufacturing. Large quantities of furniture, tin and sheet iron ware, carriages and wagons, and agricultural implements, heretofore imported, are now produced in this city; while bell and brass founding are progressing finely; and, above all, we enjoy the advantage of making our own printing type, which furnishes to all the West an article of metallic type, manufactured here by improved machinery, quite as beautiful, more durable, and at the same prices as similar kinds are furnished in New York.

"We have no paper mills — and it is astonishing what quantities of this one article are sold and consumed here annually. One single establishment here, we are told, uses the entire product of two mills on tho Ohio, supplied by contracts which have existed some ten years, and costs about $100,000 per annum — and this is for one office alone. Now, it would be almost worth while for some one possessing the leisure, to ascertain, if possible, the value of paper used and sold here annually, by all who deal in this article.

"We have no manufactory of railroad iron here, notwithstanding the immense amount of material so accessible, and soon to be reached by our railroad, and that too of the very best quality — vastly superior, both in safety and durability, to the high-priced inferior Welsh article, purchased from English manufacturers; and notwithstanding, also, the great demand, which the original laying of track, and subsequent perpetual


demand which the numerous roads concentrating here must produce for the article, not to speak of the facility we have, if once engaged in the business, for supplying the demands of the whole valley of the Mississippi. And why can not we engage in this business, so immensely profitable? Want of capital! This is again the plea, and, doubtless, in this instance, at least, there is ‘more truth than poetry’ in the pleading. England has grown immensely wealthy by her iron works. She can sell iron on a credit — that is, what she regards as credit — although to us, who purchase her railroad bars, it is a pretty hard, cash kind of an operation. What is the process? Missouri, that has iron enough to supply the world, issues her bonds for the purpose of building a railroad; these bonds having twenty years to run, bearing six per cent, interest, are taken to England, and if money is worth three per cent., then, with her bonds some ten or fifteen per cent, below their par value, she can buy iron, at its highest value, to build her railroads with. Principal and interest of these bonds, together with exchange, must be paid abroad, besides freight on the iron here, where it is most abundant.

"But what else can be done? We are not prepared to take these bonds; labor is high, greatly higher here than where they make these bars in Wales; besides, immense capital is necessary to start and keep up such works. All this is true and much more, and yet it is our interest — the interest of our city, of our State, of this great Western Valley — to get up and sustain this very necessary work upon our own soil — to retain in our own country the wealth thereby to be accumulated. And we have the men of capital, of business qualities, who could and doubtless would successfully accomplish this matter, with the aid of our railroad companies, and if sustained and encouraged by the State. In the last Legislature some suggestions were


made on this subject, which might have eventuated in great practical good if they had been carried into operation. As an individual member of this great community, I hope that the members to be elected next August to the Legislature will attend to something else besides mere party politics.

"I trust they will look more to the interest and prosperity of the State, and to the developments of its great and important policy, than to mere party aggrandizement.

"I do not decry politics — I only wish it may not absorb every thing. Now, if our next Legislature and our railroad companies could harmoniously adopt a plan, the tendency of which would be to build up manufactories of railroad iron in our city and State, who can estimate the benefits which would result therefrom?

"Suppose, as has been before suggested by those more able than the present writer, the companies would all agree to take their rails at a price which would justify the undertaking, and do this for a series of years — say the price were even higher than they could probably be obtained for elsewhere — and then suppose the Legislature, in addition, were to pay a bonus for every ton of railroad iron manufactured in the State for a series of years, and were, besides, to exempt the property and machinery employed in the manufacture from all taxation for a limited period; with this assurance the object might be, I think, easily accomplished.

"But again, our bonds are used in many States as a basis for banking purposes. We know they are safe; so do those who use them. We pay interest to the holders of these bonds semi-annually, and then we pay interest besides, and very gladly, on the notes issued thereon, for the use of the money, (if we can get it,) based upon our bonds deposited in other States. Now, suppose we had a free banking law, well restricted and guarded,


based upon our own bonds and those of other States as good as ours; then those who made railroad iron here could take bonds for it of States, because they would be receivable for banking purposes in the State, and, therefore, easily sold — bonds which would go into English pockets for iron, which paid great profits to English manufacturers, and we would get the profits instead of them — while the bonds, being sufficient security for the issue of money, would be retained in our own State and furnish us sufficient facilities for carrying on our operations. Thus there would be much good accomplished, and a new era would dawn on Missouri.

"A combination then of capitalists, with eminently practical business men, conversant with all the details of manufactures, would soon put into operation, in our midst, such establishments as would develop our resources, open up our mines, employ our labor, consume our products, increase our wealth, our population, our commerce, and make our city as famous for her manufacturing establishments as for her steamboats and large business houses, and tend most inevitably to render us independent of foreign manufacturers.

"The tendency also of any one is to aid other establishments — indeed they are like links in a chain — one naturally succeeds another.

"Our present establishments — most of them commencing very small, but guided by skill, by intelligence and industry, crowned with that strict probity which inspires confidence — have reached, at least some of them, such a height as to have undisputed possession of large fields of demand; while all are doing very well, giving assurance unto all men that St. Louis is a suitable field in which to operate.

"Now, if all these have grown up, with the very limited facilities they have had, what might we not expect to be the result if


our facilities were increased, as they would be, by either or all of the general plans before suggested, viz: A free banking law — a limited partnership law — or even a repeal of the present interest law, which keeps capital out of the city, and is, in fact, but an incentive to the operations of the usurer."

"I will conclude by an exhibit which we find in one of the documents published by Congress — a report from one of the departments — and which goes to show in part our exports of provisions. The statement referred to is as follows:

"Statement of Domestic Produce and Manufactures shipped from the port of St. Louis, destined to New Orleans, Natchez, Vicksburgh, Memphis, Nashville, Mills' Point, Helena, and other places on the interior waters of the United States, in the year ending June 30th, 1851, viz:

Flour — 648,520 bbls.
Flour — 2,156 sacks.
Wheat — 112,000
Oats — 415,624
Barley — 17,487
Pork — 108 hhds.
Pork — 5,012 tcs.
Pork — 122,948 bbls.
Lard — 14,290 tcs.
Lard — 47,450 bbls.
Lard — 19,730
Lard — 421 tons.
Beef — 5,111 tea.
Beef — 4,538 bbls.
Bacon — 24,432 casks.
Bacon — 6,890 tcs.
Hemp — 57,160 bales.
Lead — 472,438 pigs.
Lead — 78,600 bars, Ibs.
Tobacco — 9,210 hhds.
Tobacco — 5,011 boxes.
Refined Sugars — 21,892 bbls.
Sugars — 21,905 hhds.
Sugars — 11,548 bbls.


Molasses — 40,510 bbls.
Whisky — 29,916
Hides — 38,490
Nails — 38,776 kegs.
Glass — 6,418 boxes.
Salt — 76,753 bbls.
Cotton Yarn — 6,180 bags.
Wrought Iron Manufactures — 15,345 tons.
Castings — 30,810

"This statement, it will be perceived, is for the year 1851; in the three years that have elapsed since then, closing on the 30th day of this month, the increase in the export of these articles, I may say in all of them, has been very great, but at present I will only refer to one item, viz: ‘Refined Sugar.’

In this article the increase has been immense; for the year ending the 30th of June, 1854, I doubt not, it will amount fully to 100,000 barrels ! Immense as this increase from 21,892 in 1850-51, to 100,000 in 1853-54 may appear, it will be justified from the amount shown to me for the last six months, which is 60,400 barrels — the entire sales of that establishment in sugar, molasses and syrups have been over $800,000 in the last three months. Besides, in the list furnished above, there is no account of lead pipe, sheet lead, or shot, all of which being large items in our city's present manufactures, but not in existence or only partially prosecuted at the time that report was made, I would like to present some items showing their extent.

Although not engaged myself in any manufacturing establishment, or in any way connected therewith, yet I have long felt a great interest in their extension and prosperity; and I am induced from many circumstances to believe, neither our own citizens, nor people abroad, have any adequate idea of the extent, the magnitude, or variety of such establishments operating in our city, nor yet of the extent of country to which


they send their articles. I had not designed in these numbers to enter into minute details, nor yet to particularize establishments; but still, as a means of arriving at some just estimate of results, it is necessary to instance some particulars.

We turn then to our iron manufactures, and what do we find to give us some idea of the extent of this branch of business? Perhaps the quantity of iron melted per day in St. Louis foundries and machine shops would give us some idea of their business. Well, I have made some investigations on this point, and find that there is melted daily in St. Louis over one hundred tons of metal! There are six working days per week, or say fifty working weeks in the year; this will give us thirty thousand tons of iron melted at our foundries per annum, and this almost in the infancy of the business.

There are now in operation two or more establishments, either of which melt up daily more iron than was melted in the same time by all the establishments in St. Louis combined, seven years ago. This itself presents wonderful progress. Take another fact. I learned to-day at one of our machine shops, that in the last six months they had filled orders for work from Mississippi, Alabama, Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Kentucky, Ohio, Virginia, Tennessee, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, Minnesota, New Mexico, Utah, Oregon, California, Washington Territory, besides Missouri. This, of itself, shows the extent of demand, and what is said by this one may be said by most, perhaps all, of our establishments. Now, let me ask, if in the few years in which these establishments have been in operation, all of them, perhaps, commencing very small, with but little capital, scarcely any banking facilities, against the heavy competition of long established rich works on the Ohio, they have grown to this extent and importance, what may we not expect, even in the next ten years? especially, as all classes of politicians


now in Missouri, it is generally understood, will favor some plan for increasing mechanical facilities.

Take another illustration; some sixteen months ago one establishment commenced the making of lead pipe and sheet lead here. They, like all similar untried experiments, had to feel their way along. The machinery was costly — workmen, at first, difficult to be obtained — the field of sale preoccupied by those longer engaged, more experienced, possessed of ample capital.

But these young men possessed the energy, the probity, felt the field was vast, and were content with small profits on large sales. They pushed the battle to the gate, and now what is the result? They supply with these articles the entire Valley of the Mississippi. South, they include the trade of New Orleans; east, all the region to Pittsburg; north, the whole region of the upper lakes. Within the last twelve months they have manufactured of lead pipe alone over 2,000,000 of pounds. This has been shipped in immense casks and on large reels, to supply the demands of the great west and south; while of sheet lead they have made 1,250,000 pounds in the same period, besides bar lead.

Now, these articles were not included in our exports of 1851, before presented, for the works were not in existence then, and these figures are now given to show that St. Louis is a suitable place for manufactures, and also what may be done by industry and intelligence.

In the said Government returns, no mention is made of shot, although that article was then manufactured here — but, like everything else, has grown considerably in that period.

There is but one "shot tower" here, but it is fully qualified to supply the vast extent of country dependent on us, or which


our skill or ability may bring within the reach of our operations. The region supplied from here with shot embraces nearly all the valley of the Mississippi.

I deem the operations of this concern to be important, and was anxious to furnish in this place some indication of its extent, which I am enabled to do by the kind courtesy of Captain Simonds, one of the enterprising proprietors.

I take an aggregate statement furnished me by him of its business during the five months, commencing January 1st, and ending June 1st, 1854, as made up from their books, viz:

Total amount of shot of all sizes manufactured and sold during said five months, 79,775 bags or1,994,375 lbs.
Bar lead for same period, 1,714 kegs, or 428,460 lbs.
Total shot and lead in five months, 2,422,835 lbs.

During that period of five months the works were run but 104 days; thus the amount of pig lead consumed each day averages 23,240 pounds.

These figures show the extensive scale on which such manufactures as our people engage in are prosecuted; and as they have all heretofore succeeded, may we not presume that other branches and other works of same branches would be equally successful?

There is one branch of business now prosecuted here, of the magnitude of which I had no idea. It seems small in its individuality, but, although most know it exists, few I apprehend have a conception of its extent — I mean the manufacture of soda water.

Nor do I now refer to that excellent and pleasant beverage, as it is drawn sparkling from the multitudinous fountains erected for its sale at the drug stores and other shops in every part of the city — although the supply of these fountains is itself


a large business — I mean only to notice the article termed ‘bottled soda.’ Few of our citizens, I apprehend, have any adequate idea of the extent to which this business is carried on here.

The machinery employed in its production is beautiful and expensive, but perfect in its adaptation, and the manufacture in all its parts is prosecuted with a precision and regularity equal to any of the establishments of the country. That your readers may have some idea of the extent of this business, I will present some data, gathered from one of these factories, of which there are four in active operation here — although the one I refer to is doubtless the most extensive, and at present most complete.

The capital invested in this concern is $25,000. The hands employed and now in it, seventy-five. They have in operation a steam engine of their own, by which most of the business is done; and as they cannot supply the demand, they are now enlarging their machinery so as to increase their product.

This concern uses in material, say sugar, syrups, corks, twine, &c., $1,200 per week, and pay in wages per week $900. They manufacture and sell on an average over 1,600 dozen, or say 19,200 bottles of soda water per day.

They use in their increasing trade, and lose by breakage, &c., about 1000 gross of bottles per annum, costing $5 per gross of twelve dozen, beside the amount on hand at the commencement of the year.

When ready, jt is put up in boxes with the manufacturer's name painted on each, and shipped on our daily packets, and in wagons, to all the principal towns and cities on our upper rivers and the surrounding country, and the boxes and empty bottles returned again by the same conveyances, with the precision and certainty that attends commercial operations.


But this is the account of only one of the four establishments operating in this business here. How much the others do I know not, but if they only duplicate the above, the result is great, and this business has commenced within the last five or six years.

In this connection, I may mention that, besides the establishments before mentioned, there are in successful operation here, four Iron Safe manufactories; two Iron Door and Shutter works; three Iron Railing Works; two Iron Suction and Force Pump Works; one extensive and several small Brush factories; two Willow Ware factories; one extensive Starch factory, employing a capital of some $30,000, and rapidly superseding the article heretofore largely imported from Ohio and the eastern cities. I am assured that no better starch is made, both the common and pearl, than that now furnished by a St. Louis manufacturer. And while he produces so good an article, his sales fully justify him in prosecuting the business energetically and constantly, enlarging the capacity for production so as to meet the increasing demand. His sales for the last year largely exceed $30,000, and now fairly under way, this will increase until the entire trade in this article will be supplied from our own factories. From all the facts adduced, it is manifest we are very rapidly becoming a manufacturing city; nor have I enumerated all the separate branches of productive industry successfully prosecuted here; for we have a manufactory of saws, where are made the very best qualities of hand, crosscut, mill and circular saws — also one for making augers, chisels, brace bitts, and various articles of cutlery; two or more bench plane and wood screw factories; two bellows factories, equal to any imported. Three establishments where are extensively made platform and counter scales; two establishments for fancy iron working, and recently one of our enterprising


citizens, who was a pioneer in one of our most important branches of manufacture, has engaged in another, which will soon be operating on the west side of the Mississippi — the cotton loom. Soon we shall have in our market sheetings, shirtings and osnaburgs of St. Louis manufacture, and who can tell how long it may be until muslins, lawns, calicoes, &c., may be added to our list of home produced articles? To all these, I may add the manufacture of locks, both those for banks and iron safes, as also the common door locks, now making here on a pretty extensive scale. Indeed, until one turns attention to the subject, and by inquiry and extensive observation in every part of the city, he can have no adequate idea of the various works in operation here. Very many of them are small — are indeed, as it were, beginnings — but they are in their measure and in their results important. All our works were small, but by industry and care have grown, some to great magnitude, and already exert a good influence on our onward march to greatness."


Chapter VII. The St. Louis Agricultural and Mechanical Association.

Was chartered by an act of the General Assembly of Missouri, approved December 7th, 1855.

At a meeting of the corporators on the 4th day of February 1856, books were opened for the subscription to the capital stock.

The requisite amount of stock subscribed, the stockholders were called together for the election of the first board of Directors, on the 4th day of May, 1856.

The following gentlemen were elected: Andrew Harper, Thos. T. January, Henry C. Hart, John Withnell, Thornton Grimsley, Frederick Dings, James M. Hughes, Henry S. Turner, Charles L. Hunt, John M. Chambers, Henry T. Blow, Norman J. Coleman and J. R. Barret.

Upon the organization of the board on the 5th day of May, 1856, J. R. Barret was elected President; T. Grimsley, A. Harper, H. C. Hart, Vice Presidents; H. S. Turner, Treasurer; G. O. Kalb, General Agent and Recording Secretary, and O. W. Collet as Corresponding Secretary.

It was not until the 4th day of June that the board of Directors were able to agree upon the locality of the Fair Grounds. And although there were many pieces of ground under consideration, and naturally much diversity of sentiment in a board composed of as many as thirteen Directors, nearly all of whom


were entirely inexperienced, still time has proved that the choice made was in every respect the very best.

They selected a piece of ground about three and a half miles north east of the Court House, situated upon Grand avenue, containing 56 arpens; bounded north by Kossuth street, east by Grand avenue, South by Natural Bridge plank road and west by Bryan avenue; the land rich, nearly square in shape, embracing a beautiful grove of native oaks, and about one mile and a quarter from the Reservoir of the city.

The purchase was made on or about the 10th day of June, 1856, from Col. John O'Fallon, for the sum of $50,000, on terms to suit the Association. Much is due to Col. O'Fallon for the liberality in his proposition to the Association. He has ever been intimately connected with the great interests of St. Louis, and his name should, and will, ever be mentioned in her history.

On or about the 25th day of July the plans of the amphitheatre and other buildings were matured, and not until then did active operations commence. The first fair was held on the 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th, 17th and 18th days of October. The sum of $10,000 was offered in premiums.

The number of entries for competition, the splendid display both for competition and exhibition, the thousands of attendants from home and abroad, pronounced this the FIRST FAIR of the St. Louis Agricultural and Mechanical Association a SUCCESS.

The underbrush had been cleared away. Thus trimmed, a close fence built around the whole of the ground, nine feet high, 300 stalls ornamented tastefully had been erected, a pond five feet deep had been filled, and upon it stood a magnificent amphitheatre 300 feet in diameter, capable of seating 12,000 persons and of sheltering 36,000; with fourteen rows of seats ranging around the whole, one above the other, and reaching


up to a promenade fifteen feet wide, overlooking the arena within and the beautiful grounds without, and with a promenade below of same width, encircling eighty-one booths, all under the same cover; the whole embracing in the centre a Pagoda forty-five feet high, of three stories, built around a pole one hundred and fifty feet in height. Nearest the amphitheatre a circular floral hall, eighty feet in diameter; next a mechanical hall, one hundred and twenty feet long by eighty in width; and, at a suitable distance, was a machine shop one hundred feet by forty, with shafting the full length for testing all kinds of machinery with steam power. The whole grounds were connected with the great Reservoir of the city by a nine inch pipe, and the water conducted to every part, furnishing seven fountains, one of which was drained into a fish pond — the others into a basin near the stalls for the accommodation of stock.

Contiguous to the amphitheatre, near the main entrance or grand gate, a beautiful Gothic cottage had been erected, containing four saloons for the reception and accommodation of the ladies.

The whole work had been accomplished in so short a time as to surprise the citizens of St. Louis no less than visitors from abroad.

The next annual fair took place in September, 1857, and lasted six days, from September 28th to October 3d. $16,000 were offered in premiums.

The experiment of the first year made manifest the necessity of other accommodations. The stalls were increased to the number of 375; the mechanical hall was made one fourth larger; the machine shop was made double the size. A fine art hall eighty-five feet long and forty-three feet wide was built, and a Galinarium, entirely of wire, three stories high, and containing ninety apartments, was erected.


At the second fair, notwithstanding the increase in the size and number of buildings, there was not room enough. The amphitheatre would not hold more than one-fourth of the visitors, the stalls were full of stock, and the fine art and floral hall, and all other buildings, entirely inadequate.

Board of Directors for 1858. — J. R. Barret, A. Harper, T. Grimsley, Henry C. Hart, Henry T. Blow, T. T. January, Charles L. Hunt, John Withnell, Charles Todd, Thomas B. Hudson, Ben. O'Fallon, John Sappington, Henry S. Turner.

Officers. — J. R. Barret, President; A. Harper, T. Grimsley, Henry C. Hart, Vice Presidents; Henry S. Turner, Treasurer; G. O. Kalb, Recording Secretary and General Agent; N. J. Coleman, Corresponding Secretary.

The third annual fair of this association will commence on the 6th of September, continuing six days; and it promises to be superior to any of the previous displays.


St. Louis is well prepared with all the apparatus to preserve from destruction by fire all property within her limits. There are at present "two Richmonds in the field," the Independent Department and the Pay Department, both striving for the same end. On account of the


Having been organized for a number of years, we will give a sketch of it first, and it demands considerable attention. It is a useful and important organization, for at all hours, in all kinds of weather, soon as the tocsin sounds, they are to be seen hastening to the place of combat, ready to "conquer, and thus save."


We have cause to feel considerable pride in the perseverance, diligence, industry, gentlemanly and proper deportment of those who constitute this wing of the fire deparment; their zeal is unquenchable, and seldom does a fire get so ahead as to become extensively destructive. Extraneous causes sometimes prevent their usefulness, and they are unable to perform with the alacrity they desire, the services expected of them; but, in the main, they are as prompt, as efficient, as useful, do as much good, and prevent as much evil and loss, as any similar body of men in any part of the country.

A Fire Department was early organized in this city — indeed, at a time when there were comparatively few houses. We find by the old "City Directory of 1821" there were two fire companies in St. Louis; when those ceased to exist we are unable to learn, but the present department had its organization in 1832, in the formation of the Central Fire Company.

The companies now belonging to the Independent Fire Department are:

Central Fire Company, No. 1; St. Louis Fire Company, No. 4; Missouri Fire Company, No. 5; Liberty Fire Company, No. 6; Phoenix Fire Company, No. 7; Laclede Fire Company, No. 10; Good Will Fire Company, No. 11; Lafayette Hook and Ladder Company, No. 1.

These companies own 12 hand fire engines, most of them first class suction and forcing engines, 10 four-wheeled hose carnages, 6 two-wheeled hose tenders, bringing into active service upwards of 3,000 feet of hose. The engines were built as follows: 4 in Philadelphia, 2 in New York, 2 in Boston, 3 in Baltimore, and 1 in St. Louis.

The companies have a total of, say 600 active members, who are exempt by law from serving on juries. They are composed of active, intelligent, sober citizens; they have taken a pride


in maintaining for the department a reputable position; have precluded from membership those unworthy, who would be calculated to produce disturbance, and thus impair the confidence of the community in the efficiency, usefulness and respectability of the associations.

This department receives nothing from the city, and is maintained by its own exertions, and by voluntary contributions of our citizens.

The Independent Fire Department is governed by a delegated body, composed of three delegates, elected by each company, who elect their own President and Secretary, and make all rules for the general government of the companies. The "Firemen's Association," thus constituted, besides making necessary regulations, constitute also a Court for the trial of any misdemeanor, either by one or more companies, or individual members thereof; they inflict such punishment as the magnitude of the offence may warrant — either expulsion, suspension or fine.

This department is controlled at all fires, &c., by a chief engineer and three assistants, who are elected by the Firemen's Association. The present officers of the department are J. E. D. Couzens, Chief Engineer; A. C. Hull, A. Sprague and J. Gregory, Assistant Engineers.


A committee having been appointed by the City Council, in 1844, to visit Cincinnati and inspect the Steam Fire Engines, gave, upon their return, such glowing accounts of the efficiency of the "great squirts," and the beauties of the paid fire department, that many were for adopting the system in St. Louis. This new movement found many advocates, who used every endeavor to urge upon the City Council the passage of an ordinance establishing the paying system. About this time a


number of half grown boys, who are always to be found hanging about the engine houses, having gotten up a couple of "musses," (we use this term because it expresses the meaning of the writer better than any other, for these bickerings can not be called riots,) the demands became loud and deep. Several of the papers began to advocate the reform, and kept the ball in motion, till finally an ordinance was passed, which took effect in June, 1857.

Several of the companies who had previously been ardent workers in the good cause sold their apparatus to the city and disbanded; among these latter we may mention the Washington, Franklin, and Mound.

The members of the Franklin Fire Company, after effecting a sale of their apparatus, &c., formed themselves into an association, and used the money obtained for the purchase of an extensive library, and have fitted up rooms, where the members meet and spend their leisure hours in endeavoring to improve their minds. This was a judicious movement upon the part of the members of this company, and they deserve credit for it.

Connected with this department is a Fire Alarm Telegraph, which has been recently finished. Lines from all parts of the city are attached to the bells situated in the various houses, &c., and a station is had in every block, so that an alarm can be sounded instantaneously in all parts of the city. This is a great advantage, and will prevent, in a great measure, the false alarms which have heretofore been so common.

This department have now in their possession one of Shauk's Steam Fire Engines and three of Latta's Patent. They are of immense advantage in the extinguishing of fires, and are growng more and more into the affections of the people. A proposition has been made by the underwriters to the City Council offering to purchase two of Latta's engines if the city will


chase the third. This proposition will doubtless be acceded to, and increase the force to seven steam engines.

This arrangement will give St. Louis the best fire department in the United States. With seven steam engines, fifteen hand engines, besides hook and ladder companies, a fire will stand a poor prospect of doing much damage.

The entire management of the working affairs of this department is controlled by a chief engineer and his assistants. They are H. G. Sexton, Chief Engineer; John Wm. Bame, Richard Beggs, Assistants.

Steam Engines — Old Union No. 2, Washington Ave., bet. Seventh and Eighth, nine men and six horses; Geo. Kyler, Eleventh St., bet. Wash. ave. and Carr St., nine men and five horses; Davis Moore, Third St., bet. Elm and Myrtle, nine men and five horses; John M. Wimer, cor. Mound and Broadway, nine men and five horses.

Hand Engines — South St. Louis, twenty-six men and three horses; Jefferson, twenty-six men and three horses; North St. Louis, twenty-six men and three horses.

Total number of companies 7; of men employed 114; of horses 27.


Chapter VIII. Daily Missouri Republican.

GEORGE KNAPP & Co., Proprietors,

On the morning of the 12th of July, 1808, there appeared in the village of St. Louis, in the Territory of Louisiana, a paper destined, as the sequel proves, to exert a greater influence upon the politics of the country than any similar publication west of the Alleghanies. It made its appearance bearing the title of "Louisiana Gazette — published by Joseph Charless, printer to the Territory and of the laws of the United States." Had we space we would be glad to follow the course of this sheet from the time it first appeared, making its weekly visits to its friends to the present day, when it has reached collossal proportions, and makes its appearance a welcome visitor in all parts of the city and land, bearing the news of all climes and countries.

In March, 1820, Mr. Cummings, now a resident of Pittsburgh, bought out the paper. He remained in possession for two years; at the end of this period the paper became the property of Mr. Edward Charless, a son of the former proprietor. It then became, as it is to this day, the Missouri Republican, its size being twenty-six by twenty inches.

On the 25th of March, 1828, Mr. Nathaniel Paschall (one of the present proprietors and editor in chief) became a co-proprietor, its size being at that time thirty-one by twenty-two inches.


Upon the 9th day of April, 1833, the paper made its first semi-weekly appearance — the weekly was still continued for the benefit of the country subscribers. The semi-weekly flourished and grew apace, and upon the 30th of April, 1835, it was discontinued and a tri-weekly issued instead. Success also attended this step, and in the issue of August 18th, 1836, we find the following notice:

"DAILY — As soon as the requisite arrangements can be made, the Republican will be issued daily." A month had passed away before the promise was carried into effect.

On the 3d of July, 1837, Messrs. Charless & Paschall retired from the Republican, making a graceful bow to the public who had so long sustained them, and introducing as their successors Messrs. Chambers, Harris & Knapp.

Col. Chambers is still remembered too well and affectionately to need that his praise should be spoken here. No man has been more intimately connected with the history of the city, and none whose loss was felt more severely.

George Knapp had become connected with the Republican in 1827, when he commenced his career as an apprentice in the office. Since that time he has continued, without intermission, his connection with the paper. His rise is chronicled by its course since the day he entered the office, and the position in the management of the affairs of the paper is too well known to need particular comment.

In 1839 Mr. Harris retired from the concern and the business was conducted by Messrs. Chambers & Knapp. Mr. Joseph W. Dougherty became one of the firm about this time, and so continued for about eighteen months. Soon after Mr. D. had retired, Mr. Paschall, who had been connected in the meantime with the "New Era," returned to this office as assistant editor.


May 17th, 1849, the great fire occurred and completely destroyed the Republican office; also the Organ, New Era and Reveille. After the fire the paper was printed upon a smaller sheet until new material was received, when it again made its appearance in its old size. In January, 1854, the sheet was again enlarged to its present proportions — thirty-three by fifty-six inches. In May of 1854 Mr. Chambers was laid upon the bed of sickness, from which he never rose again to enjoy the blessings of this life. On the 22d of the month he departed to that "undiscovered country" amid the tears of the whole community.

To Mr. Chambers succeeded in his interest his widow, who with George Knapp, the surviving partner, continued the paper under the style of George Knapp & Co. On the 19th of May following, she sold her interest to Mr. George Knapp, who assumed all the liabilities of the office under the title of "George Knapp." The next and last change was effected as is explained in the following announcement, which appeared Tuesday, August 7th, 1855:

Missouri Republican. — I have admitted Mr. Nathaniel Paschall and my brother, Mr. John Knapp, as partners in the publication of the Missouri Republican, and hereafter the business will be conducted under the style of George Knapp & Co.

Since which time its course has been onward, the best expression of which can be given by the republication of a short article in this paper of March 16th, last:

"The year 1856 was in every way the most prosperous year this paper has ever known. Our subscriptions never increased so rapidly, our advertisements never crowded in so upon us, and the footings up of the year show a larger net gain in subscribers and profits than any previous year.


"Our readers will bear us witness that we very seldom trouble them with our business affairs, and never unless provoked to it by some such meddlesome and unfriendly writer as the one just quoted. We are content to let the Republican go forth to its readers just as it is, bearing such evidence of prosperity as a judicious reader may infer from an inspection of its pages. We are willing that others shall judge of the amount of labor bestowed upon it, and the expense attending its publication, as well as its income. It is sufficient for us to know that, while incurring a very heavy expense in the issue of the paper, it has compensated us in past years, and we expect it to do so for many years to come. We have alluded in brief terms to the position in which the close of the year found the Republican. We have since advanced two months and a half in our course, and we have met with a still larger share of the confidence of the public. Since the first of January we have increased our daily circulation over seven hundred, and the tri-weekly and weekly issues have kept pace with this increase. Our advertising patronage — the life-blood of a newspaper — has also extended itself until we find great difficulty in controlling it. We risk nothing in saying that this branch of our patronage has doubled itself since the close of 1854, and this is strengthened by a statement which our book-keeper has furnished us of the new advertisements which were published during the fourteen days ending the middle of the past week. The total number of new advertisements within that period was 2,071, and the average sum paid for them was $310 per day, or $4,345 for the fourteen days. In this calculation we have not taken into account the numerous advertisements of those who have yearly accounts with us. They are such as are inserted for a limited period, and charged accordingly."

The editorial columns of the Republican are under the charge


of Mr. Paschall, who is assisted by a large number of talented writers, who continue to furnish their readers with every thing that is worthy of being noted. The subscription of the Republican is, Daily, $10; Tri-Weekly, $5; Weekly, $2.

McKEE & FISHBECK, Proprietors.

This paper was established on the 9th of July, 1852, as a conservative Democratic journal, by Messrs. Hill & McKee. These gentlemen conducted the Democrat in a spirited manner and soon won a host of friends. In March, 1853, they purchased the St. Louis Union, then the property of Capt. Richard I. Phillips. This purchase removed the only opposition Democratic paper in the city, and gave the Democrat a fair field, which it was not slow to take advantage of. In 1854 Mr. Hill retired from the concern, and his interest afterwards passed into the hands of Mr. George W. Fishbeck, the present associate of Mr. Wm. McKee.

Ever since its first publication the Democrat has been rapidly extending its circulation and increasing its advertising patronage, and at this day there is not a newspaper in the State of Missouri paying a better per cent, upon the money invested.

It has for the past three years been under the editorial management of B. Gratz Brown, Esq., a gentleman of fine talents, and a brilliant and forcible speaker and writer. His course upon the free labor and Kansas questions has made his name, and that of the Democrat, familiar throughout the country.

In every other department, as well as the editorial, the Democrat is ably conducted. Its commercial reports, which are prepared by Mr. Fishbeck, are not excelled by those of any other journal in St. Louis for accuracy or fullness. Mr. Fishbeck


is admirably adapted by nature for this post, and his long service has rendered him perfectly au fait in every thing that appertains to this department. The marine news is prepared by Mr. Ryland, a gentleman of marked ability, while the local column, under the charge of Mr. Davis, is a complete daily history of the events of the city, written in a pleasant style.

Connected with this paper is one of the best arranged and most extensive Job Offices in the west, which enjoys a large share of public patronage.

The subscription to the Daily Democrat is $8 per annum, Tri-weekly $5, Weekly $1. The proprietors have offered three farms as prizes to those persons sending them the largest list of subscribers. This, we believe, was also done last year.

CHARLES L. HUNT, Proprietor.

This is a daily, tri-weekly and weekly Democratic journal, published at No. 48 Third street, corner of Pine street, St. Louis.

The present paper is not the first which has borne the name in this city. Early in 1855, a number of influential Catholic citizens determined on the establishment of a weekly paper, and made proposals to Dr. J. V. Huntington, then the editor of the Baltimore Metropolitan Magazine, who was visiting St. Louis by invitation of the Catholic Institute, as a lecturer. Arrangements being satisfactorily effected, subscriptions were raised, and these, as collected, were, in pursuance of a resolution adopted by a meeting of the subscribers, paid over to Dr. Huntington, who was recognized as both proprietor and editor of the Weekly Leader, The first number was dated March 10th, 1855.

This paper appeared regularly and without modification in


plan until the summer of 1856, when the proprietor thought fit to take, as a journalist, an active part on the Democratic side in the political campaign of that year, and accordingly established, on the 1st of July, the Daily Evening Leader, a journal, as stated in its prospectus, independent, though far from neutral, in politics, and retaining the Catholic character of the weekly from which it had been developed. The weekly was also continued in its original form.

The Evening Leader, during its brief existence, attained a large measure of success, and was speedily acknowledged as a valuable auxiliary to the forces of the Buchanan party. The Evening Pilot was, at that period, the recognized Democratic organ in this city. Early in the fall Mr. Charles L. Hunt entered into negotiation with the proprietors of the Leader and Pilot, resulting in the purchase of the latter, and the merging of both journals into a new daily morning paper which retained the name of the Leader, Messrs. Huntington and Hunt becoming its joint proprietors.

The first number of the new journal was issued on the 13th of October, 1856. It was avowedly disconnected from all religious affinities, and regularly succeeded to the organship of the National Democratic party. The editorial chairs were filled by Dr. Huntington and Wm. Seay, Esq. The Sunday Leader, a literary edition of the paper, was placed, in the spring of 1857, and still remains, under the editorial charge of Donald MacLeod, Esq., a well known author and poet.

In the fall of the same year Mr. Hunt, having purchased the interest of his partner, became sole proprietor, and in February, 1858, placed the Leader under the general charge of Edward W. Johnson, Esq., Mr. Seay retaining his post as political editor. Mr. Johnson has been before the public for many years


as editorially connected with the National Intelligencer, the Richmond Whig, the New Orleans Crescent, &c.

At this period the form of the quarto was abandoned for that of the folio, and in its new shape acquired a large additional patronage. There are four editions of the Leader, the Daily, Sunday, Tri-weekly and Weekly. Its circulation is large and increasing, and as the Democratic organ of the State has won a wide and high reputation.

JAMES L. FAUCETT, Editor and Proprietor.

This paper was originated by Messrs. Russell S. Higgins, the well known and popular editor of the St. Louis Organ, and Philip G. Ferguson, and made its first appearance on the morning of the 20th of December, 1852. It was at that time published at five cents per week — was 16 1/2 by 23 inches, and was spiritedly conducted. On July 4th, 1854, the paper was enlarged to twenty by twenty-seven inches, and the price of subscription advanced to ten cents per week. The editorial corps embraced considerable talent at that time, numbering among its regular contributors Mr. Allen, the popular financial editor of the St. Louis Republican; Thomas Gales Forster, the present editor of the Boston Banner of Light, a spiritualist; and others. On the 18th of November, 1853, Mr. James L. Faucett became connected with the management of the Herald. This was an important epoch jn the Herald's history. Mr. F. was a young man of indomitable industry and perseverance, possessing a large acquaintance with the citizens of St. Louis. On the 4th of August Mr. F. purchased the interest of Mr. Higgins, and the Herald wag issued by Ferguson & Faucett. Upon this change being made in the proprietorship, the Herald was again enlarged


and was presented to its readers on a 21 1/2 by 30 inch sheet. The fourth volume was published by the same firm and of the same size, but was marked by an increased vigor in the editorial management; being treated to a new dress, it presented a very neat appearance. Through the energetic exertions of Mr. Faucett, the Sunday Herald was commenced, and which is now such a favorite with our reading public. The difficulties which surrounded Mr. Faucett in this undertaking were almost insurmountable; besides the usual difficulties attendant upon such an enterprise, he had to contend against the opposition of Mr. Ferguson, who predicted a failure. Mr. Faucettt knew no such word as "fail," and he now has the satisfaction of seeing his efforts crowned with success.

The fifth volume of the Herald was commenced on the 24th of April, 1855, and was inaugurated by another enlargement. The sixth volume made its appearance in a new dress and was now the neatest paper printed in the city. The seventh volume observed another enlargement, the size being 22 by 32 inches. The eighth volume was also enlarged on the 31st of March, 1857, to 24 by 36 inches.

On the 3d of July, 1857, Mr. Faucett purchased the interest of Mr. Ferguson and took the entire charge of the editorial columns, assisted by an able corps of assistants. Under the guidance of Mr. F. the Herald has been an ardent advocate of the working class, and has always denounced in unmeasured terms the attempts of those in power to abuse their privileges. The Sunday Herald is furnished at two dollars per annum; the Daily Herald at ten cents per week, and deserves the success it receives. May it prosper and grow fat.

We are informed that an enlargement would have been made by Mr. Faueett last fall, had it not been for the monetary crisis affecting his advertisers; but we are assured that it will soon


be carried into consummation. The Herald is now printed at No. 24 Market street, between Main and Second streets, and has a fine Job Office attached, under the charge of Mr. E. H. A. Habicht, one of the most skillful job printers in the west.

ANDERSON & GONTER, Editors and Proprietors.

The St. Louis Price Currsnt was established by Mr. Josiah Anderson, in the fall of 1848, in connection with the "People's Daily Organ;" during which year, and up to 1850, it was issued semi-weekly in "letter sheet" form. In 1849 a semi-weekly newspaper edition was commenced in connection with the letter sheet, but in 1852 both editions became weeklies, and were thus continued by Mr. Anderson to February 1st, 1856, when Charles G. Gonter became one of the proprietors; since which time a Daily Price Current, a letter sheet and a newspaper form, weekly, have regularly been issued from that establishment; and, we are glad to state, are well and liberally supported by the mercantile community. The array of advertisements in the columns of the Price Current is a guaranty of its appreciation by those desirous of extending their business through such a valuable and authentic medium. We are told that the Price Current is sent to almost every State in the Union, as well as to London, Liverpool and other important foreign cities. The letter sheet Price Current has attained a circulation of nearly 4,000 copies.

The Price Current establishment is the only office west of the Mississippi river where Gordon's patent "Fire-Fly" Card Press is to be found — Mr. Gonter having purchased the right. It feeds itself, prints, cuts and counts the cards, from a continuous


roll of card board, at the rate of 8,000 and 10,000 per hour. Office, over No. 8, Olive street.


Besides the papers already mentioned there are 16 weekly papers and 12 magazines and periodicals. There are job offices in profusion, furnishing employment for about 850 printers. The affairs of the craft are governed by a Union, and regular monthly meetings are held for the purpose of legislating upon all questions affecting their interests. This association numbers among its members many gentlemen of fine ability, who would reflect honor upon any position in life which they might be called upon to sustain. Mr. H. P. Callou is the present presiding officer.


Chapter IX. Western River Improvement and Wrecking Company.

There is perhaps no enterprise connected with the city of St. Louis more important in all its various bearings than the one above named. When we consider the magnitude of the trade on the Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Illinois, Red, Cumberland, and Tennessee rivers, with their numerous tributaries, — the millions of property which are annually borne upon their bosoms, together with the amount which is lost by the constantly occurring accidents which no care or foresight can prevent, the usefulness and importance of this company is so apparent as to be clear to the most superficial observer.

No streams in the world present greater obstacles to the raising of boats and the recovery of their cargoes, machinery, etc., than do the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. Their swift-running currents, surcharged with sand, soon form bars in and around the hulls of the unfortunate boats, which are serious obstructions to the recovery of property. When we consider these facts, it is a pleasing thought to know that many of these difficulties have been overcome by the efforts of Messrs. Eads & Nelson, the originators of the above named company.

The first diving-bell used on the Mississippi, we believe, was


constructed and used by Mr. — Thomas, formerly proprietor of the Sectional Docks, upon the wreck of a steamboat sunk in the Mississippi river between the cities of St. Louis and Alton, about the year 1838. His efforts were only partially successful, the diving-bell boats used being mere flatboats. The diving-bell of Mr. Thomas, with two or three other temporary contrivances, were all the public had to depend upon until the year 1842, when the Sub-Marine No. 1 was built. She was looked upon as quite a prodigy in her day. This boat was built by Eads & Nelson and Captain Calvin Case, (a gentleman much respected by the citizens of St. Louis for his energy of character, and who lost his life in the unfortunate Gasconade disaster.) She was used only for the purpose of raising the machinery and cargo of sunken boats. In the year 1845 Messrs. Case and Eads retired from the firm, and the business was conducted by Mr. Nelson alone, until the year 1847, when a company was formed composed of Messrs. Wm. S. Nelson, Jas. B. Eads and A. McDowell. Mr. McDowell, however, shortly after retired, and the business was conducted for the ten years ensuing by Messrs. Eads & Nelson. These gentlemen in 1848 built the Sub-Marine No. 2. She was built at Cairo, and was eminently successful in all her operations.

In the year 1849 the Sub-Marine No. 3 was completed, and her first work was clearing our harbor of some of the wrecks of the twenty-eight steamboats, consumed in the great fire of May, 1849. We have in another place spoken of the ravages of that terrible day. The work of removing these obstructions from our harbor required several months. Since that time the company have also removed the wrecks of many other boats burnt, or sunk at the levee.

In 1851 the Sub-Marine No. 4 was built at Paducah, Kentucky, and inaugurated a new era in the business of wrecking


upon the western rivers. She was provided with powerful steam pumps, patented by Mr. J: Stuart Gwynne, of New York. This pump (Gwynne's patent centrifugal) is probably the most perfect piece of machinery of the kind ever invented. The sole right of using this pump on the Mississippi and its tributaries is possessed by the Western River Improvement and Wrecking Company. The achievements of the Sub-Marine No. 4 at the time were very satisfactory both to the company and the public, as the raising of a steamboat entire on the Mississippi had prior to that time been ranked among the impossibilities — few ever having been entirely raised before she commenced operations. Since 1851 upwards of fifty boats have been raised and set afloat once more by the aid of this company. Many of them too are still running — thus giving to the country a large amount of capital which, but for their efforts, would have been lost to the commerce of the West.

In 1855 the five snag boats built by the United States Government, at a cost of $185,000, were offered for sale, and were purchased by Messrs. Eads & Nelson, and now form a part of the fleet used and owned by the present company. The copper plate engraving of one of them (the A. H. Sevier) is a correct picture of this boat about to raise a snag. (See engraving.) The smallest one, the Terror, built for the Arkansas river, was converted into the Sub-Marine No. 8. In 1856 or 1857 the Sub-Marine No. 7 was built. (See accompanying engraving, which is an accurate picture of this boat.) She cost $80,000, and is beyond a doubt the most complete boat of her kind in the world, being capable of raising the largest steamers. She is furnished with two of Gwynne's centrifugal pumps, capable of discharging two thousand barrels of water per minute. Her first feat was the raising of the steamer Switzerland. This boat was sunk near Natchez, with a


cargo of 900 tons on board. The water was 14 feet deep on her deck. The sand and mud had settled in a few days to the depth of eighteen inches in many places on her, but the Sub-Marine No. 7 raised her — cargo, mud and sand — bodily, and set her afloat. The Switzerland is now engaged in the Cincinnati and New Orleans trade.

Since this boat has been out she has been kept steadily engaged, and has performed many feats which a few years ago all boatmen and experienced river men would have considered impossible.

The company have just completed, at New Albany, Indiana, two very superior boats, called Sub-Marines No. 11 and 12.

The field of labor of this company is a large one, and must ultimately command the extension of its capital to the utmost limit allowed by the charter, in order that it may keep pace with the necessities of the rapidly growing trade of the Mississippi valley.

After the purchase of the United States snag-boats above spoken of, the idea was conceived by the founders of the present company of converting their great facilities for recovering wrecked property into the means of preventing the enormous losses of life and vessels constantly occurring on the Missistippi and its tributaries, by removing the channel obstructions which cause them. To this end a proposition was made to the General Government by Messrs. Eads & Nelson, in 1856, to clear out the snags, stumps, sunken logs, wrecks and rocks which infest the navigation, for a fixed sum per annum, for a term of five years. It is needless to say that, through the opposition of the late President (Gen Pierce,) to all internal improvements, this most praiseworthy object failed of success.

With a view of achieving this end — the improvement of our noble rivers — through the means above mentioned, and to


concentrate capital, skill and personal influence with direct reference to attaining it, a liberal charter was obtained from the Legislature of Missouri, in 1857, incorporating the present association under tlje name and style of the "Western River Improvement and Wrecking Company." It has a capital of; two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and the right to increase the same to five hundred thousand dollars. The stock was readily taken, and is now held by some seventy or eighty stockholders, embracing many of our most prominent business men.

The affairs of the company are conducted by seven directors, chosen annually, together with a president, vice president, superintendent, secretary, and treasurer, whose names we insert for the benefit of our readers:


Officers of the Company.
JAMES B. EADS, President,
S. H. LAFLIN, Vice President,
WM. S. NELSON, Superintendent,
WM. C. BUCHANAN, Secretary,

For the above hasty and imperfect sketch of the operations of this company and its predecessors, from the commencement up to the present time, we have had to depend upon very insufficient data, but, as limited as it is, we feel confident that it demonstrates the usefulness and efficiency of such an association. The charter of the company does not confine it to the Mississippi in its operations, but permits it to recover wrecked property in any part of the world, and to own and manage such steam vessels and dry docks as may be deemed proper.

We look upon the Western River Improvement and Wrecking


Company as a standing rebuke to the Government of the United States. Instead of removing those obstructions, which offer constant peril to the entire commerce of the west, the Government leaves for private enterprise to do that which justice and right clearly point out as its duty. While millions upon millions of acres of land are donated for the building of railroads, which, in the end, mainly benefit a few speculators in lands and railroad stocks, not a dollar can be appropriated for the benefit of the thousands and hundreds of thousands who are compelled to use the western waters as a highway upon which to convey their products to market. In consequence of this injustice on the part of the Government, we are continually meeting with losses that annually amount to a sum that would more than clear the river of all obstructions. In addition to this, in consequence of the obstructions not being removed, we are subjected to enormous taxes, in the shape of insurance, upon whatever we may choose to ship and trust to the dangerous navigation of the rivers of the West.

This is done, too, while millions of dollars are annually appropriated for the improvement of eastern harbors, thus virtually giving assistance to a great number of foreign vessels which navigate those waters in connection with American ships, while western steamers and property are left to provide for themselves.

This neglect had become so severe an evil, that the organization of an association like the Western River Improvement and Wrecking Company was imperatively demanded. It stands forth now a tower of strength, an evidence of western energy, and an honor to the city from which it hails. Officered as the company is by men of great experience in the business which they have undertaken, and rendered successful by the energy they


have displayed in its management, this company is probably far more efficient than would be a Government fleet of the same character, managed, as it undoubtedly would be, by some eastern engineer or western political mountebank. The only regret is, that the cost of all this neglect on the part of the Government falls upon the wrong shoulders.

The company is a great savings institution to the public in another respect — to the insured and insurance offices in particular — since it saves yearly vast amounts of property for the underwriters, and thus enables them to insure most descriptions of goods at a lower rate of per centage than could be done under the old regime, when no such company was in existence. We much regret that we have neither time nor space to enter into this subject more fully. It is a matter of vital interest to western commerce and navigation. It is one that affects not only the steamboat interest, but the farmer and the mechanic, and indeed all who may have occasion to transport their products or handiwork on our rivers, and who may have to call to their assistance the skill and aid of this company. We trust to have occasion hereafter to give a more full statement of the company's achievements, and thus do it that justice which it so fully merits.

The Western River Improvement and Wrecking Company has a standing salvage contract with nearly all the prominent Insurance Companies throughout the Union, by which it is empowered to save at once any property insured by them which may chance to be lost on the Mississippi river or on its tributaries, when sunk beyond the power of the master of the boat to recover with the means under his control. By this means no time is lost in making special contracts for each case — such delays being likely to cause a loss of the whole property by its being covered by sand, mud, &c. The peculiar nature of the Mississippi


and Missouri rivers is such that, when a steamboat sinks, but a few days elapse (often but a few hours) before the shifting sands are washed from under some part of the hull, and it becomes so twisted, bent or broken, that it is impossible to raise the boat. By this contract all unnecessary delay is avoided, and the rate of salvage is settled by the value of the property saved.

The following is a copy of the advertisement of the Insurance Companies who are parties to this contract:

"TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN. — We the undersigned Insurance Companies, parties to a general salvage contract with the Western River Improvement and Wrecking Company of St. Louis, Mo., have appointed that company our general agents, with full authority to act for us in recovering any property insured by us, which may be lost in the Mississippi river and its tributaries, except on the Ohio above the Falls. And in the event of the sinking of any boat insured by either of us, it is particularly requested of the master to communicate with the Western River Improvement and Wrecking Company with all dispatch, and not to proceed to remove the engines, boilers, fixtures, &c., or in any manner injure the boat, or make any contract with any other parties for wrecking boat or cargo, before the agent of said Western River Improvement and Wrecking Company shall have visited the wreck.

Union Insurance Company, St. Louis, by F. L. RIDGELY, President.
Marine Insurance Company, St. Louis, by D. HOUGH, President.
Citizens' Insurance Company, St. Louis, by W. D. WOOD, Secretary.
St Louis Floating Dock and Insurance Co., St. Louis, by W. J. FETTER, Secretary.


Lumbermen and Mechanics' Insurance Co., St. Louis, by J. N. PRITCHARD, Secretary.
Atlantic Mutual Insurance Co., St. Louis, by C. C. FERGUSON, Secretary.
Millers' and Manufacturers' Insurance Co., St. Louis,by J. A. BROWNLEE, President.
Merchants' Mutual Insurance Company, St. Louis, by S. H. LOWRY, Secretary.
St. Louis Insurance Co., of St. Louis, by GEO. K. McGUNNEGLE, President.
American Insurance Co., St. Louis, by S. R. CLARKE, Secretary.
Delaware M. S. Insurance Company, Philadelphia, by EDWRAD BROOKS, Agent.
Commercial Insurance Co., Louisville, by P. B. ATWOOD, Secretary.
Louisville Insurance Co., Louisville, by WM. PRATHER, Secretary.
Franklin Insurance Co., Louisville, by ABRAHAM HITE, Secretary.
People's Insurance Co., Louisville, by J. L. DANFORTH, Secretary.
Washington Insurance Co., Louisville,by W. Ross, Secretary.
Jefferson Insurance Co., Louisville, by JOHN MUIR, President.
Louisville M. & F. Insurance Company, Louisville,by WM. SINTON, Secretary.


Delaware Mutual Insurance Company, Philadelphia, by J. E. TYLER, Agent,
Cincinnati Insurance Co., Cincinnati, by G. W. WILLIAMS, Secretary.
City Insurance Co., Cincinnati, by N. GREGORY, Secretary.
National Insurance Co., Cincinnati, by H. C. URNOR, Secretary.
Washington Insurance Co., Cincinnati, by WM. GOODMAN, President.
Firemen's Insurance Co., Cincinnati, by H. E. SPENCER, President.
Eagle Insurance Co., Cincinnati, by J. B. STOCKTON, Secretary.
Merchants' and Manufacturer's Insurance Co., Cincinnati, by A. M. SEARLES, President.
Queen City Insurance Co., Cincinnati, by W. H. McKINNEY, Secretary.
Howard F. & M. Insurance Company, Philadelphia, Merchants' Insurance Co., Philadelphia; Exchange Insurance Co., Philadelphia; Atlantic F. & M. Insurance Co., Providence, R. I., by TAYLOR & ANTHONY, Agents, Cincinnati.
Pennsylvania Insurance Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., by A. A. CARRIER, Secretary.
Pittsburgh Life, Fire and Marine Insur. Co., Pittsburgh, by R. GALWAY, President.
Western Insurance Co., Pittsbugh, by F. M. GORDON, Secretary.


Monongahela Insurance Co., Pittsburgh, by JAS. A. HUTCHISON, President.
Great Western Insurance Company, Philadelphia, Merchants' Insurance Co., Philadelphia, by R. W. POINDEXTER, Agent, Pittsburgh.
Delaware Mutual Insurance Co., Philadelphia, by P. A. MADEIRA, Agent, Pittsburgh.
Protection Insurance Co., Nashville, by SAMUEL SEAY, President.
Nashville Commercial Insurance Co., Nashville, Tenn., by ALEX FALL, President.
Tennessee M. & F. Insurance Co., Nashville, Tenn., by JOSEPH VAULX, President.
Sun Mutual Insurance Co., New Orleans, by THOMAS SLOO, President.
Eureka Insurance Company, of Pittsburgh, by R. FINNEY, Secretary.
Home Mutual Insurance Company of New Orleans, by A. BROTHER, President.
Crescent Mutual Insurance Company of New Orleans, by THOS. A. ADAMS, President.
Citizens' Mutual Insurance Company of New Orleans, by O. GAINARD, President.
Louisiana Mutual Insurance Company of New Orleans, by CHAS. BRIGGS, President.
Star Insurance Company of New Orleans, by PLACIDE FORSTALL, President.
Atlantic Mutual Insurance Company, New York, by J. D. JONES, President.


Union Mutual Insurance Co., New York, by F. STAGG, Secretary.
Manufacturers' Ins. Co. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, by A. S. LIPPINCOTT, President.
Merchants' and Mechanics' Insurance Co., Philadelphia, by E. R. HELMBOLD, Secretary,
Commonwealth Insurance Company, Harrisburgh, by S. S. CARRIER, Secretary.
State Mutual F. & M. Insurance Co., Harrisburgh, by S. WARD, Secretary.
Madison Insurance Co., Madison, Ind., by S. POLLEMS, Secretary.
Mercantile, Fire & Marine Ins. Co., Covington, Ky., by E. HENRY CARTER, President.
Nebraska City Insurance Company, Nebraska City, by CHAS. F. HOLLY, President.
Office of the Western River Improvement and Wrecking Company, Nos. 47 and 252 North Main street, St. Louis. JAMES B. EADS, President."


Chapter X. Railroads.

In giving our Sketches of St. Louis and her business, we would be false to ourselves and to the task we have undertaken, were we to neglect to notice the Railroads which centre here; they have exerted so powerful an influence in building up our city that they have become identified with our present and future greatness, and deserve from the historian a much more extended notice than we shall be able to give.

which forms so conspicuous a link in the grand chain of Railroads connecting the West with the Atlantic seaboard, first enlisted the sympathies of St. Louis in the year 1852, and was then pushed forward with the utmost energy and swiftness till the last rail was laid on the 22d of April, 1857, amid the crowd of invited guests who were present to participate in the ceremonies.

The early completion of this road was brought about mainly through the indefatigable energy and perseverance of our fellow-citizen, Mr. Henry D. Bacon, who, having once taken hold of it, let no obstacle, however great, dishearten him, but with his whole soul worked on, amid the difficulties which surrounded him on all sides, until he had the proud satisfaction of seeing his labors crowned with success. In all his schemes,


Mr. Bacon found an able and willing coadjutor in Mr. S. L. M. Barlow, a gentleman who shares with Mr. Bacon the honors their work reflects.

In the spring of 1856, Mr. Bacon, finding that all the plans for the completion of the road were hopelessly surrounded with difficulties, and the prospect of its abandonment to the bond-holders imminent, he went from St. Louis to New York, called together seven or eight of his friends, among the capitalists of the latter city, and submitted to them a plan which he deemed favorable for the completion of the eastern division of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad, and solicited their co-operation. They were at first reluctant; but finally, quite as much out of friendship for Mr. Bacon and desire to aid him in the completion of an enterprise that had prostrated him, as from any other motive, they adopted his plan, agreeing to execute it provided certain contingencies were complied with, and become responsible for the payment of three millions of dollars, the sum estimated as requisite to put the road in running order for the entire route.

At that time there was a million of old floating debt to be arranged — old contractors to be settled with — new contracts to be made — bond-holders in England to be negotiated with, and the City Council of Cincinnati to be approached and conciliated to the proposed plan. On the 10th of May, 1856, the preliminaries were all arranged and disposed of, and the contract signed by the New York capitalists for the completion of the road in eighteen months. In less than a year iron was brought from Europe, the floating debt reduced to about one hundred thousand dollars, and the first train of cars passed over the road, between Cincinnati and St. Louis, carrying the guests who had been invited to participate in the celebration of the event. The grand railroad jubilee of 1857, in honor of


the completion of this road, will long be remembered as the grandest ovation ever offered, while at the same time it served to let the world know that, though we were situated upon the far western frontier, where, it is supposed by our eastern friends, the buffalo roams in unrestrained freedom, and wild Indians stalk in savage state through our streets, we had studied the art of hospitality and knew how to welcome our guests to our city, our homes, and our firesides, as only the frontiersman can.

So soon as the completion of this road had been achieved, the company determined upon celebrating the event in a style and manner becoming the occasion. Thousands of tickets were distributed in all parts of the country; arrangements were made for the transportation of guests over nearly every road in the United States and Canada. The City Councils of Baltimore, Cincinnati, etc., were special guests. All the distinguished men of the day were requested to be present to give eclat to the affair. Never had arrangements been made upon so grand a scale. The city took part in the affair and determined to equal any of her former efforts, if not surpass them all. Preparations were made, and when at length the day dawned upon our city every one was ready to join in the joys of the occasion. The guests were received amid the huzzas of the multitude — the booming of cannon and the music of the bands — the military were present in their gay uniforms, with glittering muskets and waving feathers, to escort them to the carriages prepared for the occasion. Then began the march to the Fair Grounds, where a splendid collation had been prepared. Here they were regaled with the hospitality of the borderer, such as every true son of the west delights to offer to those who visit him. Those who were present upon that occasion can never forget the manner in which they were received. It seemed as


though each particular citizen had taken upon himself the task of rendering the visitors' stay amongst us as pleasant as possible. After spending several days in looking at our city, they departed for their homes, with an enlarged opinion of our people, our city, and especially the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad and its management. We do not intend here to speak of the noble conduct of the Baltimoreans, who, after their return home, forwarded invitations to our citizens to come and visit them and accept the hospitalities of their city — how, when our delegation arrived there, they were welcomed to Baltimorean firesides as brothers — how they were feasted, feted and treated with the hospitality for which the Monumental City is so famed.

The Ohio and Mississippi and Baltimore and Ohio Railroads won golden opinions from all sorts of people by their generosity, and since that time have become a favorite route with the travelling public. The excursions afforded the people an opportunity of observing the manner in which these roads are conducted — of seeing and inspecting the admirable arrangements, and satisfying themselves of the peculiar advantages possessed by them over most other roads.

For romantic beauty of scenery the country through which the route of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad passes stands far in advance of all other routes in the West, and compares favorably with the much-boasted beauties of the Hudson river. The broad and extensive prairies of Illinois, where, in days gone by, the Illinois, Delawares, Peorias, Sioux, and other wild tribes — who made their homes upon the banks of the Illinois or Wabash rivers — hunted the buffalo, now present one of the loveliest pictures imaginable to the eye. Millions of varied colored flowers bloom in native sweetness, rendering the atmosphere redolent by their perfumes — the lowing herds of the


thrifty farmer grazing upon nature's bounteous pasture — the curling smoke ascending from the solitary cabin of the hardy pioneer — the droves of wild deer playing in fancied security on the hill-sides — the meandering streams skirted by tall waving pines — all serve to render the scene one of exquisite beauty; — the villages, which have sprung into existence as if by magic, assist in affording the delighted traveller a view of one of nature's most beautiful and picturesque panoramas.

Vincennes, the eastern terminus, is situated on the Wabash river, about one hundred and twenty-five miles from Indianapolis, the capital of the State. It is the capital of Knox county, and the oldest town in Indiana, having been first settled in 1735 by a body of French Canadians. The country all around was one vast wilderness and remained so for many generations, its only tenants being the Indians, then very numerous, who lived on amicable terms with the colonists. Vincennes has a fine site along the left bank of the river; it is laid out with great regularity, and its public and county buildings, churches, &c., are well finished edifices, and marked with great taste in their construction. There are several benevolent institutions in the town, a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical institute, and commodious public schools, private academies, &c., much attention being devoted to educational interests. It was once the capital of Indiana, previous to the seat of government being removed to Corydon. Its population, which is rapidly increasing, is about 6,000.

Olney is a pretty little village of Richmond county, Illinois, thirty miles from Vincennes, on this route. It was first laid out in 1845, and contains about 800 inhabitants. Noble, Middleton, Sandoval, Caseyville and other villages on the line of this railway have only sprung into existence within the last few years. They are all flourishing, prosperous places, having been


greatly benefited by the construction of the road, and the uninterrupted communication with the great cities of the West — Cincinnati and St. Louis, Another cause exists in the over-flowing stream of immigration to this part of the country, the fertile prairies and rich lands of the State of Illinois, offering especial inducements to persons engaged in agricultural pursuits.

We have already spoken of the scenery on the line of the Western Division. We now propose to speak of the beautiful things with which nature, with lavish hand, has decorated the Eastern Division. Leaving Vincennes, the snort of the iron horse is soon heard reverberating among the "knobs of the Forest State." Well do we remember, in the halcyon days of boyhood, of reading the thrilling deeds of daring performed by the early settlers of the then far West. Indiana, Ohio and Kentucky were the scene of many a fierce strife and bloody rencounter. The "dark and bloody ground" has become the household name for Kentucky, yet many were the deeds of blood committed upon the soil of the Hoosier State; and could those wild hills, whose brows uplift toward heaven and are bathed by the morning dew, but speak, they could, indeed,

"A tale unfold, whose lightest word
Would harrow up thy soul; freeze thy young blood,
Make thy two eyes, like stars, start from their spheres,
Thy knotted and combined locks to part,
And each particular hair stand on end,
Like quills upon the fretful porcupine."

Those tall oaks, with tops upreared, and whose limbs, like an hundred weird-like fingers, are pointing to the heaven to come, would add to the bloody record their tales of interest. As onward you speed, at every bound nearing the Queen City of the West, new beauties come crowding upon you — over hill, through dale, and across plain, ever varying, until you reach


the loveliest spot in all the west — the banks of the White river. One can scarcely believe as he swiftly glides along through the forest that girdles him in, and he hears naught but the rattle of the cars and the dash of the water-fall at the base of yonder picturesque mountain, or the rapid song of the whipporwill, that a half dozen hours ago he stood in the centre of the commercial metroplis of the West. The change could not be greater if he had been transferred to another planet. The paved street changed for the mountain slope — the rattle of the omnibusses and carriages for the rush of the cars, as they are echoed back from the craggy precipices — the voices of the passing multitude for the song of the rippling waters. Oh, how charming the scene! See how lazily that tree swings its green top in the wind — how gently the brook goes, talking to itself through the forest — and how leisurely the very clouds swing themselves over the heavens, seeming delighted to linger for a moment amid scenes so enrapturing. While your eye is yet drinking in with delight the beautiful panorama before you, it is left far behind, and the vineyards scattered over the hills on the banks of La Belle river are before you — with one sweep of the eye around the horizon you take in an area of immense extent and beauty. The luxuriant vines covered with clustering fruit, from which the sparkling Catawba is expressed, grow in abundance, and yield a large return for the fostering care given them. Along the banks of the Ohio you are borne, the landscape upon the Kentucky shore giving variety to the scene, until South Bend is reached; here is the tomb of the gallant General Harrison, sheltered beneath the overhanging trees which in life he loved so well. Anon, the smoke of the city is observed; soon we see the tall spires, and then hear the rattle of the cart, and the call of the porter, singing the praises of his hotel, and the passenger finds himself seated in the


runing-room of the Burnet House, enjoying his fragrant Havana, before he has had time to feel weary, so delighted has he been. The day is near at hand when the superior scenery of the Ohio and Mississippi road will cause thousands to pass over it for the purpose of gazing upon it and feasting their eyes on the beauties of nature, bestowed with so lavish a hand.

The connections of the Ohio and Mississippi are among the most important of all the many roads leading East. They are — at St. Louis, with the Pacific Railroad, Missouri river packets for all points in Kansas, Nebraska and Western Missouri; with the Keokuk packets for all points on the Upper Mississippi; and with the steamers for Memphis and all towns on the Lower Mississippi.

At Sandoval, with the Illinois Central, going north, through Patoka, Vandalia, Ramsey, Pana, Macon, Decatur, Bloomington, Panola, Lasalle, Dunleith and Dubuque; and on the Chicago branch of the Illinois Central, Mattoon, Totono, Chicago, &c. Leading south from Sandoval, we find they have the most direct route to Centralia, Richview, Tamaroa, Duquoin, Villa Ridge and Cairo.

The indefatigable efforts of Mr. Isaac Wyman, the popular and favorite General Western Agent, together with several of our most popular and experienced steamboat captains on the lower Mississippi, have succeeded in establishing a line of Southern Packets to run in conjunction with the Ohio and Mississippi and Central Illinois Railroads. This line of steamers comprises a number of the finest boats on the western waters; and are, the Imperial, Capt. Gould; New Falls City, Capt. Montgomery; Wm. M. Morrison, Capt. Bofinger; City of Memphis, Capt. Kountz; J. E. Woodruff, Cap. Rogers; Pennsylvania, Capt. Klinefelter; A. T. Lacy, Capt. Rodney; New Uncle Sam, Capt. Van Dusen; J. O. Swon, Capt. Jones; Aleck Scott,


Capt. Switzer — ten packets in all. They are first class steamers unrivalled for speed, capacity of accommodation, and general appointments. There is not one of the ten but can make the trip from New Orleans to St. Louis in six or six and a half days. The captains are experienced commanders, who have earned a high reputation in this community, and the travelling public having occasion to go southward could not fall into more gentlemanly and skillful hands.

Rates of passage are fixed between St. Louis and all points below. Rates of freight are to be determined on, and thirty days' notice to be given of any change in the rates of either passage or freight. The packets agree to use all reasonable efforts to accommodate the business brought to them by the roads. The roads have established offices in Memphis and New Orleans for the sale of tickets and contracting for freight. The roads have also adopted measures to place tickets for the steamboat line at all places East and North, where through tickets are sold, for the convenience of travellers to the South, who can in this way be ticketed through from the East and North to New Orleans and all intermediate points.

This arrangement will be a very great accommodation to all travellers passing between the North and South on the Mississippi, as it establishes that which has so long been wanted, a regular conveyance at fixed times and reasonable rates of fare; while it will prove, as we trust, profitable to the companies, it will be advantageous and acceptable to the travelling and business community.

This arrangement with the Packet Line was projected, as we have before stated, by the steamboat captains and officers of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad; and through the efforts of W. H. Clement, Esq., Superintendent, the Illinois Central was subsequently secured to cooperate. The public owe the above


officers, both of the roads and boats, many thanks for their valuable aid in rendering travelling facilities between New Orleans and the West, and St. Louis and the Atlantic seaboard, so rapid and comfortable; and we mistake much if they do not render to them a bounteous equivalent by embracing the opportunities thus placed before them.

The road connects at Vincennes with the Evansville and Crawfordsville Railroad for Evansville, Terre-Haute, Crawfordsville, Indianapolis, &c.

At Seymour, with the Jeffersonville Railroad for Louisville, Lexington, Frankfort, Jeffersonville, Indianapolis, &c.

At Mitchell, with the New Albany and Salem Railroad for Louisville, Lexington, New Albany, Greencastle, Lafayette, Chicago, &c.

At North Vernon, for Madison and points on the Ohio river.

At Cincinnati, with the Little Miami, Central Ohio, Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati; Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton; Richmond, Eaton and Cincinnati; Mad River, Lake Erie, Marietta and Cincinnati; Cincinnati, Wilmington and Zanesville; Steubenville and Pittsburgh Railroad, for all points North or East; and Covington and Lexington Railroad, for the interior of Kentucky; the Maysville Packet Line for Maysville and Kanawha river.

The Ohio and Mississippi Railroad is the best stocked road in the West, having now about fourteen hundred freight and baggage cars, one hundred passenger cars, and sixty locomotives. Their greatly increasing business will soon demand a large increase, which we feel assured in asserting will be provided as fast as the demand increases. They have in successful operation two of the most complete machine shops and locomotive works in the country — one located at each end of the road — where a large force of excellent workmen are constantly employed.


A great part of the road is now ballasted and by fall the entire route will be in the most complete running order of any road in the United States. Contracts have also been entered into for fencing the entire route and will soon be completed.

The officers of the road at present are, Mr. Jos. W. Alsop, of New York, President Eastern Division; S. L. M. Barlow, of New York, President Western Division; W. H. Clement, of Cincinnati, General Superintendent, both Divisions; P. W. Strader, of Cincinnati, General Ticket Agent, both Divisions; Isaac Wyman, of St. Louis, General Agent and Western Manager; all of whom are gentlemen of large experience in railroad matters.

The selection of Mr. Isaac Wyman as General Western Agent, was characteristic of the management, evidencing a desire to render every thing agreeable and comfortable to the travelling community. Mr. W. is a gentleman who has won for himself an enviable reputation by his courteous and affable manner towards all who come in contact with him. In Mr. W. this road has found a worthy representative, and one who has done much towards gaining for it the reputation it now bears.

The Ohio and Mississippi Railroad is the only road in the West that is built upon the broad guage principle. We have always been an advocate of this principle of building railroads, believing that it affords a greater degree of security against accidents, independent of the increased capacity for accommodation to travellers. There has lately been placed upon this road a couple of those newly invented sleeping cars, which, we are convinced, will become before long popular to such a degree as to drive the present inconvenient car out of use.

There are two trains leaving East St. Louis daily, carrying, besides a host of passengers, the United States mail and Adams' Express matter. They have their hours of starting so


arranged as to arrive in Cincinnati in time for the trains East, thus affording a speedy transportation hence to the Atlantic. The passenger, in taking the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad, can, on entering the cars, find himself a bed, if he gets on board a sleeping car, and sleep till he arrives in the Queen Gity without having to change cars. A courteous and gentlemanly set of conductors are in charge of the trains, and efficient engineers conduct the engines, giving security that "all is well."

When the route of this road was first surveyed it was through a deep forest of trees and across the broad prairies of Illinois. Miles and miles were often traversed without a single habitation being discovered. Now almost the entire course is dotted with villages or teeming with golden grain, which springs like magic from the face of the earth wherever it is tickled by the plow or hoe of the husbandman. No better farming land can be found in the world; no better market for the products of the farm than St. Louis. Where five years ago was a vast field of natural pasturage, now can be found a busy village of four thousand inhabitants, cheerfully performing the duties of the mechanic and adding their portion of worldly goods to the grand total of Western wealth. Where a few short years ago naught but the sighing of trees and the rustle of the tall grass, as the gentle zephyrs played over and around them, disturbed the repose of nature, now can be heard the ringing sounds of the woodman's axe as he levels the huge trees to the ground, and the merry voice of the herdsman as he watches his immense herds of stock. All this, and much more, is owing to the building of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad. Indeed we owe much to the rapid settlement and development of the West to the building of our railroads, and to none more than the Ohio and Mississippi.

CINCINNATI, OHIO. — The metropolis of the State, and is


called the "Queen City of the West." It is the most populous city of the Western States, and the largest inland city in the Union. It occupies two terraces, or even surfaces, about twelve miles in circumference, surrounded by beautiful hills, rising to a height of about 300 feet in gentle slopes, which are mostly covered by native forest trees.

The shore of the Ohio river, at the principal landing-place, is paved to low water-mark, and supplied by floating wharves, or, what in Cincinnati are termed wharf-boats, adapted to the great rise and fall of the river, which renders the landing at all times convenient. The handsomest portions of the city are Broadway, Pearl, Walnut, Fourth and Eighth streets. At the foot of Main street is the public landing or levee — an open area often acres, with 1,200 square feet front.

Cincinnati is one of the great emporiums of the western States. It is the principal mart for the pork and bacon trade in the United States; the receipts for hogs, pork and bacon, amounting to $5,486,592 for the year 1852; in 1854, this had increased to $8,310,290; and is now in a most flourishing condition. The climate in and around Cincinnati is peculiarly favorable for the cultivation of the vine, and the wine made from the Catawba grape is of excellent quality. Over 220,000 gallons are produced annually.

There are several first-class hotels in Cincinnati, as the Burnet, Spencer and Broadway Houses; also the Walnut-street and United States Hotels. Of restaurants, the St. Charles, William Tell, and Debolt, are the principal. Cincinnati was originally called Losanteville, and was settled, in 1788. It was incorporated as a city in 1819. In 1800, it contained 750 inhabitants; in 1840, 46,0,00; 1850, 115,000; 1856, 200,000. Previous to the arrival of the trains at Cincinnati, passengers will be waited upon by the baggage agent, who passes


through the cars; by giving him their baggage-check, he in return will give them an omnibus ticket, which entitles them to one seat in the omnibus and the carriage of one trunk to any part of the city.


Chapter XI. Railroads — (Continued.)


This road commences at Dunleith, a town situated on the east side of the Mississippi river, directly opposite the beautiful and flourishing city of Dubuque, in Iowa. It passes south sixteen miles, through the city of Galena, the centre of the great lead region of the west, thence easterly fifty miles, after which it takes a southerly course, in an almost straight line, passing through the following important towns: Nora, a town of some 1000 inhabitants, where two years ago there were none; we find next Freeport, where it connects with the following railroads, viz., Racine and Mississippi and Chicago Union Railroad, for all towns and cities east or west.

Passing along still in a southerly course, you next reach a town called Polo, which in 1855 had no inhabitants, and has at present 3500. You next come to the beautiful village of Dixon;as you approach it, its appearance is beautiful, being situated on a side hill, commanding a view for miles around. It has many beautiful churches and public buildings, as well as many magnificent private residences. Dixon has at this time about 6000 inhabitants; it is the terminus of the Dixon Air Line Railroad.

The next town of importance we come to is Amboy. This place is quite pretty, and very much resembles some of the


New England towns, the streets being very wide and very regularly laid out, and well supplied with shade trees. It has about 3000 inhabitants, when in 1850 it had but sixteen persons. The next place of importance is Mendota, where connections are made daily with the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy R. R. for Chicago and the east; also for Galesburgh, Quincy, Keokuk, Burlington, and all points in the west. At Mendota the traveler will find a magnificent depot, and one of the best hotels in the Union connected with it, under the management of a clever fellow, by the name of Akin, who is always ready to supply the wants of the inner man. This place at present has about 1800 inhabitants, and is fast increasing in population.

The next town is La Salle, another large and flourishing village, and one that has grown with great rapidity the last few years. Fifteen years ago it had a population of 500 persons, and now it has about 8000. At this point close connection with trains from the north and south are made daily with the Chicago and Rock Island Railroad for Chicago and the east, and Rock Island, Davenport, Iowa City and the west. After leaving La Salle, we pass through the following flourishing villages: Lena, Nora, Rutland and Wenona, all of which have been settled within the last three years; the largest of these towns has about 2000 inhabitants — the smallest about 900. The next we come to is El Paso, where connections are made daily with the Peoria and Oquaka Railroad for Peoria and intermediate places.

We keep still on our way south, continually passing through thriving towns and villages, until we reach the beautiful city of Bloomington. This city contains some very handsome buildings, mostly built of brick, neatly and tastefully ornamented. Bloomington had in 1852 about 1500 inhabitants — it now has 7000; it is lighted with gas, and is situated so as to make it


very pleasant, the grounds being quite rolling. Leaving Bloomington we pass Heyworth, Wapello, Clinton, Macon, Forsyth, to Decatur. This is another important point, it being the connection of the Great Western Railroad, where passengers change cars for Springfield, Jacksonville and Naples; also for points in the east. Decatur is quite a city, having about 5000 inhabitants, and many fine buildings. We leave Decatur, passing over the most beautiful prairie lands in the State, until we arrive at Pana. At this point connections are made by all trains with the old reliable Terre Haute Railroad, to and from St. Louis and the east.

Our next connections are made with the Broad Gauge Ohio and Mississippi, from St. Louis for Cairo and all points in the south and east. From Sandoval we proceed to Centralia, a city where the company have erected capacious and substantial depot buildings, as well as engine houses, work shops, &c., forming almost an entire city within themselves. This place has about 8000 inhabitants; in the year 1854, only four years ago, there were none. We leave Centralia, passing through several neat and pretty towns, which have been recently settled, until we get to De Quoin and De Soto; these are celebrated for their beautiful location, and for the numerous coal mines. At these points coal of the best quality is found; it is said by all who have used it to be the best known in the State. The next town is Carbondale, which is also very beautiful, although small; it being quite new, the houses are mostly built in amongst the trees, making it shady and very pleasant during the summer season. We next come to Jonesboro, which has attained quite a celebrity for its productiveness; at this place there is acre after acre laid out and cultivated as gardens for early vegetables and fruits — such as peaches, apples, tomatoes, and in fact all kinds, which are raised in abundance and in advance of any


other part of the country. From Jonesboro we pass hastily along until we reach Cairo; Cairo is at the terminus of the mainline, and where we connect with all boats bound down the Mississippi and up the Ohio rivers. Passengers taking the cars at St. Louis twenty-four hours after the boats have left are sure of certain connection with the boats for all points at Cairo.

The company have now a line of ten new first class boats, which make daily connections with all trains arriving and departing from Cairo. Passengers desirous of remaining in St. Louis after boats have left can do so, and engage state rooms, passage, &c., to Vicksburgh, Natchez, Memphis and New Orleans, at the office of the company, No. 50 Fourth street, St. Louis.

A branch of this great road leaves the main line at Centralia, one hundred and eighteen miles above Cairo, diverging to the north-east and terminating at Chicago. At Mattoon connections are made with the Terre Haute Railroad for Chicago, and all points in the north and east; the connections are close and certain. There are at present two daily express passenger trains running from and to St. Louis from Chicago, Dunleith, and intermediate points, without change of cars or baggage. These trains are furnished with new and beautiful state room cars, such as can not be surpassed by any in this country; in fact it is the only road running through this part of the western country which has such magnificent equipments. The company have at present something like one hundred and seventy large and powerful engines, all from the best manufactory in the world, and that is Rogers, Ketchum & Grosvenor's; and rolling stock and equipments sufficient of all kinds to supply any demand, both for the transportation of freight and passengers. They have erected at all places where connections are made with other roads (where passengers are obliged to change cars) the most


substantial and best arranged depots in the United States, all of which are supplied with all the modern improvements, and ladies' and gent's sitting rooms, well furnished, to make the passengers comfortable. The best hotels are also in the depot buildings at these points. The road has been constructed by the best mechanics and contractors in the country, and the company has spared neither pains nor expense to make it what it is now called by the travelling public — the model railroad of the country. It is managed by men who have been selected with care by its directors from the principle roads in the States — men who are not only scientific men, but men of long practical experience. When we name its managers, and you examine into their experience, you will find that most all of them have commenced at the foot, and by industry and perseverance are now managing the largest and most prosperous road in the world. We will take the President, W. H. Osborn, who is celebrated as being one of the best financial men in the country, and his management of this road shows it. J. C. Clark, Esq., is the king of superintendents of this western country. — a self-made man at that. John C. Jacobs, the Superintendent of the North Division, is celebrated for his energy and promptitude in whatever he undertakes. R. Forsyth, Esq., the General Freight Agent, is another of the same stamp; he is one of the most popular freight agents extant, and in fact all of the officers are of the same mould. The entire length of this road is seven hundred and seven miles, and has a line of telegraph, with an operator at each station, thereby securing to the traveller safety, speed and comfort. Passengers leaving St. Louis for any of the northern, eastern, or southern points, by calling on the General Agent, at 50 Fourth street, St. Louis, will receive all information in relation to all routes out of St. Louis, or any information he will impart with his usual ease and willingness to the


inquirer. All who call on Mr. Hinman, the General Agent, will find him polite and ready to accommodate them.

Mr. Wm. P. Johnson, the General Ticket Agent, is a thorough-going man, and one who has not his superior in the world; he is one of the most courteous, affable and gentlemanly persons we have ever met; he is a general favorite with the travelling community. As to Mr. Hinman, we confess our inability to do him justice. He is one of the kindest and most noble-hearted gentlemen in the world, and has won scores of friends to the Illinois Central Railroad by his judicious management. May he long live to guide and direct the affairs of the St. Louis office, for none more worthy can be found.

The managers of this road have recently placed one million five hundred thousand acres of land (a part of the grant made them by the State of Illinois for the purpose of insuring the construction of this road) in the market, and offer it upon terms so favorable that no one need longer want a homestead. They offer to the settler lands, all along the line of the road, upon the following terms: The first payment to be made in two years from date of purchase, and one-eighth every year thereafter, until the whole is paid for, while only three per cent, interest on the back payment is demanded. As a security for the performance of the contract, the first two years' interest must be paid in advance.

Land may be selected in accordance with the individual tastes of purchasers; some sections of country are best adapted to corn, others to wheat, some producing both equally well; some, again, seem peculiarly favorable to stock raising; others to fruit growing or fancy gardening; some portions are heavily timbered; on some, timber just covers one corner, or is scattered in occasional groups or groves. Frequently, in a single section of six hundred and forty acres, all these qualities are combined,


together with living water; and the settler finds a home, only requiring a moderate expenditure of labor to establish him comfortably for life.

The system of long credits and low rates of interest, established by the company, is estimated by experienced farmers in the State as being worth, to the actual settler, from thirty to fifty per cent, per annum, by enabling him to invest his ready money immediately in the cultivation of the land, so that from his being able to take up so much more than the man who locks up his funds in a cash purchase, and the immense returns from land placed under cultivation, he soon finds himself far in advance.

Illinois is known throughout the United States as the Garden State of the Union, and, from the extraordinary fertility of the soil, is justly entitled to the name. Its vast tracts of rich, rolling land were called by the first French settlers "Prairies," which, translated, means "natural meadows," and such they are; almost the whole State is a natural meadow, lying in high, beautifully rolling, or gently undulating prairies, with a soil of surpassing and inexhaustible fertility, all ready for the plough, without a rock, stump, or even stone, to interrupt its action. The difficulties experienced in the eastern States, or in western timbered States, in bringing lands under cultivation, are unknown here; the soil is readily turned over at the rate of two acres, to two acres and a half a day, by a heavy team of horses or two yoke of oxen, or it maybe contracted to be worked at from $2 to $3 per acre, and an active practical man can readily cultivate ten acres here, against one in the Eastern or Middle States, taking them as they run, while the yield per acre will be infinitely greater. With far less labor, a farm purchased here at the low rates ruling at present will yield more than one there valued at $100 to $150 per acre. The


soil is a dark, rich vegetable mould, varying from two to eight feet in depth, capable of producing any thing in the greatest profusion which will grow in these latitudes at all, and absolutely inexhaustible in its fertility. Instances could be multiplied of land cropped for twenty to thirty successive years, without the addition of a pound of manure, on which the growth last season was just as vigorous and the yield as profuse as on any other of the series. Crossing the prairies are belts of white oak, hickory, black walnut, ash and maple timber, of excellent quality, generally following the courses of the streams, varying from half a mile to five miles in width, in many places running far out on the prairie, or scattered in groves here and there over its surface. The State, as a general thing, is well watered, the streams usually running over sandy or stony beds; besides ponds of constant stock-water, which are found in all parts of the prairies. For household purposes, excellent soft water is found at from 10 to 25 feet in depth, generally springing from a stratum of sand. Settlers from the East are always agreeably disappointed in the character of the land in this respect; a prevailing though erroneous impression having gone forth, that on the prairies good water was difficult to be found. The first crop on newly broken prairie is generally sod corn; as this requires no cultivation between planting and gathering, the farmer has ample time to get things comfortable about him, and prepare the land for sowing winter wheat before cold weather comes on. From this sod crop it is the expectation to realize sufficient to pay the cost of breaking, improvements, and general expenses, placing the land in a high state of cultivation on the opening of the second season. It has averaged from thirty to thirty-five bushels per acre, often running up to fifty. Wheat averages from twenty-five to thirty bushels per acre, frequently reaching thirty-eight and forty, and during the past


season has been selling at the various railroad stations at from $1.00 to $1.50 per bushel. The second crop of corn averages from sixty to eighty bushels, frequently giving one hundred.

Any desired information in relation to these lands can be obtained of John Wilson, Land Commissioner, Central Illinois Railroad Company, Chicago, Illinois.


Chapter XII. Railroads — (Continued.)


This road has been in successful operation several years, and being the first route that opened railroad communication between St. Louis and the Atlantic seaboard, it gained a favorable reputation long before any competitors had entered the field, and has managed, by strict attention to the wants of the travelling and transporting community, as well as a courteous and affable manner in the intercourse which exists between the employees on the road and the public, not only to maintain, its old position, but to gather new laurels with which to garnish their already victorious wreathed brow. Possessing the advantage of being the only airline between St. Louis and Chicago, it is no wonder that, while other roads pine under the "small feed" they obtain, that this road should grow fat and good-humored. The country through which this road passes is one of the most productive in the Prairie State. Thousand upon thousands of acres are under cultivation, giving to the husband-man a rich reward for the care and labor bestowed. The golden grain yields forth in rich abundance, and makes joyous the hearts of the tiller of the soil. The lowing herds are seen grazing upon nature's pastures, and growing fat from the


spontaneous productions which there exist in such abundance. The whole scene presented to the wayfarer is one of much pastoral beauty, while the almost illimitable fields, blooming with varied colored flowers, and filling the air with perfume, present to the eye a scene of picturesque beauty and of romantic interest. Where but a few years since the red man chased the buffalo, or pursued with no less deadly intent his savage foe, the magic wand of civilization has been swayed, and towns and villages appear. The hunting grounds of Tecumseh and Black Hawk are now the wheat fields or grazing pastures of the thrifty Illinois farmer, all of which dream-like change has been brought about by the building of railroads. Wherever the iron horse neighs, there can be found peace, prosperity and plenty.

The Hon. J. A. Matteson, ex-governor of Illinois, is the president of this road, and has won for himself more honor by his judicious management of the affairs of this road than he did by his successful career as chief magistrate of the Sucker State; possessing an intuitive knowledge of what the public will require, he always manages to forestall their wants, and is ready to serve them with the readiness which should characterize all public functionaries. In a host of local agents, Mr. M. finds auxiliaries of much weight, and to whose assistance the road owes much for the favorable position it has gained in the minds of the people.

The affairs of this road in St. Louis has been entrusted to the hands of Mr. E. B. Brown, than whom a more efficient and courteous gentleman and officer can not be found. Possessing in an eminent degree all those qualities of head and heart which endear the possessor to all who come in contact with him, he stands among our business men esteemed and respected by every one. His office, at No. 27 Fourth street, is the head quarters


for all information concerning the affairs and transactions of the Chicago, Alton and St. Louis Railroad.

This route passes through the towns of Carlinville, Springfield and Bloomington, which can only be reached in a direct route by this road; these towns are of some note. Springfield, the capital of Illinois, contains about 14,000 inhabitants and claims to be the second city in importance in the State. It contains many very beautiful buildings, both public and private, which give the town a very pleasant appearance. The village of Bloomington is a neat and beautiful place, having a lovely location, and possessed of many advantages, situated at a point where the Illinois Central Railroad connects with the Chicago, Alton and St. Louis Railroad; it has had a growth so rapid as to surprise even the most sanguine advocate of railroad progress.

The connections of this road are at Springfield with the Great Western Railroad for Jacksonville, Decatur, State Line, &c., making this the most direct route to Fort Wayne. Pittsburgh, Toledo, Cleveland and the East, by the way of the Wabash Valley Railroad; at Peoria junction, with the Peoria and Oquawka Railroad for Peoria, Galesburgh, Burlington and points on the Bureau Valley Railroad; at Joliet, with the Rock Island Railroad for Ottawa, Peru and Rock Island, which is the only direct route to Central Iowa; at Chicago, with the Galena and Beloit Railroad, making this the preferable as well as most expeditious route to Central Wisconsin, Galena, Dubuque, St. Paul and other points on the Upper Mississippi.

The Eastern connections from Chicago are by the Michigan Central, via Detroit and Suspension Bridge, connecting with the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada to Montreal and Lower Canada, and by the Michigan Southern, via Toledo, Cleveland, Dunkirk and Buffalo.


There are two trains leaving each end of the road for the convenience and transportation of the United States mail and the express matter and the travelling public. The arrangements for the transportation of freight are perfect in every respect, and all contracts are put through with dispatch, giving entire satisfaction to all the patrons of the road.


This railroad having for a starting place the city of Toledo, in the State of Ohio, runs in a south-westerly, direction through the valleys of the Maumee and the Wabash for about two hundred and twenty miles, from which direction it diverges in a due westerly course on the State line of Illinois, and continues on through Springfield, the capital of the latter State, to Naples, a flourishing village on the Illinois river, a distance of four hundred and twenty-three miles from the eastern terminus, under the superintendence of Mr. George H. Burrows, Superintendent for the Eastern, and Mr. George Watson, Superintendent for Western Division.

These companies are now pushing the work forward towards completion to the city of Quincy, one of the most flourishing places on the Upper Mississippi, and which, when finished, which it will be in the course of a few months, will make the entire route, under the control of this company, four hundred and seventy-four miles long.

A road is now being constructed for the purpose of connecting Quincy with the St. Joseph and Hannibal Railroad, which runs across the northern part of the State of Missouri, having for a western terminus St. Joseph, on the Missouri river. This


route, when finished, which it will be in all probability during the coming year, will present to the world one of the best routes to the far West — Kansas, Nebraska, Utah, &c. — that can be pursued.

The Wabash valley, through which the eastern portion of this road passes, is the garden portion of the "Forest State," abounding in landscapes of pastoral beauty, and wild scenes of picturesque magnificence, unsurpassed by any portion of the United States. Numberless villages dot the banks of the romantic Wabash, possessing many attractions to the pleasure seeker, and richly repaying the traveller who selects this route.

One place which attracts the attention of the wayfarer with peculiar interest is the thriving city of Lafayette. This place is situated on one of the most delightful locations on the Wabash river, and contains about 12,000 inhabitants; it is the principal commercial town of Indiana, and does an immense business every year in produce and pork-packing. Adjoining this town is the Tippecanoe battle field, where General Harrison and the gallant troops under his command defeated the Indians under Prophet, Tecumseh's brother. This ground is owned by the State, and is enclosed by a neat fence, and has been the scene of many a political gathering, where the great struggle for principles have been fought over again.

The connections of this road with others are as follows: The Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Road meets the Southwestern and Western Road at Fort Wayne. It will be seen by the map that this furnishes a very direct route from Pittsburgh to St. Louis and Springfield and Naples. By this route but one change is necessary to be made between Pittsburgh and St. Louia, either of freight or passengers, and the length of line of the Pittsburgh road, which will be occupied by the Western travel and business insures the influence of that road and of


the business done from Pittsburgh to the West. So from Philadelphia there are but two changes necessary to be made, viz., at Pittsburgh and Fort Wayne. A large amount of business may be expected from this source.

At Peru, distant 130 miles from Toledo, we meet the Peru and Indianapolis road, connecting with Indianapolis, and from thence, by two other roads, to the Ohio river. Already a very important and valuable traffic from the Ohio river has passed over this route.

At Logansport a most important connection will be made with a road now in process of construction to Peoria, in Illinois. This road will be completed in the course of a year, and leading directly west, furnishes the most direct route to the southern part of Iowa.

At Attica, by the construction of thirty-one miles, a connection will be made with the Evansville and Terre-Haute road, which connection, it is hoped, will be made in the course of this year.

At Lafayette it connects with the Lafayette and Indianapolis Railroad, for Indianapolis, Cincinnati, etc.; with New Albany and Salem Railroad, for Greencastle, New Albany, Michigan City, Chicago, &c.

This road has a splendid rolling stock, consisting of the best manufactured cars and locomotives, and has in its employ a skillful corps of engineers — no better evidence of which can be found than the fact that, although this road has been in running operation for near three years, not a single accident resulting in loss of life has ever occurred. This must be most gratifying to the management and convincing to the travelling community. In fact all the officers of this road are noted for their urbane, courteous and gentlemanly conduct towards all


with whom they come in contact. We would like to specify several from whom we have received delicate attention, but are denied that pleasure from not being in possession of their names. But of one thing we wish to make particular mention, and that is the station hotels. These are conducted upon sound principles, evidencing a desire to render every accommodation to the wearied travellers who are thrown in their way, and comparing to the great disadvantage of many on other roads. We speak by the book, for we have been entrusted to the tender mercies of these land-sharks more than once. But on this lino of travel the public will always find every attention that could be expected or desired.

The management of this road have recently succeeded in effecting arrangements with the Chicago, Alton and St. Louis Railroad by which they are enabled to put passengers through to the East in as short time as any other route leading from St. Louis. With but one change of cars between St. Louis and Cleveland — baggage checked through to Dunkirk and Buffalo — the certainty that as quick time as the fastest will obtain — together with the attractiveness of the country through which this route passes, all combine to make it a favorable route to those going East or coming West.

The officers of this road are, Wm. A. Boody, of New York, President; W. Colburn, of Toledo, Vice President; G. H. Burrows, Superintendent; E. B. Brown, General Agent in St. Louis.

Mr. Brown is also the General Agent in St. Louis for the St. Louis, Alton and Chicago Railroad, and is well known to our citizens as a courteous, obliging and efficient officer, and one who has done much to place these roads in so favorable a position before the public.


The arrangements for the transportation of freight are such as to be sure of attracting a portion of the vast business which is annually offered. The road is well stocked and presents as good an appearance as any of the many excellent roads which checker the western States.


Chapter XIII. Railroads — (Continued.)


The work upon this road was commenced in the summer of 1852, and was prosecuted with unparalleled energy, notwithstanding various difficulties and discouragements, until the latter part of the month of February, 1856, when the entire track was complete and ready for the first passage of the iron horse from the shores of the Atlantic ocean to the banks of the Mississippi — thus giving to St. Louis the first direct route to the East via the Bellefontaine Railroad, and the first direct route to Cincinnati. The location of this road, with its superior connections for all Eastern, Northern, North-eastern and Southeastern cities, renders it of vast importance to the business interests of St. Louis, and occupying, as it does, a central position between the Chicago and Cincinnati route, (and at the same time from its connections being a dangerous rival for the business of both those places,) it seems to us almost impossible for another route of even equal advantages to be located. It is admirably situated for a heavy and profitable local traffic, traversing a large stock-growing and agricultural region, passing through the far-famed prairies of Illinois — presenting alternate views of prairie, ridge prairie and woodland. The lands along


its borders are being rapidly settled — new villages are springing up with astonishing growth — the older towns are improving steadily — and an air of thrift is apparent along the entire line which warrants liberal expectations for the future. The coal lands of the company are now being mined, and, as they are very rich and extensive, will prove a source of great revenue to the company, and of immense advantage to the manufacturing interests of St. Louis.

The length of this road, from the banks of the Mississippi at St. Louis to the banks of the Wabash at Terre-Haute, is one hundred and eighty-seven miles. The track is well built upon an almost level ridge prairie, with but few cuts, and little or no trestle work in comparison with the generality of western railways. At the crossings of small water-courses especial attention has been paid to the safety of the work. The bridges are built of the heaviest timber, and the culverts are as strong as the most massive masonry can render them. The track is laid with the heaviest T rail upon large well made ties, and scoured by a patent chair, and being well ballasted can be run with safety at a high rate of speed. The company have opened large gravel pits, and are constantly engaged in the work of ballasting. This adds to the strength and solidity of the road — rendering the track level and firm, and cars run along upon it as smoothly as upon a well-polished floor. This road has been noted for the ease and comfort one finds in riding over it; and, it is, in a great measure, to be attributed to the attention paid to ballasting. The company own and are running thirty-one Express Passenger and Freight Locomotives. They have been carefully selected and are equal to any manufactured in the United States. Many of them are known as Minute Engines. Being of great power and speed, it is but an easy matter for them to keep on time and insure connection


a very important consideration to the passenger. They have thirty splendid first class passenger cars, built in the latest style with all the new improvements — they are very wide and roomy and are furnished in the most superior manner. The seats are large, with high backs, enabling a person to sit or recline at his pleasure. We had thought that there could be no improvement upon these cars, until informed that this company have contracted for a number of Woodruff's celebrated Patent Sleeping Cars. This is a new invention, lately patented, and consists of sectional seats so formed that they can be changed into berths in a moment and at the pleasure of the passenger — they form small apartments, and a gentleman and and his family can be almost as comfortable in one of them as in the rooms of our best hotels. Taking the night train on this route from St. Louis the passenger can retire to bed, and in the morning awaken at Indianapolis for early breakfast. All of these cars are furnished with saloons, and contain every improvement that can add either to the pleasure or the comfort of the traveller; they are remarkable for the ease with which they ride — are kept very clean and neat, and as an additional comfort the passengers are constantly supplied with good water by train boys kept expressly for the purpose. In addition to the first class passenger cars, they have some twenty second class or emigrant cars, an equal number of baggage and mail cars, four hundred and fifty freight and stock cars; and are constantly making additions to their rolling stock as the increase of business demands.

The American Express and Valentine Freight Express Company run over this road, and have almost a world-wide reputation. Both these companies furnish their own cars, and add greatly to the business of this line.

During the spring and summer season four daily trains are run over this road (both ways), viz: two lightning express


trains, one express mail, and one through freight train. These trains are under the charge of efficient and energetic conductors, who combine the qualities of faithful officers and perfect gentlemen. Passengers are treated with every attention — all questions politely answered, and every one made to feel "at home." This has added greatly to the popularity of this favorite route.


The various connections of this road are valuable, and have been maintained heretofore with a most liberal and accomodating spirit. In order to give a clear and perfect idea of the location and importance of this road we shall give its connections in full.

Leaving St. Louis with her smoky manufactories — her large and imposing warehouses — her levee lined with steamers from all the navigable waters of the west, and crowded with the produce of all sections, we take the cars at East St. Louis, better known as "Bloody Island," from its being the battle-ground upon which the citizens of St. Louis formerly settled their personal difficulties according to the "code of honor," and passing through the "American Bottom" soon arrive at the "Junction," where passengers bound for Alton take the "Junction train," and are soon landed in the "City of Hills." Leaving the Junction, we pass the thriving village of Bethalto, and soon reach the "prairies of Illinois," rapidly passing the towns of Bunker Hill, Gillespie, Clyde, Litchfield, Hillsboro', Irving and Nokomis, we arrive at Pana, ninety-three miles east of St. Louis, and the junction of the Terre-Haute, Alton and St. Louis and main line of the Illinois Central Railroad.

1st Connection. — At Pana, with main line of Illinois Central


Railroad, for Vandalia, Sandoval, Centralia, Jonesboro' and Cairo, on the south; and for Decatur, Bloomington, Peoria, LaSalle, Burlington, Rock Island, Iowa City, Mendota, Dixon, Fulton City, Freeport, Galena, Dunleith and Dubuque, on the north. Also, connecting at Dunleith with the magnificent passenger packets of the "Minnesota Packet Company," for Lacrosse, Wenona, Prairie du Chien, Stillwater, St. Paul, and all points in Minnesota and the North-west Territory. The river scenery from Dunleith to St. Paul rivals the far-famed scenery of the Hudson river. The "Maiden's Leap," Lake St. Croix, and many other interesting points memorable in Indian history, are passed, until the pleasure-seeker finds himself at the "Falls of St. Anthony," abounding in the most magnificent works of nature.

Leaving Pana, a "Prairie City" in embryo, we quickly reach Shelbyville, quite an important place and the eating station on this road. We must here state that those who are fond of good eating and an abundance of it will find it here, and also sufficient time to eat with comfort — without fear of being disturbed by that disagreeable sound to a hungry person, of "all aboard." Having refreshed the "inner man," we at once take our seat in the cars, and are passing in rapid succession Thornton, Windsor and Summit stations, and soon reach Mattoon, the junction with the Chicago Branch of the Illinois Central Railroad.

2d Connection. — At Mattoon, with the Chicago Branch of the Illinois Central Railroad — for Effingham, Oden, Centralia and intermediate points on the south; and switching off a car for the north, another locomotive takes charge of it and swiftly passes out of sight in the direction of Chicago — thus giving passengers a delightful ride in splendid state-room cars from St. Louis to the "Lake City" without change. At Tolono,


connecting with the Great Western, Toledo and Wabash Railroad — for Lafayette, Fort Wayne, Toledo, and all northern and eastern cities. Leaving Tolono, we swiftly glide by the beautiful prairie towns of Urbana, Rantoul, Pera, Loda, Chebanse, the French settlement of Kankakee, Manteeno and intermediate stations, and soon arrive at the Great Central Depot in Chicago, where connections are made with the Michigan Central, Michigan Southern, Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago, Chicago and Milwaukee, and all railroads terminating at Chicago.

Leaving Chicago by the Michigan Central and Michigan Southern, passengers have choice of the Great Canada route via Suspension Bridge or Lake Shore route, for the north and east.

Leaving Mattoon, the beautiful towns of Charleston, Ashmore, Kansas, Dudley, Paris, and other intermediate stations, are rapidly passed, and we arrive at Terre-Haute on the banks of the Wabash river, where connection is made with the Terre-Haute and Richmond Railroad (one of the best managed roads in the country), for Indianapolis.

Leaving Terre-Haute, we pass numerous stations until we arrive at Greencastle, the junction of the Terre-Haute, and Richmond, and New Albany and Salem Railroads, the latter running due north from New Albany to Michigan City.

Leaving Greencastle, we run due east through a beautiful section of country; passing Fillmore, Clayton, Plainfield, Bridgeport, and numerous other thriving towns, we arrive at Indianapolis, the capital of Indiana, and the great railroad centre of the West. This city has a population of forty thousand, with many fine public buildings, and is noted for the superiority of its hotels. It is beautifully situated — has a large and growing business — and is the great centre of the Railroad


roads of the West, no less than eight roads terminating at this point in a Great Union Depot.

Connections at Indianapolis. — 1st with those old and popular routes, the Bellefontaine and Indiana Central Railroads. — The Bellefontaine Railroad runs due north-east from Indianapolis to Cleveland, passing through Anderson, Union, (junction of Columbus, Piqua and Indiana Railroads,) Dallas, Hardin, Pemberton and Bellefontaine, where connection is made with the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, for Forest, Clyde, Sandusky, and all points on the Lake shore. Continuing on from Bellefontaine, we soon reach Galion, where we connect with the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad on an air line for Cleveland, Dunkirk, Buffalo, Niagara Falls and intermediate points on the Lake shore. At Dunkirk, New York and Boston, passengers take the New York and Erie Broad Gauge Railroad, passing through the Great Valley, Genesee, Hornellsville, Corning, Elmira, Tioga, Owego, Binghampton, Great Bend, Susquehanna, Deposit, Port Jervis, and Patterson to Jersey City, presenting some of the most beautiful views of mountain scenery in New York, and passing through the celebrated Goshen Valley, made famous by the superior quality of its butter. Or continuing on to Buffalo and Niagara Falls, (viewing this stupendous work of Nature,) take the cars of the New York Central Railroad (double track), passing through Batavia, Rochester, Palmyra, Canandaigua, Seneca Fails, Auburn, Syracuse, Rome, and Utica to Schenectady, where passengers for the celebrated Saratoga Springs, Troy, and Rutland, Vermont, leave us, and we continue on to Albany, the capital of the "old York State." Having thus passed through many of the most populous and business cities of the State, we take the cars of the famous Hudson River Railroad, giving us many beautiful views of the magnificent scenery of


the Hudson river as we glide along swiftly towards the Great Eastern Metropolis of New York; or, leaving Albany in the cars of the Western Railroad, we pass through Springfield, Worcester and many of the most enterprising towns and cities of Massachusetts, until we find ourselves safely landed in Boston, the "city of Notions;" or, leaving the Bellefontaine Railroad at Crestline, the junction with the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad, we take the cars of the latter road, running due east to Pittsburgh, where we connect with the Great Pennsylvania Central Railroad, passing through the most beautiful section of Pennsylvania — giving us views of the most rugged mountain scenery, interspersed with the most beautiful valleys. Blairsville, Johnstown, and Altoona, one of the most lovely and romantic spots, are passed, and we arrive at Harrisburgh, where passengers bound for Baltimore take the cars of the Northern Central Railroad, whilst we continue on direct to Philadelphia, passing through the city of Lancaster and the celebrated Lancaster Valley, the garden spot of Pennsylvania.

Leaving Philadelphia in the cars of the Camden and Amboy or New Jersey Railroad, passengers are soon landed in New York, thus giving them an opportunity of visiting "the city of Brotherly Love" en route.

Leaving Indianapolis on the cars of the Indiana Central Railroad, we run due east, passing though many most important and flourishing cities, amongst which are Cambridge City, Centerville and Richmond, until we arrive at Dayton, where connection is made with the Mad River and Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton Railroad, for points north and south. Continuing on from Dayton, we pass through Xenia, Cedarville, Charleston and Jefferson, and arrive at Columbus, the capital of Ohio, where passengers by the Indiana Central take cars for Cleveland and Pittsburgh, with connections as by Bellefonte


Railroad; or, continuing on from Columbus due east through Newark, Steubenville, and Rochester, to Pittsburgh. Taking the cars of the Central Ohio Railroad at Columbus, we run in a south-easterly direction through Newark, Zanesville, and numerous other thriving towns, until we strike the banks of the Ohio at Belle-Air, crossing over to Benwood in Virginia, four miles south of Wheeling. Then taking the cars of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad at either of the latter named places, we soon pass through the Board Tree Tunnel and find ourselves amidst the magnificent mountain scenery of Virginia, rapidly passing the beautiful mountain towns of Fairmount, Fetterman, Grafton, Oakland, Altamont, Piedmont, and Cumberland, Hancock, Martinsburg, and Harper's Ferry, where passengers change the cars for Winchester. Continuing on from Harper's Ferry, we pass the Point of Rocks, Ellicott's Mills, &c., &c., and arrive at the Washington junction, where passengers for Washington City, Alexandria, Richmond, and the South leave us and take a southern direction, whilst we continue on nine miles farther to Baltimore; thus giving New York passengers the privilege of visiting the cities of Baltimore and Philadelphia on the way.

Thus, it will be seen, that New York and eastern passengers have choice of no less than five different routes, viz., the New York Central, New York and Erie, Pennsylvania Central, Baltimore and Ohio, and the Great Canada route via Chicago.

But to continue the connections from Indianapolis — with the Indiana Central (via Richmond and Hamilton) and Indianapolis and Cincinnati Railroads to Cincinnati, where connections are made with the Little Miami, Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton, and all roads terminating at that place — With the Jeffersonville Railroad, for Seymour, Louisville, Frankfort, Lexington, &c. Connecting at Louisville with the Louisville and


Nashville Railroad — With the Madison and Indianapolis Railroad for Madison, &c. — also with the Indianapolis and Lafayette, and Indianapolis and Peru Railroads, to many of the most important places in Indiana.

At St. Louis, connections are made with the North Missouri Railroad for St. Charles, Warrenton, Montgomery City, and points on the north side of the Missouri river — With the Pacific Railroad and Lightning Line of Packets, for Hermann, Jefferson City, Lexington, Kansas City, Leavenworth, and points on the Missouri river, to Weston — With the Iron Mountain Railroad, to Carondelet, Jefferson Barracks, Potosi, and other southern points.

Also, connecting with the following lines of first class passenger steamers, viz: The Union Packet Line, of twelve splendid steamers — leaving St. Louis daily for Jefferson City, Boonville, Lexington, Kansas, Leavenworth, Weston, and all intermediate points, to St. Joseph. Connecting at St. Joseph with the Council Bluff and Omaha City packets — the Merchants' and Independent Line of first class steamers through, to Kansas, St. Joseph, Council Bluff, Omaha City and St. Louis — also, with the Keokuk Packet Line, for Hannibal, Quincy and Keokuk.

We have thus given, but an imperfect sketch of the various connections of this Great National Route, a full description of its connections and sub-connections requiring more room than the size of this volume will permit. By an examination of a correct map of our country, it will be seen that it is the great trunk road from St. Louis with its branches spreading at Indianapolis to all points. By a continuance of the present liberal management, we believe it is destined to be one of the best paying and certainly one of the most popular railroads in the Western country.


During the past year the number of passengers conveyed over this road was two hundred and twenty-one thousand eight hundred and seventy-six. The trains have been run with great regularity and care, and no accident of any kind has occurred involving the slightest personal injury to any passenger.

The Company employ Valentine & Co's. Omnibus and Freight Express Line for the purpose of conveying passengers and freight to and from the depot. The omnibusses call at all of the hotels, steamboats, railroad depots, and private residences, for passengers and baggage, and convey them to the cars free of charge; and are always found awaiting the arrival of the cars, when passengers are taken to their residence in the city without delay. This is one of the best managed omnibus lines in the country, and the whole system of collecting and distributing passengers is much superior to the plan adopted in the east. Valentine & Co. own sixteen splendid four-horse passenger omnibusses, each accommodating from twelve to twenty-four persons; eight large baggage wagons, besides forty-eight freight wagons, trucks and machinery wheels. They employ none but the most careful and polite drivers, under the charge of a most gentlemanly and accommodating Manager or Conductor.

Hon. Thos. Allen, of St. Louis, late President of the Pacific Railroad, is the President of this road. Mr. A. has gained for himself the reputation of one of our most public spirited men, is a shrewd financier — talented and energetic — and adds great strength to the company.

L. R. Sargent, Esq., of St. Louis, one of the oldest and best practical railroad men in the United States is Superintendent. In his selection the Board of Directors have displayed good judgment. Mr. S. possesses every quality requisite, of most indefatigable energy and business capacity, and, by his uniform


kindness and accommodating manners to all, has rendered himself one of the most popular men in the West. To him, and his worthy assistant, Mr. S. F. Tenny, belongs the credit of securing to this route the quickest time ever made between St. Louis and Cincinnati, New York, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and the East. Mr. S. has now completed arrangements by which the cars will run through to Indianapolis without change. This will prove the most popular move ever made on this route, and will secure a large proportion of the through travel. For this, and for many other changes made for the interest of the travelling and shipping community, Mr. Sargent deserves the thanks of the public.

Mr. B. F. Fifield is all that could be asked for in a General Ticket Agent. With a most gentlemanly and pleasing address he unites the requisite business qualifications. His name is as well known with the travelling community as "household words." He is fully posted on all the Railroad, Steamboat, Stage and Canal Routes, and with a friendly smile upon his amiable looking face imparts his information to the traveller. His name adds great strength to this favorite route.

Capt. James Beebee, is the General Freight Agent. The Captain is well known to the business men of the West, and he enjoys their fullest confidence. The proper dispatch and regulation of freight transportation is one of the most difficult and harassing portions of railway management, and this department could not be placed in abler hands than Capt. Beebee's.

Mr. A. A. VanWormer is Superintendent of the Belleville Division of this Road. He is energetic and competent, and las rendered himself quite popular by his exertions to please the travelling community.

Mr. John S. Miller is the master Machinist. He is well known as one of the most skillful mechanics in the country,


and his name is a sufficient guaranty that the Rolling Stock will be kept in first class order. Mr. Miller is one of the inventors and owners of Woodruff's celebrated Patent Sleeping Car — all of the inventors and owners of which, we are happy to say, are employees of this road.

The President's, Superintendent's and general business offices of the Company are in the Marble Building, north-east corner of Fourth and Olive streets, St. Louis. Their Freight Depot is at the corner of Second and Poplar streets.

The chief Ticket Office of the Company is at No. 32 Fourth street, under the Planters' House. This office is under the charge of Mr. Fred. M. Colburn, a native of St. Louis, and well known to the business community of the West for the past fifteen years. They have an office also at No. 36 North Levee, between Olive and Locust streets.

A Telegraph Line is now being constructed by the Company, which will add greatly to the management of the trains, and afford additional facilities for the transaction of business.

We must now close our sketch of this Great Eastern Central Route from St. Louis — believing that it is destined to be the most important Railroad in the West: and deserves to be so, not only from its location, but from the efforts of its officers in working for the interests of the travelling and shipping community as well as the interests of the road. These interests are identical, and will be so proved in the success of this Company.


Chapter XIV. Railroads — (Continued.)


The St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad begins in the south part of the city of St. Louis, leading southward through the grounds of the United States Arsenal, along the river bluffs, to the city of Carondelet; thence traces the bank of the Mississippi to a point twenty-five miles south of the city of St. Louis, where it abruptly leaves the river, crossing a slight elevation into the valley of Sandy creek, which it follows for a short distance; thence over a low ridge falling into the valley of the Joachim creek, which it frequently crosses, until, finally, at a distance of forty miles from the city, it rises out of this valley, crossing a ridge dividing it from the valley of Big river, piercing the summit of this ridge through a tunnel eight hundred feet long. The road then follows down this dividing ridge, crossing Big river forty-seven miles from the initial point. After following the valley of this stream a short distance, it intersects the valley of Mill creek, a tributary of Big river, continuing in it however but a few miles. From thence it crosses the drainage of the country, until, at a distance of sixty-six miles from the city, it again crosses Big river. Leaving it


by the valley of Dry creek, the road ascends and crosses, seventy-four miles from the city and six hundred and seventeen feet above it, a dividing ridge between the waters flowing into the Mississippi seventeen miles south of St. Louis, and the water flowing through the Ozark Mountains by the St. Franjois river, in Arkansas. At a distance of two miles south from the last point named, it crosses the St. Francois river, reaching the "Iron Mountain" at a farther distance of two and two-third miles, being seventy-nine miles from the depot at St. Louis, and at an elevation above it of six hundred and fifty-five feet. From this point the line is extended a farther distance of six miles, ending at the "Pilot Knob," eighty-five miles from the present depot at Lami street in the city of St. Louis.

The road bed is now nearly completed the entire length of the line. The iron is all paid for, and the road would have been completed ere this had not the general derangement incident upon the financial crisis caused a part of the work to be stopped. However, as matters now stand, it will be completed by the middle of March or first of April.

This railroad passes over a rough portion of the State of Missouri, leading into a part of the country inexhaustible in the ores of iron, lead, copper, manganese, cobalt and other minerals. Immense and inexhaustible quarries of granite, superior marble, and even rock salt, exist in the neighborhood of the Iron Mountain and Pilot Knob. Beautiful white and red sandstone, porphyry, and other rocks of equal value, are also abundant near to and along the line of the railroad. Extensive forests of yellow pine skirt the road, inviting an extensive investment of capital in the manufacture of lumber. We are informed that one company alone has at this time over a million of feet of pine lumber cut, near the town of Potosi,


awaiting the opening of the road, to be brought to St. Louis for the market. This business, together with the manufacture of iron, copper, lead, &c., will absorb an immense amount of capital seeking safe investment.

There is no road leading to St. Louis that will be of half the value to the city as the St. Louis and Iron Mountain. At the present time five-sixths of the iron in this market is brought here from Pittsburgh, Wheeling and other distant points; and more than two millions of dollars is sent annually from St. Louis to pay for iron and nails sold here, besides the cost of pig metal used by our foundries. By constructing this road to the Iron Mountain and Pilot Knob, rolling mills and nail factories would spring up, and the foreign article would soon be driven out of the market. In fact, even at this date, before the road is completed, we have in our midst two of the most extensive rolling mills in the world. By the construction of this road we are enabled to secure a sufficient quantity of ore from that region to supply an hundred mills, and that too at a cost that will defy competition.

From an estimate made by one of the engineers engaged in surveying the road, it appears that there is ore enough in the Iron Mountain, above the level of its base, to make one hundred and five million tons of iron; and the Pilot Knob and Shepherd's mountain, and the adjacent banks, would furnish probably a still greater quantity; — so that, within eighty miles of St. Louis, and within a space of seven miles, we have iron enough to supply the world for centuries to come, without descending below the base of those mountains. The quality of these ores is well known. For the manufacture of steel, and for all malleable purposes, they have no superior.

The Iron Mountain and Pilot Knob are the largest and most extraordinary deposits of iron in the known world; the


quantity, the quality and the facility of obtaining the ores are the distinguishing features of these inexhaustible stores of wealth.

The ore of these mountains is what is known by mineralogists as specular oxide. Fair specimens yield by analysis from sixty-five to sixty-six per cent, of pure iron, six to eight per cent, of earthy matter, (alumina and silica,) the remainder oxygen. There is nothing combined, therefore, with the ore in its natural condition to prevent the production of the finest metal. The ore of the Iron Mountain is remarkable for its uniformity of character; the smallest specimen accidentally picked up is a fair specimen of the entire mass. That of the Pilot Knob is more variable. In some places, particularly near the summit of the mountain, it assumes somewhat of a porphyritic character, and consequently involving a greater amount of earthy matter than above stated; but much the largest part of the Knob appears to be as pure as the Iron Mountain.

The ore of the Iron Mountain covers an area of about five hundred acres. The mountain is situated in the valley of the St. Francis, and rises about two hundred feet above the plain of country that surrounds and entirely separates it from all other elevations. The mountain has been estimated to contain two hundred and twelve million tons of ore above the base. The ore usually presents itself in lumps or boulders, from the size of pebbles up to those of two or three hundred pounds in weight, and thousands of tons can be picked up upon the mountain without the use of crowbar or pick. The ore is so pure and free from other substances that no difficulty has been found in working it directly into blooms.

The Pilot Knob covers an area about equal to the Iron Mountain, and rises to an elevation above the adjacent valleys of


about five hundred feet. On the northern side of the Pilot Knob the ore rests upon red porphyry, and is here seen to dip with considerable rapidity towards the south from the culminating point of the mountain; therefore it may be assumed to be iron ore down to at least a level with the adjacent valley, or say five hundred feet thick.

Near the Pilot Knob stands the Shepherd Mountain, abounding in rich ores that are highly magnetic and said to produce steel of the finest quality. There are several deposits of rich iron ore in the neighborhood.

The Pilot Knob and Shepherd Mountain belong to the Pilot Knob Iron Company, who are actively engaged in the manufacture of pig metal and blooms.

The Iron Mountain belongs to the American Iron Mountain Company, who are largely engaged in the manufacture of pig metal, which is now carried to St. Genevieve in wagons, a distance of forty miles, at which point it is worth for shipment from two to three dollars per ton more than the Tennessee and Ohio metal.

The ore of these vast formations is quite in demand at the river, and sells readily at St. Genevieve for ten dollars per ton for shipment to the Ohio. This pays well for the hauling, when the teams are not engaged in transporting rnetal and blooms.

The St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad will bring these great resources of wealth within four hours' transit of St. Louis, and the ore can then be furnished to manufacturers in St. Louis at three dollars per ton, including all expenses. The common ores usually cost that price at the furnace.

The streams on the road afford an abundance of fine water power, suitable for forges and furnaces, in the midst of fine timber, and we may soon expect to see such establishments dotted all along the railroad.


At St. Louis the ore will be met by the Cannel coal from the Osage, brought over the Pacific Railroad. Experiments have shown that this coal can be substituted for charcoal without impairing the quality of the iron, and experienced iron masters are sanguine of making rails, by the use of Cannel coal, direct from the ore, and of a quality, for toughness and durability, superior to any now in use.

The road to the Pilot Knob will develop other valuable deposits of iron ore, as well as lead and copper. About one mile south-west of the mountain is an immense quarry of granite, of pure quality, and equal to the Iron Mountain in quantity. There are fine marble and sandstone quarries in the same neighborhood. The railroad, in its extension from the Pilot Knob to the Arkansas line, with branches to Cairo and New Madrid, will continue some distance through a rich mineral country, covered with pine of the finest quality. The completion of the Iron Mountain road, with the branches and extensions, must soon develop the long hidden resources of Southeast Missouri, and add to the wealth of our city and State.

The following gentlemen are the officers of this road for the year 1858, and are eminently qualified for the position they hold:
Louis V. BOGY, Vice-President.
STEPHEN D. BARLOW, Secretary and Treasurer.
J. B. MOULTON, Chief Engineer.

Directors. — H. T. Blow, L. Babcock, Louis V. Bogy, H. B. Belt, H. C. Lynch, A. H. Hackney, F. A. Dick, Benjamin Farrar, George Gherke, J. H. Lightner, John Simonds, Madison Miller, Jas. Harrison.


A gentleman (Prof. Swallow) of rare geological attainments estimates that the coal beds of Missouri can furnish 100,000,000 tons per annum for the next thirteen hundred years. Another authority of equal weight, Dr. Shumard, says that there are 480,000,000 tons of coal in St. Louis county. The coal beds of Illinois, lying but a short distance from the river and parallel with it, are of unlimited extent. The Osage and Callaway coal, which is inferior to no other kind for every process in the refining of iron ore, can be made available at small cost in manufacturing the finer branches of the iron business. The day is not distant when the right bank of the Mississippi will glow with furnaces, and the streets of St. Louis glitter with the marble and iron which the operation of this road will render cheap building materials. This may seem extravagant to some, but slight reflection on the facts adduced will make it evident that a less flattering exposition would be incorrect, and unjust to the prospects disclosed.


Chapter XV. Railroads — (Continued.)


The Pacific Railroad was incorporated by the Legislature of the State of Missouri on the 12th Marth, 1849. The company was organized in January, 1850. The surveys were commenced in June, 1850, and the work of construction was commenced in 1851, the ground being broken on the 4th of July of that year.

The line of road commences at the corner of Seventh and Poplar streets, in the city of St. Louis, and will terminate at the western boundary of the State, in Jackson county, immediately at the junction of the Kansas and Missouri rivers, where the flourishing town of Kansas City is situated, the distance being two hundred and eighty miles.

The location of the road passes through the counties of St. Louis, Franklin, Gasconade, Osage, Cole, Moniteau, Cooper, Pettis, Johnson, Cass and Jackson; and the towns of Kirkwood, Glencoe, Allenton, Franklin, South Point, Washington, Hermann, Osage City, Jefferson City, California, Otterville, Georgetown, Warrensburg, Pleasant Hill and Independence are situated uoon or near the line of road.


From St. Louis the road ascends westwardly to the dividing ridge between the Missouri and Meramec waters, reaching the summit at Kirkwood, thirteen miles; it then descends to the Meramec, at the Meramec station, eighteen miles, which stream it follows for nineteen miles to the town of Franklin, Franklin county, thirty-seven miles. At this point the South-west Branch diverges from the main line. From Franklin the main line ascends to the divide at Gray's summit, whence it descends to the Missouri at South Point, fifty-two miles from St. Louis, and then follows the south bank of the river to Jefferson City, one hundred and twenty-five miles. In this distance it passes through the towns of Washington, sixty miles, and Hermann, eighty-one miles, and crosses the Gasconade and Osage rivers eighty-eight and one hundred and sixteen miles. From Jefferson City the road follows the river four miles to the mouth of Gray's creek, and then ascends the valley of that stream to its head, reaching the high prairie land, one hundred and forty miles from St. Louis. From this point to the western boundary of the State the line traverses the high prairie country. Near Round Hill, one hundred and sixty-four miles, the Missouri Central Railroad, from Boonville twenty-four miles distant, will connect with the road; crossing the valley of the Lamine, near Otterville, one hundred and seventy-three miles; thence to a point about three miles south of Georgetown, one hundred and eighty-nine miles, and then crossing the valleys of Big Muddy and of several tributaries of the Blackwater it reaches in Cass county the valley of Big creek, a branch of the Osage, and passes near Pleasant Hill, two hundred and forty-nine miles; thence to the valley of the Little Blue, which it crosses, and ascends the Independence ridge, upon the summit of which and one mile north is located the city of Independence; then descending the ridge to the Missouri, at the mouth of the Big


Blue, which it crosses, the line continues on the river to Kansas City. The graduation and masonry is completed for one hundred and sixty-two miles, to Round Hill. A large amount of work has been done on the eleven miles immediately west of this point, and several heavy points are under construction in Johnson county.

The track is now laid to California, one hundred and fifty miles, and twelve miles more to Round Hill will be laid in time for the summer's business.

The graduation of the first one hundred and forty miles of this road has been exceedingly heavy, and very costly, traversing as it does for fifty miles the broken country between St. Louis and the Missouri river, and then occupying for the next eighty miles the bluff bank of the Missouri, encountering in this distance four tunnels of an aggregate length of twenty-six hundred feet, a very large amount of exceedingly costly rock excavation, and the expensive bridges over the Gasconade and Osage rivers, near their mouths — the first being eight hundred feet, and the second twelve hundred feet long — with numerous smaller bridges, from sixty to one hundred and sixty feet span.

The work of graduation and masonry has been faithfully executed, and will compare favorably with the best roads in the country. The masonry is of a much better character than is customary upon western roads. The bridging is excellent, all but one being the improved Howe truss, and that one a McCallum bridge of two hundred and ten feet clear span.

The track of the road conforms to the established gauge of the State — five feet six inches — and is laid in the most substantial manner; the rail weighs sixty pounds per yard, and are placed and fastened upon ties of large size, with two


thousand four hundred in each mile, firmly bedded on broken stone and gravel ballast.

The stations and other buildings of the company are excellent and very convenient for the purposes intended. The passenger and freight stations at St. Louis are located immediately in the heart of the city, upon a magnificent plat of ground extending from Seventh to Twelfth street, and between Poplar and Cerre. The freight house will contain quite a large amount of freight, is very easy of access, and but a short distance from the levee and business portions of the city. At Fourteenth street there is also a large and commodious freight house, with extensive platforms for the loading and unloading of goods. At this point the trains are all made up, and many hundred feet of sidings are upon the ground.

This company has been exceedingly fortunate in obtaining such desirable locations for their city stations, and the advantage that will result to them from the proximity to the business portion of the city is incalculable.

Between St. Louis and Jefferson City the company are provided with necessary buildings for the passenger and freight business, which, although not expensive, are all that is required for the trade of the road.

About two miles from Seventh street, at the western limits of the city, are situated the extensive construction and repair shops of the company; attached to them is a large circular engine house, containing stalls for sixteen locomotives. All the buildings are of brick, built in the most substantial manner. The shops are provided with the necessary tools and machinery of the best kind for doing the work of the road, and the power used is a stationary engine of large size. All of the passenger and freight cars of the company are constructed and fitted up complete in these shops, and are in every respect


equal to those manufactured at the best establishments of the country.

Since March, 1856, the western terminus of the road has been at Jefferson City, where there are very extensive arrangements for transacting the heavy Missouri river business seeking the road. The freight house covers a large area of ground. During the past winter extensive additions have been made to accommodate the rapidly growing business of the road.

During the past year a regular line of Packets ran in connection with the road, carrying passengers and freight to Weston and intermediate points. For the year 1858 arrangements have been made for placing a Packet Line upon the river that can not be excelled on the western waters. The boats will be first class new Missouri river boats, capable of carrying a large number of passengers and a great amount of freight.

The company have just completed arrangements for carrying the troops and supplies of the United States destined for the army employed on the Western frontier and in Utah. This, with the immense travel to Kansas and the upper Missouri, will largly increase the receipts of the company, now greatly beyond the most sanguine expectations of the friends of the road.

During the past year the earnings of the road amounted to — $663,335 00
Expenses of working the road — $352,272 00
Nett earnings — $311,063 00
Being about 47 per cent, of the total earnings, or $2488 per mile. Of this amount there was derived from through freight and passengers carried over the whole road — $382,401 00
Way freight, passengers and mails — $280,934 00
Total as above — $663,335,00



The South-West Branch diverges from the main line of the Pacific Railroad at the town of Franklin, Franklin county, thirty-seven miles from the city of St. Louis, and will terminate at the State line, about sixteen miles west of Neosho, Newton county, and twenty-five miles north of the Arkansas line.

The general direction of the road is south-west, and, in its length of two hundred and eighty-three miles, traverses the counties of Franklin, Crawford, Phelps, Maries, Pulaski, Laclede, Webster, Greene, Lawrence, Barry and Newton, Lebanon in Laclede, Springfield in Greene, and Neosho in Newton, are upon the line of the road; Union of Franklin, Steelsville of Crawford, Waynesville of Pulaski, and Mt. Vernon of Lawrence, are within ten miles of the road.

From Franklin, the road for the first twenty miles passes over very broken ground, and the work is quite heavy, a great deal of rock work, and very extensive embankments across the Meramec and Calvey valleys and on Section No. 7. The Meramec river is crossed twice by bridges of five hundred and twenty-eight and three hundred and seventy feet in length.

At the end of the twenty miles, the line reaches the Meramec and Bourbeuse divide, which it follows with moderate work for sixty miles, to Webbers; from this the descent to the Gasconade commences, and the river is reached in thirteen miles, at the mouth of the Little Piney, ninety miles from Franklin. For the next fifty miles, to the town of Lebanon, the work is exceedingly heavy, encountering the breaks of the Gasconade river, in Pulaski county, and crossing the Big Piney, Robidoux, Gasconade and Osage Fork rivers, and with two tunnels of an aggregate length of one thousand four hundred and fifty feet.

At Lebanon, the rich prairie country of South-West Missouri


is reached, and is crossed by the line to its contemplated terminus, in Newton county, with very moderate work. The alignment of the whole road is good, with maximum gradients of sixty-five feet per mile.


By an act of Congress, approved June 10th, 1852, a grant of land was made to the State of Missouri to aid in the construction of a Railroad from St. Louis to the western boundary of the State.

By an act of the General Assembly of Missouri, approved December 25th, 1852, the land so granted to the State was transferred to the Pacific Railroad Company for the construction of a branch terminating at the State line south of the Osage river.

This branch was located in 1853, and the land selected along the line of road; the selections were approved by the Land Department, and a certified list made out, which it is now decided rests the fee simple title in the company. This land grant of one million and forty thousand acres is assigned to the South-West Branch, to be applied to the construction of the road, and was selected before the lands were so much sought after in this part of the State, being located in a magnificent country, rich in mineral and well adapted to every variety of agriculture. The lands are now worth from eight to ten millions of dollars, and with the branch road completed will be worth, at least, fifteen millions of dollars.

The lands embrace extensive bodies of rich minerals on the waters of the Meramec, interspersed with fine agricultural tracts, the minerals consisting of lead, copper and iron; also valuable timber lands along the Gasconade, consisting of oak, walnut and yellow pine. Beyond the Gasconade, and one


hundred and forty miles from Franklin, the road strikes the beautiful prairie country of the South-West, which expands and improves in beauty and interest on to the end of the road.

This country (the South-West) maybe designated as a vast table land, forming the divide between the small streams running into White River and the Arkansas on the south, and the Osage on the north, and is as large as the State of Massachusetts, well watered with fine bold springs and good mill streams, never obstructed by ice; there is an abundance of timber along the streams, and the uplands are rich prairie. About seven hundred thousand acres of the company's land are located in this fine country, and all within fifteen miles of the line of road.

Lands along the line, near Springfield and beyond that point, with some small improvements, are now selling at from fifteen to twenty-five dollars per acre.

The most valuable lands owned by the company are situated in Newton, Jasper and Barry counties, in the great had region. The mineral discoveries on the lands of the company are very remarkable for their richness and value. Geologists consider them superior to any mines in the West, and their value can not be fully estimated. On one half section belonging to the company they are now taking out seventy-five thousand pounds of mineral per day; this will be very largely increased during the present year, the parties to whom the land has been leased having erected extensive smelting furnaces, the want of which has greatly retarded the working of the rich mineral lands of this region.

The State Geologist (Prof. Swallow) estimates the lead region as embracing about four hundred square miles. The Pacific Railroad Company own about forty per cent, of this territory, and so far the richest discoveries made are on the


company's land. The greatest drawback there is on the value of these lands is the great,distance from market without the facilities for transportation; the building of this road will remove this obstacle.

In conformity to the law of December 10th, 1855, the Pacific Railroad has executed a mortgage upon the Branch Road, and one million of acres of land to secure the payment of ten millions, seven per cent, first mortgage bonds, these bonds having twenty years to run from January 1st, 1856. By the same law referred to, it was provided that the State should guaranty three millions of the bonds, and by law approved March 3d, 1857, the guaranty extends to four and a half millions of the bonds, which bonds may be first used in the construction of the Branch road.

In the guaranty made by the State, the form of which is given in the law, the State assumes the payment of the bonds, making it the undertaking of the State as fully as if they were the bonds of the State; and in providing for the protection of the State credit, by the creation of an interest and sinking fund, provision is made for paying the interest on these bonds if the company fails to pay.

The company have a stock subscription, amounting to $356,000, made along the line of road, conditioned that it shall be expended on the Branch road. The road is under contract, to be completed for $7,621,000.

To this time, some $637,413 have been expended upon the road. Twenty miles of graduation are nearly ready for the track; the iron rails are in St. Louis, and by the 4th of July the road will be opened to Mosely's. Beyond this point the work is comparatively light for the next sixty miles, and it must be but a short time until the South-West Branch will be opened one hundred and twenty miles south-west of St. Louis.


To give a history of the Pacific Railroad from its conception until the present time, a period of nine years, would require more space than can be allotted to it in this book. Sufficient to say that it has struggled manfully through all the troubles of the intervening years, and is now in as good condition as any road in the country. The difficult sections of the main line have been passed, and there remains but one hundred and fifteen miles of graduation to the State line; this through a country unparalleled for richness, and more thickly populated than any portion of the State, except that immediately on the two great rivers — the Mississippi and the Missouri.

The Pacific Road, when opened to the western boundary of the State, will become the great highway between St. Louis and the fertile plains of Kansas, now rapidly filling up with an intelligent and industrious people, and through Kansas to the boundless West.

To attempt to estimate the business of the road, when this desirable end is accomplished, would be impossible. Even now the receipts of the road, passing, as it does, through the roughest part of the State, on the bank of the Missouri river to Jefferson City, exceed all estimates.

The friends of the road must congratulate themselves upon its bright prospects in the future. There can be no doubt that it will be a paying road; the return has been tardy, but when the goal is reached the fruition of their hopes will be complete.

The South-west Branch of this road is rapidly growing in favor. To this time few but those directly interested, either as residents on the line or officers of the company, appreciate the importance of this great work. To the city of St. Louis and to the State of Missouri it will be of incalculable advantage by opening in our own State a boundless mineral wealth


of iron, copper and lead, and inviting to the rich and fertile prairies of South-west Missouri an enterprising and hardy population, who will send daily the returns of that garden-spot to enrich our beautiful city.

Nor will this be a local road of Missouri only; it will inevitably become one of the outlets of the great through line to the Pacific.

The question of the construction of the Great Pacific Railroad was agitated first some twelve years since. Since 1853 only has the question been seriously considered. In that year Congress authorized the surveys of the various lines proposed; the results have been published by the Government in eight large quarto volumes; five volumes have been distributed and are now before us. From these it is manifest that the soil, climate, population and topography point out the route of the 35th parallel as the proper one to be adopted, with which the South-West Branch can be readily connected in the valley of the Canadian. Can there be a doubt of the ultimate use of the South-west Branch, since over it will pass the immense trade and travel between the great northern and middle States of this confederacy and our possessions on the Pacific. Upon the banks of the Mississippi, in the city of St. Louis, will hereafter be transacted a business that would appear visionary now to anticipate. The agricultural and mineral productions of the great West, the shining product of California, and the wealth of the Indies, will pass through the limits of this great city, which is destined to be the agricultural and commercial metropolis, as it now is the geographical centre, of this glorious Union.


Chapter XVI. Steam Packet Lines.

CAPT. T. H. BRIERLY, President.

The immense amount of travel upon the Missouri river has induced a number of our most enterprising steamboat men to enter into arrangements by which they can afford ample accommodations to all who design to visit the Territories of Kansas, Nebraska and Utah. The universal interest that is manifested in all portions of the country by our fellow-citizens in regard to these Territories, and more especially Kansas, has caused thousands to determine to emigrate thither in order to build for themselves a home where, when old age creeps on, they can rest from the toils and cares of busy life. Ever since the exodus to Kansas began, the greatest difficulty experienced by the emigrant was that of obtaining a speedy and comfortable


transit up the Missouri river; and, although a good line of packets were engaged upon this route last year, and made their trips in connection with the arrival of the cars by the Pacific Railroad at Jefferson City, they were found to be unequal to the task of affording accommodation to the immense number of travelers who were constantly seeking passage upon their boats. Any one that made this trip last year can well remember the difficulties they experienced; not on account of the officers of the different boats, for they did all that could be done to render comfortable those entrusted to their care, but on account of the insufficient capacity of the boats engaged in the trade. These difficulties, doubtless, deterred many from undertaking the trip which they longed to accomplish, and which they will make this season, now that proper accommodations have been furnished.

Knowing the wants of the traveling community as well as the requirements of the shipping interests, a number of the most enterprising steamboat men engaged upon our rivers determined to form a company for the purpose of running their boats in such a manner as to meet the demands of all classes of the community. In order to perfect the arrangements, they formed themselves into a company under the style of "St. Louis and St. Joseph Union Packet Line," and have succeeded in obtaining twelve first class boats. These boats will make daily trips between St. Louis and St. Joseph, touching at all intermediate points on the Missouri river. One of these steamers will leave St. Louis and another St. Joseph every day, and will be allowed such time to make the trip as to render a failure to depart at the hour advertised impossible. They intend to pay particular attention to way business, and will leave no endeavors untried to merit from the public a large share of the patronage. They also design making connections with the cars


at Jefferson City, both ways, thereby affording to the patrons of the Pacific Railroad a superior class of Passenger Steamers. The following is a list of the Boats engaged in this Line:

PEERLESS Capt. Bissell.
A. B. CHAMBERS Gillham.
D. A. JANUARY P. Yore.
HESPERIN F. B. Kercheval.
BNE LEWIS Brierly.
SOVEREIGN Hutchinson.
KATE HOWARD Joseph Nanson.

To any one who has had the least experience in Western travel, we need not say a word in regard to these boats or the gentlemen in charge of them, for they are well enough known; but lest some one who is unacquainted with steamboat matters should fall upon these pages, we will say that every single boat is emphatically a "Floating Palace," containing every thing requisite to render a trip up the Missouri river upon one of them as delightful as could be wished. The commanders are old and experienced Missouri river steamboat men, and when we say this we need say no more, for the steamboat men are proverbial for kindness of heart and courteousness of disposition. The offices are in charge of gentlemen who exert every endeavor to render their boat a favorite. The pilots are skillful and experienced, and "know the river like a book." The engineers are competent and careful men, and ever upon the watch to guard against accidents. The table is under the charge of a skillful set of stewards, who devote particular attention to furnishing every thing the market affords.


We would recommend those persons who design taking a trip up the Missouri river to secure state rooms upon some packet connected with the Union Line if they wish to enjoy themselves.

J. S. MCCUNE, President.

There is not in the annals of steamboating in the West a more striking instance of success and prosperity, which always attends labor and enterprise, than the history of the Keokuk Packet Company, a sketch of which it is our purpose to lay before our readers. In arranging and publishing the following facts, which we have taken some pains to collect, we are doing a simple act of justice to a company composed of practical business men; and their example may serve as a light to others, in fields of the same character, which are opening in the great West. Steamboating in the West, extensively as it is carried on at present, is yet comparatively in its infancy. There are many sections and localities on the Upper Mississippi and Missouri rivers, the resources of which are rapidly being developed. These will before many years demand a large amount of capital to conduct their several local steamboating interests; men and money will be found to meet these demands; boats will be built; the business will be done; and those individuals who can judge most correctly of the future, by the past, will be the operators in these yet unborn enterprises.

The company felt an interest in making St. Louis a boat-building point, and accordingly placed their business in the hands of our own mechanics, in preference to giving it to those of the Ohio river, even at a less first cost. This evinced


a true and generous spirit toward our artizans, and it has not been without its rewards, as will be seen,

For a period of about twelve years, one daily line between St. Louis and Keokuk was sufficient to do the business, but it was found necessary in the year 1856 to establish two lines of packets — one line between St. Louis ancl Keokuk, and the other between St. Louis and Quincy — the latter line connecting with one of the company's boats through to Keokuk.

The present year has witnessed another change. There are now six regular steamers, forming two lines. One freight and passenger line between St. Louis and Quincy, and one mail and passenger line between St. Louis and Keokuk.

The following boats are now engaged in this trade. They are all first class boats and are managed by a competent and courteous corps of officers, who spare no pains to render their guests as comfortable as possible. The tables are served by competent stewards, who obtain a portion of every thing the market affords to please the taste, and have been pronounced by epicures to be perfect in every respect. The fact that this line have now been in operation for sixteen years and not a single accident causing loss of life having occurred, speaks volumes for the capacity and carefulness of the engineers. The boats are — City of Louisiana, Hannibal City, Jeannie Deans, Quincy, Keokuk, Desmoines and Warsaw, commanded by Captains R. Ford, Jas. H. Johnson, S. S. Matson, Jno. W. Malin, E. A. Sheble and S. D. Bradley.

It has become proverbial with consignees that the packets can not fail to deliver their goods promptly and in good order, and they say to shippers, "If you ship on a Keokuk packet don't insure my goods, as I have never lost a dollar there yet."

The stock of this concern, which now amounts to $400,000,


is not confined to a few individuals, as is the case with some other extensive packet companies in the West, but is remarkably well distributed among the shippers themselves. About one-sixth of the stock is owned by the shippers of Keokuk; one-sixth by the shippers of Quincy, and one-sixth is owned by heavy shippers at Alexandria, Canton, Lagrange, Hannibal, Louisiana, Clarksville, and all other points on the line. The remaining half is owned in St. Louis. This shows a remarkably equal distribution of stock among the individuals most interested — the shippers.

We know of no route more favorable for reaching the Upper Mississippi than this, and we would advise all travelers and shippers who desire to reach any point above St. Louis to call at No. 34 Commercial street and secure tickets or make contracts.


Chapter XVII. Barnum's Hotel.

BARNUM & FOGG,Proprietors.

This hotel, unsurpassed by any in the West, and its internal arrangements, perhaps, having no equal in the Union, was built for and under the personal supervision of THERON BARNUM, Esq., a gentleman who, for nearly twenty years, has occupied an enviable position as a hotel keeper of our city — his name and the excellence of his house being co-extensive with our entire country, both east and west.

Mr. Barnum became the proprietor of the City Hotel, corner of Third and Vine streets, in the spring of 1848, which house he occupied until the fall of 1852, when, having accumulated a sufficiency of this world's goods, he retired from business altogether. It is needless to say that this retirement was much regretted by the community in which he lived, (as well as by the travelling public,) feeling as they did that he was one of those who reflected credit upon our city by the manner in which he had conducted his house, making it emphatically a home for the traveller and a spot where the weary were at rest.

It is not a matter of surprise then that he should be called forth from that retirement which he so eagerly sought. The rapid growth of our city called most loudly for an increase of our hotel accommodation, and it was determined to erect a hotel commensurate to the demand. The corner of Second and Walnut streets was selected as the most eligible site, being near to the centre of business and the principal railroad depots and


steamboat landings, yet sufficiently retired to ensure quiet and comfort to the guests; Mr. Barnum was solicited to take charge of the new edifice as soon as completed, and he, after much solicitation, consented.

On the 28th of September, 1854, Mr. Barnum, in conjunction with Mr. Fogg, opened the above named House. Since its opening it has enjoyed a most complete success, both in the number of its patrons and the satisfaction which it has rendered them. The number of arrivals at this house, as shown by the published hotel arrivals, is much greater than at any other, while in point of excellence of table, comfort of apartments, the attention shown guests by every one connected with the establishment, from "mine hosts" down to the lowest menial, we can safely say is unequalled either at home or abroad.

It is an honor and a just subject of pride to our city. Here the stranger can look for that kind welcome and gentlemanly treatment which render absence from home less irksome and dreary, feeling that everything reasonable is done to render his stay at once comfortable and pleasant. May the shadow of its proprietors never grow less, and may their success in life be equaled by their exertions to deserve it, is the ardent wish of all who have enjoyed the excellent brands, many comforts and benign smiles of the proprietors of Barnum's Hotel.

Under the guidance of Mr. Fogg, we, a short time since, took a survey of the working portion of this house. We went without previous appointment, with the intention of taking them by surprise. We found Mr. Fogg in the office, and communicated our desire to him. He immediately conducted us through the gentlemen's ordinary, which is of ample dimensions, and capable of seating four hundred guests. The ladies' ordinary is not so large, but can seat about two hundred and fifty persons.


Attached to the meat stand in the dining room is one of the neatest contrivances for keeping the meats warm we have ever observed. It consists of a couple of hollow, cast iron plates, with indentures sufficiently large to receive the bottom of the dish; the meats are then dished up and placed upon this stand, and the steam, which is generated by a boiler in the cellar, turned on; it immediately fills the vacuum, traverses the range, and is conducted off by a pipe upon the opposite end. After satisfying ourselves of the great utility of this contrivance, and having investigated the workings of the dumb waiter, which leads to the pastry room below, we passed into the cook house. We were not a little astonished at the extent and neatness of this apartment. We observed many things here which are to be found nowhere else, as they were designed by Mr. Fogg, and erected by his positive orders, and upon his own responsibility, as the mechanics refused to construct them until he had declared himself determined to have them at all events. From here, we passed into the engine room, where we found a huge boiler generating steam, and a neat, compact steam engine at work supplying power for various uses. These works were also erected upon the responsibility of Mr. Fogg, who spent many hours of hard study in arranging them to suit his ideas of what was required. On leaving this apartment, we visited the wash room, and found it the most complete and best arranged of all the many we have inspected in the United States. The dirty clothes are received at one end of the room and are immediately handed to the washer; from her hands they are passed into the rinser, and from thence into a machine designed for wringing. They are removed from this machine into a drying rack, and shoved into a room filled with hot air, from whence they are withdrawn and passed to the ironer; after they have


been ironed they are placed in the airing room and from thence handed to the laundress, who takes charge of them, and places them in her receiving room until they are called for by the messenger boy. The water is heated by steam, the clothes boiled by steam and the drying room heated by steam.

On entering into the pastry room, we observed the same scrupulous regard to cleanliness and order which is everywhere displayed. On ascending from the pastry room, we were conducted into the store room; here we observed a greater variety and a larger quantity of groceries than are usually found in retail grocery stores.

After visiting the servants' pleasure room, which ia a room of 50 by 26 feet, and where they congregate after their work i s finished and engage in dancing and love making until ten o'clock, we passed into the upper portion of the house.

We found the sleeping apartments furnished with the utmost care and kept with scrupulous cleanliness. Here one can obtain a good night's rest without being tortured by those pests which are to be found in so many hotels in this country; upon these vermin the housekeeper has waged a successful war of extermination. Each room is furnished with everything necessary for the making of the toilet.

In conclusion we must be permitted to say a few words in regard to the bathrooms. These rooms are fitted up in elegant style, with all the modern improvements for furnishing hot, cold or tepid baths. Attached to the bath room is the room for blacking boots. While a gentleman is enjoying the luxury of a good bath, a boy is cleaning his boots. This apartment was also arranged and designed by Mr. Fogg, who has proved an invaluable associate in the management of Barnum's Hotel.


Corner of Second and Olive streets.

It is a pleasure as well as a duty to point out to both our citizens and to strangers such Hotels in our midst as are most Worthy the confidence and patronage of the public. Such a house is eminently the Monroe. For years known as the Glasgow House, and situated in the immediate centre of business, and has ever enjoyed a most liberal share of patronage.

In the year 1846 the house passed into the charge of Mr. Wm. Monroe, formerly of the Quincy House, where he had established for himself a most enviable reputation as a host and a gentleman. Since then it has been under his entire control, and has assumed a first position in the rank of hotels in our city. So rapidly did the business of the house increase under the excellent management of its present proprietor, that large additions became necessary, and were therefore made — the building now occupying one-fourth of the entire square upon which it is situated. This enlargement worked a complete change in the original plan of the house; the rooms being enlarged, the parlors and sitting rooms made more spacious, and the dining room made the most extensive of any in our city — while its arrangements in the manner of seating boarders is perhaps the most superior of any in our city. While all this was done, the charges were as reasonable as those of any hotel in the Country, and the fare excelled by none.


Here the epicure can find every thing to suit the most fastidious and delicate palate, served up in a style worthy of the highest art of Parisian cookery, and by servants who seem intuitively to know your wants, and knowing them, most glad to cater thereto. This is no idle panegyric, meant only for the public gaze, but an honest sober truth, which any one may demonstrate by paying the house a visit.

Hotel keeping, in a proper sense, is a science. It requires a knowledge of human nature, and a disposition to bear patiently with the foibles of all with whom the hotel keeper may come in contact. "The proud man's contumely," the insolence of the rich, the overweening vanity of the coxcomb and new-fledged aristocrat, the peevishness of the invalid, the childishness of the old, tne boorish manners of the "border ruffian," and many other evils "too numerous to mention," are trials to which "mine host" is daily doomed to bear, and which require a most liberal amount of moral courage to endure. If not met in the proper manner and with that becoming suavity which betoken the perfect gentleman, he is gazetted from one end of the country to the other as unfit for the avocation of a public caterer, and his house avoided by those who have one or another of the faults above mentioned.

But Mr. Monroe is a perfect gentleman, and meets with most gracious courtesy and forbearance those inconveniences which the keeping of a public house ever brings to its keeper. With him the keeping of a hotel is not a mere affair of dollars and cents, but a position in which he seeks to dispense a "quid pro quo" for the amount received from his guests. He does not feel satisfied with merely giving his patrons a place whereon they may sleep, and a seat at the table where they may gorge themselves to their heart's desire, but believes that there is something beyond all this — a looking after the comfort and enjoyment of those by whom he is surrounded, rendering them all


those little attentions which go so far in making up the sum total of life's happiness — the comfort of his guests being his first thought, the accumulation of money merely a secondary consideration.

In all his efforts he is most ably seconded by Mr. Andrews, clerk; Mr. Johnson, assistant do.; and Mr. Allen, steward; while the ladies always find an attentive friend in Miss Manney, general housekeeper.

All the accommodations and conveniences to be found at any house can be found here, and to the public we commend, with most sincere wishes for its success, the Monroe House.

Ere we conclude our notice of this elegant Hotel, we must be allowed to visit the sleeping apartments, a portion of all hotels thai demands and receives from the wayfarer a greater amount of criticism than any other. In the Monroe House we do not find the rooms crowded with beds, in order that a great number may be furnished with a place to sleep, and the purse of the landlord benefitted for the time being; but on the contrary, we find the rooms large, airy, and neatly arranged. The bed clothes are of snowy whiteness, and with the splendid spring mattresses, combine to render the appearance inviting; here one can sink to rest amid dreams of home, the halcyon days of boyhood, the loved wife and little ones, and in the morning awake refreshed and ready to go forth to meet the cares of Another day with renewed energy, and an enlarged opinion of humanity.



Virgnia Hotel. John H. Sparr, Proprietor

A good hotel — one which combines all the luxuries and conveniences of a home — is a thing most ardently desired by all who labor under the necessity of travelling, or who, like the writer, is unable to enjoy the comforts of a home, because of the want of the first indispensable article — a wife — and is consequently compelled to seek inside the hospitable doors of a hotel that ease and comfort he can only dream of elsewhere. The reader will find all these requirements in the Virginia Hotel of St. Louis, which is situated on the corner of Green, Main and Second streets.

The site at present occupied by the buildings known as the Virginia Hotel, was first improved by Messrs. Scott & Rule,


well known merchants of this city, in the year 1830, and was used as the Union Hotel by Mr. Farish until his decease, and then by his widow until 1843, when its present owner, Capt. James Wood, became the proprietor, and made numerous additions and improvements to the buildings; and on the first of January, 1844, Mr. John H. Sparr, the present worthy host, became the lessee and entered upon its duties as manager.

Mr. Sparr came to St. Louis when quite a boy in 1823, and after a variety of changes in vocations, in which he was more or less successful, he, on the first of April, 1840, entered upon the life of a hotel keeper. The scene of his first operations was a small house on the corner of Washington avenue and Commercial street. In October of that year he became lessee of what was at that time called the Virginia Hotel, but is now known to the travelling community as "Kings Hotel," and which is situated on the corner of Vine and Second streets. In 1844, as we have before stated, he became the lessee of the hotel owned by Capt. Wood, and in moving into it he carried with him the name of "Virginia Hotel," it being one he had seen grow into public favor under his fostering care.

The Virginia Hotel, when Mr. Sparr took possession of it in 1844, was capable of rendering accommodations to about one hundred and seventy-five guests, and was as large as any house in the Mound City. It answered the purpose for but a short time; the immense reputation achieved by this house had gone abroad, and many who visited St. Louis could not be accommodated. In order to meet the increasing wants of the public in a proper spirit, Mr. Isaac Walker, in 1846, succeeded in obtaining a lease on an adjoining lot, and built a four story addition, which when completed he leased to Mr. Sparr, and which added much to the facilities of the Virginia Hotel in rendering their guests comfortable.


In 1851 Capt. Wood built the western wing, having first made a contract with Mr. Sparr, whereby the latter was to yield his lease on the main hotel, with a view of pulling it down and rebuilding in a more spacious and elegant style. The result of the negotiation was the removal of Mr. Sparr, the demolition of the old house, and the erection of the present magnificent and spacious building, which was completed early in the spring of 1853, and was, opened to the public on the first day of April, 1853, just thirteen years from the day which first saw Mr. Sparr at the head of a hotel, but with far different prospects; the first was an experiment, where he was to strive to win a name and honored reputation; the second, after both had been achieved, and after the fame of the Virginia Hotel had become a household word from the coast of Maine to the shores of California.

Mr. Sparr has now ample accommodations in his spacious hotel for three hundred and fifty guests, and he has upon extraordinary occasions found room for four hundred.

The immense amount it costs to conduct it in a proper style would startle those unacquainted with what is required in our first class houses. There are no less than one hundred and twenty-five servants, of both sexes, employed, and the other departments are upon an equal scale of grandeur.

The location being on Main street, near the centre of the wholesale trade, special attention has been paid to the arrangements and style of keeping, in order to make the house a comfortable house to business men who visit the city a number of times each year, and all will concede the fact that the table of the Virginia Hotel is always provided with the best the market affords.

One thing in particular we desire to mention here, and that is, the neatness and cleanliness which is observed in all the


sleeping apartments. This attention upon the part of Mr. Sparr has had much to do in placing his house in the position it now holds in the estimation of the public, and when contrasted with the way in which hotels are generally kept, reflects much honor upon that gentleman.

The building fronts on Main street one hundred feet, and is six stories high, and extends back to the alley. The front on Green street is three hundred and twenty feet, while on Second street, upon which it also fronts, it is eighty feet. This building, or perhaps we had better say these buildings, are owned by Mr. Isaac Walker, Capt. James Wood, and Messrs. J. & W. Finney, and is held under a lease from these gentlemen by Mr. Sparr.

Mr. Sparr has spent over fifteen thousand dollars in improving the adjoining buildings, in order that he would be better able to render his guests perfectly comfortable, and furnish them with suitable accommodations. But he has the proud consciousness of knowing that he established a world-wide reputation for his house and insured a full return.

There is no hotel in our city more popular with the traveller than the Virginia, and if we take the published list of daily arrivals as a criterion, we can safely say not one is better patronised.

The kind and obliging disposition of Mr. Sparr and his accomplished assistants in his office, render them especial favorites with all who have ever stopped at this house.


Corner of Second and Vine Streets,
George I. King, Proprietor.

This favorite hotel is situated on the north-east corner of Vine and Second streets, having a front on Vine street of one hundred and fifty feet, with a depth of one hundred and forty feet on Second street. The buildings are of brick, five stories high, and admirably arranged for the purposes for which it was erected. The dining rooms having a capacity for seating in comfortable style about three hundred guests. The parlors are large and furnished in superior style with every appliance that can in any way conduce to the comfort of the guests.

This house has been used as a hotel for several years, and has always maintained an excellent reputation for excellence. A few years ago, when it was called the Virginia, it was known


all over the West as a first-class hotel, and, although the name has been altered, the admirable management of Mr. King has rather added to than detracted from the reputation it then sustained. The location is one of the most favorable that could be found; contiguous to the wholesale jobbing houses, it offers rare advantages to the country merchant who visits the city for the purpose of replenishing his stock.

The sleeping apartments of King's Hotel are large, airy, and kept with scrupulous cleanliness; furnished with gas and all the modern improvements. It is really a god-send for the wearied traveller to rest his wearied limbs upon these luxurious beds.

The table is under the charge of Mr. Frank W. Denman, the accomplished Steward, and if the market contains any thing rare, excellent, or good, he is determined to have it for his guests. With his larder well stocked, and the services of several superior cooks, no one can furnish a more delightful meal than Mr. D.

As the name of the house would lead one to suppose, King's Hotel is presided over, and its destinies ruled, by Geo. I. King, who is a favorite with those who have partaken of his hospitality. Mr. King has long been a resident of the West, having for a number of years been connected with the steamboating interests, and while thus engaged he wove those bonds of friendship with the river men which now makes his house such a favorite resort with all steamboat men who frequent St. Louis.

Mr. George I. King first introduced himself to the St. Louis public as a host in 1851, at which time we find him at the head of the Missouri Hotel; here he won golden opinions from all sorts of people, by the manner in which he catered for the public. He nourished in the Missouri till 1854, when the American House was for lease; he immediately obtained a lease upon that establishment, and had it refitted and thoroughly cleaned,


and christened "King's Hotel." He opened to the public with a thorough knowledge of what was required to secure an equal share of public patronage, and a firm determination to let no obstacles stand between him and the consummation of his wishes. The result has fully equalled his expectations, and he has a full house of contented and pleased guests at all times.

In all his endeavors to please the public, Mr. King is ably assisted by his Lieutenant in the office, Mr. Charles King, who is a favorite with all who tarry at King's. The larder, as we have already stated, is under the entire control of Frank Denman, who has an enviable reputation as a caterer, and who is always "bobbing around" in search of viands rare and luscious with which to grace his table and satiate the cravings of his guests. He is a trump, and has added no little towards giving a wide reputation to this hotel. The charges at this house have always been moderate, and the accommodations such that no one ever thinks he has not received full value. We look upon King's as an "institution" which deserves to flourish, and which will, so long as courteous and gentlemanly treatment, good living, excellent accommodations, and liberal charges, have any influence.

The utmost regard is paid to keeping every thing in order; no boisterous noises arouse the slumberer, or disturb the stillness of the house; every thing seems as quiet and orderly as a church. Meals can be procured at all hours, and the servants take pride in attending to the wants of all guests. A cup of good hot coffee is ever ready for the traveller, which can be had at a moment's notice. This, to railroad passengers, is no small consideration.


77 Dock Street, Philadelphia, Penn.

This house has for a long series of years enjoyed the reputation of being one of the best hotels in the city of Philadelphia, and while under the management of Col. R. B. Jones won the confidence of the travelling public. In all his endeavors to render his house a favorite resort, Col. Jones was ably assisted by Larry Thompson, who, after the Col's, death, assumed the entire control of affairs.

This house is conducted upon the European plan, a system that has grown into extensive favor where it has been tested. Here the traveller can procure rooms by the week or single night, with or without board, which, it will be perceived, possesses peculiar charms to those who visit Philadelphia upon business. These rooms are neatly furnished, and kept with a scrupulous regard for cleanliness; they are fitted with all the modern appurtenances which tend to promote the comfort of the guests.

The eating arrangements of this house can not be excelled any place. The larder is stocked with every delicacy the market affords, and is served up by cooks that are of acknowledged elegance. The waiters are attentive and evince a desire to please. The brands of wine embrace every thing that is of note, and is dispensed with a liberal hand. A meal can be procured at almost any hour; breakfast, from six o'clock till eleven; dinner, from twelve till four; supper, from five till eleven. Particular attention is given to getting up the dinner,


every thing that nature produces, or art suggests, is embraced in the bill of fare. Among other delicacies to be found, we will mention the Chinqueroarasques Oysters, a brand that has for years maintained the position of first favorite with the public.

Another feature of this excellent hotel, is the supply of excellent cigars which are kept for the accommodation of its patrons; these cigars are imported direct from Havana by Mr. Thompson, and are luscious beyond comparison.

To those of our readers who are intending to visit the Quaker City, we say — Stop at Jones' Exchange Hotel, 77 Dock street, immediately opposite the Exchange, and next door to the Post Office. You will find Col. Thompson a gentleman of enlarged hospitality, and one you can not help liking; he will spare no pains to make your stay as comfortable and agreeable as possible, and will be so moderate in his charges as to cause you to wonder how he can afford to conduct his house in the style he does.

Indeed, we do not believe the Colonel has his superior in the City of Brotherly Love. In all his endeavors to place Jones' Exchange Hotel in favor with the travelling community, he has been ably assisted by the efforts of his good-looking clerks. We speak knowingly of this hotel, for we have more than once partaken of its hospitality, and speak thus in its praise because we desire to "render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's." In the broadest and fullest extent of the word, is Jones' Exchange Hotel a home for all; a place of refuge from the toils and cares of life, where you can find those comforts that only exist in such hotels as Jones', Barnum's, Monroe's, Sparr's, and King's.


Chapter XVIII. Foundries.

On Main, between Morgan and Cherry Streets.
GATY, M'CUNE & CO., Proprietors.
Manufacturers of Steam Engines, Boilers, Sheet Iron Work, Mill Machinery, "Child's & Page's" Patent Circular Saw Mills.

Among the extensive manufacturing establishments of St. Louis there is none more deserving of special notice from our hands than that of Gaty, M'Cune & Co. These works, occupying almost an entire square on Main and Morgan, Cherry and Second streets, were first established in 1831, by Mr. Samuel Gaty, who is still the senior member of the firm. A little, obscure, out-of-the-way place was the nucleus of the present extensive works, where, with five workmen, business was commenced. In 1833, Felix Coonce, Esq., became associated with Mr. Samuel Gaty as a partner, under the name and style of Gaty & Coonce. In 1836, they admitted into the firm Mr. Jacob Beltzhoover, and we find them doing business in the name of Gaty, Coonce & Beltzhoover. This connection was continued with gratifying success until the spring of 1840, when Mr. A. H. Glasby purchased the interest of Mr. Beltzhoover, and the title of the firm changed to Gaty, Coonce & Glasby. In 1841, Mr. John M'Cune, the present President of the Keokuk Packet Company, (see page 183,) succeeded in


purchasing the interest of Mr. Felix Coonce, and the title of the firm again changed to that of Gaty, M'Cune & Glasby. For seven years there was no alteration in this house; but at the end of that time, in 1848, Girard B. Allen purchased part of the interest of Mr. A. H. Glasby, whose health had become so bad as to render him unable to properly attend to his business, which required the greater portion of his time in the office; after Mr. Allen's admission into the firm, the style of Gaty, M'Cune & Co. was assumed. In 1849, Mr. James Collins was admitted as a partner; Mr. G. B. Allen retired from the firm in 1854, and Mr. Wm. H. Stone and Mr. Amos Howe were admitted as members. The firm, as now existing, is composed of Mr. Samuel Gaty, J. S. M'Cune, James Collins, Wm. H. Stone, and Amos Howe.

The history of this house shows the advance that has been made in manufacturing in the last quarter of a century. The mechanical skill which prevailed at that period was imperfect at best; there were no large bodies of men at command, having proper and distinct training in each of the trades — more properly, the arts — which are embraced in engine building. Much less was known of the construction and the use of those wonderful tools and engines by which iron and steel are now wrought into every geometrical form, and with nearly the same facility as soft and yielding wood.

From the day of its establishment the career of Gaty, M'Cune & Co's. "Engine Works and Foundry" has been onward and upward; onward in the march of improvement, and upward in the estimation of the public. Each month having added increased facilities to its internal arrangements, and each year to its extent of territory, and now we find the little germ, which a quarter of a century ago was planted by Mr. Samuel Gaty, grown and developed into gigantic proportions. Where,


twenty-five years ago, a half-dozen men, without the extemporaneous aid afforded by machinery, were able to keep pace with the demand, we now find over two hundred busily engaged, assisted by all the many modern labor-facilitating machines, and then barely able to fill all orders.

Gaty, M'Cune & Co. do not limit their manufactures to the production of steam engines, but engage extensively in the manufacture of boilers, sheet iron work, and saw and planning mill machinery, as well as "Child's & Page's Circular Saw Mills," for which they find a large and constantly increasing demand.

As regards the quality of the work turned out by Messrs. Gaty, M'Cune & Co., there can be but one opinion, and that of commendation. No better evidence of this fact exists than the immense success that has attended their efforts, and the position they have been able to attain.

They always turn out work "upon honor," and warrant it to be all that it is represented. One advantage possessed by them is the fact that all brass and copper work, which in many foundries and machine shops are purchased from other houses, are made on the premises and under the supervision of a master-workman. The entire charge of the mechanical department of this establishment is under charge of James Collins and Amos Howe, a first-rate workman, and a member of the firm, one who has much experience, and is every way qualified for the post he holds; indeed, a better corps of mechanics can not be found in the West, many of whom have been employed in these works for over twenty years.

Messrs. Gaty, M'Cune & Co. have a capital of over six hundred thousand dollars invested in their establishment, while the amount of raw material consumed would astonish those who are not intimately acquainted with the requirements of these


immense manufactories. As to some of the principal items, we may mention four hundred tons of boiler iron, twenty-four hundred tons of pig metal, and a corresponding amount of brass, copper and steel. At present the aggregate yearly wages paid to the employees of this establishment amounts to about ninety-five thousand dollars. Messrs. Gaty, McCune & Co. have, ever since their first commencement, been paying their employees the best kind of wages. With them the aphorism that "the laborer is worthy of his hire," has been recognized in its broadest understanding, and they have ever adopted it as a rule worthy of being observed.

This establishment possesses the most perfect facilities for the execution of work of all kinds, and can fill the most voluminous orders in the shortest possible space of time. They possess many late improvements in machinery, which are not attainable by the greater portion of their cotemporaries, and, as a consequence, stand in the front rank of their business in the West, offering inducements of an almost irresistible nature to those who design making purchases of articles such as they are manufacturing.

St. Louis owes much to such enterprising business men as Messrs. Gaty, M'Cune & Co. for the proud position she now sustains in the manufacturing cities of the United States, and we can not visit this establishment without being astonished at the magnitude which it has attained, and would respectfully urge upon all persona sojourning in our city, as well as our citizens who can devote a few hours from the toils and cares of their business to sight seeing, to take a walk through these works and view the wondrous machinery which the skill of man has caused to be placed there; the inspection of them will richly repay the visitor for his time and trouble.


Corner Carr and Second Streets.
GERARD B. ALLEN, Proprietor.
Manufacture Steam Engines, Boilers, Sheet Iron Work, Mill Machinery, and every variety of Heavy Castings, &c.

The Fulton Iron Works commenced operations in May, 1857, under favorable auspices, with a full force of competent workmen, in all the various branches of manufactures usually pursued by works so extensive and general as the Fulton. Girard B. Allen, the proprietor of these worki, is extensively known throughout the south and west, having been a member of the firm of Gaty, McCune & Co. for a period of over eight years, and having, while connected with that firm, become thoroughly conversant with all the minutiae of the trade and the wants of the public.

Having separated himself from the house of Gaty, McCune & Co., Mr. Allen determined to establish a foundry and machine shop under his own auspices, and see what he could accomplish on his own responsibility. He accordingly selected the corner of Carr and Second streets as the location best adapted for the works he contemplated. The ground being secured, he immediately set about the erecting of buildings suitable for the ends in view, upon plans of his own devising. The buildings erected by Mr. Allen are extensive and well arranged, the machine shop being one hundred and eighty feet long by forty feet wide, and contains a greater amount of machinery than we have ever seen in the same space before, and that too without crowding; it fronts on Second street, is of three stories, and perfectly complete


in all its arrangements. The blacksmith shop, having a front on Carr street, is one hundred feet by forty, and contains all the modern improvements, and keeps in steady employment a goodly number of excellent workmen; the bellows are worked by machinery, which derives its motive power from a large steam engine which is situated in another portion of the works.

The foundry is fifty feet wide by one hundred and twenty-five, containing many conveniences not possessed by other houses. In this room there are two large cranes, with powerful lifting force, for the purpose of handling with ease and safety the heavy castings made in the establishment. This department is under the management of Mr. B. Elliot, whose skill and experience is unsurpassed in his profession. We have been more than once astonished at the coolness of this gentleman under circumstances of peculiar danger, and when the slighest evidence of fear or absence of self-control would have been the signal for almost certain destruction. We do not believe that should Mr. Allen search the world over he would be able to find a person better adapted for the position he holds than is Mr. Elliot.

Adjoining the foundry is the apartment allotted to pattern making; and here again we find every modern invention which can in any way serve to facilitate the workmanship. The charge of this department is under the control of James W. Barry, one of the best mechanics in the Mound City. We had the pleasure of examining some of the very beautiful mechanical drawings executed by this gentleman, who has acquired an enviable reputation as a draftsman and designer of machinery, in which department he displays originality and skill of a high order. We were forcibly struck with several neat and simple contrivances which we observed here. One was the arrangement of fans for the purpose of removing the shavings and chips which accumulate as the work advances towards perfection.


Another consisted of a steam heating apparatus for the purpose of melting glue. The entire apartment is heated by steam, no fire being allowed in this part of the building, thus giving greater security against conflagration.

The boiler shop is not only in construction especially adapted to the purpose, but it is also fitted and furnished with each and every tool or appliance that can be suggested to expedite and perfect this important branch of manufacture — among which are shears which clip iron boiler plates half an inch in thickness with as much facility as children cut out their paper dolls; heavy punches and drills that make the holes for the rivets with the same ease that a shoemaker punches holes in a pair of gaiters; large rolls for bending plates, and other powerful machines for bending flanges, &c. Only the very best charcoal plate is used in the construction of boilers, and these are tested in the most thorough manner.

These works are now engaged in manufacturing land and marine engines, boiler and sheet iron work, as well as every description of saw and flour mill and general machinery. Mr. Allen inaugurated his commencement by the selection of Mr. A. Duelle to act in the capacity of general superintendent of the works. Mr. D. has a reputation for being one of the most accomplished workmen in the country, and we are certain that he has no superior in the West.

The character of the work turned out by the "Fulton" was such as to insure it success, and soon the reputation of these works was as bright and fair as those houses which have labored for years in building up a name. Among the first engines finished by Mr. Allen was one designed to be used in the extensive Furniture establishment of Mr. C. Marlow. This machine is one of the finest we have ever examined, and Mr. M. declares that it "works like a charm." We observed that the workmen


were engaged in erecting two large and powerful engines for Capt. Brierly's new boat, the Ben Lewis; upon the finish and workmanship of these engines we have no doubt that Mr. Allen would be willing to risk the reputation of his works; they will goon be finished and ready for use. While wandering over the establishment we were shown a number of drawings and orders for mill machinery and engines which are destined for our sister State, Illinois. It will require some time to complete these works, as all the patterns will have to be made; but when they are once finished, we venture to predict (from what we know of Mr. Allen and his facilities for the execution of work) that they will excel any thing ever before manufactured in St. Louis, and add still another wreath to the garland of fame that has already been wove around the Fulton Iron Works.

The machinery of the Fulton Foundry and Machine Works consists of all the latest improvements that have been made, and these works boast of being able to compare favorably with any establishment in the United States. Their facilities are such as enable them to offer inducements of a superior character to all who may desire to procure machinery.

In selecting persons to take charge of the mechanical department of these works, Mr. Allen exercised that principle of foresight for which he has ever been noted, and that intimate knowledge of the business which a long practical experience enabled him to acquire, and the result is seen in every thing that is done. The managers take pride in doing their portion of the work a little better than that accomplished by any other person, and in order that no endeavor may be left untried; they have secured the services of the best workmen in the country. We have been informed by a master mechanic that the corps of workmen employed at the Fulton Iron Works could not be excelled in the United States.


There are several leading principles observed in the administration of these works which appear calculated to insure their highest efficiency and the best quality, in their productions; one is the manufacture upon the spot not only of engines, &c., but as far as possible of the materials of which they are composed. All the forged work, brass and iron castings, and other parta, often purchased outside of other works, are here made in the best manner, and with the aid of every fixture to be found in the establishment, supplying separately each of these items. Another is the greatest possible substitution of machinery for manual labor. In these works a smaller proportion of men are engaged in hand work than in any similar establishment in the country. This circumstance is due to the fact that the tools are adapted in a special manner to the execution of each portion of the work, and that each class of tools is specially appropriated to the distinct portions of the work. In the materials used for the engines, wrought iron is used wherever practicable, and to the exclusion of cast iron; thick braziers' copper is used exclusively for the tubes, and tough iron is used for all important forgings.

In regard to the quality of the products of the Fulton Works, there certainly can be but one candid opinion. In every particular they are not only fully equal to those of any other foundry and machine shop, but in some important points better — not the least valuable of which is the simplicity of construction, great power and durability, and it is the intention of Mr. Allen to spare no pains to render the greatest possible satisfaction, and maintain his present reputation for superiority. We would advise those of our readers who have leisure, and are fond of sight seeing, to visit these works when they are in the Mound city, for they will be repaid the trouble; to those who wish to purchase articles of machinery or castings, we would also say, call and examine the quality and the terms.



This well known concern commenced business in St. Louis early in the year 1844, and has risen from the smallest to be the largest manufactory of agricultural machinery in the West. Their main establishment is situated on the corner of Second and Cherry streets, and is devoted exclusively to the manufacture of Child's Patent Portable Saw Mills. The reputation which this mill has achieved renders it unnecessary for us to praise its many virtues. We will only say that those manufactured by Messrs. K. & F. are recognized by those who have tried them to be of a superior quality.

Their agricultural works are located on Eleventh street, near Cass avenue, where they make all their agricultural machines.

A few of the agricultural implements which they are engaged in manufacturing we desire to call the reader's attention to, as they are in every way worthy the consideration of our farming community.

Messrs. Kingsland & Ferguson's is at present the only house west of the Mississippi river engaged in the manufacture of Manny's Patent Mower and Reaper, which is so well and favorably known throughout the United States and the Canadas. This machine has attracted more attention than any similar invention ever offered to the public. One of them was exhibited at the London World's Fair, and succeeded in carrying off the gold and silver medals, when they had the whole world to


pete against. At the late trial of agricultural machinery before the United States Agricultural Society, held at Syracuse, New York, the gold and silver medals were awarded this machine. We do not wish to enumerate all the different fairs where this machine has been a successful candidate for prizes, for by so doing we should be compelled to mention every fair where it has been exhibited, for it has never failed to succeed wherever it has been offered. These machines manufactured at the works of Messrs. Kingsland & Ferguson are of a superior character, and are much preferred to those flimsy things which are made in Chicago, and which are constantly breaking and getting out of order. To those who intend purchasing one of these machines, we would recommend them to procure, if by any means possible, one that bears the brand of Messrs. Kingsland & Ferguson as makers.

They are also engaged in building the Cox & Roberts' Patent Thresher and Cleaner, which bears such a favorable reputation with the wheat-growing community. The success of this machine has been so prominent as to astonish those who are unacquainted with what was required by the farmer. There had long existed a want which all the many machines offered had failed to supply until this one was brought forth. So simple was its construction, and so fully did it answer all that was demanded, that it at once assumed a position as a favorite. Indeed it is a great desideratum, as all know that a machine to be useful to men who do not generally understand machinery, must be free from all extra gearing, and this one is eminently so. Its cheapness and adaptability are also considerations which receive much attention from purchasers; it is within the means of all, as we understand; the largest machine, which threshes and cleans over four hundred bushels wheat per day, costs complete only two hundred and seventy-five dollars. No neighborhood


will, we are persuaded, long remain without one of these machines when this fact becomes generally known.

Besides these machines which we have specified, Messrs. K. & F. engage extensively in the manufacture of many other useful and valuable implements. In fact they are more largely engaged in manufacturing agricultural implements than any other house in the West, and we may say, without fear of contradiction, in the United States.

Some idea of the amount of work annually turned out from these works can be formed from the amount of raw material they use; among the items we may mention twelve hundred tons of pig iron, three hundred tons of bar iron, and about one million feet of lumber; besides a large amount of wire, brass, &c, &c.

The working arrangements of their works are very complete; a foreman who is a complete master of his trade has control over every department, while a superintendent gives his individual attention to the entire works, giving orders to the foremen of the different branches, and inspecting every article before it is offered for sale. They employ a corps of about 250 men steadily, and have none but those who are in every way competent to fill the position for which they are destined.

It is a matter of no small moment that such men as Messrs. K. & F. are located in our midst. They serve to develop the resources of the country, and by their business, energy and qualifications, add much to the wealth and prosperity of our city. We need not advise our readers to call and examine their terms before making purchases elsewhere, as their own good sense will suggest the same to them; but we will take this opportunity to say that they can furnish their machines as cheap as they can be made in the East.


On Levee, Main and Plum Streets,
For the manufacture, of Steam Engines; Saw, Grist and Oil Mill Machinery; Iron and Brass Castings; Boiler, Sheet Iron and Copper Work; Lard and Tobacco Screws; Lever Presses; Shafting, &c, &c.

The Monroe Iron Works are situate on Levee, Main and Plum streets, being one of the most extensive works in the city, and holding a prominent position among the many excellent Foundries and Machine Shops in our city. The facilities possessed by St. Louis for the successful manufacture of all kinds of Machinery are far superior to any other city in America, having at hand every thing necessary to be used in the construction, while the wages paid to mechanics have attracted to our city a superior class of workmen, who take pride in executing in the best possible style all orders entrusted to them.

Messrs. Garlichs, Beck & Fisher inaugurated the Monroe Iron Works in January, 1857, with a full force of efficient, workmen in all the various branches of manufacture pursued by them. They are now engaged in erecting every variety of Land and Marine Engines, Saw, Grist and Oil Mill Machinery Lard and Tobacco Screws, Lever Presses, Shafting, Pulleys, Bridge Bolts and Castings, etc., etc., in a style that cannot be surpassed either for efficiency or beauty.

They also manufacture Iron and Brass Castings, Boilers, Sheet Iron and Copper work, while special attention is given to Blacksmithing and Repairing of every kind.


The superintendence of these Works is under the immediate care of Messrs. Beck & Fisher, gentlemen who have had fifteen years' experience in St. Louis, and are perfectly acquainted with all the different branches of manufacture they are engaged in. Their business is in a flourishing condition, proving beyond a doubt that success in St. Louis is in no ways chimerical when a legitimate business is followed, and a proper regard paid to the wants of the public.

The Monroe Iron Works are in possession of all the latest improvements that have been effected in machinery for the purpose of facilitating operations in the manufacture of Engines, their lathes and machinery being propelled by a large engine, which saves a vast amount of manual labor.

What is called the outside business of this house is under the supervision of Mr. F. A. H. Garlichs, the senior partner in the firm, and we are convinced that it could not be entrusted to better hands. Possessing in an eminent degree the qualifications necessary for the successful transaction of business, he has won for his house many firm friends. In all his endeavors to please he is ably assisted by Messrs. Beck & Fisher, who are ever ready to answer all calls made upon them.

Corner of Levee and Myrtle Street,
MCCORD, & Co., Proprietors,
For the manufacture of Steam Engines; Saw, Grist and Oil Mill Machinery; Lard and Tobacco Screws; Lever Presses; Shafting, Pulleys, &c., &c.

This establishment, situated at the corner of Myrtle street


and the Levee, and occupying the building numbered 87 and 38 Levee, and No. 2 Myrtle street, furnishes, at the shortest notice, Steam Engines of every desired pattern, together with Boilers, Saw and Grist Mill Machinery, Tobacco Screws, Presses, Lard Screws and Cylinders, Hydraulic Presses, Brass Castings, Builders' Castings, Water Wheels, etc., all of its own manufacture.

This concern commenced operations in October, 1853, over four years ago, and since then has turned out many samples of machinery, an honor to Western mechanism and skill; and the fact that the excellence of its work is appreciated by those desiring work of the kind, ia clearly evinced by the steadily increasing patronage which has met them at every step.

The proprietors are men well skilled in their profession, both practically and theoretically, and as their work is done under their personal supervision, patrons may rely upon all orders being filled in a correct and prompt manner.

St. Louis is of right, and should be, the seat of manufacture for all articles of which iron or copper form the principal ingredients, so literally has our State, and indeed almost the immediate vicinity of our city, been endowed with these gifts of Nature. It needs, then, but the capital, skill and industry to place our city in its proper rank in this matter. So far as their ability would permit them, Messrs. McCord & Co. have contributed their proportion to the accomplishment of that end. We bespeak for them, therefore, that consideration and patronage which skill, energy, industry and perseverance should ever command, and most certainly deserves. Let those who feel a desire to cherish "home manufactures," of this description, call and inspect the facilities of this shop, both for manufacturing and repairing, and we feel certain they will find no difficulty in determining where to leave their orders.


Corner Broadway and Carr Street, St. Louis, Mo.
CUDDY, CARPENTER & Co. (successors to CUDDY, MERRITT & Co.)
Manufacture Steam Engines, all sizes; Saw and Grist Mill Machinery; Water Wheels, different patterns; Tobacco, Oil and Hydraulic Presses; Boilers; Sheet Iron and Brass Work of every description.

Twenty-four years ago the firm of Kingsland, Lightner & Cuddy, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, opened a warehouse in this city for the sale of Stoves, Hollow Ware, Ploughs and other Pittsburgh manufactures, and in February, 1836, commenced the present Foundry and Machine Shop, designed as a branch of their extensive establishment in the Smoky City St. Louis presented a very different aspect then from what it does now, and in the vicinity of the Foundry buildings, swamps, quagmires and hazel bushes occupied the place where now large and handsome stores and stately dwellings are to be found. Many changes are sure to occur in twenty-two years. The two senior members of the firm of Kingsland, Lightner & Cuddy — Mr. Lawrence Kingsland and Mr, Isaac Lightner — now repose beneath the shades of Bellefontaine Cemetery, while the then junior partner has become the senior partner of the present firm of Cuddy, Carpenter & Co.

Shortly after operations had been commenced in St. Louis (or in 1836), Mr. James Cuddy withdrew from the firm of Kingsland, Lightner & Cuddy, and engaged in the manufacture of Bar Iron, Nails, &c., in which business he continued until


the spring of 1852, when he became interested with Mr. Philip Kingsland in the old Broadway Foundry, under the style of Kingsland & Cuddy. This firm continued in business until August, 1856, when Mr. P. Kingsland disposed of his interest to Mr. W. H. Merritt, and the firm became Cuddy, Merritt & Co.

Owing to long continued ill health, Mr. Merritt, in the month of February of the present year (1858), sold his interest to Mr. James M. Carpenter, and the name and style of the present firm became Cuddy, Carpenter & Co.

This establishment has facilities for manufacturing any thing that may be required of them in the way of machinery — having a Foundry building on Broadway of 120 feet by 60 feet wide, with a cupola and air furnace capable of melting 30 tons of iron at a single heat. The Machine Shop building is two and a half stories high, 140 feet long by 40 feet wide, exclusive of the Engine room and fitting up shop.

The Blacksmith shop is 80 feet by 30, having eleven fires, blown by a fan, (no bellows being used).

The Boiler and Sheet Iron yard is on the most extensive scale — the principal building being two stories high, 60 by 35 feet. All of the various buildings are supplied with appropriate and costly machinery, and no effort is wanting on the part of the proprietors to give satisfaction to their numerous friends and patrons.

The materials used each year are, say 1500 tons pig metal, 20,000 bushels of coke made from Pittsburgh coal, 40,000 bushels of Missouri and Illinois coal, 500 tons of bar iron, 175 tons of boiler iron, 50 tons sheet iron for chimneys and breeching of boilers. The sales of machinery amount to $180,000 per year, and the wages paid to hands $1200 per week, the, number of men and boys employed being one hundred and forty.


Strangers visiting St. Louis are astonished at the wonderful growth of her manufacturing interests, and can only be satisfied of the truth of statements made by personal observation.

Persons desiring information about machinery of any kind, will receive prompt and polite attention from the above establishment, should they apply either in person or by letter.

N. CONSTABLE & CO., Proprietors.

This company are engaged in the manufacture of the celebrated Fire Monarch Safe, at their extensive Works, at No. 263 North Main street, and are well known throughout the Valley of the Mississippi. The reputation of Constable's Fire Monarch Safe is wide-spread, there not being scarcely a village in the South and West but where one or more can be found. They have been tried and tested so often that they are now recognized as being the only truly safe Safe. As a resistant to the machinations of the burglar none can begin to compare, and, if the truth could be ascertained, we venture the assertion, that there is not a person in the United States that has been the recipient of so many heartfelt curses from that class of chevaliers d' industrie as Mr. Constable, and, on the other hand, thousands have bestowed upon him their blessings for the protection he has been able to extend to them. The list of letters and certificates which he has received in praise of the fire-resistant qualities would fill a volume much larger than this were they collected and published; but Mr. Constable has ever had a dislike to the system of bragging which obtains to such an


extent among the majority of safe manufacturers, preferring to let the reputation of his safe exist upon its merits, and not upon the ideal writings of some penny-a-liner and a liberal supply of printer's ink. These safes have been exhibited at the State Fairs in Missouri and Illinois, and at every fair held during the last three years, and have always been the successful candidates for favor, carrying away the first premiums. They have never been known to disappoint the expectations of those who put their trust in them. These safes have been tested so thoroughly that Mr. Constable had difficulty in being able to meet the demands which were made upon him for them. He has lately largely added to the extent of his works and now keeps constantly on hand a supply in order to furnish his patrons at a moment's notice.

This firm also engages extensively in the manufacture of Bank Locks. The lock which they are making and offering to the public is one of the latest inventions, and constructed upon the most approved style, both for security and durability. The reputation of these locks is not so wide as that of his safe; but we have been informed by those who have tried them, and by mechanics who are au fait in all that concerns such affairs, that they have not a superior, and we doubt not, when sufficient time shall have elapsed, that they will be recognized as worthy of the good qualities claimed for them.

Mr. N. Constable, the senior partner of this firm, has been engaged in the manufacture of safes since the year 1844. He carried on business in Pittsburgh, commencing in that year. In 1839, we find him working journey work, for a small weekly stipend, on the Asbestos Safe, in Pittsburgh; this safe was at that time considered par excellence for fire; long years he labored hard from early morning till late at night, in his efforts to


lay up something. While busily employed in the performance of manual labor his active mind was engaged in suggesting improvements, and, as we have above stated, he commenced in 1844 the manufacture of a safe to which he gave the name of the Phoenix. The success that attended his efforts was flattering in the extreme — the safe accomplishing all that was claimed for it. Having disposed of his interest in the Phoenix Safe, he became associated with the firm of Burke & Barnes, under the style of Constable, Burke & Co.; the prosperity which attended this move is a guaranty of the articles they produced. He began to invest his capital in steamboats, which was considered to be about the best stock going; his interest on the river requiring his personal attention, he disposed of his interest in the Safe business. He soon found that he had "caught a Tartar;" the boating trade became miserably bad, and he was soon stripped of all he had accumulated by his hard labor. Then it was that he returned to his first love, and began again to look out for a proper place to commence the manufacture of safes. His perceptions led him to select St. Louis as the point to inaugurate operations. The causes which led him to make this selection was two-fold: first, the large number of extensive fires which were constantly occurring throughout the West — the accessibility of the place by steamboats, facilitating the transportation of his safes to all parts of the country; and second, the easiness with which all the materials necessary for the proper construction of his wares could be procured.

In 1850 we find him here working on his Monarch Safe — a safe which is entirely free from dampness, and capable of resisting as great a degree of heat as any other manufactured.

His commencement in the Mound City was not announced by a flourish of trumpets, but was carried on in a small,


unasuming manner, and two or three years passed away before his articles became generally known. A lucky accident brought him more intimately into notice — an extensive fire having occurred in which one or two of his safes were caught, and being the only ones that had saved their contents, he began to reap the rewards of his labor. He found business increasing so rapidly that he was compelled to enlarge his shop twice in one year. He is now prepared to manufacture to the extent of $150,000 per year, and hopes to be able to meet the demands which are made upon him from all quarters. He, in order to be more able to accomplish this end, associated with him Mr. D. Caughlan, a mechanic of known ability and means, as also of veracity and business habits. One house alone sold upwards of $40,000 worth of safes during the last year.

Besides the Monarch Safe, Messrs. Constable & Co. are also manufacturing a burglar-proof safe of as good a quality as the ingenuity of man is capable of perfecting, which we are assured will resist any picklock of the Hobbs or any other school; also the drill sledge or chisel. Most of the following gentlemen are using the Monarch Safe, and we take the liberty of referring to them, to substantiate our assertions in regard to this excellent invention: Chouteau, Harrison & Valle; Child, Pratt & Co.; Durkee & Bullock; Shapleigh, Day & Co.; Eads & Nelson; Small, Wells & Co.; Fife & Micheal; Pittman & Brother; Gaty, McCune & Co.; Kingslands & Ferguson; Dowdall, Markham & Co.; Renfrew, Crozier & Pomeroy; Clark, Plant & Norris; Field, Beardsley & Co.; A. & J. Gardiner; Yeatman & Robinson; Exchange Bank.


B. NOEL, Proprietor.
Main street, between Morgan and Cherry streets.

The establishment of Mr. B. Noel was first ushered into existence in the summer of 1843, to supply a desideratum which had long existed in this city. The principal business at that time was the manufacture of sheet iron and copper work, yet the success which attended Mr. Noel's efforts induced him to extend his operations; he accordingly made the proper arrangements for the manufacturing of steamboat, railroad and distillery works. The satisfaction always given by all wares manufactured at this establishment has been the means of building a sound and substantial reputation for them throughout the entire valley of the Mississippi, and at the present day there is not a more favored establishment in the West. Using none but the very best materials in all his wares, and employing only those mechanics who are perfectly acquainted with their business, it would be a matter of surprise if he failed to render the utmost satisfaction. The entire business is conducted by Mr. Noel, who is thoroughly posted in all the minutiae of his business. The Works of Mr. Noel are located at No. 231 North Main street, between Morgan and Cherry streets, easy of access from the Levee and the business portion of the city, and possessing many advantages in relation to shipping not attainable by other houses. Let all our country friends, when they wish to obtain any thing manufactured from copper, tin and sheet iron, call on Mr. Noel, for we are confident not a more competent person can be found in the West with whom to leave your orders, or who will offer better inducements.


WM. H. CARD & CO., Proprietors.
Second street, between Cherry and Carr streets.

Among the numerous manufacturing establishments of St. Louis few possess stronger claims upon our attention than the concern belonging to the above firm, where the construction of boilers, tanks, cupules, soap-kettles, chimneys and other huge work employed in steamboats, soap factories, starch factories, breweries, mills, &c., is conducted on a scale of magnitude not surpassed, if indeed equaled, by any other house in the Western States.

The facilities possessed by the above establishment for conducting an immense business at once strikes the eye on entering these extensive premises, where one finds himself surrounded with ingeniously constructed machinery of the most powerful and complex character, in which is concentrated the strength of a multitude of workmen. Here, amid the noisy din of hundreds of hammers closing rivets up, you see scores of sturdy Vulcans fashioning the huge sheets of metal with all the dexterity and ease of a tinier forming a tin vessel. Another striking feature in this establishment is the high degree of order and regularity that pervades every department of the extensive works, and the energy and skill displayed by its proprietors; themselves experienced, enterprising and successful workmen of superior attainments, whose maxim it is to use none but the best materials in their work, and employ none but the most skillful mechanics in the forming of it — the more difficult branches of which requiring an intimate acquaintance with


practical geometry, is usually done by their own hands; — thus by leaving nothing to depend on the zeal of others, and inspecting personally every piece of metal that comes upon their premises, and examining every piece of work before it leaves them, they have by untiring energy and care acquired a reputation which thousands envy, but few try to merit.

To convey to the stranger a faint idea of the capabilities of this concern, we may add that more than 300 tons of the best hammered American charcoal iron is consumed on the premises annually; and here the extent of the business and the number of employees often exceeding 100 hands, enables the firm to furnish work with a dispatch and at a price that places competition out of the question. But, as they say they will not be paid for doing bad work, it would be difficult to force them to furnish an inferior article on an inducement.

We would strongly recommend parties in want of any thing in the above line to call at the Fulton Yards before purchasing elsewhere.

Mr. Wm. H. Card, the senior partner, superintends the Boiler Yards and exercises a general supervision over the establishment; while on Mr. George Grether, the junior partner, depends the management of the Sheet Iron department.


While inspecting the premises of some of the more extensive Foundries, we had the pleasure of making the acquaintance of Mr. F. Barnhart, who is a striking instance of what may be done by skill and activity in our great Western country. Possessed of more than ordinary mechanical knowledge relative to


the moving and transportation of huge masses of machinery, he has succeeded in creating for himself a lucrative business in this line; and in the conduct and management of a gang of laborers, he is universally acknowledged to be one of the most skillful stevedores that St. Louis can boast of. In the wrecking of steamboats, removing and depositing of heavy machinery, safes, engines, &c., and the raising of iron chimneys, he is without a rival; and without hesitation or scruple we can consistently recommend him to any of our friends that may require a person of more than ordinary ability to contract for or superintend work of the above description.

At his request we append the following list of the most eminent firms in the city, who have been pleased to permit him to offer them as references: Messrs. Gaty, McCune & Co.; Dowdall, Markham & Co.; Wm. H. Card & Co.; G. B. Allen; Eenfrew, Crozier & Pomeroy; Eads & Nelson; Palm & Robinson.

All orders left at the office of Wm. H. Card & Co., on Second street, between Cherry and Carr streets, will be promptly attended to.


A few days since we passed a few hours in examining the St. Louis Nut, Washer, and Bolt Factory of Messrs. R. H. Cole & Co., situated on the corner of Biddle and Second streets, and in conversing with Mr. Cole we learned a lesson fraught with interest, and one which, with the reader's privilege, we will relate; first, however, giving a brief description of the Works and their capacity. These Works are owned by Messrs. R. H. Cole, Charles P. Chouteau and Jas. J. O'Fallen, and stand


alone in grandeur and excellence — having no rival, fearing no competitor. The machinery of these works is driven by steam, for which purpose a large steam engine is kept constantly in use. The machinery consists in a Bolt Machine, five Nut Machines, two Washer Machines and a Bolt Screw Machine, which, when run with a force of sixteen men and eight boys, turn out the almost incredible amount of one ton of Washers, five tons of Nuts, and one ton of Screw Bolts per day. This is a small estimate, as the middle size Nut Machine is capable of turning out ten tons per week, while the larger ones perform their work in proportionate speed. The machinery and shop cost, it is estimated, about $30,000, and they are now making additions, which, when completed, will cost about $5000 more — making the total estimated value, $35,000.

Mr. Cole crossed the Mississippi in 1836 with a light heart and a lighter purse — the sum total of his cash capital consisting of fifty cents. After spending his time up to 1844 in St. Charles, he moved to St. Louis and went to work as a journeyman for eight dollars per week, at Gaty, McCune & Co's Foundry, and labored hard for a time, at the end of which he commenced business for himself on Market street, with a capital of eighteen dollars, and often was he compelled to borrow three or four dollars from some friend, post off to the Levee and purchase iron, and carry it home on his back, and when it was worked up repeat the operation. While thus pursuing his laborious avocation from the fall of '44 to '54, he began to think there was a plan by which Nuts and Washers could be made much easier than by hand. Some parties in Pittsburgh were manufacturing a hot-punched Nut which was of a superior quality to the old style. Mr. Cole soon had planned a machine by which he was enabled to arrive at the manufacture of a Pressed Nut, but the means employed were


payment. It was what he had been laboring for. He applied for and received a patent. The first patent was ranted him in 1855, since which time he has made several improvements — one for a new mode of manufacturing Nuts, and received a patent for every one — making six that he has received for his Nut Machine during that period. He then set himself to work to arrange some plan by which he could apply machinery to the manufacture of Screws; here again success crowned his efforts. For this machine a patent is being applied for. By the arrangement greater speed is attained, and a Screw is made which is of a superior quality. He next turned his attention towards the invention of machinery for the purpose of making Bolts. In this he was pleased to find his most sanguine expectations realized by the accomplishment of his wishes. He laid his claims before the Patent Office and a patent has been issued to him for it.

Mr. Cole has within the past few years received eleven patents for machinery used in his business, and has an application pending for another, and four in process of being applied for. His inventions are all of a very superior character, and of more importance than would at first be supposed. He has now in successful operation in England four of his machines for the manufacture of Nuts and one for Bolts. From a letter he had just received from the young gentleman whom he had sent out to attend to his interests, we learn that they have more orders for Nuts and Bolts than they are able to fill, although one man is constantly engaged in his endeavors so to do. He writes:
"I sometimes wish no more orders would be sent forward till I have had time to clear up; as soon as one is filled another is received."

Mr. Cole's son has taken one of these machines to Belgium and by this time must have it in successful operation. No


invention of late years has been made that has deservedly attracted so much attention, where it has been known.

Mr. Cole sold one-half of his right in the United States to Mr. Charles P. Chouteau, a few years ago; and last fall they sold one-third to Mr. James J. O'Fallen. They are now prepared to furnish the entire West with Bolts, Nuts, and Washers, on terms so advantageous as to defy competition, let it come from whatever source it may. Their trade at present extends to all parts of the country; but it is the intention of Mr. Cole to establish his machines in some of the Eastern cities; and had not the panic disarranged all monetary affairs, he would have consummated this intention last fall.

Mr. Cole is one of those persons whose noble nature shines forth in good deeds; he is a firm friend, a shrewd business man, and calculated to win the respect and esteem of all with whom he comes in contact. No visitor should ever leave the Mound City without taking a look at the Works of Messrs. B. H. Cole & Co., for they will repay one the trouble, and are monuments to the mechanical skill and ingenuity of the inventor.

FINE SHIRTS — We have never examined a finer or more varied assortment of Gentlemen's Furnishing Goods than the stock now on the shelves of Messrs. Ticknor, Bobbins & Co.'s Wholesale and Pietail Clothing Emporium, at No. 176 North Main street. Their stock embraces linen, marseilles, French calico, railroad and travelling shirts of the latest fashion, with and without French cuffs and Byron collars; undershirts, drawers, handkerchiefs, cravats, gloves, suspenders, etc., abound in generous profusion, all of which are offered to cash customers at astonishingly low figures.



Manufacturer of and Wholesale and Retail Dealers in
At No. 14 North Main street — Manufactory, North-west corner of Main and Biddle streets, St. Louis, Mo.

One of the most interesting places in St. Louis to spend an hour profitably is the Agricultural Factory, Warehouse and Seed Store of Clark, Plant & Norris. They have a store — the principal one — at No. 14 Main street, and another at Nos. 203 Fourth street and 218 Broadway; and their Factory is situated at the corner of Main and Biddle streets. This house commenced business in the year 1845, for the purpose of furnishing to the Western farmer all the necessary implements and machinery for the easy and successful pursuit of his business. Such a house was needed to keep pace with the increased number


engaged in agricultural pursuits; and as a natural consequence their business has grown with the agricultural interests of the West, until from the beginning of only one store, they have increased to two, and established a Factory for the manufacture of many kinds of agricultural machinery, giving employment to a large number of men in their several capacities of salesmen, book-keepers, clerks, mechanics and laborers, and investing a large capital, establishing the fact that they may truly be considered one of the principal houses of the city.

We visited this house for the purpose of getting some items and data from which to form a sketch. We were shown some of the machinery of their own manufacture, the most important of which was Selby's Wheat Drill and Broad-Cast Seed Sower, a hand Hay Press, Moffett's Thresher and Cleaner, and Page's and Childs' Portable Circular Saw Mills — the latter is equally adapted to either horse, steam or water-power, having two saws so arranged that logs of any size can be sawed in quantity from 1200 to 10,000 feet a day. Our attention was next arrested by the great variety of Plows adapted to all modes of culture and calculated for every variety of soil found in this section of country; conspicuous among which is the celebrated steel Eagle, manufactured by machinery, each part so adjusted that in case of repair any part can be furnished, with the assurance that such part will be certain to fit, and besides, insuring uniform operation in each size or pattern of Plow. We next noticed the Harrows, Horge Hoes, Cultivators and Rollers, among other tools for cultivating the ground, which class of implements was most ample and complete, judiciously adapted to the saving of labor and the increase in yield of crops — forming a class of tools of the greatest use and value to the agriculturist. The assortment of harvesting tools and machinery was complete, presenting to view Mowers, Reapers (single and


combined, with and without self-rakers), Horse Rakes, Rakes, Forks, Scythes, &c., &c. Then the assortment of miscellaneous tools and machinery was perfectly bewildering, surpassing our limits to describe; we shall content ourselves by only enumerating some of the most conspicuous and useful, namely — Cider Mills and Presses; Corn and Cob Crushers and Grinders; Portable Flour and Corn Burr Stone Mills; Garden, Horticultural, Haying, Harvesting, Hydraulic, and Mechanical Implements and Tools; Seed Sowers; Corn Planters; Hay and Straw Cutters; Ox Yokes; Bow Pins; Apple Parers; Cattle Ties, &c., &c. In fact we never beforehad an idea of the extent to which the ingenuity of man had exerted itself in the invention and production of labor-saving machines. Farmers visiting the city for their supplies should not fail to look over this establishment, where they will find a depot for the supply of a large portion of their wants.

In addition to which, this house does a large business in Seeds. — comprising Garden, Grass, Flower, and every other kind which the wants of the country demand. This department is unsurpassed, having an enviable reputation for furnishing reliable sorts, as to freshness and purity — having, beside their large retail trade, an extensive wholesale trade with country merchants — their facilities being such as to enable them to put up garden seeds in papers for the country trade in a mannner to compete with Eastern garden prices.

We would respectfully recommend to the farmers throughout the west, as well as country merchants, when they wish to procure a supply of seeds, or obtain any agricultural implements, to call and examine the stock of Messrs. Clark, Plant & Norris before closing bargains elsewhere; they will be found to be courteous and reliable men and worthy of patronage.


JOHN GOODIN, Proprietor.

This establishment, located No. 42 Vine street, between Second and Third streets, is one of the most thorough of its kind in the United States, and is the only one in the Mississippi Valley provided with all the late improvements in machinery for Iron Pipe work. Mr. John Goodin, in company with Mr. Charles A. Tooker, established these works in St. Louis in February, 1850, for the purpose of being able to meet the requirements of the trade, and the success which has attended their efforts must be gratifying. Mr. Tooker died in 1855, since which time Mr. Goodin has been sole proprietor and manager of the house.

Mr. Goodin is the owner of the patent for Gold's Steam Heating Apparatus for the States of Missouri, Iowa and Southern Illinois. This plan of heating is rapidly superseding all other modes in the eastern cities. It is easily adjustable for churches, halls, asylums and schools. The ornamental arangement which this apparatus permits, peculiarly recommends it for private dwellings. Its economy of fuel and cleanliness render it superior to any other apparatus, and above all, the healthful character of the heat entitles it to especial consideration. To persons afflicted with pulmonary complaints, steam heated apartments are to a great extent an efficient remedy. Pamphlets, fully descriptive of the construction and working principles of the apparatus, will be furnished at the counting-room of Mr. Goodin.

Some of the most extensive jobs of steam heating in the country


are from this manufactory. Managers of public institutions or proprietors of large hotels desirous of introducing steam heat, with all the attachments for culinary, washing, drying and bathing purposes, would serve their interest by calling upon Mr. Goodin when procuring estimates for this kind of work.

Attached to the manufactory is a Brass Foundry capable of furnishing all descriptions of brass castings. Persons desiring work of this kind will find here a large variety of patterns of articles in general use. Having extensive facilities for manufacturing and keeping constantly on hand a large stock of iron pipe, boiler flues, valves, steam and gas-fittings, the proprietor will be enabled to fill promptly all orders in this line. A "list of prices" will be furnished on application at the manufactory.

A branch to which Mr. Goodin has devoted particular attention for several years is "STEAMBOAT WORK." The result is, that wrought iron pipe is now in almost universal use, instead of copper. It is far more durable than copper and costs about one half. Engineers will find many of their wants anticipated and provided for at this place.

Experience has fully demonstrated the benefits of Portable Gas Works, where opportunities do not exist of being supplied from city gas works, and it has been a desideratum to procure an article of this kind, simple in construction and efficient in its working. Such an apparatus, secured by patent, is manufactured by Mr. Goodin. For asylums, colleges or seminaries, and suburban residences, these gas works are peculiarly applicable. All orders for fitting houses with gas pipe will receive prompt attention.

Proposals will be furnished for building gas works for cities, towns and villages, and information given as to forming stock companies for such purposes. The names of the following gentlemen will be sufficient guaranty that all work will be


skillfully executed: Mr. James R. Duncan, Superintendent of the building of Gas Works; Mr. Henry S. Lansdell, Superintendent of Steam Heating Apparatus; Mr. David A. Brislin, Foreman of the shops.

A visit to this place will fully substantiate all we have said in relation to the establishment.

— AND —
Dealers in Hardware, Cutlery, and Mechanics' Tools,
101 North Third Street.

This house, the only one west of the Mississippi river devoted to this branch of manufacture, has deservedly attracted a large share of public attention since its establishment in 1850, both from the superior excellence of their wares and the liberal terms upon which they are afforded to the purchaser. A few years ago the idea prevailed that there could not be manufactured in the West any kind of tools worth noticing, but that opinion has gradually given way before the overwhelming proof to the contrary, and we now find Planes bearing the brand of Messrs. Hunt & Wiseman upon the bench of almost every carpenter in our city. What was merely attempted by these gentlemen as an experiment, has grown into a large and lucrative business, and one which now occupies a capital of $25,000, and keeps in steady employment about eighteen workmen of a superior character.

Besides their splendid assortment of Planes, they are engaged


as wholesale and retail dealers in Hardware, Cutlery and Mechanics' Tools, having always on hand a full assortment of Carpenters', Cabinet Makers' and Ship Carpenters' Tools of a superior quality to any that have ever been offered for sale in this market. Also, Builders' Hardware of every description, consisting of Sliding Door Furniture; Mortice, Rim, Plate and Upright Locks, of various qualities; Latches, Bolts, Butts, Hinges, Shutter and Sash Fastenings; Window Springs; Shutter Lifts and Screws; Axle Pulleys; Sash Cord; Door Bells and Pulls; Door Springs; Gimlet Screws; Nails, Brads, Finishing Nails, Casting Nails; Cut and Wrought Spikesj Circular, Mill and Cross-cut Saws; Files, Rasps, Chopping Axes, Coffee Mills, &c. We are confident that Messrs. Hunt & Wiseman can sell goods upon as favorable terms as any other house in the United States, and we would advise those purchasers who desire to Consult their own interests to call and examine their stock and list of prices before making purchases elsewhere.

No. 38 North Main Street,
Manufacturers and Importers of Guns, Pistols, Rifles, Bowie Knives, and Sporting Apparatus in all its branches.

The position held by this house is second to none in the world, and has been achieved mainly by the exertions of Mr. Horace E. Dimick, whose name is familiar wherever the rifle is used. This firm established themselves in St. Louis in 1849, and at once attracted a large share of public attention on account of the splendid assortment of fire-arms that composed their stock.


Mr. Dimick has passed twenty years in handling and manufacturing arms, and we only state a well known faet when we say that he has not his superior in the world. The junior partner also has an extensive practical knowledge of the business, and has rarely met his equal. The stock on hand of these gentlemen consists of every thing embraced in the paraphernalia of the sportsman — Guns, Pistols, Colt's Revolvers, Rifles, Bowie Knives, Dirks, Revolvers of different patterns, Fishing Tackle in the greatest abundance, Game Bags, etc.

H. E. Dimick & Co., besides engaging extensively in the manufacture of weapons, import largely from the manufactories in Europe. In selecting their stock, the practical knowledge of the members of the firm renders them valuable assistance, as they are thereby enabled to obtain the very best, and refuse all that does not fully answer their requirements.

Mr. Dimick has invented a Torpedo Rifle Cannon for the purpose of blowing up ships and fortresses, which is attracting the serious attention of our Government. By using this cannon it would be rendered impossible for an enemy's fleet to enter an American harbor with any hope of success. This invention was perfected and thoroughly tested by Mr. Dimick before he offered it for inspection; but now that it is completed, he has no fears of its failure to accomplish all that he claims for it.

Those of our readers who attended the last annual Agricultural and Mechanical Fair held at St. Louis, will recollect the splendid display made by Messrs. Dimick & Co. upon that occasion, when they succeeded in carrying off the first prizes in every instance.

We would urge upon those who intend to purchase any thing in their line to give Messrs. Dimick & Co. a call, as we are certain they will fill all orders upon as favorable terms as any other house in the world.


LANDRETH & SON, Proprietors, No. 18 Main Street.

This house is a branch of the well known Philadelphia establishment of Messrs. D. Landreth & Son, and is under the management of Mr. T. RENNELL, a gentleman of fine business attainments.

The business capacities of this house are such as to render them capable of successfully competing with older established houses in our midst. The parent house is the oldest one in the United States, having been established soon after the close of the Revolutionary War. The farm and garden implements are manufactured at their extensive steam works at Bristol, Pennsylvania, and embrace almost every article of merit.

The Seed department of this house is perfect in every respect. The seeds are cultivated under the personal superintendence of Messrs. Landreth & Son, at their extensive gardens at Bloomsdale, upon the banks of the Delaware. The reputation of "Landreth's Seeds" have become so familiar to every person that it would be needless for us to write an eulogy upon their merits.

We can assure our readers that a visit to the house of these gentlemen, at No. 18 Main street, will afford ample reason for self-congratulation.

This house does not seek to enrich itself by large profits, but depends upon the number and extent of their sales, believing that "large sales and small profits" are far preferable to "large profits and small sales." They have, by keeping this object in view, gained many warm and staunch friends.



These gentlemen are engaged in the manufacture of Cast Steel Saws of every description, and of a quality superior to any ever offered for sale in this market. An experience in our city of five years has demonstrated this fact to our people, and we now find the saws of this house in general use among our manufacturers and machinists. Their intimate knowledge of the steel trade in Sheffield, England, and an acquaintance with the manufacturers of steel, enables them to obtain the saw material upon terms so favorable that they can defy successful competition. Their Circular Saws are of a superior character and maintain a fine reputation throughout the Mississippi Valley. We would recommend persons desirous of purchasing a stock of Saws to give Messrs. Branch, Crookes & Co. a call at their sales-room, No. 18 Vine street, directly opposite King's Hotel.



The Wagon Manufactory of Mr. John Cook, situate between Jefferson and Monroe streets, at No. 692 Broadway, being one of the largest houses in the western country, needs from our hands a notice.

This house was established as a Wagon Manufactory in 1848, and did a flourishing business. The great demand made upon Mr. Cook for his wagons induced him to add many new features to his already extensive works, and accordingly in 1853 we find that he had erected a large blacksmith shop and engaged the services of a corps of competent and skillful workmen. The reason that induced Mr. Cook to make this addition was the complaints that had been made to him of the bad manner in which the iron work was executed. In having the blacksmithing done under his immediate supervision, he was


enabled to obviate for the future all such complaints. He is now extensively engaged in the manufacture of Wagons, Carts, Drays and Wheelbarrows, of every description and quality, and challenges from his rivals successful competition, either as regards the quality of the work or the price.

Few establishments of this kind in the western country have won a more valuable reputation than this. It is one of the best in the city, and from the first has been turning out its manufactures "upon honor." Every thing is superintended by the proprietor in person, materials of the most reliable character only allowed to be used, and workmen of superior skill and experience employed in every department of their work. The result has been that, from a small and unostentatious beginning, it has grown into an extensive "institution," and become one of the most popular in the West.

Many advantages are employed here in the wagon manufacture that act strongly in its favor at this point. It has been satisfactorily demonstrated that materials in the timber and iron line can be obtained here that are more reliable and at more reasonable prices than in any other manufacturing city in the United States.

Mr. Cook, the proprietor of this extensive establishment, possesses all the necessary requirements to attract a large and valuable trade, and we would advise our readers to call and examine his stock.

MESSRS. TICKNOR, ROBBINS & Co. have the finest stock of ready made clothing ever brought to St. Louis, which they are selling at astonishingly low prices, for cash, at their clothing emporium, No. 176 North Main street.


R. C. LUDLOW, Proprietor,
No. 59 Market Street.

This establishment was organized in April, 1856, by Mr. E. R. Davis, who possessed a thoroughly practical knowledge of the business, and succeeded much beyond his most sanguine expectations. Business steadily increasing, he, in July, 1856, admitted Mr. R. C. Ludlow into the concern. The business was conducted by these gentlemen with success till July, 1857, when Mr. Davis disposed of his interest on account of illhealth rendering him unfit to perform the active duties required by the business of the concern. Mr. Ludlow, having purchased Mr. Davis' interest, assumed entire control, and has since conducted the affairs of the house with the same success that has ever marked its career.

The stock on hand is large and varied, consisting in part of the following articles: Wire Cloth, for fan mills, threshing machines, flour mills, starch and paper mills, locomotives, &c.; Bird Cages, both japanned and wooden frame, of a style, variety and finish unsurpassed; Sieves and Riddles of iron, brass, or copper wire, and for all conceivable purposes; Standing Screens, for sand, lime, malt, coal, gravel, &c.; Iron Wire, for fencing and all other purposes; Rat and Mouse Traps, of all shapes, sizes and contrivances. Also, a great variety of Miscellaneous Articles, such as nursery fenders, flower stands, dog muzzles, corn poppers, dish covers, wire gridirons, bird nests, seed, seed glasses, egg whips, egg


panniers, mullers, scoops, toasters, &c., &c. Fancy Wire Work of all kinds made to order at short notice and in the very best style.

The utmost attention has always been paid to the jobbing or wholesale trade, and he is now steadily extending the area of territory over which he distributes his wares. From New Orleans on the South, St. Paul on the North, and from all parts of the Great West have orders been sent forward, which he has filled upon terms far more favorable to the Western dealer than could be afforded by the manufacturers in the East.

Every person who was present at the St. Louis Agricultural and Mechanical Fair of 1857, will doubtless remember the "Gallinarum" or Chicken Palace which deservedly attracted so much attention from every one, as one of the most finished pieces of wire work in the world, and for which Mr. Ludlow received a diploma and twenty-five dollars premium.

This establishment employs about twenty hands, using annually over twenty-five tons of wire and manufacturing about 20,000 yards of wire cloth, 3,000 dozen sieves for meal and flour, 500 dozen riddles for hardware and foundry uses, 150 dozen bird cages of various styles, besides innumerable other articles pertaining to the business. Employing none but the best workmen, and using the very best material, he can with confidence recommend to dealers all goods of his manufacture, and can sell upon terms equally as favorable as can be offered by Eastern dealers. Should you visit the Mound City, do not fail to call at the sales rooms of Mr. R. C. Ludlow, No. 59 Market street.



This is one of the oldest established firms in St. Louis, having been formed in 1832, for the purpose of conducting the business of Ship Building, Steamboat Building, Caulking, Jobbing in general, and Sub-Marine Docking and Repairing.

These gentlemen are all well known to the large majority of the residents of St. Louis, and we believe there is not a steamboat man who comes to our city but who has heard them spoken of in connection with their business, so intimately have they been connected with the boat-building interest of the West. They are always ready at a moment's notice to attend to Jobbing; and in order to facilitate the progress of their work, they are supplied with a large assortment of all the late improvements in machinery. They keep constantly on hand flat-boats, jack screws, clamps, lifting screws, &c., which are often required in order that a proper regard may be obtained in all cases where neatness and dispatch are required.

Messrs. Brooks & Co. can always be found at the corner of Ashley and Main streets, where we beg leave to refer all those who desire any work in this line of business performed. We are certain that they can please all who favor them with their patronage, as they do not use any but the best quality of timber, and employ good mechanics, who understand their business; and give their own personal attention to the work, in order that they may be sure that it is well done.

To our steamboat friends we would particularly recommend this house as in every respect worthy their confidence and consideration, and who will not disappoint any trust that may be entertained of them.



Messrs. Muennighaus & Co., manufacturers of J. A. Ross' celebrated Platform, Hay, Coal, Cattle, Railroad and Counter Scales, commenced business in this city one year ago, at Nos. 247 and 249 North Second street, where they have already won for themselves a reputation worthy many older houses. They possess every facility for the manufacture of their wares, and have exerted themselves to meet the wants of the public. They have succeeded in their undertaking, and are now looked upon as superior workmen.

The greatest difficulty has always been experienced in getting a Scale that was perfectly true; the difficulty is entirely obviated by the Scales manufactured at the establishment of Messrs. M. & Co. Although hundreds have been completed and sold during the past twelve months, no complaints have been expressed; but on the contrary every voice has been united in extending their praise.

They have a superior corps of mechanics employed, and use the very best material that can be procured; by so doing, they are enabled to present the public with a Scale that will, in every way, meet the expectations of the purchaser and the demands of the public. No one should make a purchase of any article in the line of this house without giving them a call and looking over their stock and examining their list of prices. We are almost certain they will thank us for letting them know that such good bargains can be made. They are also prepared to repair in the very best style, in the most durable manner, and on the shortest notice.

They also devote a portion of their business to the manufacture of Trucks for railroads and steamboats, etc., which is a desideratum in this city. These gentlemen are both energetic business men, and every way worthy the confidence of the public.


A. H. HENDERSON, Proprietor.
New No. 30 — Old No. 48 Pine street. South-east corner of Alley, between Second and Third streets.

This establishment has been in successful operation for upwards of twelve years, and has never experienced a greater degree of prosperity than during the period that it has been under the control of the present proprietor, who lets no pains be spared to render the most perfect satisfaction to all parties.

Mr. Henderson has recently fitted up the finishing rooms of this establishment with improved machinery for the finishing of Silks, Crapes, Woolen and Damask Goods of every description, by which means he is prepared to clean, dye and finish all manner of ladies' goods in a style that defies competition.

To gentlemen wishing clothes renovated we will say that Mr. H. has a perfect knowledge of his business, and employs none but the very best workmen, thereby enabling him to guaranty to his customers the execution of their work in the best style.

Coats, Pants and Vests carefully renovated. All stains to which such garments are liable are carefully extracted without injuring the fabric, and warranted not to reappear, being cleaned and finished by the same method by which the goods are finished in the factories. The cloth feels soft and pliable, and is not liable to take dust, nor emit any unpleasant smell, as all cloths that are cleaned (?) with soaps or gall, and other so-called chemical process, invariably do, which also rot the cloth, and make it hard, and ever after liable to take in dirt.

Mr. H. also gives particular attention to the dying of Straw Goods; also to the re-coloring of damaged goods, which he refinishes in a style to render it impossible to discover that


any thing had ever been the matter with them. Crape Shaws cleaned and made to look as good as new, while Silks are watered to order. Remember R. H.'s number is old forty-eight Pine Street.

GEORGE N. LYNCH, Proprietor.
No. 53 North Fifth street.

This establishment is the oldest one west of the Mississippi river, having been commenced by Mr. W. A. Lynch, the father of the present proprietor, in 1829. It now possesses in an eminent degree the requisite facilities necessary for the successful transaction of the business to which it is devoted. Previous to his death Mr. W. A. Lynch built up a reputation such as any man might be proud to transmit to his children. After his decease the control of the business passed into the hands of Mr. George N. Lynch, who has, by constant attention, added much to the already established reputation of the house.

At the present time Mr. Lynch has the largest assortment of Coffins to be found in the West, embracing every thing from the common black walnut to the splendid sarcophagus — the most elegant and respectable for the dead ever invented. These burial cases are made of an indestructible material, and will last as long as time itself.

Connected with this establishment is a splendid Hearse — indeed, the finest one in the world — which, together with any number of carriages, will be furnished upon the shortest notice.

Mr. Lynch is a well-known and highly esteemed citizen, and deserves the respect he receives from all classes. We know of


no person whom we would recommend with more perfect confidence of his ability to fulfill all the duties of an Undertaker than Mr. George N. Lynch.


Mr. Lewis Peters, importer and manufacturer, and wholesale and retail dealer in Fancy Furs, has the most extensive establishment of the kind west of the Alleghany mountains. His business house is situated at No. 65, corner of North Fifth and Locust streets, opposite the Mercantile Library.

Mr. Peters commenced business in St. Louis in 1840, and for eighteen years has stood in the front rank of successful dealers in Fur Goods. There are few persons who possess as complete and thorough knowledge of all the minutiae of the Fur Trade as Mr. P., and consequently few can compete with him in holding out inducements to those wishing to make purchases.

Mr. Peters purchases all kinds of American Furs, paying the highest prices the market calls for, and manufactures them into various kinds of Fur goods. Having in his employ a number of first class workmen, and giving his own personal supervision to his business, he is enabled to offer bargains to all who favor him with their patronage, such as can not fail to secure attention. Possessing every facility that the West offers over the East, Mr. Peters can sell his goods much cheaper than the same quality of goods can be sold for in New York.

To persons who have never taken all the facts into consideration, this may seem strange; but when we reflect that St. Louis is now and has been for years the great Fur mart of the world, we are no longer surprised, but instead are convinced.

Mr. Peters will preserve Furs fro damage by moths, &c.,


during the summer for those who desire it, and have them ready when called for in the fall, in the best order, looking as good as when they were first purchased.

We would suggest to the dealers in Fur goods to give Mr. Peters a call when they visit St. Louis, and examine his stock. We feel assured that they will never regret having done so.

Mr. Peters took the medal at the first Agricultural Fair, and a premium at the last Fair.


This establishment is situated on the corner of Broadway and Monroe street, and occupies about one hundred and twenty-five feet front on each street. The proprietors established their business in May, 1854, and have since been engaged in perfecting it. St. Louis possesses greater advantages for the successful prosecution of this branch of trade than any other city in the West. With any quantity of the raw material at our doors, we are surprised that a greater number of persons have not engaged in the business. A short account of these Works may prove of interest to the reader. When the company entered upon this business they knew little or nothing about it; yet they were firmly convinced that if proper efforts were made, they could not fail to succeed. They accordingly invested a large amount of capital, and commenced operations by erecting their works upon the locality above mentioned, and have constantly been adding to them until they have arrived at their present position. A short time since we visited these works for the purpose of examining them, and were surprised at the extent and capacity of them. On entering the pattern room we found eight men engaged in getting up new patterns of different styles for the manufacture


of pressed glass-ware. This department is one of the most difficult and costly connected with the business — many of the patterns costing two hundred dollars, and few less than thirty-five dollars. At the present time they have the most complete assortment of patterns. From thence we were conducted to the room where the sand is prepared; here we found the arrangements in complete order. On entering the cutting department we were astonished at the extensive arrangements that greeted us, and so on throughout the entire establishment.

They have now two furnaces in constant operation — one capable of containing ten pots, the other six — and now turn out about $2000 worth of glassware per week — working as they do about seventy-five hands. The pots in which the metal is melted are manufactured from clay found but a short distance from the works, and which is, we are informed, equal to that imported from Europe.

We feel confident in asserting that this company can manufacture every variety of glass as cheap, if not cheaper, than it can be done in Pittsburgh. Heretofore our merchants have overlooked this establisment, principally for the reason that this company were not fully prepared to execute every variety of work; but now that they have overcome all difficulties, we may look for a change in the glass trade.

This company is prepared to duplicate all orders from the Pittsburgh manufactories, thus saving to our dealers the cost of transportation. When this fact becomes generally known, We may look for a marked change in the trade.

It is the intention of this company to erect extensions to their buildings and set up a stack for the purpose of manufacturing green glass upon a more extensive scale than they have heretofore done.


Let our friends call and examine the specimens and prices at the company's store-rooms, No. 75 North Second street, and become convinced of the truth of what we have written.

Southeast corner of Third and Chesnut sts., St. Louis, Mo.

A work upon St. Louis and its progress would be incomplete were it to omit the establishment of Dr. Easterly, so intimately is he connected with the growth of our city. Commencing business in St. Louis on a small scale, when our city was yet small, he has grown with the growth of the city, until he now stands forth as a specimen of what extensive business qualifications and strict integrity in all relations of life can accomplish. Possessing an excellent medical education, Dr. Easterly thought it his duty to give the suffering masses the benefit of his medical experience. In 1844 the Dr. commenced the manufacture of a compound designed to remove from the body all mercurial and syphilitic taints. He gave this remedy the name of "Dr. Easterly's Iodine and Sarsaparilla," and so effectual has it been found that the regular profession not unfrequently prescribe it. The ravages of the Fever and Ague being generally prevalent throughout the West, the Dr. next prepared a compound for its cure, which he called "Dr. Easterly's Fever and Ague Killer," and has the proud satisfaction of knowing that thousands have been relieved, and that it has failed in no case where the directions were followed. The prevalence of diseases among females, arising from difficult and painful menstruation, caused the Dr. to issue "Dr. Hooper's Female


Cordial." Here again the most signal success crowned his efforts. Diseases which had baffled the skill of physicians yielded readily to the influence of a single bottle. The next triumph of our friend was his preparation known as "Dr. Baker's Specific," a medicine which acquired a deservedly popular and widespread reputation for the cure of seminal weakness and all diseases resulting from self-abuse in early age.

Besides these preparations, which are invaluable as remedies for the specific diseases for which they are recommended, the Dr. has given the world the benefit of his knowledge by the production of Dr. Easterly's Pain Killer, Worsdell's Vegetable Pills, Dr. Easterly's Vermifuge, Dr. Easterly's Diarrhoea Syrup, Dr. Cook's Magic Hair Oil, Dr. Carter's Cough Balsam, Dr. Hunter's German Bitters, Dr. Sander's Three Minute Salve, Dr. Easterly's American Oil Liniment, Dr. Allen's Rheumatic Balm, and Gridley's Salt-Rheum and Tetter Ointment. Dr. Easterly also keeps on hand an assortment of all the popular medicines of the day, which he is offering to dealers on astonishingly moderate terms, at his Medical Depot, south-east corner of Third and Chesnut streets.

We would further state that Dr. Easterly's Medicines are now standard remedies, universally approved, selling rapidly, and can be found in nearly every drug and apothecary store in the Western and Southern States.

WYMAN, GRANT & CO., Proprietors.

We paid a visit to the St. Louis Patent Press Oil Works, Wyman, Grant & Co., proprietors — a mill erected for the manufacture of oil from flax seed, castor beans and cotton seed.


The great scarcity of the two former has induced the proprietors to turn their attention to cotton seed, upon which they have most successfully experimented, and are at the present time turning out large quantities of the oil, for which there is a constant and augmenting demand.

These Works stand upon the corner of Columbia and Second streets. The buildings are new, three stories high, with fine cellar, boiler-house and coal vault below the street. The size of the lot upon which the mill and warehouse stand is 152 feet front by 90 feet deep. The foundation was laid in October, 1855. The mill went into operation during the summer of 1856. The structure was erected by E. Greenleaf, architect. The walls are heavy; the floors are composed of brick and iron; the columns, joist, beams, roof, windows and doors are iron; the whole being a remarkably substantial and strictly fireproof building — not a particle of wood entering into the architecture of the establishment, and nowhere could fire secure a hold.

The oil vats of this mill are capable of containing 30,000 gallons, and are substantially made of iron; the machinery is probably not equalled by that of any oil mill in the world. The presses, which are an invention of Mr. Latourette, are certainly the most massive machinery we have ever seen, weighing some forty tons, and are capable of exerting a pressure of eighteen hundred tons on the substance pressed in them, without hazard of breakage. The simplicity of these machines and the rapidity with which they are worked are surprising. The oil is expressed in a remarkably short space of time. We saw a flood of it issuing in a hundred and thirty-two streams from the press, under the amazing power of the machines. It is estimated and claimed by the inventor that they will press out 12 1/2 per cent, more oil than any other machines, with 2 1/2 per


cent, less labor. The machinery throughout is fine, and capable of turning out ten or twelve thousand dollars worth of oil and cake per week. There has been the most striking economy of room observed in the arrangement of this machinery. It is as compactly placed as the works of a clock, convenient, accessible and easily managed.

Though originally designed for the exclusive manufacture of linseed and castor oil, these Works have been employed for some months, as we mentioned above, in making cotton Seed oil, which is found so far profitable as to induce the proprietors to push their efforts in that direction, believing that it pays better than either linseed or castor beans. They do not, however, relinquish the manufacture of the two latter, but propose prosecuting it to the fullest extent that the supply of seed and beans will allow. The proprietors are among the first parties in the world who so far succeeded in making oil from cotton seed so as to make it pay. After working over 1000 tons of the seed, they have found so fine a margin in it as to induce them to extend their operations. The coming year they expect to work 6000 tons. During the last twenty-five years, in various parts of the South efforts have been made and large sums expended to make the business profitable; but, owing to the peculiar character of the seed, and the difficulties of working it, it has never, until recently, been made to pay. But with the advantages employed by the works we are describing, on account of the peculiarity and superiority of their presses, the proprietors have succeeded in making it a remunerating and successful business.

A mill of this kind furnishes a market for seed hitherto deemed useful only for manure, and gives at once a marketable value to an article that for scores of years has been suffered to rot upon the plantations of the South.


The Works of Messrs. Wyman, Grant & Co. employ about twenty-five hands steadily; the machinery runs night and day, from one o'clock Monday moring till eleven o'clock Saturday night. The amount of capital invested rises above $150,000.

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in Carpets, Oil Cloths, Mattings, Rugs, Window Shades, &c., &c.
Corner of Vine, St. Charles and Fourth streets, entrance on Vine and St. Charles.

During one of our rambles about the Mound City, a short time since, we visited the establishment of Messrs. Rogers & M'Cormack, who occupy the magnificent Hall over Messrs. Ubsdell, Pierson & Co's. dry goods store, and was astonished at its extent and capacity. This is truly one of the mammoth concerns of our city. The sales-room occupied by this enterprising firm extends back from Fourth street one hundred and sixty-five feet, with a width of forty-five feet, and having a height of sixteen feet in the clear.

There is not (we venture to say, without fear of contradiction) in the United States a store more finely arranged or better adapted to the business. It is elegantly lighted (which to persons desirous of purchasing is a very important consideration in selecting goods) by twenty-five windows, having the superior advantage of streets on three sides; customers thus being enabled to examine goods in any light they may desire.

Although, in regard to the length of time which has elapsed


since this establishment first commenced business, most others are far in advance of it, yet in point of elegance, extent, and excellence, it ranks among the first in the city, and we may with propriety say, in the world. One of the firm has for a number of years been engaged in the business in the East, and for some time connected with one of the largest importing houses in Boston, thus securing to them superior advantages in the purchasing of their goods.

Here, at all times, may be found one of the largest and best selected stock of goods in their line ever looked upon. Strangers visiting the city can not better spend a short time than in looking through this establishment. They will at all times meet with courteous, polite and attentive salesmen to wait upon and show them through the establishment. Those intending to purchase, will not fail to examine the stock before closing purchases elsewhere.

Here they will find all the different styles and varieties of goods in the market, from the commonest Rag to the finest Willton and Medallion Velvet Carpets; from the commonest Brush Mat to the most elegant and expensive Mosaic Rug; from the lowest grade of American Oil Cloths to the finest English and Russian goods; from the cheapest Muslin Shade to the most costly and chaste Velvet and Gold.

This house was opened to the public the first day of October, 1857, and from the commencement has done a business that has far exceeded the most sanguine hopes of the proprietors. The gentlemanly bearing and manner of Messrs. Rogers & M'Cormack has contributed not a little to the success that has attended their efforts.

We would invite all persons to visit this establishment, either strangers or citizens, as it is one which reflects honor upon St. Louis, and of which we feel justly proud. Such enterprising


gentlemen as Messrs. Rogers & M'Cormack merit a large share of public patronage, and they get it. May they never grow less!

Truss, Bandage and Orthopedic Instrument Manufactory,
No. 87 North Fourth Street.

The gentleman at the head of this establishment has had a practical experience of thirty years, and enjoys a world-wide reputation as a successful manufacturer of Trusses, Shoulder Braces, Abdominal Supporters, Suspensory Bandages, Supporter Trusses, etc., etc. He has now in his possession a number of medals received as premiums from the different Fairs where he has exhibited articles of his manufacture.

That Ruptures are curable, has been successfully demonstrated by Dr. Sherman, who can mention hundreds that have received permanent relief from the use of his First Premium Trusses, a trial of which will convince any one of their superiority, and the eminent benefit to be derived from their use. This Truss has elicited the highest commendations from leading eminent surgeons in the United States, and is guarantied to answer wherever all others have failed, and where directions are followed, will, without doubt, effect a radical cure.

Dr. Sherman is also sole agent for Dr. S. S. Fitch's celebrated Abdominal Supporters, &c., a full assortment of which are kept constantly on hand for the purpose of meeting the demands that are constantly being made upon him. Dr. S. gives particular attention to supplying the demands of country and retail dealers, whose orders he is capable of executing upon far


better terms than any other house in the city, as he is the only one engaged in the manufacture, and supplies the wants of all other dealers in the city. Do not neglect to call upon Dr. E. W. Sherman, at No. 87 Fourth street, between Olive and Locust streets, when you want any thing in his line.

Orthopedic Instruments made to order, and warranted to give entire satisfaction.


We now propose to direct the attention of the reader to the extensive Furniture Manufactory of Mr. C. Marlow, which we can say, without fear of successful contradiction, is the largest and best arranged factory in the world. We know that this may appear as boasting, but we are fully satisfied that an examination into the premises will sustain all we say. Under the guidance of Mr. Marlow we spent an hour or two in looking over the establishment.

We found the building situated on Main and Jefferson streets, pointing towards the river and having a magnificent view of the passing steamers, the hills in the distance on the Illinois shore, and the arriving cars upon the opposite coast. The house is large and airily built, being 60 feet wide by 150 feet long, and is five stories high. Each story is especially adapted for the end in view, and is furnished with every thing that can in any way assist in the execution of work. There are none of the modern labor-facilitating inventions of known utility but have a place in Mr. Marlow's rooms.

The first floor is devoted to turning-lathes, of which we find twenty-five in constant operation engaged in turning the posts used in the manufacture of bedsteads, stands and tables. The


second story is devoted to putting the work together. We also find five planning machines engaged in dressing lumber, and two mortising machines engaged in mortising the posts. In the third story is another large lot of machinery: three whip-saw machines for the purpose of sawing curves and circles were among the curiosities we observed. The entire machinery is run by the power derived from a steam engine which is situated in the engine room. The engine, which is fifty horse power, is the finest one in the United States, and was manufactured at the words of Gerard B. Allen. If Mr. Allen never does another job of work, this engine would stamp him as one of the finest mechanics in the world, and act as a standing advertisement of his ability.

The fourth story of this magnificent building is designed for the bureau manufactory, while the fifth story is designed as a varnishing room, where all the furniture of the house comes to receive the finishing touch. Over the engine is the drying room, which is constantly kept at a temperature of 140 degrees for the purpose of drying lumber, and directly above this is the veneering room, which is arranged in the most perfect style. The entire building is heated by steam, which is made to pass through the heating apparatus after it has been used in driving the engine.

Mr. Marlow is able to turn out annually about twenty-six thousand bedsteads, while one hundred bureaus per week is the average. The tables, stands, lounges, etc., are almost beyond computation. When you take into consideration the fact that so many labor-facilitating machines are used and there are employed about two hundred journeymen, whose chief business consists in putting together the work, some idea of the extent and magnitude of the establishment may be obtained.

In the branch of business entered upon by Mr. Marlow,


facilities and means are abundant. The boundless supply and qualities of timber at hand, located in the centre of the Great West, and of easy access to all the trade of the Mississippi Valley — all these render his position invaluable.

The history of Mr. Marlow's efforts since he has been engaged in St. Louis would prove interesting, and we only regret that we are unable to furnish the reader with it, for it is to such men as him that St. Louis owes the proud position she now holds among the cities of the earth. Commencing business in St. Louis in 1834, he has for a quarter of a century been intimately connected with all the growth and progress of the city. From the small germ established a quarter of a century ago, he has the proud satisfaction of having the best and one of the largest establishments of the kind in the world — rearing its head in proud beauty among the great enterprises of the day.

But because Mr. Marlow has achieved great success in life, one must not imagine his path has not been beset with many rough places. Fire has twice destroyed his establishment, but only for the purpose of seeing it, phoenix-like, rise from the ashes in renewed splendor. The last time Mr. Marlow was burned out was on the 21st of July, 1857, from the effects of which he is just recovering.

Mr. Marlow's warerooms are on Washington Avenue, and occupy one entire block of buildings five stories high, fifty feet front by a depth of one hundred and fifty feet, besides a building upon the opposite side of the street. The business department is under the supervision of Mr. M. himself and his three sons, and their time is equally divided between the office and factory, for not a day passes without a visit being made to the latter. The working departments are governed by two foremen, whose duty it is to engage the workmen and give their personal supervision to all the affairs of the shop, giving work and orders


to the various employees, while they render an account to Mr. Marlow of all transactions and receive from him their orders. The clock-like regularity with which all things are conducted would surprise one unaccustomed to the system to which the business arrangements have been reduced.

In regard to the quality of the products of Mr. Marlow's manufactory there can be but one opinion, and that, one of unqualified approbation. Having the very best material, and having the work executed in the very best style, it would be a matter of surprise if he should fail to render the most complete satisfaction. Mr. Marlow is enabled to furnish the trade with his wares upon far more favorable terms than the same class of goods can be procured in Cincinnati, and we recommend all who desire to purchase furniture to give him a call before they complete their purchases.

Dealers in Fine Ready-Made Clothing, and Gentlemen's Furnishing Goods. Also, agents for Winchester's Patent Shirts, &c., &c., &c.
No. 176 North Main Street.

The business location of Messrs. Ticknor, Robbins & Co., No. 176 North Main Street, four doors south of the Virginia Hotel. The position occupied by this house entitles it to special attention from our hands. There are but few houses engaged in the sale of ready made clothing and gentlemen's furnishing goods that are equal to this one, and we are confident that there are none more extensive or possessed of greater facilities for accommodating the demands of the trade. Their


manufactory is located in New York city, and the branch here is but an emporium for the sale of ready made goods, offering an opportunity to the citizens of St. Louis of obtaining a fine quality of wearing apparel at New York prices. The style of goods kept constantly on hand by Messrs. Ticknor, Robbins & Co., is of the very latest Parisian fashion as well as of the best quality of goods; the material having been selected and the garments manufactured under the immediate personal supervision of the members of the firm, they warrant every article to be perfect in every respect.

Notwithstanding the tightness of the money market and the consequent hunting up of old clothes, this house during the past season did a business that largely exceeded their most sanguine expectations — evidencing the fact that all men who are willing to sell for a fair profit can always do well. Their unprecedented success is but the natural result of energy, enterprise, and a determination to please all who may call upon them. Their motto is "live and let live — quick sales and small profits," and by a strict adherence to the principle inculcated, have gained the approbation of every one.

They have also a large and splendid assortment of gent's furnishing goods, consisting of the latest fashions, which are sold at prices so low as to astonish those who are not posted up in regard to the immense profits which have hitherto been reaped by the dealers in this branch of trade. Besides having on hand every variety of shirts, as well as shirts of every quality, Messrs. Ticknor, Robbins & Co. are the sole agents for Winchester's celebrated Patent Shirt. We would say to all who are in need of good, durable clothing, call and examine their well selected stock. The courteous gentlemen of this house are ever willing to exhibit their goods to all who may favor them with a call.


This firm consists of M. Ticknor, E. Ticknor and C. B. Bobbins. These gentlemen are in every way well adapted to their business, and calculated to be successful in their intercourse with western people.

This house was opened in March, 1857, since which time it has pursued a course that has gained for it an unlimited patronage. It has already reaped the reward of its labors, and we know of none that more richly merits the patronage of the public. It is now one of the "first institutions" of the Mound City.

To those country merchants who are willing to pay cash for their supplies, Messrs. Ticknor, Robinson & Co. offer great inducements. They do a strictly cash business, selling on time to no one, but by a strict adherence to this rule they are enabled to sell goods from thirty to forty per cent, cheaper than the same class of goods have sold for heretofore.

Wholesale & Retail Furniture Establishment,
Washington Avenue, between Second and Third Streets.

The Wholesale and Retail Furniture Establishment of Messrs. Scarritt & Mason is situated on Washington avenue, between Second and Third streets, and forms one of the "Institutions" of the Mound City — so much so as to require from our hands a more than passing notice. This house stands forth as a lasting monument to the enterprise and business tact of its proprietors, an honor to the city, and a subject of pride to every true son of St. Louis. Always evidencing a desire to meet in a becoming


spirit the wants of the community for which they cater, they have won the steem and confidence of our citizens, as is amply shown by the success that has attended their efforts. Prompt in all their dealings, they passed through the financial difficulties of last year with success, and are now ready to meet all demands that will be made upon them with promptness.

Commencing business in St. Louis in 1846, in what was known as the "Old Walnut St. Shed," they laid the foundation for their present gigantic establishment. A short time in that location served to convince them that they had not near enough sea room, so they moved into what was then known as the "old post office building," occupying the site upon which the present post office is situated. Their business still continuing to increase, they removed to the Planter's Tobacco Warehouse, where their business reputation continued to increase until 1860, when that building was burned to the ground, causing the loss of their entire stock. This was a sad blow to our friends, but their prudence in making insurance secured them against ruinous loss. Men of less energy or enterprise might have seated themselves upon the ruins, utterly discouraged, but they were equal to the emergency. Phoenix-like, they rose from the ashes and came again into the field, with shoulders to the wheel and hearts buoyant, determined to conquer; with them the French cardinal's motto was a truth, and "No such word as fail" was the watchword they adopted. The building they are now occupying was erected expressly for their use. It has a depth of one hundred and fifty feet, with a front of fifty feet, and is four stories high. To this they removed in the summer of 1850, and if we may know a tree by its fruit, their present extensive trade and large public confidence is a sufficient evidence of the merits of their house.

Messrs. Scarritt & Mason were the first gentlemen in this


city who made the Furniture business largely mercantile, as Well as manufacturing. These gentlemen adopted a plan which has since grown into extensive favor in the West and South; it was the buying from every market and manufacturer that produced the best styles of workmanship, so that they brought into their warehouse the improvements and perfection of all other markets as well as their own manufactures, and were able to offer, as it were, the cream of the cream of all markets in their line. Their long and familiar acquaintance with the most reliable manufacturers throughout the country now enables them to reap great advantages from this feature of their business, and present great inducements to their customers in the style, durability and variety of their stock.

A visit to this establishment will well repay the cost, and those in want of anything in the line of furniture, mattresses, &c., may doubtless suit themselves, and will be sure of fair dealing.

Corner of Main and Morgan Streets.

This house was established in the year 1849, for the sale of Messrs. Wm. Jessop & Son's Steel, and ia the only house west of the mountains where a full assortment of steel is kept on hand. The supply consists of the best cast steel, in sheets and bars; machinery; cast steel, shear, German, blister, spring, plow, &c,

Messrs. Jessop & Son are the largest manufacturers of steel


in the world, and have always made it a point of honor to sell as cheap and upon as good terms as any other house, where quality is a consideration. By persevering in a straight-forward, honorable and upright course in all business transactions, and in selling the various kinds of steel for only just what it really is — first, second or third quality, as it maybe — and in all cases warranting the metal to be exactly what they represent, they have gained in the West a name as honorable and conscientious manufacturers, which reflects much credit upon them, and which they obtained long since in the Eastern States and England by manufacturing and keeping for sale the most uniform and best steel.

All kinds of steel will be imported to order from England upon lower rates than from stock, and laid down in any seaport town, or delivered at any point on the river, according to instructions. They also keep constantly on hand a complete assortment of Sheffield cast steel files, of the very best quality, at the manufacturers' prices.

This house imports about forty thousand dollars worth of steel per annum for the saw manufactory of Messrs. Branch, Crookes & Co., who prefer it to any other they can obtain.

All orders addressed to H. Bakewell, St. Louis, will receive prompt attention.

Of Superior Counting Room and Cabinet Furniture,
112 Market Street.

There is not in St. Louis a more attractive house to those persons who are fond of admiring articles of usefulness and


beauty than that of Messrs. Clark. The business in which they are engaged seems to be a speciality with them. Mr. Jonathan Clark, the father of F. & F. D., established himself in New York city upwards of a quarter of a century ago, and has since gained the highest round in the ladder of fame by the masterly productions of his manufactory. The specimens of counting-house furniture exhibited by Mr. C. at the World's Fair, held in New York in 1852, obtained the gold medal.

The eminent success that attended the efforts of Mr. J. Clark having given him control of a large capital, he concluded to establish a branch in some one of the Western cities; after paying them all a visit, he concluded that St. Louis was the best point, and accordingly opened here about three years ago, the charge of the house being given to F. & F. D. Clark, two of his sons, who possess fine business capacities and have won hosts of friends since their sojourn in the Mound City.

The stock of counting-house and cabinet furniture kept on hand by Messrs. Clark can not be surpassed in the world, and we believe that they can sell upon as favorable terms as any other house in the United States — we know that they can not be undersold in this city. We cordially recommend these gentlemen to the favorable consideration of those wishing to purchase fine furniture, as eminently worthy of confidence, respect and patronage from our citizens.

MESSES. TICKNOE, BOBBINS & Co. have made arrangements by which they can furnish clothing to order on the shortest possible notice. They have secured the services of a number of excellent journeymen tailors, cutters, etc. Don't fail to call at No. 176 North Main street, when you want to leave your measure for a suit.


M. G. MOIES, Proprietor.
16 Main Street.

The Machinery Warehouse of M. G. Moies is situated at No. 16 Main street, and is the largest depository of machinery in the United States; it is one of the most interesting places in the Mound City.

A short time since we went all through this establishment and was much pleased and not a little astonished at the extent and magnitude of the selection of the different kinds of machinery. We desire to mention some of the articles that attracted our attention. We will commence in the cellar and ascend upwards through five floors that are full of different kinds of machinery.

First we found a large lot of portable corn and flouring mills, made by different inventors; we noticed Harrison's, Straub's Queen of the South, Noyes', and several other kinds, all of which have a favorable reputation throughout the West and South, and need no eulogy from us; from what we saw we should think that every farmer could have a mill at his own door, to grind his own flour or meal, at a very small investment.

On the first floor we found a large assortment of portable and stationery engines, calculated to save the labor of the planter or farmer at his own door, and a larger class designed for manufactories of any magnitude.

On ascending to the second floor, we came to what might be properly called a sample or store-room. Here we found every species of fixtures and trimmings for rigging out flouring and saw mills, machine shops, railroad cars, belting, hose, brass


cocks of every kind, lantern head lights, nuts, washers, files, all kinds of rivets, &c, &c.

On the third floor were a large variety of machinists' tools, such as lathes, drills, iron planes — also every kind of labor-saving machines for the working of iron.

On the fourth floor, we found every variety of wood-working tools that genius conld suggest, such as morticing, tenanting, matching, sticking, boring, turning, and in fact all kinds oi machines that are needed for working wood. On this floor car be found a machine to do every thing to wood that man can do, but to cut the tree down and put the pieces together after it is manufactured.

In passing to the fifth floor, we were introduced into the department that is reserved for pumps and other articles. Here we found every variety of pump that is of any account — the rotary, the suction, the force, the steam, horizontal, vertical, and a great variety of sizes and shapes, so that the purchaser can suit himself as to quality, kind or price.

While in the different departments we had our attention called to several new machines lately introduced for saving labor: there were so many that we can not name them all, but we noticed a machine that does the work of about forty men, for splitting and shaving hoops. It takes the hoop in its rough state, and splits and shaves it much better than can be done by hand, and there is little or no waste compared with the hand manufacture of hoops. We also had our attention called to a blind-slat machine; the rough board or slat is put into the machine, and when it comes out it is planed on both sides and edges, ready for the blind. We also saw a blind morticing machine, which was a very ingenious and good invention. We could mention several others, but would say to those who an interested, go and see for yourselves.


To those who want good machinery of any kind, or any who are fond of viewing machinery, we could not direct them to any place of more interest than the ware-rooms of M. G. Moies. We were struck with one peculiar and great advantage the purchaser would have in getting his machinery at such an establishment. For instance, if he wished to purchase an engine, he could get all his fixtures with it, and save the trouble of making bills at different places. A person can go into M. G. Moies' office and make his trade for a flouring mill, saw mill, machine shop, planing mill, sash and blind manufactory, or any kind of machinery and trimmings for manufacturing purposes.

To the manufacturer and farmer it possesses attractions of a superior character, and which should not be overlooked by those who visit this city for the purpose of making purchases.

Persons visiting this house will find Mr. Moies and his attendants always ready and willing to show up and explain the merits of the different kinds of machinery, and they will be charmed with the systematic order with which all business is transacted, and we can assure our friends that no better terms can be procured anywhere than at this establishment. Mr. Moies' thorough knowledge of machinery, his extensive acquaintance with the different manufacturers, and being largely interested in the manufactory himself, enable him to sell upon as favorable terms as can be bough in the United States.

We can confidently recommend this establishment to the favorable consideration of the public, as worthy of the highest degree of confidence.


No. 79 North Fourth Street.
JAS. W. McDONALD,Agent for the West.

One of the greatest triumphs of American genius during the present generation has been the sewing machine; indeed it may be considered the most important invention of this great age, for it is the first discovery yet made to lighten the labors and remove the drudgery of the softer sex. It is an invaluable contribution to the wealth of the nation. It is as an angel from Heaven to our mothers, wives, sisters and daughters, and as a labor-saving instrument stands unrivalled. Its inventors may claim a place in the front rank of the benefactors of their race, and their names will go down to posterity in company with the illustrious giants who have immortalized this great age of gold, iron and steam; nor will the meed of praise be withdrawn from those who have by their time, means and talents so successfully brought these machines into public use in various parts of the world, but especially in our own land.

In May, 1854, Mr. James W. McDonald established the first depot for the sale of sewing machines West of the Mississipi, on Fourth street, in this city. The first two years the business was expensive and arduous, not paying expenses, but during the last two years upwards of three hundred of the Wheeler & Wilson machines have actually been sold, and are now doing good service in this city and vicinity.

The merits of these machines may be summed up as follows:

1st. Cheapness, durability and absence of friction.


2d. Its noiseless operation. Instead of the clumsy, lumbering din which accompanies other machines, this performs its labor with no more disturbance than the ticking of a clock.

3d. Its freedom from derangement. No machinist is required to watch over and keep it in order; constant and vexatious expense for repairs is avoided, while any person of common ability can learn its use.

4th. Its neatness. Such is its construction that no soil or stain comes upon the material upon which it works; silks, satins, or cambrics, of the finest quality or most delicate color, are not subject to the slightest spot.

5th. Its happy adaptation to all kinds, especially all the finer kinds, of sewing — being made with view to that purpose — a point in which other machines have signally failed.

6th. The durability of its work. The stitch is such that RAVELLING Is IMPOSSIBLE, and ripping is no more to be apprehended than in ordinary handwork.

7th. The extreme ease of its use — requiring so little power that its exercise would scarcely fatigue a child.

8th. The beauty and simplicity of its performance. These qualities alone have often attracted the attention of persons of taste, who subsequently purchased on learning that its beauty was equalled by its ability.

9th. The simplicity of its construction.

10th. The ease with which it is kept in order.

11th. It has two useful gauges which no other machines have.

12th. It has a HEMMING attachment, which hema and folds garments, which no other machines have.

13th. It has also a binding attachment.

14th. The process of rewinding the thread is one of the great advantages of this machine, and a complete triumph over all other machines.


15th. It has no complicated devices for regulating the tension of the thread as other machines have.

16th. There are hundreds of these machines that have run twelve hundred days (four years) and are as good as when started. There is one at Mrs. Smith's, on Market street, which has been worked over one thousand days. They will wear a life time, twenty to thirty years.

17th. They will prevent that ill health and premature decay consequent upon sedentary habits and continual sewing with the common needle.

18th. They save that time which ladies require for their own intellectual pleasures and the education of their children.

19th. A family cannot make a better investment than to buy a Sewing Machine.

20th. They will always sell for nearly as much as they cost, and will not depreciate in value.

21st. There is no other piece of machinery at near the price that will do the same amount of work with the same power and expense.

22d. The Patents have nine years to run yet, and in that time no reduction of price can be made; it is impossible. Buy at once if you wish to save time, work and money.

It has always been the fate of great ideas to meet with violent persecution on their first presentation to the world. Who has not heard of the sufferings endured by Galileo, for uttering what are now known as the commonest truths of astronomy? When Hervey announced the circulation of the blood, Europe greeted his assertion with a storm of laughter. The people fulminated their thunders in the last century against vaccination for the small-pox; the law of gravitation has been honored with the name of humbug — while the steamboat and the telegraph have been solemnly voted to be fantastic dreams. Can


it be wondered at that the Sewing Machine, which acts with a precision that almost rivals human intelligence, should be met with similar incredulity? It has, and, like them, its triumph is inevitable.

It is not our purpose to emulate the venders of patent nostrums, and puff the Sewing Machine into a little clap-trap notoriety; it rests on its own merits; it has passed the ordeal of the most rigid scrutiny; examination only precedes conviction, and the universal favor accorded to it attests its infinite superiority.

The time has already arrived when garments are constructed as if by magic, and those frightful quantities of sewing which required the labor of weeks, now only requires but a few hours of pleasant occupation. At no distant day Sewing Machines will be in every family in the land, and no lady's education can be complete without understanding the Sewing Machine, and no young lady should ever think of embarking upon the wavy and uncertain sea of matrimony without first acquiring an intimate knowledge of Wheeler & Wilson's Sewing Machine.

Principal office, 343 Broadway, New York; Western Agency, 79 Fourth Street, St. Louis.


Have the most extensive establishment in the West, and probably in the United States. They are located at Nos. 92, 94 and 96 Pine street, between Third and Fourth streets, directly opposite the St. Louis Theatre.

These gentlemen commenced business in 1849 upon a small


scale, but soon attracted the attention of the public by the satisfactory manner in which they executed all orders given them, and their business became so pressing as to induce them to extend their facilities in order to enable them to answer all demands. Still war was waged against them, and last fall they made another enlargement of their business room, which they predicted would answer for at least five years. But man's hopes and expectations are often fallacious. Scarce three months had passed before they found their house too small. Again was enlargement the order of the day, and they have just finished a splendid addition — No. 92 — which is designed for the accommodation of the ladies. This apartment is fitted up with exquisite taste — having a splendid Brussels carpet upon the floor, the walls covered with beautiful paintings and engravings, and all the appointments, in the most perfect style. This department is under the control of Mr. Matthews, who is one of the most courteous and obliging men in the city, and possesses the esteem and confidence of every one who has the pleasure of knowing him.

Messrs. Cook & Matthews rejuvenate, renew, recolor and repair every article of gentlemen's and ladies' wearing apparel, and even after they have become "seedy" and appear to be worn out and useless, they will dress them up and give them the gloss and finish of new articles. All the work which these gentlemen perform is warranted to give full and complete satisfaction; and what is of no little consideration to the customer, their charges are as moderate as any one could desire.

Messrs. Cook & Matthews have also connected with their establishment a Steam Dyeing Apparatus, by which means they dye and dress soiled and shop-worn Silks, Satins, Shawls, &c. We have examined many of their specimens and have no hesitation in pronouncing them superior to any thing of the kind


executed in any of our rival cities. These gentlemen pay particular attention to the re-coloring of goods for dealers whose stock has become damaged by age or other causes. They have recently erected a brimstone vat for the purpose of bleaching Crape Shawls, Laces, &c., and we would recommend our mercantile friends who have goods on hand that have become a drug, to send them to this firm for renovation. The remarkable skill exhibited in the successful adaptation of chemical methods for the renovation and coloring of soiled apparel has rendered them famed throughout the West. They employ constantly about thirty hands — sometimes greatly increasing this force — and are always ready to execute orders with the utmost dispatch. Mr. Cook has charge of the dyeing department, and a more thorough master of the business, or more courteous, obliging gentleman can not be found; and we cordially recommend both him and his partner, Mr. Matthews, to the favorable consideration of the reader.

Corner Seventeenth and Morgan streets.

The Steam Machine Bakery of Joseph Grarneau is situate at the corner of Seventeenth and Morgan streets, St. Louis, Mo., and his office is at No. 9 Commercial street, in the rear of the Bank of Missouri. The history of this establishment is well worthy of perusal, showing as it does what fair dealing and strong determination, coupled with perseverance, will accomplish. Mr. Garneau commenced business in 1839 in St. Louis; he was a poor man, and he labored long and hard to get a start


and to meet the wants of his customers, whom he used to serve by conveying his bread about town in a little hand-cart, made for the purpose. The quality of his Bread and Crackers (which by the bye are the best made in the West) soon gained for him an extensive custom, and as the city began to expand he added to his shop in order to keep pace with the demands which he found were being made upon him. The hand-cart was laid aside and its place supplied by a more convenient conveyance; the shop was enlarged, journeymen engaged, and the demands met with a promptness commensurate with Mr. G.'s abilities. Each year, as the city increased in population, found additions made, and all the latest improvements for the purpose of rendering his establishment more complete, till at the present time it is the largest and most complete Bakery in the Western country. Mr. G. employs at the present time thirty-five hands, and uses daily forty-five barrels of flour, turning out ordinarily two thousand Loaves of Bread and one hundred and twenty-five barrels of Crackers per day; he also has the machinery so arranged that they saw and split all the wood they use at the Bakery by steam. His facilities are such that persons giving him an order at any time can have it filled the next day, no matter how large; he also delivers all and every thing free of charge to steamboats or railroads, and he guaranties every thing in his line to give satisfaction or no charge will be made. Mr. Garneau invites every person that can give him a call to do so, and he will be very happy at all times to show them through his large Bakery, and will do it cheerfully and sociably. Mr. Garneau is a gentleman and a scholar, and took the premium at both of the late Fairs held in St. Louis for having the best Crackers on the ground.


J. J. Outlet, Proprietor.
Corner of Third and Washington Avenue, and Cor. Fifth and Locust.

Mr. Outley has two rooms devoted to the manufacture of Pictures, and has met with the most unqualified success at both Galleries. He opened his room on the corner of Washington avenue and Third street, over No. 138 and 140 Third street, in May, 1851, with nothing but a thorough knowledge of the entire business. He immediately adopted the principle of charging a living profit and giving perfect satisfaction to all who gave him a call. So completely did he succeed that he soon found himself at the head of a large and commodious suit of rooms, and a prosperous and steadily increasing business. In 1857 Mr. Outley purchased the Gallery of Mr. Davis, situated at the corner of Fifth and Locust streets, and is now conducting both Galleries with success.

Mr. Outley, for a long series of years, gave his entire time and talent to the production of miniatures after the style of Daguerre, and succeeded in arriving at a great degree of perfection in the finishing of his work. No better "tone" could be imparted to the picture than was given it by Mr. O., and the world owes him many thanks for his contribution to science. As the furore for Daguerreotypes began to wane, and the Photographs, Ambrotypes, Melaneotypes, etc., to claim the attention of the operators, Mr. O. was one of the first who adopted the new style, and by a close study was soon enabled to master the art in all its perfection.

But it is in the execution of Ambrotypes that Outley excels, and we venture the assertion that there is not a Gallery in the United States where a superior collection of plain or colored


Ambrotypes can be found. Possessing in an eminent degree all the qualifications necessary to make a successful artist, Mr. O. has given his entire attention to the study and pursuit; always striving for the superiority, he has won "golden opinions from all sorts of people."

In visiting his gallery a few days ago we were much pleased in observing the number of excellent specimens which he has displayed; one that particularly struck us as being of a superior character, was a large Hallotype of our respected fellow-citizen, Mr. Sol. Smith, the distinguished comedian, manager and lawyer. As we gazed upon this work, we imagined that we stood face to face with the original, his urbane smile greeting us, while his winning voice was pouring forth some tale of mirth. We saw many other gems, but none that afforded us so much real gratification as this one.

Independent of the Picture Gallery, Mr. Outley has recently invested about twenty thousand dollars in the purchase of Daguerrean Stock, with which he is now enabled to fill all orders that may be made upon him. He now keeps constantly on hand Cameras, Apparatus, Matting, Preservers, Plates, Chemicals, Fancy Frames and Cases, Photographic Paper and Chemicals, and material of every description for Paper Pictures and Ambrotypes; and will furnish them to those in the trade upon terms equally as favorable as can be be obtained elsewhere. He also teaches the art of Picture-Making, or gives instruction in different branches to those desirous of learning upon terms which can not fail to suit the applicant. To those who wish to order stock or learn any particulars concerning his terms, we recommend them to address Mr. J. J. Outley, and he will take pleasure ia forwarding them all the desired information.

Let no one who is an admirer of the beautiful, fail to visit


Mr. Outley's Gallery, when they come to St. Louis, as it is decidedly one of the institutions of the city. They will find him ever ready to render their visit pleasurable; and should you determine, to have a shadow of yourself transferred to the plate, he will execute it in a style that can not fail to render the most perfect and complete satisfaction. Remember the places — over 188 and 140 Third street, corner of Washington avenue, and over Mr. Louis Peter's Fur Store, corner of Fifth and Locust streets.

No. 74 Market street, betw. Third and Fourth.

Mrs. Barnhurst is in daily receipt of all the Latest Fashionable Millinery Goods from the Eastern markets, and has always on hand one of the most complete and varied stocks of French, German, English and American Goods ever offered in the West; also the most attractive and extensive lot of Flowers and Ribbons to be found in the city. Having in successful operation two of Wheeler & Wilson's Sewing Machines, she is enabled to furnish Bonnets, Dresses, Mantillas, Corsets, &c., with the utmost, dispatch. All orders from the country will meet with prompt attention at No. 74 Market street, between Third and Fourth.

We recommend Mrs. B. to the favorable notice of our fair readers as a lady of decided taste and promptness, and eminently worthy of confidence.


Corner of Sixth and Pine streets.

This house was established in 1849, in December of which year Mr. Kendall established himself in a small way, and laid the foundation for his present extensive trade. By attention to business and fair and honorable dealings with all his patrons, this house has attained a position that will vie with any of their competitors.

The buildings occupied by Messrs. Kendall & Co. are located on the corner of Sixth and Pine streets, and were erected by Mr. K. for the express purpose for which they are used, and combine all the improvements of the age.


Messrs. K. & Co. employ about thirty hands, and use weekly from 150 to 200 barrels of flour, and produce daily from 50 to 75 barrels of Crackers, 1200 Loaves of Bread, and Cakes and Pies innumerable, to meet the demand of their customers.

If attention to business, fair and honorable dealings with all who favor them with their patronage, and the production of all articles in their line of a quality unsurpassed in this or any other market, entitle a concern to flourish, then this house will continue to make articles in their line for consumers in this and adjacent States on a still more extended scale. No house Can furnish the consumer with supplies upon better terms than Messrs. K. & Co.; and as they pay particular attention to the orders of merchants, steamboats and families, we would recommend them to call and test their products.

On the south side of Market street, betw. Second and Third sts.

We consider among the very first of its kind in the city. Mr. Harlow, after acquiring a thorough practical knowledge of his business, began his career in St. Louis in February, 1846. In February, 1849, he engaged quite largely in manufacturing, in which he was very successful until the 12th of June, 1851, when his establishment was entirely destroyed by fire, sweeping away in a single night the entire accumulations of five years' toil and untiring devotion to his business.

Undaunted by this catastrophe, he at once arranged to resume


his business, and on the 7th of November of that year reopened in a new and much larger building erected on the ruins of his former house, and constructed upon his own plan. This house is well known throughout the country as well as to all our citizens.

To avoid too great risk in future, Mr. Harlow, this year, erected a substantial three story brick building on Broadway, near Cass avenue, thus separating his manufactory from his warerooms. Here he employed steam power and machinery in the manufacture of fine Cabinet Furniture, furnishing many steamboats and hotels, and leading the van in this branch of his business until the close of the year 1855, when he sold out his entire establishment, after having given constant and profitable employment to from seventy-five to (at times) one hundred and twenty mechanics for a period of nearly seven years.

During this time he had made frequent visits to the Eastern cities, buying the most desirable styles as well as best qualities of goods in his line to be found in those markets — thus adding the mercantile to the manufacturing department of his business. His motto seems always to have been, "The best and most desirable articles that can be secured in every department of his stock, rather than the lowest-priced and greatest quantity of goods;" though in point of magnitude he has ever been equal to the requirements of a large and constant demand.

His present location on Market street, in Concert Hall building, is central and convenient. The building is 100 by 40 feet, in a single span, and three stories high. His main saleroom (Concert Hall) is finely finished and well lighted; secure from the noise and dust of the street, and, in our estimation, the pleasantest place in the city to make selections of such goods as housekeepers require for their own use.

We deem it unnecessary to say more of Mr. Harlow or his


business. Twelve years of constant devotion have given him a character and standing in the community which few have more justly earned.

Good faith and justice seem to be his business principles, as they are his practice. To sell what will suit his patrons and friends, and nothing else, his constant aim. His assortment of Parlor, Dining room, Library and Chamber Furniture will be found of the best quality, as well as the latest styles of their kind.

Piano-fortes, from the best manufacturers in Boston, will also be found here at the manufacturers's retail prices.

Taking it all in all, this is one of the business houses of this kind in our city which we feel justified and gratified in honoring and recommending.

North-west corner of Levee and Market street.

We know of no house in St. Louis where the wants of the country merchant or peddler can be supplied upon better terms than at the establishment of Mr. John O'Malley. He has his arrangements so made with the manufacturers, both in the East and Europe, that he is in receipt of all the latest styles of goods, which he can sell as cheap as the cheapest; in fact he can undersell the New York houses. We would advise persons wishing to purchase goods that are embraced in his catalogue to give him a call. Particular attention is given to supplying the wants of the retail trade.


Corner of Main and Olive Streets.

John J. Anderson, Esq., a gentleman who has been long a resident of St. Louis, may be mentioned as among her most extensive men of business and prominent brokers; he was for some years a merchant, extensively dealing in dry goods until the year 1842.

In 1845 he connected himself with J. S. Morrison, Esq., a capitalist of large means, and entered upon a banking and exchange business, under the name of John J. Anderson & Co. The business, as conducted chiefly by Mr. Anderson, who was the active managing partner, is understood to have grown very rapidly and to have been quite profitable. In 1849 Mr. Morrison retired from the firm. The business was continued, constantly enlarging, until in its correspondence it embraced all the chief commercial points in the Union. There have been years in which the exchange bought and sold by this house reached the large amount of ten millions.

In the recent terrific panic through which the country and the world have passed, the house bowed for a moment before a storm which prostrated so many strong establishments. This was only one out of seven of the so considered staunchest private banking houses in St. Louis which closed their doors. It was not the first to close, but it was the first to re-open. This alacrity in resumption is, we presume, accounted for by the fact that ita assets were generally of a good character; it is well understood, indeed, that the temporary inability to realize


from a large amount of these, consisting of dues from the most solvent corporations, was the cause of its suspension. The payments and settlements the house then made with its creditors were, we believe, very acceptable to them.

Mr. Anderson, though prompt and decisive in his business transactions, is liberal and accommodating in all his dealings with his business friends and customers, going to the utmost extent to serve their interests, so far as he can do it compatibly with his own safety. For intelligence, acuteness, and experience as a financier, it is no exaggeration to say of him that he has but few superiors.

With the prospects now opening of a long and undisturbed period in the movements of trade and finance, it can not be doubted that Mr. Anderson's house will partake largely of the prosperity in store for banking establishments that are managed with sagacity and skill.

Among the items of his property, Mr. Anderson owns a lot fronting on Third and Olive streets, on which he is now erecting a house intended for banking purposes. We allude to it specially because of the peculiar elegance and beauty which will be imparted to the edifice by the material of which it is being constructed. The material is the stone known as "Brandon Marble," of Vermont, which takes a lustrous polish, and is of remarkable purity, quite equal indeed to the finest Italian marble. The employment of this material in the walls of this banking-house is the first instance of its use as a building stone in St. Louis. The structure will be finished and ornamented in a style worthy of this material, and may be expected to give to the aspect of the exterior unusual splendor and beauty.


No. 29 North Third Street, between Chesnut and Pine.
J. H. CRANE, Proprietor.

This house is one of the most extensive in St. Louis, and is doing a large and flourishing business, and bids fair to become the leading house in the West. Mr. Crane, the proprietor, although comparatively a young man in St. Louis, is an old and experienced furniture dealer. For a long series of years, his father, Mr. L. M. Crane, was at the head of one of the largest houses in the East, at Newark, New Jersey, and is now doing an extensive business in Cincinnati, Ohio. The warerooms of Mr. Crane now occupy eighty feet front on Third street with a depth of one hundred and eighty feet, comprising four stories, which are stored brim full of furniture of every description, from the commonest to the most elegant and choice kinds, all of which he offers to purchasers a little cheaper than any other house in the West.

Mr. Crane also manufactures every description of furniture to order, yet the greater portion of his stock is made by Cincinnati and New York manufacturers expressly for this market, in a style which can not easily be surpassed.

The facilities possessed by Mr. Crane for the prosecution of a successful wholesale and retail trade are most perfect, and we would suggest to those dealers who are desirous of securing a good stock at fair prices, not to fail to call upon Mr. Crane, whom they will find to be a courteous and polite business man, and every way worthy the respect of our citizens and the position he holds in our community, and who will be pleased to


exhibit his wares to all, whether they desire to purchase of him or not.

In all business transactions Mr. Crane has adopted the principle of selling for cash, and cash only; by so doing he is enabled to sell at least 25 per cent, cheaper than those who sell upon time.

Wholesale and Retail Dealer, Importer, and Manufacturer of Mantillas, Cloaks, Talmas, Basques, etc., etc.,
52 North Fifth Street.

There is not a house engaged in this branch of trade in the United States that transacts a larger business annually than this one, nor is there one to be found any place possessing greater facilities for the transaction of business, or rendering more complete satisfaction to its customers. One can not visit this establishment without being surprised at the extent as well as the richness and variety of their stock.

Mr. Reading has had an experience extending over twenty years, in catering to the requirements of our market, and by his industry, integrity and honorable dealing with every one with whom he has come in contact, he has gained a reputation of which he may justly feel proud.

There are few houses engaged in a mercantile business in our city that have a larger amount of capital invested, and we do not believe there are any who get more certain returns. Maintaining intimate relations with the largest manufacturing houses in the cities of England, Ireland, France, Belgium and


Germany, he is enabled to keep constantly on hand a large variety of goods of the latest styles. Our lady friends may rest assured that at No. 52 North Fifth street they will always find the most complete assortment of ladies' wearing apparel ever brought to the West. The advantages gained by Mr. Reading by importing direct from the manufacturers can be observed at a glance by any one, as it saves to him the profits usually paid to the importer, and enables him to sell to his customers upon far better terms than those who purchase their goods in the East.

Mr. Reading imports largely of the raw material which he has manufactured in St. Louis; he may well be proud of the character of the goods produced by the fair hands and nimble fingers he has in his employ. The lady who does the designing for him, and who superintends this department, has not her superior, as an artist, in the world; an idea of her capacity can be formed from the fact that she receives a yearly salary of upwards of one thousand dollars. Possessing a refined and delicate taste, she is enabled to design rich and beautiful garments that are entirely free from that gaudy appearance that is so apt to obtain; but each part so harmonizing with the other as to render them perfect specimens of the beautiful. To her artistic taste many of our fair friends are indebted for the admiration so lavishly bestowed upon them. Her efforts have added not a little to the reputation of this establishment. The number of ladies constantly employed by this house can not be less than fifty, and they are generally engaged in making custom work

To those country merchants who are buying their supplies, we would say, do not fail to visit the store of Mr. Reading; we are confident that he can meet your wants in a style calculated to render perfect satisfaction, and upon terms as favorable


as can be procured anywhere in the United States. Mr. Reading's motto has ever been — "Quick Sales and Small Profits;" and by paying a strict observance to this principle, as well as rendering the most perfect satisfaction to all who favor him with their orders, he has won the enviable position he now maintains.

To those of our lady friends who wish to obtain something neat and becoming, (and pray, who does not?) we would recommend a call at No. 52 North Fifth street. They will find polite and attentive clerks, (both ladies and gentlemen,) who will take especial pride in exhibiting for their inspection the splendid stock which is entrusted to their care, and who will be pleased to minister to their wants. We know of no house in St. Louis more prompt and reliable, and to our friends throughout the country we can cheerfully recommend it as one with whom it will be a pleasure to form a business connection, as well from the facilities they possess of furnishing the best description of goods, as from the honorable character of the gentleman managing the house.


There is at the present time but one steamboat engaged in this trade, yet just so soon as the demands of the shipping community shall require it others will be forthcoming. The boat engaged in this trade at present is the fine Passenger Packet J. B. Carson, under the command of Capt. Abrams and the general supervision of Capt. S. Rider. The Carson is one of the finest boats on the Western waters, having been built with special regard to the requirements of the Illinois river. She is two years old, and has, during the past season, proven


herself to be all that was claimed for her. She has two large and powerful engines, having four feet stroke, and working like a charm. Mr. McCann, the engineer, and Mr. Jos. Reed, his assistant, are capable and efficient officers, and by a long career of successful engineering have won an enviable reputation among river men generally.

The Carson will, during the present season, make three trips per week — leaving St. Louis on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, connecting with the Great Western Railroad at Naples, and returning on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. There is not a line of steamboats on the Western waters of greater importance to St. Louis than the one we are now speaking of; the amount of freight annually carried by them would astonish even those most familiar with river matters. The company have a wharf-boat at the foot of Spruce street, where business can be transacted. The officers of the Carson are true specimens of the Western steamboat men — a class of men of whom too much can not be said.

No. 164 North Main street.

This firm have been but a short time engaged in business in St. Louis, but short as it is they have established themselves firmly in the good graces of our warm-hearted citizens. A successful career of upwards of ten years in the city of Philadelphia


has given them a perfect knowledge of the trade, and an intimate acquaintance with the West and its resources, on the part of one of the members of the firm, enables them to cater to the tastes of our purchasers with a certainty of success.

They have their manufacturing establishment in the city of Philadelphia, but all goods offered by them in St. Louis are manufactured expressly for this market — being of the best material, and cut after the most approved Parisian style. They are constantly in receipt of New Goods, and are ever up with the times.

The stock of Furnishing Goods kept on hand and that are daily receiving is equal to any ever offered for sale in our city, embracing every article of Under Clothing, Shirts, plain and fancy Neck Ties, Suspenders, Cravats, and an endless variety of Collars, Handkerchiefs, Hosiery, &c., &c. Messrs. Ball, Worrall & Milnor have adopted the only true principle upon which business can be transacted with success — that of selling goods for cash and cash only. They will sell goods just as cheap as they can be bought in the city, and persons desirous of purchasing garments should give them a call.


Is always to be found with a large and well assorted stock to meet all demands that are made upon him, at the north-east corner of Main and Market streets.

There is no manufacturer of Saddlery in the Western States who has a fairer reputation, and deservedly so, than the subject


of this sketch. He has used his best endeavors to render satisfaction to all his customers, and how well he has succeeded may be manifest by the success that has attended his endeavors, for from a small and unostentatious beginning he has grown into an opulent and extensive dealer, rivalling in extent those houses which had attained a majority before this one had its inception.

From 1837 to 1848, a period of eleven years, Mr. Peters was the foreman of Col. Grimley's extensive establishment. Upon dissolving his connection with that house, he started in business upon his own responsibility, since which time he has won for himself that reputation which he gained from his former employer. Mr. Peters employs steadily about forty hands, and does an immense amount of business. He uses the very best raw material, and in the selection of his workmen manifests that accurate knowledge of the business which his long connection with it has given him, and by personally superintending all his own affairs he is enabled to put forth a description of work which can not be excelled in any part of the country. We do not think retail dealers or consumers can obtain better bargains anywhere than are offered them at this establishment. We would recommend them to call on this house and examine the stock and scale of prices before purchasing elsewhere.

CHECKERED OFFICE, No. 12 Vine Street, betw. Main and Second.

In the year 1843 John S. Freleigh opened the first Pawn Broker's Office in the city of St. Louis, with a capital of forty dollars. Since then twenty others have started the sameness;


eleven of them failed. Mr. Freleigh's first office was on Locust, near Main street; most all the other Brokers opened on or near the same square, and in time Locust street was noted for the number of brokers on it. Many a friendless stranger in our city found several "uncles" on Locust street. Mr. Freleigh invented his own forms, duplicates and assignments; all the others have copied them to the very letter, without even giving any credit to the author. In 1853 he took his son in as a partner; they carried on the business till 1856, when Mr. F. died. Since then his son has continued in the same business, and can now be found at the Checkered Office, No. 12 Vine street, between Main and Second, where he will be happy to accommodate all who may need his services. He will endeavor to show to the world, as his father did, that a Pawn Broker may possibly be honest, by treating his customers in that strict and upright manner which always characterized the business of the Checkered Office. This office has done a larger business than any other office of the kind in the city, and its proprietor has the best facilities for loaning money; therefore it will be to the interest of all who wish to borrow money on collateral security to give him a call. Gold and Silver Watches of all kinds, Duplex, Chronometer, Magic Case, Patent and Detached Levers and Cylinders; also Diamond Pins, Ear Rings, Finger Rings; Gold Vest, Fob and Guard Chains; Guns, Pistols and Dry Goods, for sale at one-fourth first cost.

J. & A. ARNOT,Proprietors.

The extensive Livery Stable of Messrs. J. & A. Arnot, on Chesnut street, between Second and Third streets, is one of the features of the Mound City, and has long been recognized as


the best arranged institution of the kind in the Western States. Messrs. Arnot first entered the business arena in St. Louis in November, 1849. They commenced by inaugurating several new features which they rightly concluded would be advantageous both to themselves and their patrons.

They erected their present magnificent house in 1854. This building is five stories high, and the best arranged for the purpose of any we have ever examined. The horses are kept in the basement, while the first floor is the store room for buggies, wagons and carriages; the second story is fitted up in excellent style and devoted to Law and Real Estate Offices; the third floor is also fitted up tastefully, and used for Offices and Sleeping Apartments, while the fourth story is the hall of the Ancient Order of Druids.

But we do not wish to speak so much of the building as of the facilities possessed by the Messrs. Arnot for the accommodation of those who desire occasionally to indulge in the luxury of a carriage drive, or of exercising their cramped limbs and muscles by exercising on horseback. The stud belonging to their stable is composed of the finest lot of horses in the Western country, both for the saddle and buggy — many of them capable of "doing" a mile in 2:40 with the utmost ease, either in harness or under the saddle. Their carriages are of the best manufacture, light, beautiful and comfortable, while the entire paraphernalia is such as to enable them to furnish at a moment's notice a "turn out" to please the fancy of every lover of fancy equipages.

Messrs. Arnot have also the finest hearse in the country, and are ever ready to furnish carriages to attend funerals upon terms equally as favorable as any other similar establishment in the Mound City — their drivers being courteous, obliging and ever willing to do any thing in their power to accommodate.


The entire Stable is under the supervision of an accomplished trainer, who is thoroughly conversant with all that appertains to the business of the Veterinarian, while the business department is conducted by the Messrs. Arnot themselves and assistants, who spare no pains in their endeavors to please all who may favor them with a call; and we will say that all who call on them will be pleased by the manner in which they are received, and charmed by the equipage which they will furnish them.

Linen Goods; Silk, Damask, Delaine, & Embroidered Goods,

This extensive jobbing and retail house, from their enterprise, rich and varied stock, and success in their department of trade, abundantly justify us in declaring it to be inferior to no similar establishment in the United States. This firm has been in successful operation for over a quarter of a century, during which time it has enjoyed the confidence and esteem of the public, which is ever awarded by those who pursue a straight-forward course towards all with whom they come in contact; and at this period they enjoy a name and reputation of which they justly feel proud.


The house occupied by this firm for the purposes of sales and store rooms is situated on the west side of Main street, at No. 58, between Olive and Pine streets, and well calculated for the purposes to which it is devoted. It is one hundred and forty feet deep, with a front of twenty-five feet, and is four stories high. In the different rooms the various qualities of goods may be found, embracing every thing from the most magnificent Velvet Tapestry, which is gorgeous enough to grace the parlors of a prince, to the commonest description of Rag Carpet.

Their stock of house and steamboat Furnishing Goods embraces an endless variety of Table Covers, of different patterns; Stair Rods; Carpets that are nine quarters wide, and a complete assortment of Linen Goods, Silks, Damasks, Delaines, Embroidered Curtains, &c., &c.

They are constantly receiving and opening New Goods, consisting of Carpets, of every imaginable style and description of patterns, from the looms of England, France and Belgium; Hearth Rugs, of an hundred different designs, and of a beauty and elegance that will satisfy the most fastidious taste; also a large lot of India Matting, Stair Carpets, Door Mats, &c., all of which has been selected with the greatest care, and a strict regard to the wants of the Mississippi Valley, by one of the firm.

Messrs. A. McDowell & Co. purchase all their Domestic Goods direct from the manufacturers in the East upon the most favorable terms, while all their immense stock of Foreign Goods is purchased of the manufacturers in Europe and shipped direct to St. Louis, thus enabling themselves to offer goods, to Western dealers at Eastern prices. In fact many styles of goods are sold by them twenty-five per cent, cheaper than they can be bought for in New York. The advantages to be derived by the retail dealer as well as the consumer by purchasing their stock


direct from the hands of the importer are beginning to be appreciated.

The upper stories of their house are expressly designed for the wholesale trade, and we would suggest to the country merchants the propriety of giving this house a call, as we are certain that if a superior stock of goods, courteous and gentlemanly conduct upon the part of the salesmen and proprietors, a firm determination to sell goods upon as favorable terms as they can be bought anywhere, and an ardent desire to render justice to all, be any recommendation, they will find in Messrs. McDowell & Co. all that couly be desired.

Manufacturer of and Dealer in
Nos. 67 & 69 and 86 & 88 Green street.

This is one of the most extensive establishments in the city, and holds an enviable position in the affections of our citizens. The steady and rapid growth of St. Louis has developed to the fullest extent the resources of those engaged in the Baking business, and we find that the one under consideration has more than trebled its extent in the last five years, employing at the present time about thirty-five hands, and manufacturing fifty barrels of flour daily into Crackers and Loaf Bread, besides a large amount of Cakes, etc., etc.


As regards the quality of Mr. Holmes' products, we have never heard of but one opinion, that of unqualified praise; in fact the large and constantly increasing trade transacted by him is a pretty fair evidence of the favor in which he is held by the people. Mr. Holmes gives particular attention to furnishing supplies to hotels, grocers and steamboats, and is prepared to fill their orders upon the shortest notice and the most reasonable terms. We would recommend such to give him a trial, and if he fails to render the utmost satisfaction, we are much mistaken.

The arrangements of Mr. Holmes for supplying his city customers is perfect in every respect, and as a consequence he has a large business, requiring five wagons to deliver the daily supplies. We are ever proud to notice the success of such houses as that of Mr. H.

Office over H. B. Graham's Paper Warehouse,

This company has recently established a branch of their Works in this city, and will in a short time be manufacturing a composition which has been secured to them by patent, and which promises to be one of the really useful discoveries of the day. By a scientific and chemical combination of substances well known, they have produced a durable, though elastic composition which is impervious to water, fire-proof, and none the less useful because of its cheapness — the cost being considerably


less than shingling. Any one of ordinary skill can construct this roof by getting directions from the company.

It was not until after they had experimented long and satisfactorily that this company applied for a patent; nor is it to be presumed that the individuals composing it would jeopard their standing by embarking in an enterprise of doubtful utility, or in recommending to such general use an unworthy thing.

They esteem it the best and cheapest roofing now in use for Railroad Cars and Steamboats as well as Houses. It is their intention to manufacture this Roofing Material extensively; they have selected St. Louis as the most central and eligible point whence to distribute supplies for the surrounding States and Territories.

Their manufactory is now being erected on South Levee, on the bank of the river, below the Gas Works, and will be in operation by the first of March. Mr. Charles Richardson, the acting partner in St. Louis, has his office over H. B. Graham's. Paper Warehouse, on Vine, between Second and Third streets.


Mr. J. H. Fitzgibbon is celebrated throughout the Union as a skillful prosecutor of the Photographic art, and as the most uniformly successful artist in the country. He was one of the first, after the Daguerreotype process was given to the world, to take portraits from life, and during the progress of the art from its earliest introduction he has kept himself au courant of all the various improvements it has undergone. He is familiar with the history of Photography from its dawn in the researches


of Wedgewood, and with its subsequent development through the successive experiments of Talbot, Niepce and Daguerre, and thoroughly understands the rational of every process that has been in turn adopted and improved for delineating objects by the agency of light. Of his knowledge of Photography, in all its phases, his contributions to the various Photographic journals and the life-like pictures of his camera are undoubted evidences. But not only is he a thoroughly informed student of his art; he is likewise a skillful operator, and the great reputation he has acquired throughout the Union, in connection with Photography, is due in a great measure to the results of his own personal labors. — specimens of which may be found in every city, drawing-room, or country cabin in the West. His Gallery — now the largest in the United States — bears testimony to skill, his liberality and his industry, and contains, beyond a question, the most beautiful and varied specimens of Photographic excellence ever collected, nearly all of which are the products of his own artistic efforts. This Gallery occupies thirteen rooms, and includes portraits of the most distinguished celebrities of the age, likenesses of chiefs of various tribes of Indians — admitted to be the best collection of Indian portraits in the country — and pictures of various sizes of private individuals.

Mr. Fitzgibbon commenced his career, we believe, in 1841, at Lynchburg, Virginia; but removed to St. Louis in 1846, where he laid the foundation of his present great reputation. He is one of the first, if not the very first, who re-produced a daguerreotype picture by the electrotype process discovered by Fizeau, and has ever been, during his residence in St. Louis, in the van of his profession in the adoption of all the numerous improvements that from time to time have been introduced in it. His labors have not however been confined to his studio in St.


Louis. He has frequently made professional excursions into various parts of the country, and has twice visited the Indian Nations, bringing back with him each time admirable accessions to his unrivalled collection of Indian portraits. Once he traversed the Territory of Kansas and with his camera succeeded in obtaining a series of landscapes of that Territory, and a collection of specimens of Kansas life, which were afterwards embodied in a panorama that possesses the merits of accuracy and beauty, and has been pronounced a true representation of the country and its occupants. Indeed, we may add, that his Photographic illustrations of Western life and scenery have contributed more than any thing else to convey to those at a distance correct ideas of the West. His views of the St. Louis Agricultural Fair, published in Leslie's paper, have been circulated over the Union, and have been universally admired as exquisite specimens of Photography, and faithful representations of the objects depicted, and have served to give a celebrity and distinction to the occasion they illustrated which could have been derived from no other mode of publication. In fact we may say that the St. Louis Mechanical and Agricultural Association is indebted to his skill and liberality, as his pictures were taken gratuitously for the reputation they acquired abroad. In his Gallery, which has been for some years one of the most attractive popular resorts of this city, may be seen specimens of every branch of the Photographic art, of all dimensions, and prominent amongst them life-sized Photographs, colored with a taste and correctness and truth that can not be excelled by the works of many of the most celebrated oil painters of the day. Of the latter, his well-known full length portrait of Brooke, the tragedian, as Richard the 3d, is perhaps the most memorable, and is beyond doubt the finest colored Photograph ever executed. It may not be out of place to observe here that nearly


every picture contained in this Gallery was executed by Fitzgibbon himself, who is reputed to be the best Photographer in the United States, and who, in the course of his professional career, has taken with his own hand upwards of 300,000 likenesses.

Mr. Fitzgibbon's ability has been well appreciated both by the citizens of St. Louis and by those who visit the city, nearly all of whom are in possession of portraits of his execution, while his skill has received the endorsement of the awarding committees of the Fair of St. Louis and the State Fair of Illinois in the years 1856 and 1857, obtaining at the State Fair of Illinois, in 1856, the first premiums for Daguerreotypes, Electrotypes and Photographs, and at the St. Louis Fair, of both years, the first and second premiums for different specimens on exhibition.

Many inducements have been offered to Mr. Fitzgibbon to transfer his labors to Europe, which he has so far resisted. He has it however in contemplation to pay a visit to Central America during the ensuing spring for the purpose of taking views of the ruins of Aztec cities, of the landscapes that have been so lauded by travellers to those regions and portraits of the people, in all their varied social relations, and in every grade. Such an enterprise would, we think, prove profitable to its author, and would contribute materially to the dissemination of correct information in regard to a country which at this time is attracting unusual attention throughout the civilized world. During his absence Mr. Fitzgibbon will continue to make contributions to his Gallery, and will leave the most competent artists in charge of its interests.


Consisting in part of
Hardware; Cutlery; Silver-Plated, German Silver, Britannia, Brass, Bronze, Gilt and Japanned Goods; Enamelled, Tinned and Iron Hollow Ware; Fine Planished and Custom-made Tin Ware; and Manufacturers of Wooden, Willow and Cedar Ware; Refrigerators, Ice Chests, Water Coolers, Bathing Apparatus, Brushes,Brooms, Mats, &c.,
No. 25 Main street, and 25 Commercial street.

This house occupies one of the finest edifices on Main street, their new building being a six story double store, running through to Commercial street. The extent of room they have can not be conceived by any one; yet so extensive and varied is their stock that they are actually cramped for want of room — no furnishing house in the United States beginning to compete with them in point of extent or magnificence of stock.

The senior partner has the benefit of thirty-five years' experience in the business, the last twelve of which has been spent in St. Louis, giving a perfect knowledge of what is required by the Western trade. He was the first regular manufacturer in Wooden and Willow Ware in this city; previous to his advent here all this class of goods came from the East; they still keep a large force steadily employed. Their facilities for transacting business is unsurpassed by any house in the world, as they import direct all their European goods and purchase their American goods in large quantities at reduced rates from the


manufacturers, and are thereby enabled to offer superior terms to those who are intending to make purchases. We cordially recommend this house to the favorable consideration of the reader. A catalogue of their goods, in book form, can be had at their store, gratis.

Keeps constantly on hand a large and complete assortment of Painters' and Artists' Materials,

Mr. James Spore began business in this city in 1840, as House, Sign, and Ornamental Painter. After prosecuting his business with success for a time, and becoming familiar with the wants of the place, he conceived the idea of opening an establishment for the supply of Artists' materials; and with one of his energy in business, the "thought is hardly conceived till the deed is done." After proper deliberation he opened in 1848, at No. 62 Chesnut street, with a fair supply of such articles as were needed at that time.

The demand for such articles then was limited; but with the increase of population, and by skillful management in operating, he very soon created a business far exceeding his most sanguine expectations, which eventually forced him to seek a larger and more public place. He then leased and fitted up in fine style store No. 101 Fourth street, in the row known as the "Ten Buildings," to which he removed in February, 1856.

He soon filled his store with as choice a stock in trade as


could be found in any establishment of the kind either East or West. Here his business continued to increase up to the time when he was burned out in June, 1857. And notwithstanding his loss was heavy, and that he met with considerable opposition in opening another stock in said store, hardly had the smoke cleared away from the ruins before he again had his store refitted and filled with a still larger stock. Here the amateur or artist can find at all times any materials he may need and of the very best quality.

In connection with this business he still prosecutes his old business of House, Sign and Ornamental Painting, and, judging from the work we saw in his shop, he is not surpassed in his art by any establishment in this city.

Mr. Spore has done more by his untiring efforts and unbounded liberality towards developing a taste for the fine arts in our city than all others combined, and he richly merits the patronage extended him. We hope to see his business increase daily, and his spacious rooms become a place of resort of the lovers of the fine arts and of those who are in want of such supplies as can be found there, and also of those who need the services of skillful mechanics to execute in the best style painting both plain and ornamental.


The establishment of Mr. James M. Crawford is situate at Nos. 30 & 33 Chesnut street, and stands as a monument of what can be accomplished in a few short years by perseverance, industry and close attention to business. In January, 1853, Mr. Crawford commenced business in St. Louis upon a limited scale; he rented a small room on the same spot he now does


business, and commenced the sale of stationery and cheap publications. He gradually widened the area of his labors by becoming the agent for the different newspapers and magazines. So successful did this result that he determined to enlarge his store room in order to better accommodate his increasing trade. Accordingly he added another room. This enlargement answered for some time, but his business has grown so fast that he has been compelled to make repeated additions, until at the present time he has one of the largest houses in the city devoted to the sale of books and stationery.

The business tact of Mr. Crawford has enabled him to supersede all his cotemporaries in securing the exclusive agency of the various newspapers and periodicals as well as obtaining supplies of all the latest publications, and he is enabled to furnish them to retail dealers here in St. Louis on the same terms that they can be bought from the publisher. His stock of stationery is one of the finest assortments in the West, and no person desirous of laying in a supply can secure better bargains than from Mr. Crawford.

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Cigars and Tobacco.

Mr. Joseph Warren, whose business house is situate at No. 134 Market street, one door from the corner of Fifth street, stands at the head of the Cigar and Tobacco trade of our city. Mr. Warren commenced business on an extensive scale in St. Louis about four years ago, or in 1853, and having effected arrangements that put him in possession of all the best brands of Cigars, Tobacco and Snuff, he at once assumed the position which it has required of others years to obtain.


There is no branch of trade that finds so many varied tastes to please, and none whose success depends so much upon the ability to meet these tastes, as that of the tobacconist. There is no greater luxury vouchsafed to us poor mortals than the smoking of a good cigar, and there is no worse affliction than a miserable cheroot. None who call on Mr. Warren need ever complain, as his brands are the best that are manufactured, possessing all the rich fragrant aroma that is so enviable.

Mr. W. imports direct from Cuba large quantities of cigars as well as Cuban tobacco, which he has manufactured under his immediate supervision. He also keeps on hand large quantities of German cigars for the purpose of being able to meet the wants of all who may favor him with their orders.

The brands of chewing and smoking tobacco are of the best known, while all kinds of snuff are ever kept in generous supply.

Mr. Joseph Warren has been engaged during the last two years in furnishing supplies to the different steamboats that visit this port, and has the most complete stock for such orders of any similar establishment in the city; and we would suggest the propriety to our country friends, when they are here for the purpose of laying in supplies, to take a look over Mr. W.'s establishment before they make purchases, as we are convinced that he can offer them supplies upon terms equally as favorable, if not more so, than any other dealer in the city. Mr. W. also pays particular attention to the filling of orders from a distance, and persons forwarding him their orders can rely upon their receiving prompt attention and as liberal terms as when the purchases are made in person.

Mr. Warren is a young man and deserves the support of his fellow-citizens, and being to the "manner born," he is fully aware of all the wants of his patrons and has made all the necessary arrangements to supply their wants. Do not fail to call and look over this gentleman's stock.



Mr. Robert Charles' Wholesale Tea Store, which is situated at No. 26 Olive street, between Main and Second streets, directly opposite the Monroe House, is one of the best regulated establishments in the city, and does a business annually the extent of which would astonish those who are supposed to best acquainted with St. Louis and her resources. Mr. Charles has been engaged in business in St. Louis since 1850, and has built up a large and flourishing trade, which has caused him to increase his facilities in order to meet in a proper spirit the growing demands made upon him.

It would be hardly credited if we were to set down in round numbers the exact amount of tea which passes through his hands, nor could we find believers were we to state the amount of roasted or ground Java, Laguyra and Rio Coffee which he disposes of to the retail trade.

We can assure our country readers that they can receive a supply of tea and coffee from the store of Mr. Charles upon terms equally as favorable as any other establishment in the United States, as he imports all his stock direct.

At his store, in one of the front windows, may be seen one of the most complete steam engines, made by one of our City Founders, and from the beauty of its workmanship and high finish attracts universal attention from the passers-by. This is kept constantly in operation roasting and grinding coffee for his numerous customers.

Do not neglect to call on Mr. Charles before making your purchases, for we believe he will be able to hold out superior inducements.


It may not be generally known that we have in St. Louis the largest retail and jobbing family grocery establishment, not only in the West, but in the United States. Mr. Nicholson's business locality is Nos. 118 and 120 Market street, directly opposite the Court House. For completeness of stock and variety of wares this establishment is far in advance of all its cotemporaries — so far indeed that in many branches all others have calmly submitted to the edict of fate, admitting the superiority of Mr. Nicholson's stock by ceasing to struggle in the hopeless rivalry.

The facilities of Mr. Nicholson for the transaction of an extensive business are the most complete of all the many with which we are acquainted. He has his affairs so arranged that he purchases directly from the manufacturers and producers


upon the most advantageous terms. He is enabled to procure his stock upon much better terms than those who do a credit business. In selling to country merchants and consumers generally, he strictly adheres to the cash principle, and credits no one. He has no bad debts on his hands which he is compelled to make good by overcharging paying customers, and consequently is enabled to sell from 15 to 20 per cent. lower, according to the quality of the goods.

Besides having the most complete assortment of groceries in the West, he is the sole agent in St. Louis for Cross & Blackwell's pickles, preserves, jellies, &c., &c., as well as French fruits, strawberries, cherries, &c. His stock of wines and liquors is of the purest character, while he is the sole agent for Alsop's Ale, Younger's Ale, London Porter, etc. Mr. Nicholson commenced his business in St. Louis in 1843, and has been progressing onward and upward ever since — onward in the extension of trade and upward in the confidence of the people. From his long residence in St. Louis he is widely known throughout the Mississippi Valley as a grocer thoroughly conversant with all the minutiae of the trade which is pursued by him. Passing by the entry ports of New York and New Orleans, he goes into the commercial marts of Europe and makes his purchases and ships them direct to St. Louis, receiving them through the Custom-house of our city.

The success of Mr. Nicholson is but the duplicate of the history of many other of our first class houses. Commencing business on a small scale, he has been faithful and upright in all his dealings, and as a consequence has won the esteem and respect of all who have come in contact with him; and as the city grew and prospered, so the area of business became extended, and to meet these demands, with a proper spirit Mr. Nicholson increased his facilities. Behold the result. He now occupies a position both gratifying to himself and his friends.


French, German, British and American Fancy Goods, Hosiery, Gloves, Toys, &c.,

Have one of the largest establishments in the West at No. 39 North Main street, up stairs. This house was established in St. Louis by the present senior partner of the firm in 1834, and has for a quarter of a century occupied a prominent position among the jobbing houses of the Mississippi Valley.

In view of the many disadvantages connected with long credits, and confident of the approval of the greater part of their customers, they two years ago adopted the cash system. They thereby avoid bad accounts and their customers are relieved from the indirect tax of supporting the same; while they calculate with certainty upon a quick return of capital, their customers may be assured of a corresponding reduction of price. They have revised their stock and reduced the regular prices from 15 to 20 per cent, according to the nature of the article, and are determined to keep their prices hereafter, by reason of the new arrangements, in the same proportion below the credit prices. Whether this will be an inducement to buy for cash we leave our mercantile readers to decide, and we believe they will at once discover wherein the advantages, both to the seller and buyer, exists.

Connected with this establishment is a feature not possessed by any similar house in the city, consisting of an extensive Brush Manufactory. The factory is located between Plum and Cedar, Main and Levee, and is under the supervision of Mr. William Stein, a gentleman thoroughly conversant with all the


minutiae of the business. The workmanship of these manufactures have been highly extolled and have been complimented by the receipt of the premium of the St. Louis Agricultural and Mechanical Fair.

Mr. Dings has a large circle of acquaintances throughout the West and South and does an extensive business. He possesses in an eminent degree those qualifications necessary to complete success in all relations of life, as well as an intimate acquaintance with the requirements of the trade for which he caters.

We would again urge upon our country friends the necessity of examining well into the various facilities possessed by those engaged in the wholesale trade in our city, and in doing so not to neglect to look in upon our friend, who, we are sure, can please the most difficult tastes, and furnish all goods in the department in which he deals on terms which cannot but be regarded as favorable by all who pay proper regard to the purchase of goods.


This firm are dealers in Juniata Iron, Nails, Castings, Steel, Springs, Axles, Nuts, Rivets, Washers and Pittsburgh manufactures generally. Their business house is located at No. 18 Levee and 36 Commercial street, in the very heart of the business locality.

This house is the one which, under the management of the lamented E. R. Violett, won so deservedly a popular reputation, and which since it has been in the present hands has not only sustained its position but has grown more into the affections of the people.

The quality of the wares which are offered to the public by


Messrs. Dean & Co, have long been before the public and need no recommendation from us. These gentlemen purchase their goods at Pittsburgh upon such terms as enable them to supply the wants of the retail dealer upon terms far more advantageous than can be obtained at the fountain head of the manufacturers. This may appear strange, but it is nevertheless true. They buy such large quantities at a time, and have such special arrangements for receiving their supplies, that they obtain them upon far better terms than can be obtained when small lots only are bought. They have their supplies shipped here when the freights are low, consequently can sell as low, if not lower, than the manufacturers; and the freight from St. Louis to the Western towns is much less than from Pittsburgh, consequently the consumer saves money by making his purchases in St. Louis.

Messrs. Dean & Co. are also agents for Burke & Barnes' celebrated Fire Proof Safes, W. W. Bacon's Burglar Proof Safes, and D. B. Rogers & Co.'s Cultivators.

These articles have all achieved good reputations and have answered all expectations entertained of them by their friends, and we have no hesitancy in expressing our belief that they will yet become still greater favorites with the public.

TAILORING. — Mr. D. S. THOMPSON, at No. 86 North Fourth street, has secured the services of Mr. D. W. STONE and HARRY HOLSMAN to superintend the cutting department. Mr. Stone has not his superior as a coat cutter in the world; in fact he is the inventor of the system now so generally in use among tailors. Mr. Holsman is unsurpassed in cutting pants and vests. If you want a good fit, go to Thompson's.



The above establishment has been in successful operation for upwards of sixteen years, and was first started by Messrs. Bridge & Brother, who sold it in 1853 to the present proprietors, as their Stove Works had increased to such an extent that they could not give the attention it required.

The present proprietors, aware of the extensive demand for plows in this market, have largely increased the establishment by the addition of new and labor-saving machinery, enabling them to compete with any similar establishment in the Union. They manufacture at present, besides the Jewett's Patent Improved Cary Plow, four sizes of their Steel Plow; this latter Plow has only been introduced three years ago, and already enjoys the highest reputation for its performance and durability, and where known is sought after in preference to any other manufacture from this or any other State.

They also manufacture Prairie-Breaking Plows, from the smallest to the largest-size, which find a ready sale in the extensive prairie lands of the Great West.


Importer and Wholesale Dealer in
No. 93 Main street, St. Louis.

The business house of Mr. R. Beauvais is situate at No. 93 Main street, and is perhaps the neatest arranged establishment of the kind in the country. Mr. B. commenced business in St. Louis in 1838, when our present prosperous and populous city was but a mere village. The success that has attended his efforts has been commensurate with the growth of our city, and each year, as the area of his business transactions extended, witnessed new additions to his business, until at the present time the most complete selection of Guns, Pistols, Jewelry, Watches, Cutlery, Clocks and Fancy Goods can be found in his establishment that can be obtained in the city. Mr. B. imports direct from the manufacturers in Europe, and always purchases for cash and upon the most advantageous terms. He also sustains relations with the American manufacturers which render him capable of extending to the country merchants facilities which we are sure will not fail to attract their attention.

The aim of Mr. B. has always been to furnish his patrons with a good stock of goods, at a fair price; and so well has he succeeded in doing this, that he never fails in rendering the most complete satisfaction. He still retains all his old customers who have purchased their supplies from him for the last twenty years, and every year adds new ones to the list.



Mr. Henry Reynolds, (successor to Isaac E. Jones,) Apothecary and Druggist, at the corner of Third and Vine streets, is one of those Druggists who, by a strict knowledge of the business and a close attention to its duties, has won the confidence of every one. The Drug business is one that requires a perfect knowledge of pharmacy, as well as the kindred science of chemistry, in order to arrive at any eminence. The subject of this sketch has been engaged in his business for a number, of years, and possesses every requisite to the most perfect success. We can assure the reader that he can with perfect confidence entrust all prescriptions to this house.

Besides paying particular attention to the filling of prescriptions, he keeps constantly on hand a complete assortment of pure, unadulterated foreign and domestic Drugs, Medicines and Chemicals, &c., with which to fill the orders of country physicians who may desire to put up their own prescriptions.

He also has a general assortment of English, French and American Perfumery and Toilet Articles, as well as every variety of Flavoring Extracts for cooking; and is the agent for Hagan's Inimitable Hair Coloring; and Royce and Easterly's celebrated Tooth Powder.

Steamboat and Family Medicine Chests are always to be had at a moment's notice, while invalids can procure a supply of Fresh Congress and Blue Lick Water.

The facilities possessed by Mr. Reynolds renders it easy for him to hold out to the consumer and country physician inducements of a superior character, which no one who consults his own interests in making purchases will fail to observe.



The extensive Carriage Manufactory of Messrs. Fallon & Wright is situate at Nos. 84 & 86 Fifth street and 28 & 30 St. Charles street, and holds a position among the manufacturing houses of the Mound City that is enviable in many respects. Messrs. Fallon & Wright commenced the manufacture of Carriages in 1845, and by the quality of their work immediately attracted that attention which is the life of all tradesmen. They have since their first commencement greatly increased their facilities, until at the present time they have become, beyond a doubt, one of the largest and most complete and best arranged establishments of the kind in the Western country. Besides, they employ none but the best mechanics, all of whom are perfectly au fait in all that pertains to their trade. They use only the very best materials, and all their work is warranted to be of a superior quality.

No better endorsement of the beauty and utility of their Carriages can be found than the fact that they have succeeded in carrying off the first premium from every State Fair held during the past four years at Boonville. They were also declared to be entitled to the first prize at the last two annual Fairs held in our own city. When we take into consideration the fact that there were carriages from all the principal manufactories in the country competing for superiority, this victory is no small affair.

Persons wishing to make purchases should give these gentlemen a call — having a large assortment of carriages always on hand they can accommodate any taste, and will sell upon terms equally as advantageous as any other similar establishment in the Mound City.


Importers and Wholesale Dealers in
— &c., &c., &c., —
Nos. 159 and 161 North Main street.

In 1835 Messrs. Wolff & Hoppe commenced business in St. Louis with the determination of offering the Western dealers superior inducements in order to attract to our city a portion of that trade which had for years been extended to New York. The manner in which they commenced was a guaranty of their intention to meet the demands of the public. They have their affairs so arranged that one of the firm visits Europe every year in order to be present at all the great fairs and auctions and make their purchases; by so doing they can offer very superior facilities to all who purchase to sell again. This house was among the first who commenced the practice of importing their goods direct, thus saving to themselves and their customers the profits which had hitherto been reaped by the wholesale dealers of New York and New Orleans.

We recently strolled through the extensive sales and store rooms of Messrs. Wolff & Hoppe, at Nos. 159 and 161 North Main street, and were struck by the extent and magnitude of their stock on hand, and the large and constantly increasing business they transact. Their stock of Woolen Goods alone is large enough to make an extensive establishment, consisting, as it does, of all styles of Men's, Women's, Boys' and Misses' Hosiery and Gloves'; Undershirts; Drawers; Heavy Knit Jackets; Comforters; Hoods; Cuffs; Felt and Fancy


Wool-lined Shoes, Bootees and Slippers; Woolen Knitting Yarns; Bindings; Ladies' Fancy Zephyr Gauntlets, of styles entirely new, and of all varieties; French, English and American Buck and Sham-Buck Gloves and Mitting, lined and unlined; Chamois-lined Berlin Gloves, with a great variety of Beaver and Castor Gloves and Gauntlets, for Men, Women and Children, exist in great profusion, fairly bewildering the beholder. To one unacquainted with the names of the different qualities and species of goods here displayed for sale, it would prove a difficult task to mention the articles, and to one fully posted it would prove equally irksome to mention an article not contained in their assortment.

On visiting the Notion Department of this house, we were shown Laces and Embroideries of the finest quality, which, to our uncultivated tastes in such things, seemed au fait. Huge piles of Skirts, Skirt Reed and Hoops stared us in the face on one side — on the other was to be seen the following rich display: French Corsets, Lace Mits, Belts, Handkerchiefs, Reticules, Ribbons, Umbrellas, Linen Shirts and Bosoms, Collars, Cravats, Stocks, Suspenders, Clocks, Candlesticks, Waiters, China Vases, Ornaments, Cups and Saucers, Combs of all kinds and material, Brushes, Feather Dusters, Buttons, Thread, Sewing and Embroidering Silks, Zephyr Worsted, Musical Instruments, Strings and Findings, Porte Monnaies, Cabas, Purses, Work-Boxes and Baskets, Perfumery, Stationery, Jewelry, Necklaces, Beads, Bracelets, Baskets in greatest profusion, Guns, Rifles, Pistols, Revolvers, Powder Flasks, Percussion Caps, Travelling Bags, Pins, Needles, Playing Cards, Scissors, Pocket and Table Cutlery, Razors, Spoons, Thimbles, Spectacles, Spy and Opera Glasses, Powhattan and other Pipes, Marbles, Dolls, Toys and Toy Goods of every variety, such as are usually found in Toy Stores.


Messrs. Wolff & Hoppe can supply the country dealer with any thing he may wish, thus giving him the advantage of those who purchase each variety of goods from different houses, at the same time the terms adopted by this firm can not fail to strike the purchaser as offering extra advantages. We are sure that no country merchants will hereafter visit St. Louis and make their purchases before calling and looking over the house of Messrs. Wolff & Hoppe.


The magnificent Restaurant presided over by Mr. John J. Palmer is situated on the north-east corner of Fourth and Elm streets, and enjoys an enviable reputation throughout the entire United States. What Taylor's is to New York, what Walker's is to Louisville, Palmer's is to St. Louis, standing forth as a bright, lustrous light, far in advance of all competition. Mr. Palmer first became introduced to our citizens in the capacity of a caterer to the public tastes by his connection with the management of the Bartling House in 1854. This house, which enjoyed a reputation for superior excellence from Maine to California, having been destroyed by fire in the fall of 1856, at which time Mr. Palmer was sole proprietor, Mr. Palmer entered into negotiations for, and was lucky enough to secure a lease upon the property now well known to every one who has ever visited the Mound City as "Palmer's."

With a bar furnished with the choicest liquors and the Restaurant abounding with every luxury the market affords — a cuisine of acknowledged ability — attendants emulating each other in their endeavors to render those delicate little attentions which possess such a charm over the hearts of all — and the


urbane and courteous clerk — all presided over by the universal favorite, Mr. Palmer himself — no better place exists in the world to obtain and enjoy a hearty supper of oysters or venison.

To those of our country and steamboat friends who visit St. Louis, we beg leave to refer this establishment to their consideration, as the place where they will be able to enjoy a feast, which, when days — aye, years — have flown and are remembered only as a dream, they will bring to mind and dwell upon as a bright oasis in their lives. Mr. Palmer's charges are moderate and on a par with the hotels, and not like some others we wot of, who give you little and charge you high, in order to correspond with the reputation they claim to possess.

No. 60 Market Street.

Those who are not intimately acquainted with the jobbing business of St. Louis would be surprised at its magnitude, and may think that we are overreaching the mark when we assert that we have in St. Louis more wholesale houses than any other city in the United States, with the single exception of New York. Our business men have pushed forward their business, and extended it into every portion of the great West. The reason of this rapid advancement is owing to the facilities possessed, and the accommodating disposition of those engaged in trade.

Among the most extensive jobbing and retail houses, engaged in the dry goods trade, is the old established one of Messrs. J. J. Donegan & Co. This house was organized in 1837, and has had a most successful career, enjoying the esteem and confidence of the entire community, and building up a large


trade. There are few houses in our city whose annual sales foot up more extensively than those of this firm. Messrs. D. & Co. have arrangements with the eastern importers by which they receive their goods upon equally as favorable terms as they could import them themselves, and we feel confident, from what we know of this house, in asserting that better bargains can not be obtained in New York. If any one doubts this assertion, all that is necessary to substantiate the fact is to bring with them, when they come here, their New York bills, and compare them, and if they do not find what we have asserted to be true, why, we will be willing to acknowledge ourselves mistaken.

Messrs. Donegan & Co. keep constantly on hand one of the most complete and extensive assortments of goods rarely found in one house, combining the useful with the ornamental. The stock of Messrs. D. & Co. consists in part of Black and Colored Silks, Cashmeres, Delaines and Merinos, Bombazines, Crapes and Alpacas, Undressed Shirting and Housewife Linens, Table-Cloths, Napkins and Towelling; Lace, Muslin, and Damask Curtains; Piano and Table Covers; Blue, Grey and White Blankets; Marseilles and Lancaster Quilts; Linen and Cotton Sheeting and Pillow Casing; Cloths, Cassimeres, Vestings and Serges, and an extensive stock of Tailors' Trimmings; in fact every thing required to fill the orders of dealers and consumers, whom we most respectfully recommend to call and examine this stock before making their purchases. A gentlemanly and courteous corps of clerks are always on hand, ready to extend the courtesies of the times to those who may visit them.

The store of Messrs. Donegan & Co. is to be found at No. 60 Market street, between Second and Third.



The Giant Hat Store, which is situated on Broadway, was formerly well and favorably known to our citizens as the "Corinthian Hall," is still progressing onward and upward; onward in the march of reform, and upward in the esteem and confidence of every person; evidencing in the most positive manner the soundness of the principle upon which they transact business, and the advantages of St. Louis in a manufacturing point of view. Messrs. Keevil & Co. commenced operations in St. Louis in 1849, with the firm determination of rendering their establishment the people's favorite. They announced their intention, and by a strict adherence to the object in view have won golden opinions from all sorts of people.

They immediately engaged extensively in the manufacture of silk and felt hats, and soon "the Hatters of Corinthian Hall " were known throughout the Valley of the Mississippi as the most promising house in the United States. We have often thought that the position of St. Louis was, in many respects, more favored than any of her rivals, and we are certain that in the hat and cap trade she stands far in advance of all. Upon entering the arena, Messrs. Keevil & Co. commenced the sale of the very best dress hats at the uniform price of four dollars, and have found it so profitable that they still continue the practice.

They also adopted the cash principle, believing that the credit system was often injurious, and was best left alone. They did not desire to make the paying man stand the loss entailed by the


crediting of the disciples of the Have-nothings, Do-nothings and Pay-nothings; but by selling for cash, and cash only, Keevil & Co. enable themselves to afford every one that neatest article of dress at a fair price. The popularity of this system has been evinced by the large and constantly increasing sales which have attended their efforts. They have now the most extensive retail sales-room in the country, while their factory keeps in steady employment a greater number of workmen than any similar establishment in the West. One great secret of Messrs. Keevil & Co.'s immense success is the quality of their manufactures. Employing the best workmen they can procure, and using the best quality of material, they have been constantly striving to make every hat sold by them to answer as a standing advertisement of their skill, and they have succeeded admirably. The entire community has awarded them the palm of superiority, and they wear their honors becomingly. Such cess has not spoilt them, but has acted as an incentive to still further improvements, and we now find them in possession of one of the largest and best assorted stocks of Silk, Cassimere and Soft Felt Hats, which they are offering to the retail and wholesale trade upon terms which can not be viewed in any light but favorable. We suggest the propriety, not only of the city hat-buyer but of the country merchant's visiting St. Louis for the purpose of obtaining a stock of goods, calling at this house and examining the stock, as we are confident they can not obtain better bargains even if they bought in New York. Keevil's Hall, under Giant Hat on house-top, Broadway, is certainly the place.


No. 29 Franklin Avenue.

Was first offered as a candidate for public favor in 1853. The principles upon which this house was establised were, first, the furnishing private families and dealers with a supply of pure, unadulterated Tea and Coffee; second, to furnish these articles at fair living prices, and fully 25 per cent, less than was being paid in the family groceries. In order to accomplish this latter object, the manager determined to adopt the only sound principle upon which to transact business — that of selling for cash, and cash only. The increasing amount of patronage with which this establishment has been favored is a satisfactory testimonial to the soundness of the principles upon which the undertaking was founded.

Mr. Forbes, the proprietor, is eminently qualified for the position he maintains; a long experience in the business having given him a perfect knowledge of it. Our readers are perhaps aware that the selection of teas requires a very critical judgment in order to ascertain the different qualities, and that it can only be obtained by a practical experience.

The same principle is rigidly adhered to in the Coffee department; an equal amount of tact and skill being required in order to secure a full, rich and fine-flavored berry, from which alone a good cup of this delicious beverage can be extracted. It is also a matter of importance that the roasting process should be so conducted as to prevent the escape of that volatile oil with which the berry is impregnated, and to which it principally owes its tonic and other medicinal properties.


The arrangements of Mr. Forbes, by steam power, for roasting and grinding, can not be surpassed by any establishment in the United States. The practical knowledge of Mr. F. renders him eminently qualified to pledge perfect satisfaction in all cases.

This house is now receiving a large assortment of the different grades of Black and Green Teas, and Mocha, Java and Rio Coffee, purchased upon the most advantageous terms, which enables him to meet with promptness all demands that are made upon him.

Bonnets, Ribbons, Silks, Flowers, French Millinery, Dress Silks, Laces, Embroideries and Trimming Goods;
No. 104 Fourth Street, (Glasgow Row.)

We beg permission to direct the attention of the reader to the stock of Fancy Goods of Mrs. J. Wescott. This stock, for richness, variety and splendor, can not be surpassed in the West, and the terms upon which it was purchased are such as to enable her to sell as cheap as any house in the city. To persons wishing to obtain goods embraced in her catalogue, we would say, do not fail to give her a call. She gives particular attention to making dresses for ladies, and to the consideration of the fair reader we beg to recommend her.


132 Main Street, (Jett's Old Stand.)

While giving the history of the extensive Jewelry establishments of which St. Louis can so proudly boast, let us call the attention of the reader for a few moments to the young, enterprising and promising house of Prouhet & Witt, situated nearly opposite the Bank of Missouri, No. 132 Main street, at the old and popular stand of the Messrs. Jett, in whose employ they have both been for years past, as their Watchmakers, and whom they have succeeded in the Main street establishment.

Messrs. Prouhet & Witt have but lately assumed the control of this concern, having undertaken its management about the commencement of the monetary crisis which swept over the commercial world last fall with such ruinous results.

Although young men, their antecedents will show that they are fully competent to sustain the responsibility of so important an undertaking. They are practical Watchmakers, each having served a long and arduous apprenticeship under the instruction of superior workmen, and have since been employed in the largest and most extensive Watch Repairing establishments in the West. They commenced with the determination to


make their house truly a Watch Repairing establishment, and are now advertising under the heading — "The Great Western Watch Repairing Establishment." This branch of the Jewelry business has never received its proper attention, having in most every instance been entrusted to journeyman Watchmakers, who are but indirectly, to say the most, interested in the reputation of their employers. Messrs. Prouhet & Witt attend personally to all work entrusted to them, and, as their reputation and success depend in a great degree upon the satisfaction they give in this department, are directly and deeply interested in having their work done well; and to secure such a result beyond a doubt, they have concluded to give that branch their personal attention. Gentlemen having Watches or Clocks out of order can therefore have entire confidence in trusting their work to Messrs. Prouhet & Witt.

These gentlemen have in their employ a corps of the best workmen in the country, and are enabled to fill all orders for Silver Ware at the shortest notice and in the most complete manner.

They also keep on hand a splendid assortment of every thing usually kept in the Jewelry business; Gold and Silver. Watches, of every price and variety; Cameo, Mosaic, Goldstone, Jet, and every description of Jewelry; all of which they offer, at wholesale or retail, for Main Street Prices, which prices are notoriously known to be from 10 to 25 per cent, less than those of any other street in the city.

They are also extensively engaged in the Daguerreotype Stock trade, which branch is under the immediate control of Isaac M. Mead, a promising young man, who has been engaged in the business for many years, and who is thoroughly posted in regard to all the minutiae of the business. This branch of trade has long been monopolized by a few in the West, and as


competition is the life of trade, and a fine field being offered, our young friends determined to incorporate this into their business, and are now prepared to fill orders for goods of any description in this line.

As they are all young men — competent men — deserving men — and having recently embarked in business, we heartily wish them a speedy and pleasant voyage to wealth.


This favorite establishment is situated at No. 86 Fourth street, corner of Locust street, and stands alone in point of excellence — superior in every respect to all other houses following the same branch of business.

Mr. Thompson established himself in St. Louis in 1842, and by strict attention to business and an earnest desire to render perfect justice to all, has gained for himself and his house a reputation second to none. There is no establishment in the city which evidences in a greater degree the success which has attended the honorable exertions of our business men than this one. Commencing upon a small scale, he has grown with the growth of the city and extended his facilities as the demands of the public increased, till at the present day he finds himself at the head of the largest house west of the Mississippi and one of the largest in the United States.

Mr. Thompson when he first entered upon the duties of his profession set out with the firm determination of rendering complete and perfect satisfaction to every one who favored him with their orders. In order to do this more effectually he engaged a number of the best workmen in the country, and has


ever continued to keep only those who were "A. No. 1." At the present time he has two gentlemen engaged in cutting garments — one who devotes his entire time to coats; and here let me remark en passant, the gentleman engaged on coats has not his superior in the world — in fact he is the inventor of the system he uses, and it is one now in general use throughout the country. If he fails to succeeed in giving a neat fit, it is useless for others to try. The gentleman who devotes his attention to pantaloons and vests has not his superior in his line in the Valley of the Mississippi. Mr. Thompson is himself a master of the trade, and personally inspects every article before he passes it over to the customer — having done which, he can confidently recommend them to his customers.

Mr. Thompson also keeps a fine assortment of Ready Made Clothing — not the slop-shop work which is sent here from the Eastern cities for the purpose of selling cheap, and whose only merit consists in its cheapness — but goods made up under his own superintendence during the dull season, for the purpose of being able to meet the wants of those who have not the time to spare requisite to have garments made to order. We firmly and honestly believe there does not exist in St. Louis a place where a better, more fashionable, or neater suit of clothes can be obtained than at the house of Mr. D. S. Thompson. No better stock of cloths, cassimeres, satinetts, vestings, &c., can be found in the city, from which those desiring new garments can make their selections. Besides the large stock on hand, he is constantly receiving by Express every new pattern as soon as it makes its appearance in the East.

One person is employed by Mr. Thompson for the purpose of repairing the clothes of those who may so desire it, and they can not be done better in the city, it matters not who undertakes the job


Mr. Thompson's terms are as liberal as any one could wish, while his clerks are accommodating and obliging gentlemen, who are always ready and willing to wait upon visitors, whether they make purchases or not. Let us urge upon the reader to give our friend a call when he wishes to procure any thing in the shape of clothing.

Mr. Thompson also keeps on hand a large and varied assortment of gentlemen's furnishing goods, with which he can supply the wants of any who may wish such articles, at prices which compare favorably with those of his cotemporaries.


Mr. William F. Holske, located at No. 62 Chesnut street, between Third and Fourth streets, has a shop devoted to the manufacture and sale of Mathematical, Optical and Philosophical Instruments, which, from the position it holds, claims from us a passing notice. Mr. Holske has been engaged in this business for nearly twenty years, and has been located in St. Louis since 1854. He has gained a wide and favorable reputation for the high finish he has been able to impart to his manufactures. There is not a person in any part of the United States engaged in this branch of trade who has acquired a wider reputation, or whose wares are held in higher esteem or greater favor.

Possessing all the modern improvements, he is able to add his own valuable experience, extending, as it does, through a long series of years, and thus produce instruments possessing the sine qua non which is so difficult to attain and which is so much sought after by all those who have use for them. His stock of Surveying Instruments is one of the best in the West, and the


facilities possessed by Mr. H. for the successful carrying on of his business enables him to offer them on terms which can not fail to attract those desirous of purchasing.

Mr. Holske is a gentleman of fine business capacity, and by his tact and talent, as much as by the superior quality of his wares, has succeeded in building up one of the best "runs" of custom in the States. We are certain that none can do better than to call and examine this stock before purchasing elsewhere, as Mr. H. can and will suit you, both as regards the quality of the article wanted, and the price to be paid for it.

Besides having every facility for the manufacture, he has his affairs so arranged as to be able to do all manner of repairing in the neatest style and in the shortest possible time.


The Book Store of Messrs. Edwards & Bushnell is well and favorably known to the reading public, from Maine to California, as one of the most extensive Book and Stationery Houses, in the West. Commencing business in St. Louis in 1850, under the most favorable auspices, the success of this house has been such as to meet the expectations which were entertained by the proprietors. A change has recently been made in the firm — Mr. Edwards retiring and Mr. Bushnell assuming entire control of the business.

This house has always on hand one of the finest selections of Standard Works to be found in the West, and the arrangements effected with the Eastern publishers enable it to offer to its Western customers all the advantages that they can obtain in the Eastern cities. Besides purchasing largely from the Eastern and European publishers, Mr. B. engages


extensively in the publishing business himself, and has issued many volumes from his press which have been received with favor by the literati.

A better selection of Stationery than can be found on the shelves of Mr. Bushnell can not be found in the city, and we are certain that those country merchants who consult their own interests will find it to their advantage to visit this house and examine the stock and Mr. B.'s terms. With the facilities possessed by this house, we feel justified in saying that we do not think better bargains can be obtained from any dealer in the United States.

Mr. Bushnell is thoroughly initiated in all the particulars concerning the Book trade, and is enabled to bring to bear his vast experience in the business. Mr. B. has a large circle of friends and acquaintances, and we have no doubt that he will still further extend his trade now that he is "going it alone."


The Wholesale Establishment of Mr. D. H. Evans is at Nos. 191 & 193 North Main Street, directly opposite the Missouri Hotel, and from the character of the house, as well as the management, it deserves from our hands something more than a mere mention. In 1842, Mr. Evans established himself in St. Louis and commenced business as a Wholesale Dealer in Ale, Porter, Malt, Hops, Wines and Liquors.

The well known integrity of Mr. E. attracted to him many customers, who, pleased with the superior quality of the brands he sold, spoke in glowing terms of his Ale and Porter. His reputation became general, business from all sides poured in, and in a few years we find this house leading, by far, all its


rivals. After the retirement of Mr. Evan Evans, the business was continued by Mr. D. H. Evans, whose tact has served to still further extend the trade of the house.

There are but few persons who have not at some time or other had the pleasure of drinking a glass or two of Evans' Ale, while many an invalid has been strengthened by a liberal allowance of his London Porter. At Mr. Evans' you are always certain of obtaining the very best brands, and that which he has imported himself. The facilities possessed by this house for the transaction of an extensive business are far superior to those of any other house in the city. While other firms engaged in the same branch of trade are languishing under an almost total suspension of business, this house goes swimmingly on, steadily holding its own and rejoicing that times are so good. The house that can retain its usual quota of patronage during such times as have hung over us for the last ten months, must have a firm hold upon the affections of the people.

The liquors of this house are all imported directly from the manufacturers and are warranted to be just what they are represented, and we can not do better than to suggest the propriety of our readers calling on Mr. Evans and looking over his stock and we are certain that they will not do otherwise than procure their supplies from him when once having personally tasted.


Messrs. Balmer & Weber have the most extensive establishment devoted to the publication and sale of Music and Musical Instruments in the city. The gentlemen comprising this firm are superior musicians, having for about twenty-three years been engaged in teaching it. In 1847, they opened a store in


St. Louis and commenced the publication of music. They have issued from their prolific press many of the most beautiful and popular pieces of the day. The public have become convinced of their sound musical taste, and know that any thing they publish is worthy of being heard.

They have a large assortment of Piano Fortes and Musical Instruments of every variety, which they are enabled to sell on the most advantageous terms, as their arrangements with the manufacturers give them peculiar advantages over other houses.

They have also the Western Agency for the sale of Prince & Co.'s Improved Patent Melodeons, which they furnish to purchasers at the factory prices. Their instruments have an enviable reputation with all connoisseurs, who regard them as superior to any other.

Messrs. Balmer & Weber have arrangements with all the music publishers in the country by which they receive all music as fast as it is issued from the press, and which they offer to the public as cheap as any other house. Dealers, Military Bands, Seminaries and Professors will be supplied on the most liberal terms.

Messrs. B. & W. are first rate business men, and have, by their talent, won an enviable reputation in St. Louis. They command an extensive trade, and no one should fail to give them a call. Their house is situate at No. 56 North Fourth Street, between Olive and Pine, West side.


The popular Restaurant situated on Fourth Street at Nos. 59 & 61, and so long and favorably known by the above title, has


recently undergone numerous changes and has become so much improved that its old acquaintances would fail to recognize it did it not still preserve the well known landmarks. Along with its outward change, it also appears in the charge of new hands. No, not exactly new hands, for Mr. John B. Ganter still remains; but he has taken unto himself as partner Mr. H. A. Hambright, who will henceforth conduct the business under the name of Ganter & Hambright.

Mr. Ganter is well known to most of our citizens as a clever and obliging caterer to public wants, and by his efforts has established a favorable reputation throughout the West and South for his house. He has an extensive experience, having been engaged in the business over twenty years — a portion of the time being spent in Cincinnati.

Mr. Hambright is well known to many of our citizens as a gentleman of courteous, urbane and accommodating manners, who has had an experience of over twenty years. Mr. H. has long been engaged upon the river, and there is not a steamboatman on the Western waters who can not bear testimony to his obliging disposition. For a long time Mr. H. was the popular host of the "Crystal Palace" in Louisville, and it was by his efforts that that house became so popular with all Kentuckians. We are certain that no steamboatman or Kentuckian will think of being in St. Louis without calling at this house.

The arrangements recently made in this house have greatly added to its capacity, and they now have eight splendid private rooms for the accommodation of small parties, while their ordinary for the use of societies, suppers, &c., is capable of seating two hundred persons.

The bar is stocked with the choicest liquors and cigars, while the larder is supplied with every delicacy the market contains, which will be served up in incomparable style, on the shortest notice, to the hungry, by the most experienced cook in the city.


No. 132 Main Street, nearly opposite the old Bank of Missouri.

This house was established in the commencement of the year 1843, and at once stood forth as a candidate for a share of the widely-developing trade justly due and centering at St. Louis, and at that early date assumed a front rank among the houses engaged in their line of business. They are in possession of all the facilities necessary for the transaction of an extensive Wholesale business, and commend themselves to the favorable notice of our country merchants by having always on hand a stock so varied as to be able to suit the wants of any purchaser for any section of country.

A better or more extensive assortment of Cloths, Cassimeres, Vestings, Velvets, Prints, Shirtings, Linens, Silks, Laces, Ribbons, Gloves, Hosiery, Merinoes, Cashmeres, Flannels, Blankets and Shawls, can not be found in the Mound City.

Like many other of our extensive Wholesale dealers, Messrs. Slevin import their goods direct, thereby saving to themselves and their customers the profits which have heretofore been paid to the importer in the seaboard cities. The fact that goods can be purchased in St. Louis as cheap as in New York is now beginning to be pretty generally understood, and is exerting its influence on our Western retail merchants, who, instead of paying the heavy expenses incurred by a trip to the East, as well as


the increased expenditure for freight and loss of time, are turning their attention to the cities of St. Louis, Louisville and Cincinnati — the great depots for the West.

The economy of business and the profits of mercantile transactions often depend on the stability and readiness of merchants in having means to take hold and import in such quantities as to make purchases of manufacturers at really reduced prices — and the Messrs. Slevins having old established houses in the three cities of St. Louis, Louisville and Cincinnati, all engaged in the Wholesale Dry Goods line, have actual advantages in importing cheaper than usual, being ready and capable at all times of buying large quantities at reduced rates for their several houses.

Lead Pipe and Sheet Lead, and dealers in Pig and Bar Lead,
South Main Street, corner of Almond.

These gentlemen have been engaged in St. Louis for about four years, and have won a large circle of friends by strict attention to business and an honorable course towards all persons; indeed, there is no house in the city possessed of a brighter name. They work about forty hands and do a large business, having in possession every facility for the transaction of a large jobbing trade.

We can with confidence recommend them to the notice of our readers as gentlemen worthy of patronage.


CHARLES FRITZ, Proprietor.

Mr. Charles Fritz, at No. 52 North Fourth street, importer and wholesale and retail dealer in Musical Instruments and European and American Music, has one of the most extensive depots in the United States. Mr. Fritz commenced business in St. Louis in September, 1853, and has been so successful as to render his name a household word in every home where music is admired. His arrangements for the publication of New Music is the completest and most satisfactory of any we are acquainted with; he issues weekly new pieces of American Music, while every steamer brings him all that is worthy of notice from the publishers of Europe.

Mr. Fritz imports direct from the manufacturers in Europe all descriptions of small instruments, such as Guitars, Violins, Melphomenes, Brass Horns, Cornets, Bugles, etc., as well as an extensive assortment of Piano, Guitar, Banjo, Harp and Violin Strings, which he offers to the trade on the most reasonable terms — such indeed as will not be overlooked by purchasers who look to the main chance.

Mr. Fritz has also arrangements with all the various American manufacturers of musical instruments, which enables him to furnish every style of Piano or Melodion that may be desired on terms equally advantageous as can be obtained from the manufactory.

We ask our lady readers who desire to obtain a good selection of Music, or a first rate Instrument, to call on Mr. Fritz, as they will be sure of having every wish satisfied, and will find courteous, affable and gentlemanly clerks to attend to their wants.



The business of renovating is an important one in St. Louis, there being a number of large establishments devoting their attention to it, and the kindred branch of dyeing. Among the houses engaged in this business is that of Samuel G. Starkey, at No. 36 Chesnut street. Mr. Starkey has had a long experience, and gained much credit for the skillful manner in which he executes all orders submitted to his care.

The establisment of which Mr. Starkey is now the recognized head, was first offered as a candidate for public patronage in the year 1832, by M. Leduc, who "ruled the roast" for several years to the entire satisfaction of all his numerous customers. In 1842 Mr. Starkey became sole proprietor, and has since that time devoted his energy and talent to the building up of an extensive trade. As the city grew apace, and the wants of the people required it, new improvements were made and many additions effected, till at the present time it is one of the best establishments in the country. He is now prepared to execute in the best possible manner, and at a cost less than any of his rivals, all orders left with him for the cleansing and repairing of Ladies' Silks, Merinoes, Cashmere and Crape Shawls, Carpets, Straw Bonnets, Feathers, &c.; Gent's Coats, Pants and Vests.

The arrangements for dyeing are most complete, and Mr. Starkey can, with confidence, assure the public that their orders will be promptly attended to in the most scientific manner, as he has this branch under his immediate supervision, giving it his personal attention.

The ladies' department is presided over by Mrs. Starkey, and we can assure our lady friends that they will not regret giving this lady a call when they are desirous of having any of their Silks improved in color or appearance.


No. 73 Olive Street.

There is at No. 73 Olive street an establishment devoted to the manufacture of Show Cases, of every variety, from the common Black Walnut to the splendid Rosewood. Here can be found the Mahogany, Sterling Silver and German Silver Show Cases, in great variety. Mr. Anderson, the gentlemanly proprietor, established himself in St. Louis, in this branch of business, in 1854, and immediately received that attention which always attracts to enterprises of worth and merit. Besides every variety of Show Case, this house keeps on hand a superior description of Jeweler's Trays, Specie Boxes, Book Cases, Looking-glass Plates, of all sizes. Here the druggist can find a Prescription Case to suit his taste, and the barber one where with to decorate his shop.

Previous to the opening of this establishment by Mr. Anderson our merchants and business men were compelled to order their goods from Cincinnati or the East; now the order of things has changed, and we find Mr. Anderson sending his wares to Chicago and Cincinnati, actually bearding the lion in his den. The manner of packing observed by Mr. A. obviates all liability to breakage when shipped either by railroad or steamboat; and he undertakes to place his wares at your own doors as cheap as you can purchase of the manufacturer in Cincinnati — an undertaking which, we are warranted in asserting, he fulfils in every case. Mr. A. employs a host of St. Louis mechanics, and furnishes many hands with work who otherwise would perhaps languish in neglect and poverty. We claim for Mr. A. a liberal portion of patronage from our Western friends.


Importers and Jobbers of

Are located at No. 3 Main street, in the new Merchants' Exchange Block, between Market and Walnut streets, and offer to the retail dealer advantages superior in many respects to any similar house in the city.

These gentlemen have been engaged in the wholesale Hardware trade but a short time, yet so favorable were the auspices under which they commenced that they stepped at once into a large remunerative trade. They were thoroughly conversant with the minutiae of the business in which they engaged, as well as what was required to meet the wants of the country merchants. They made all their arrangements accordingly, and the result has more than answered their most sanguine expectations.

Messrs. Bremermann, Rashcoe & Co. import direct from the English and German manufacturers all descriptions of Cutlery, Guns, etc., while they keep constantly on hand one of the most complete assortments of American manufacture to be found in any city in the United States. The manner in which this house makes their purchases enables them to offer better terms to the country merchants than any of their rivals in business, and we would recommend them to call and examine the stock to be found upon the shelves of this firm before making purchases elsewhere, as we are convinced they will not regret it.

Messrs. Bremermann, Rashcoe & Co. are but lately established, as we have already said, but they are well and favorably known, throughout the valley of the Mississippi as gentlemen of fine business attainments, and who are determined to let no pains be spared to render their house the favorite place of resort to the country merchant.


Corner Fourth and St. Charles sts.

The firm of Ubsdell, Pierson & Co. holds a prominent position among the commercial houses of the West. It is, in reality, a heavy New York Dry Goods House located in the West, it being one of the heaviest importing houses in the Union, and offering all the inducements of the best New York establishments to the Western trade. A vast amount of trade stops in the West that would go to New York and Philadelphia, but for our large Western houses, such as the one we are now speaking of. Still we are confident a great amount of misapprehension exists among our country merchants in regard to the advantages of buying in the seaboard cities over our wholesale Western towns. The opinion of many is, that to buy cheap and secure a good assortment, they must spend the time, incur the travelling bills, and pay the extra costs of transportation to buy and bring their goods from the East, and then another installment, in the shape of exchange on New York or Philadelphia, to get Western funds applied on Eastern accounts.

One of the senior partners of this firm residing in Paris and the other in New York, gives them an opportunity of purchasing goods on the most favorable terms. The control of the St. Louis house is under the superintendence of Messrs. William Barr and James Duncan, the junior members of the firm, and more affable and courteous gentlemen can not be found in the city. Possessing a vast acquaintance among the country merchants of the adjoining States, and being intimate with the minutiae of the trade, they possess many advantages over their cotemporaries. Individuals visiting St. Louis may rest assured that they will find at their house on Fourth street, between Vine


and St. Charles streets, the same variety of goods, marked at precisely the same figures as at New York, which can be bought and paid for in Western funds.

Another consideration may be added to the above. In buying so much nearer home, men are not liable to do up their work on so large a scale. The policy of purchasing in small lots and replenishing often, according to the condition of the market or the rapidity of their sales, enables them to avoid large accounts East, and saves again in interest, which is no trifling item in a merchant's accounts in the course of a few years of trade.

If any of our mercantile readers should question any of the facts which we have brought up touching the advantages that are offered by Western wholesalers, they must not fail to call on Messrs. Barr & Duncan and investigate the matter for themselves.

As to an assortment, they will find the case equally clear. Messrs. Ubsdell, Pierson & Co.'s stock is kept with reference to all the wants of the Western trade. Merchants in Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, Kentucky, and the new Territories, can find the entire array of goods their particular market demands.

Their store house is one they have lately erected, and is superior to any similar establishment in the Western country. They also are prepared to do an extensive retail trade, and so well is the house respected that crowds of ladies constantly throng the sales room.

Messrs. Ubsdell, Pierson & Co., have a room for the accommodation of the retail trade, and which, by the way, is the most magnificent establishment west of the Alleghenies, where courteous and attentive clerks are ever ready to attend to your wants.


Refrigerators, Ice Chests, Shower Baths, Rope, Twine, Cordage, Wrapping Paper, Mats, Brushes, Cane Chairs, Japanned and Plain Tin Ware, Planished and Britannia Ware, Water Coolers, Filters, &c.;
— ALSO —
Cutlery, Silver Plated Ware, Feather Dusters, Toilet Ware, Fine Pocket Cutlery, Razors, Scissors, Combs, &c. — Wholesale and Retail —
No. 105 North Fourth street, (Ten Buildings,) St. Louis. SOLE AGENT FOR HAVEN & WHITE'S SUPERIOR BROOMS.

The establishment of Mr. Locke is, without doubt, the most complete and extensive of its kind, not only in St. Louis, but in the West. This house is another evidence of what has been and may be achieved by persevering and honorable men in our city.

Mr. Locke began business in St. Louis in June, 1856, and by devoting his entire time and energy to catering to the wants of his customers, and selling at low and reasonable figures, has achieved a success of which he may well feel proud, as his position at the present time is second to none in the country.

The first floor of his immense store is devoted exclusively to the House, Hotel and Steamboat Furnishing Business. Here can be found, in great variety and quantity, every thing requirsite to the complete fitting out of the dining-room and kitchen,


together with many articles, both useful and ornamental, for the parlors and chambers. We have never inspected a greater variety of Silver Plated Ware, consisting, as it does, of every thing of the latest patterns; Cutlery of the most magnificent kind, of the neatest and most recherche styles, elegantly ornamented; Tea Trays and Plate Warmers; Planish Chafing-dishes; Coffee Urns; with many other styles of goods which we can not here enumerate, as they would only serve to confuse the reader, but which, when inspected, present a beautiful appearance, and meet with a rapid sale from all who desire to furnish their houses in a good style. This department is designed for the special accommodation of the retail trade; a host of polite and attentive clerks are always in attendance, ready to show and explain every thing to visitors.

On the second story we come to that portion of the house devoted to the jobbing trade. Here we find many things which can not be procured at any other place in the city. In addition to those things we have already enumerated is a full and complete assortment of Cedar, Wooden and Willow Ware, of the best manufacture. Here also may be found Refrigerators, Water Coolers, Shower Baths, and Plain and Japanned Tin Ware. The entire stock, in point of excellence, beauty of finish, or durability, excels any thing of the kind we have ever seen. We would respectfully urge our citizens and steamboat men to call and examine this establishment before they make purchases elsewhere, as they may find it much to their advantage to make selections from his stock.

The advantages possessed by Mr. Locke enable him to offer to his customers, both wholesale and retail, inducements that are readily appreciated by all who do business with him. Manufacturing a large portion oE his goods himself, and having extensive connections with manufacturing houses, both East and


West, he is enabled to offer a great many goods at lower prices than ever before sold in this city. Should those country dealers who usually go East for their stock of goods only visit St. Louis and call at such houses as Mr. Locke's, they would become convinced of the folly they exhibit; if they can not purchase goods as cheap at this house as they can in New York, we are much mistaken.

Another advantage possessed by Mr. L. is, that he sells only for CASH, and having no bad debts on his hands he can afford to sell much cheaper than those who do a credit business. The cash system is the only true basis upon which to depend. It is always successful — the very nature of the thing precludes the possibility of failure; and the success that has attended the efforts of those who have tried this system speaks volumes in its favor. When once the country merchant begins to realize the fact that by paying cash for his stock he can get it from fifteen to twenty-five per cent, cheaper than upon the most approved paper, he will at once adopt the rule, and strictly adhere to it. Let them call on Mr. L. and become convinced.

In point of beauty and neatness this store stands unrivalled, and forms the most attractive feature in that part of the city in which it is located. Strangers visiting the city should not fail to visit this establishment, where they will meet with a polite reception, and every attention will be shown them by the courteous proprietor.

COLLINS & BLATCHFORD. — This firm (see page 350) have a branch of their Lead Pipe and Sheet Lead manufactory on the corner of Clinton and Fulton streets, Chicago, 111. They are the sole agents in Chicago for the St. Louis Shot Tower and the Collier White Lead and Oil Company.


No. 108 Fourth street, (Glasgow Row,) opposite Vine st.

This establishment, which has been in existence since May, 1849, fills an important position in the trade of our city. Its arrangements for furnishing every thing in its line are of the most extensive character. Here housekeepers, either young or old, have but to mention any desired article and it is at once placed before them, and at prices in keeping with the times.

In a stroll through this Warehouse, we noticed a full and complete stock of Household and Miscellaneous articles, embracing Hardware, Cutlery, Plated Britannia, Bright and Japanned Tin, Wooden and Willow Wares, Mats, Brushes, Baths, Refrigerators, Water Coolers and Filterers, Tin and Wire Safes, Steps, Clothes-horses, etc. Wholesale and Retail; also many articles which we have not room to enumerate in this sketch, but comprising every thing possibly needed in either private residence, hotel, saloon or steamboat.

Mr. Brainerd is a most accommodating gentleman, and has, by his courtesy and fair dealing, built up for his house a trade which now reaches to every community which has business relation with St. Louis; and this extensive business enables him to offer to his customers the most rare bargains.

We advise our readers to inspect his large and varied assortment of Household and Furnishing Goods, as a visit, even as a matter of curiosity, will more than repay the trouble.

The idea of having every thing needed by the housekeeper all in one establishment was new here until introduced by Mr. Brainerd, and a most convenient arrangement it is, for the


trouble of having to visit a half-dozen establishments to obtain as many different articles is at once obviated, and gives to the purchaser the opportunity of buying such goods as will present a uniform appearance, or, as our lady friends would term it, "match well," thus at once saving trouble and gratifying the taste.

Again then, we say, do not neglect to pay the establishment of S. S. Brainerd a visit, and our word for it you will count the time well spent.

No. 15 Chesnut Street, two doors West of Republican office.

The art of lithographic printing has been conducted in so masterly a style in St. Louis as to win the admiration of the connoisseurs in all parts of the country and gain for our lithographers a wide and honored reputation. Among the best and most accurate lithographic printers we will mention Mr. A. McLean, a gentleman who has resided, and pursued his art with an earnest devotion for about eight years in St. Louis. Mr. McLean has executed many superior works of art since he has been in our midst, and as an evidence of what he can do we respectfully direct the attention of the reader to our "frontispiece," an accurate representation of the Merchants' Exchange, and the superior lithograph of Giles F. Filley's "Excelsior Stove Works." We cordially recommend Mr. McLean to the public.



The business locality of these gentlemen is No. 208 Broadway and No. 195 North Fourth street. The establishment of this firm has been in successful operation in St. Louis for upwards of fifteen years, and they have by strict attention to business, an honorable and upright intercourse with all their patrons, won the esteem, confidence and respect of the entire community. St. Louis is large enough to afford ample scope for the establishment of many such houses as the one we are speaking of, but there have been but few who possessed the requisite qualities to achieve greatness in this line to enter and pursue it. Among those who have been eminently successful Messrs. Wendover & Co. deserve special notice.

They keep constantly on hand at their sales and store rooms a large and well assorted stock of all kinds of Groceries, with which they are enabled to fill all orders given them by country dealers, upon terms equally as favorable as any other house in the Mississippi Valley. They purchase their stock direct from the producer, and upon such terms as render them capable of competing successfully with the houses of New York or New Orleans.

These gentlemen, besides doing a large jobbing trade, have special arrangements for furnishing supplies to families residing in the city. Their stock consists of every thing embraced in the Grocer's line, which will be delivered at the purchasers' doors as cheap as they can be obtained in the store of any house in the country. Remember their numbers — 208 Broadway and 195 North Fourth street.


Importers and Wholesale Dealers in
Corner of Second and Green streets.

This is the most extensive establishment engaged in this branch of trade West of the Mississippi, and has but few if any superiors in the United States. A more complete stock can not be found any place than the one kept constantly on hand by Messrs. M. & Bro. By a strict observance to the wants of the trade, and a liberal catering thereto, they have extended their operations over an immense extent of country, extending from the great Lakes in the East to the Territories of New Mexico and Utah in the West — from the head waters of the Mississippi to the shores washed by the waves of the Gulf; supplying every village and hamlet, they have won the confidence and respect


of every one, and made their name as familiar as "household words."

They import direct from the producers all varieties of goods, thus rendering themselves capable of successfully competing with the jobbers in the seaboard cities. Their stock of Foreign Fruits consists of Oranges, Lemons, Figs, Raisins, Currants, Citron, Prunes, &c.; every description of Preserved Fruits, in glass jars; Jellies; Hermetrically Sealed Vegetables; Fruits; Oysters; Crabs; Salmon; Lobsters; Clams; Pie Fruits, in generous abundance; and Syrups, in any quantities. A large and well-selected stock of Green Apples is kept constantly on hand for family use and shipping, embracing the following well-known varieties: Newton Pippins, Golden Pippins, Bell Flower, Genitans, Vandevers, Romanites, Early June, etc.

This house has been established but a few years, and is the result of indomitable energy and business capacity. Commencing with a limited capital, their course has been onward and upward — onward in the march of progress — upward in the good opinions of our people, till at the present time they find themselves doing an immense business. We know of no house where buyers can obtain supplies upon better terms or meet more courteous and accommodating gentlemen to transact business with than at M. S. Mepham , No. 166 Second street, corner of Green street.

Messrs. Mephan & Brother also import largely of the best brands of cigars, and we can assure the reader that by purchasing their supplies at this house they will secure the richest, and choicest brands, among which may be found the Washington, El Sol, Victoria, Opera, Concha, Napoleon, Fillibustero, American, Camille, etc.



At No. 50 Main street is located the house of Messrs. Edward Mead & Co., the most extensive importers of Watches, Jewelry, Guns, Pistols, Cutlery, Fancy Goods, and Daguerrean Stock in the West. In 1835 Mr. Mead, the head of the present firm, commenced business in this city in company with Mr. Adriance, under the style of Mead & Adriance. At that period the wants of the country were not so great as at the present time; yet they found their stock in advance of the demand, and for several years their business was not as successful as anticipated. In 1840 Mr. Adriance withdrew from the copartnership, leaving Mr. Mead to continue the business.

Devoting his whole energies to his business, Mr. M. has had the satisfaction of seeing it increase in proportion with the city and State, and now the house of E. Mead & Co. is known throughout the entire land as having a large capital and ability to fill any contract that may be given it.

In 1849, when so much of the city was laid a smouldering mass of ruins, Mr. Mead lost his all. But, Phoenix-like, he emerged from the ashes with renewed vigor, and once more commenced the devious path to prosperity. How well he has succeeded is to be perceived by a glance at his establishment.

In 1852 Mr. Mead discovered that there was little economy and some injustice to the city in making all his purchases in


New York and suffering them to retain profits on importations which might as well be distributed. Having taken Mr. Wm. H. Maurice and B. H. Mead in partnership with him in this year, Mr. M. set himself to work to make importations on his own account, and with this view he went to Europe, visited all the cities with which he was desirous of having business relations, made his arrangements for the future, and has been for some years past enjoying the success of his efforts. Nothing can now be ordered in his line, either in Jewelry or the most costly Plate, which can not be supplied by them.

There is another department to which E. Mead & Co. have devoted particular attention. All Western people, from a twelve year old boy to the man three score and ten, are pleased with Guns, and this house has a magnificent supply of them; one floor is entirely devoted to the exhibition of them, and we doubt whether there is such a stock in the country. Double Barrel Guns and Rifles, of every size and description, length and quality, and cost, are here displayed; and it will be hard if any order can not be filled. We understand, indeed, that merchants from this and adjoining States, who go to New York to purchase goods, always omit these articles in their bills, preferring to purchase them from Messrs. E. Mead & Co., and there is good reason for it. This house buys directly from the gunmakers of Europe, and on the most favorable terms; as the duties are the same here as in New York, it can afford to sell, and does sell, as cheap as the New Yorkers can do. Such houses deserve the encouragement of our people, and we are sure that this fact, when it becomes generally known, will induce merchants from the country, and all who buy goods for their own use, to visit the store of Messrs. Edward Mead & Co.


— ALSO —
LADIES' DRESS FURS, &c., &c., &c.
Corner of Fourth Street and Washington Avenue.

The store of our young friend, Mr. Charles Chauvin, at the corner of Fourth street and Washington avenue, in the Veranda Buildings, is one of the most complete and best regulated establishments in St. Louis. Mr. Chauvin is a young man, but being to the "manner born" he possesses a thorough knowledge of the requirements necessary for the successful conducting of business in the great Commercial Emporium of the Valley of the Mississippi.

St. Louis, in many respects, is better adapted to the purposes of extensive manufacturing than any other city in the United States. Being the great fur mart of the world, the raw material is here procured at a less cost than in other cities, while the extent of, the manufactures have attracted a large number of the best workmen in the country to our midst. These two facts combined have contributed, in an eminent degree, to placing St. Louis in the position she now holds among the people of the West — of manufacturing the best quality of fur goods and hats of any city in the Union. Mr. Chauvin has been engaged as a manufacturer and dealer but a little over a year,


but a sufficient time has elapsed to establish his house deed in the affections of the people, who are never slow to appreciate true worth or to regard intrinsic value.

To one uninitiated it would appear strange that a house that sprung into existence, as it were, in a night, should attract so large a share of public attention. Now that none may languish in ignorance, we will simply state that, in the first place, Mr. Chauvin's goods are rich and beautiful, and it is worth the while of any of our business friends from abroad, when they are in the city, to look in upon him and take a view of his stock, which has such a wealth of beauty and comfort in their very looks. Think, for instance, of a hundred varieties of gentlemen's Hats — as many nearly of Caps; and how many of other goods we shall not pretend to tell.

They will be delighted, too, with his stock of Fur Goods, and should the day be invested somewhat with premonitories of winter, those who indulge in Fur Caps, Cuffs, Victorines, &c., will be especially interested. To understand more fully why such a stock is demanded, and such a trade drawn in to this establishment, we must take into consideration the prices at which they sell. The fact is, they are underselling all rival houses, and having established a "run" upon his house, he is in every way prepared for any emergency that may arise, and is fully determined to let no opportunity pass to please all who present themselves at his counter.

Mr. Chauvin was the lucky person who carried off the premium at the late Fair held in St. Louis, much to the chagrin of his rivals and competitors. Do not fail to call on Mr. C. when you want any thing in his line, as he is a whole-souled, high-minded, honorable and gentlemanly person, and whom you will be pleased to know.



Tell me, will you, if I ask you?
I would know where clothes you buy,
Cut so neat and made so tasty,
Knowing they shall me supply.
None but clothes of latest fashions
On their shelves are all complete —
Round at 176 North Main street.

Read these lines to find the fashions —
Or, to buy your clothes for cash,
Buy of Ticknor, Robbins & Co.;
Black suits — blue suits — every color,
In their store you always find.
Never are they out of any,
So the cash is not behind.

All is right — you have the number;
Never go without the cash
Down to where they keep no trash.

Cassimeres — all different patterns,
Of all colors, shade and hue,
Made expressly for their custom,
Put at lowest figures too.
And I too would call attention, to
Nice vests so fine and cheap;
You a harvest sure will reap.


L. & A. CARR,

We believe there is no business establishment in St. Louis whose firm has achieved a more deservedly high character for business integrity and honorable dealing than that of L. & A. Carr, Booksellers and Stationers, No. 49 Main street. Passing through the recent financial pressure, which carried down many older houses, these gentlemen have retained an unblemished reputation — promptly meeting all their liabilities and faithfully fulfilling every obligation to their friends. It therefore affords us great pleasure to direct the attention of fhe public to their establishment, as one that has added much to the commercial reputation of the St. Louis merchants, and as worthy the patronage of those who are desirous of procuring supplies of books and paper merchandise, and every thing connected with the stationery business. Their stock is ample, varied and most complete, imported direct from the manufacturers, both foreign and domestic, at wholesale prices, and upon terms that enable them to meet the views of purchasers.

Messrs. Carr are native St. Louisians, and are well known through the West and South as prompt and reliable men, and to our friends throughout the country we can cheerfully recommend their house as one with which it will be a pleasure to form a business connection, as well from the facilities it enjoys of furnishing the best descriptions of goods, as from the honorable character of the gentlemen composing the firm.


China, Glass, Queensware, Brittania Ware, Tea Trays, Lamps, Chandeliers, &c.,
Nos. 11 & 13 SECOND STREET.

The position occupied in the Mississippi Valley as a Jobbing and Retail house by this firm during the past twenty-five years, abundantly justifies us in paying our devoirs to it. For a long series of years they occupied buildings upon Main street, but recently their business has increased so rapidly as to compel them to seek other quarters. They accordingly selected an enviable location in that magnificent pile of buildings erected during the past season on Second street, between Market and Chesnut streets, where they have ample space to store and display their admirable stock.

This is the most extensive house engaged in this trade in the Western States, and has not its superior even in New York City, either in point of variety of stock or liberality of prices. Here the retail dealer can secure every thing he desires, of any quality or pattern, and as cheap as can be purchased in the seaboard cities.

In order that they might successfully compete with the Eastern jobbers, they a few years since made arrangements with European houses, by which means they import direct from the potteries in Staffordshire, England, every description of Queensware. They also import their stock of Trays, Waiters, etc., from the manufacturers in England. They receive their Glassware from the Glass Works of Boston, Pittsburg and Wheeling, which can not be surpassed for beauty, elegance or durability by


any manufactured in the world. The importers of New York furnish them with supplies of French China ware, upon terms equally as favorable as they could obtain them were they to go to the fountain head. The world-renowned manufacturers, Messrs. Cornelius Baker & Co., (who by the way are the largest and most extensive manufacturers in the world,) furnish the Lamps and Chandeliers. The terms upon which their purchases are made are such as to render them capable of meeting the views of their customers in an accommodating spirit.

This house was established in May, 1835, by Messrs. N. E. Janney and R. H. Miller, and met with flattering encouragement until 1848, when Mr. Janney retired from the firm. The business was then conducted by Mr. Miller under the style of R. H. Miller & Co., until January, 1857, when he admitted his sons — Charles Miller, John S. J. Miller, and Mr. G. W. Berkley — under the style of R. H. Miller & Sons. Ever since this house offered itself as a candidate for a share of public patronage, it has received a large portion of the trade of our city, and under the flattering success that has attended their efforts and the admirable tact with which the business affairs have been managed, they have won an enviable reputation throughout the West, and of which they may well feel proud.

The arrangement of their wares could not be better, and presents to the visitor an imposing appearance. The basement and third and fourth stories contain their crates and unopened stock; the first and main business floor, the white and glassware and chandeliers; the second, the colored and heavier articles of crockery, candlesticks, etc. The first floor, which is devoted to the retail trade, contains every thing that could be desired, and arranged in a style well calculated to show the articles to good advantage. The room is about twelve feet high, thirty feet front, with a depth of over one hundred feet. Here


are a corps of attentive clerks to attend to the wants of all who may wish to inspect or purchase their wares. Messrs. Miller & Sons have devoted particular pains to selecting wares for hotels and steamboats, and we would recommend our river friends to give them a call.

To country merchants we would also commend them. Give them a call before you make your purchases, as you may find it to your advantage to make connections with them. Of one thing we are certain: no better men to deal with can be found in the United States than the gentlemen composing the firm of R. H. Miller & Sons.


The position occupied by this house in St. Louis, and the West, justifies us in paying it a tribute of respect in our Sketches of St. Louis, and her manufactures. Mr. Rosenbaum, the Proprietor of this manufactory, has enjoyed an experience extending over forty years in the business — eighteen of which have been spent in St. Louis — and during that time he has built himself a reputation second to none in the United States.

Among the many curious and wonderful evidences of the ingenuity and skill of our St. Louis mechanics which were on exhibition at the St. Louis Fair last fall, we were much struck with the singular taste and skill displayed in the construction of a pair of boots — a pair worthy of the hand of St. Crispin himself — made by Mr. J. Rosenbaum, of No. 9 Olive street. They far surpassed any thing we ever conceived it possible to be


manufactured in the shape of a boot, and showed the marks of a true artist in every respect.

Nothing in all that is used towards making up the sum total of a man's wearing apparel, tends more to give a perfect and genteel appearance to his whole costume than a neat and well shaped boot and in these days the gentleman is easily recognized by the style in which his feet are dressed: therefore, it behooves all who seek for perfection in this matter to search for one who is perfect in all that pertains to his calling. Such a person is Mr. Rosenbaum, who can be found at the place above designated. His work has received the endorsement, in the shape of first premiums, of both the fairs at this place and at Boonville; and when we consider the great number of competitors, this is certainly sure proof that his establishment is unapproachable in the finish of its work.

He has always on hand a very complete and choice assortment of work of his own manufacture, which he offers at as moderate prices as can be obtained in any establishment where the best of work is done. We can do our readers no greater favor than recommending him to their patronage and confidence.

No. 77 Fourth Street, Marble Building.

This establishment occupies one of the elegant stores in the Marble Building, corner of Fourth and Olive streets, three spacious floors of which are filled,with goods of every variety appertaining to the Upholstery trade, and is very much the


largest and most complete concern of its kind in St. Louis. The business was commenced in 1853, by Mr. Chandler, at No. 112 Market street, Wyman's Hall building, but the great increase of trade soon compelled a removal to more commodious quarters, and in 1855 the present store was taken. This was the pioneer establishment in its line of business in St. Louis, being the first which combined in one the Bedding and Curtain branches of Upholstery together. The firm have given their close personal attention to their business and have acquired a high reputation for their prompt and faithful fulfillment of orders, and the superior quality of their work. In the Curtain and Window Shade department Messrs. Chandler & Co.'s stock is pre-eminent, and comprises an immense amount and variety of goods — as great, perhaps, as all the other stores in the city, and includes the entire range of price and quality. The parlors of many of our most elegant mansions attest the richness and taste of their goods.

Three of the finest Hotels which have of late years been opened in the West — Barnum's in St. Louis, the St. Nicholas at Springfield, Ills., and the Planter's House at Leavenworth City — have, among others, been fitted up from this establishment with their Curtains, Bedding, &c.

In the Bedding department great attention is paid to the manufacture of articles of superior quality suited for private houses, hotels and steamboats. Some of the finest of our St. Louis steamboats have received their outfit here. The Upholstery work on the new Falls City, and the City of Louisiana, was done by Messrs. Chandler & Co., and they are now engaged in fitting out the Hannibal City for the Keokuk Packet Company, which will be one of the most elegantly finished and furnished steamboats ever sent out from the port of St. Louis. The Keokuk Packet Company, it is well known, spare no expense


to have their boats first class in every respect, and the fact that they employ Messrs. Chandler & Co. to do all their Upholstery work is sufficient evidence that that firm is in the front rank in its business.

During the business season there are regularly employed in the manufacturing department of this concern eight men and between twenty and thirty seamstresses. The advantage secured to purchasers by having such a thorough and complete stock of articles of every grade and price belonging to the trade concentrated in one establishment, is one that no one can fail to appreciate.


This house deals almost exclusively in Paper and Rags, and, to meet the increasing demands of those purchasing stock in St. Louis, has made arrangements with manufacturers for full supplies of the various descriptions of paper, being thus enabled to fill all orders promptly and upon the most favorable terms.

The rag trade of this house gives employment to many hands. About twelve tons per week on an average are purchased, sorted, baled and shipped; and that some idea may be had of the value of this branch, we would remark, these rags are worth from sixty to eighty dollars the ton on board steamer.

To those who wish to obtain a supply of Wrapping, Book, News, or Writing Paper, we would recommend a visit to the establishment of Mr. H. B. Graham, where it can be obtained as cheap as from the manufacturers at the mills. They will also find courteous and accommodating gentlemen to attend to


their wishes and exhibit specimens. To publishers of country newspapers, Mr. Graham offers superior inducements, and we advise all such to give him a call before they make purchases.

Persons having rags to sell, by sending them to Mr. Graham will receive the highest market price in cash.

14 Olive Street, opposite Monroe House, and 56 North Fourth Street, Balmer & Weber's Music Store.

The above firm having some three years ago bought out L. M. Prince, who was one of the first of the profession to settle in St. Louis, have since considerably enlarged their business and are at the present time fully prepared to execute all orders for Stencil Brands for Flour, Pork, Whisky, Alcohol, and for all the various articles and uses, Shipping marks, &c., &c., for which Brands are used.

They also get up dies for stamping business Envelops, Cards, &c., in a style fully equal to any house in the Union. Those in want of Seals and Seal Presses for Courts, Counties, Commissioners, Notaries, Bankers, or Commercial business, will find it to their advantage to call on the above firm, as from their increased facilities their prices will be found fully as low as any of the Eastern houses. Those requiring any of the above, or any thing in their line of business, will find numberless specimens of their work at their store, 14 Olive street, opposite Monroe House.

To those requiring Wedding or Visiting Cards, Wedding or Invitation Envelops, Door Plates, marking on Jewelry, or any of the above, will find their orders punctually attended to at 56 North Fourth Street, Balmer & Weber's Music Store.


108 Olive street.

Dr. I. Forbes came to St. Louis in April, 1837, at which time it contained a population of a fraction over 8000 souls.


He found the field occupied by no less than ten dentists. In the line of precedence were Dr. Brown, Dr. Hale, &c.; in less than three years the force was reduced to three, the balance having left the city for want of patronage. Dr. Forbes, Dr. Hale and Dr. Brown were then for a number of years the only practical dentists in the city. In 1849 the California fever prevailed over Dr. Brown, and he departed for the golden shores of the Pacific, leaving Dr. Hale and Dr. Forbes as the veteran dentists.

At the time Dr. Forbes made his debut in the Mound City Second street was the promenade — the place where fashionable people most did congregate; he accordingly established himself in an office upon that thoroughfare; but as the demands of the jobbing trade began to encroach upon that street, he removed to his present location, where his well-earned reputation followed him. The number of Dental Surgeons has kept pace with the increase of the inhabitants, and at the present time they can not be less than twelve or fifteen. In order to protect the people from the hands of empirics, the Dentists of St. Louis formed themselves into an association, at the meetings of which they discuss the various remedies and modes of treating a given question. In speaking of this society, the editor of the "Dental Register of the West" says:

"Quite a number of new members were added to the society, and from the length of time occupied by the examining committee with the candidates, and from their appearance after they were through, we rather surmised that they thought the way into that society was ‘a hard road to travel.’

"Gentlemen of the profession, unless you are about right in that which constitutes the man — in integrity and intentions, and also professional attainments, you need not ‘knock at the door’ of the Western Dental Society for admission."


The long residence in the Mound City, and the skill ever displayed by Dr. Forbes, has made his name a "household word" throughout the West; and we know none more capable or qualified to perform delicately all operations in his profession.

62 Fourth street.

There is, perhaps, no science being more rapidly developed than that of Dentistry. There is none, either, more essential to the preservation of the health and beauty of the human race. There is nothing in all "the ills that flesh is heir to" more excruciating than an aching tooth; nothing more offensive than a bad breath arising from teeth decayed; nothing more unseemly and distasteful to the eye than toothless gums; and nothing more pleasant to behold than white, polished, even rows of teeth. These are truths patent to every reader, and admitted by the most careless observer. All these ills are within the province of the Dentist, and at his hands receive a speedy eradication.

St. Louis, perhaps, has within her borders as many well-skilled and accomplished Dental Surgeons as can be found in any city of the Union. In the front rank of these must stand the gentleman whose name heads this article — Dr. A. Blake. His accomplishments as a Dentist and gentleman have won for him the regard and esteem of his brother Dentists, and the confidence of the community. His thorough knowledge of the profession enables him at once to arrive at the cause of all diseased teeth subjected to his care, and his skill suggests the


necessary remedy. Sixteen years' constant study and practice have done much to develop and perfect him in the profession which he has chosen, and this experience being added to a mind naturally active and comprehensive entitles him most justly to the position he now holds in our community as a Dentist.

Dr. Blake is a prominent member of the Western Dental Society — an association that requires the candidate to pass a most thorough, searching examination before he can be admitted, and which gives a guaranty to the public that its members are gentlemen of ability, skill and judgment, and every way worthy the confidence of our citizens.

Importer and Dealer in Saddlery Hardware, Carriage and Harness Trimmings, Hides and Leather of every description, Shoemaker's Findings, Tanners' Oil, Curriers' Tools, etc., etc., etc.,
140 North Main Street, St. Louis.

We do not believe that a more highly esteemed and popular gentleman, than the one whose name stands at the head of this article, can be found; a long series of years devoted to the interests of the city won him the respect and confidence of our citizens, who selected him for their chief magistrate three different times, the duties of which he administered in a manner that reflected honor upon himself and credit to the city. Mr. How, as a merchant, has ever maintained an elevated position, and we know of none whom we would sooner recommend to the reader.



BY RAILROAD TO JEFFERSON CITY, thence by a Daily Line of ELEGANT MAIL STEAMERS to all points on the river as high as St. Joseph, connecting there with the various Packet and Stage Lines for Kansas, Nebraska and Iowa. Fare as low as by any other route. TIME SAVED over the RIVER ROUTE full thirty hours.

The Pacific Railroad Packet Line was established in the summer of 1856, under a contract entered into with the Pacific Railroad Company by Capts. Barton, Able and Louis A. Shelton, by which the latter parties placed in connection with that Road three Steamers — the "Cataract," "F. X. Aubry," and "Australia" — forming a tri-weekly line between St. Louis (via Jefferson City) and Weston. On the opening of navigation in 1857, this line was increased to a daily (Sundays excepted), and has met with a success and patronage truly encouraging. The inducements offered by this route appeal directly to the traveller, saving, under the most favorable circumstances which can surround steamers on their trips from St. Louis, some thirty hours in time, besides the many delays and annoyances incident to a lengthened steamboat trip. In the winter of 1856


and '57 a very favorable charter was granted by the Legislature of Missouri to this company, incorporating it under the name of the "Pacific Railroad Packet Company," and the following summer Gov. Brown, the present able Postmaster General, seeing the great want of mail facilities in Missouri, caused a contract to be made with the proprietors of this line by which the Great Western Mails for Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska and Salt Lake should be carried on their boats during the season of navigation, and under the same contract forwarded by Expresses during the winter. The great demand for transportation of Government Freight up the Missouri, destined for her ports, and the prosecution of the Utah War, in which promptness and speed are required, has induced the War Department to enter into contract with the President of the Pacific Railroad Company, by which all the Government supplies, together with the troops and animals, should be conveyed by this route, so that the Pacific Railroad and its connecting Packet Line has, in the short space of about eighteen months, so clearly demonstrated itself as the most practicable and the best route for Western Missouri and the Territories, as to become not only the great Mail and Passenger, but also the great Transportation route for this section of country.

The traveller arriving in St. Louis can take either the 8 A. M. or the 3 P. M. train of the Pacific Railroad, and in six or seven hours finds himself in Jefferson City, 125 miles from St. Louis, where, within a few steps, and at the extremity of a covered gangway, lies one of the connecting Packets, ready to leave promptly upon the arrival of the Express train; his baggage being checked through, he is relieved of all care on that score, and by the time his state room is assigned him, he is steaming along on his way up the Missouri, arriving at the principal points (in an average time) as follows: Boonville, 15


hours from St. Louis; Glasgow, 20 hours; Lexington, 36 hours; Kansas, 48 hours; Leavemvorth City, 2 1/2 days; and St. Joseph, 3 days — being a saving of time of from 30 hours to two days, depending upon the stage of water in the river. The fare being the same, and accommodations equal, points this out as the most desirable route, affording an agreeable change from Railroad to river, or vice versa, relieving whatever of monotony may be attached to a continued travel by either rail or river. The passenger destined for the East, by taking the boats of this line, can tell with a certainty as to his arrival in St. Louis, reaching that point, as he does, in time for the various connecting lines. The following elegant Steamers compose this Line for the season of 1858:

Steamer JOHN H. DICKEY — DAN ABLE, Commander.

And are unsurpassed for speed and accommodation by any line upon the Western Waters. Through tickets by this route can be purchased in all the principal Ticket Offices in the East and North, or at the several Offices in St. Louis.



Regular St. Louis, Council Bluffs, Omaha City and Sioux City Packet; for St. Joseph, Savannah, Iowa Point, Oregon, White Cloud, Hemmie's Landing, Rockport, Brownsville, Linden, Nebraska City, Wyoming, St. Mary's, Bellevue, Council Bluffs, Omaha City, Florence, De Soto, Tekama, Decatur City, Sargent's Bluffa, Omadi and Sioux City.

The new and splendid freight and passenger steamer Star of the West was built expressly for the Missouri River trade, and will be found to possess unsurpassed cabin arrangements and accommodations, and in an admirable degree the qualitiss of strength, lightness, speed, and elegance of model, that will render her an acceptable and successful packet in the trade. She has been supplied with all the latest improvements for the comfort and safety of her passengers.

The officers are Capt. M. Ohlman and E. M'Clintock, Clerk; both of whom are well and favorably known to the people along the Missouri River, and who will make their boat a great favorite. The table will be supplied with every delicacy the market affords, and we do not think passengers up the Missouri River could be better accommodated than on the Star of the West.

To the favorable consideration of shippers we recommend her. All freight will be handled with care and delivered with promptness and dispatch, aad her charges will be as low as any boat in the trade.

The engines of the boat are large and powerful, and under the charge of skillful and careful engineers; while the entire corps of officers will be found polite and courteous, watchful and gentlemanly.



The Rodolph is one of the finest and fleetest boats on the Mississippi River, and has engaged in this trade at the earnest request of a large number of our most prominent shippers. The trade and travel between St. Louis and Cairo has been of considerable account for a number of years, but recently it has increased to such an extent as to require the services of a first-class boat. Overtures having been made to the Rodolphe, she has determined to enter that trade this season. She will make two trips per week, leaving St. Louis Tuesdays and Fridays.

The Rodolph is about three years old, of some three hundred tons burthen, has great power and runs with great speed. She will be found, as regards capacity for business, and the superiority of her passenger accommodations, inferior to no boat in the trade; and as such her officers take pleasure in presenting her to the favorable consideration of the public. Shippers may rely upon having their freight handled with the greatest care, and delivered with dispatch; and passengers can rest assured that in travelling on the Rodolph they will be made to feel themselves perfectly at home.

The engineers of the Rodolph are George Morgan, 1st, and Peter Hardy, 2nd; both of whom are well known and responsible men — their names giving assurance to the public that every caution will be observed. The command of the boat is placed in the hands of that prince of river men, Capt. J. A. Williams,


while H. G. Johnson and C. Devol are his adjutants in the office. A more accomplished and courteous corps of officers could not be found upon our waters, we believe, and we would advise our friends to make a trip-upon the Rodolph when they have leisure. The table is under the control of Joseph Demming, the indefatigable Steward, who always manages to have all the delicacies the market affords.

B. A. OGLESBY, Captain; H. D. M'LEAN and J. B. NORTON, Clerks.

For Omaha City, Council Bluffs, Bellevue, St. Mary's, Plattsmouth, Wyoming City, Nebraska City, Linden, Brownsville, Rockport, Hemmie's Landing, St. Stephen's, White Cloud, Forest City, Oregon, Iowa Point, Savannah, St. Joseph, Doniphan, Atchison, Weston, Fort Leavenworth, Leavenworth City, Delaware City, Parksville, Quindaro, Wyandotte City, Kansas City, &c.

The new, light draught and elegant passenger and freight steamer JOSEPH H. OGLESBY will, during the season of 1858, run as a regular Council Bluffs and Omaha City Packet.

The Oglesby is a new boat, having run but a portion of one season. She was built especially for the Missouri River trade, and can not be excelled for beauty, elegance, comfort, speeder promptness. The engines are eight feet stroke, of immense power, and managed by F. Marsh and assistants. Mr. Marsh is well known by the river men as a careful and skillful


Engineer; the Pilots are those clever fellows, E. T. Herndon and Jesse Baber; the Chief Mate, J. Goodlet; the Lieutenants in the office are H. D. M'Lean and J. B. Norton; and last, but not least, is the Captain, B. A. Oglesby. A more courteous, gallant and obliging set of men were never collected together on one boat, and passengers wishing a good time should endeavor to procure passage on board the Oglesby. While speaking of the officers, we neglected to speak of that erratic son of Momus, I. J. Rea, the original "Sam Johnson," whose side-splitting comicalities have convulsed the fun-loving people from one end of the Union to the other. Sam (we beg pardon, Mr. Rea,) has charge of the Bar, and will furnish the passengers with spiritual manifestations during the trip.

To shippers we will say, that no boat in the Missouri River trade will deliver all freight with greater dispatch, or handle it more carefully. Do not overlook her many advantages.

J. N. CORBETT, Master.

There is not a trade centering at St. Louis of greater benefit in a commercial point of view than that of the Cumberland River, and, in order to offer to the travelling and shipping community every advantage, the officers of the Sallie West determined to place her in this trade during the present season.

The Sallie West is a staunch boat, and one that finds few superiors in point of speed. The table is always loaded with every delicacy of the market, served up in the best style. The


bar is stocked with choice liquors, and every thing arranged in the completest style, and calculated to render comfortable all guests.

The officers are old and favorite boatmen, (a class of men who never let an opportunity pass of conferring a favor upon those who fall in their way,) J. N. Corbett being the Captain, and J. Morgan Smith the Clerk. To shippers we would say, make arrangements with the Sallie West if you wish to have your goods handled with care and delivered with dispatch; and to passengers who desire a safe and speedy passage, with every comfort attainable, with the company of a jovial, courteous and free-hearted corps of officers, secure berths on the Sallie West.

The Sallie West has been built but a short time, and is of about three hundred and fifty tons capacity, having two large engines of immense power, under the control of careful and competent engineers, who watch with a jealous eye the working of their charge in order to prevent accidents. We can, accordingly, recommend the crew of the Sallie West to the public as courteous and obliging men, and the boat as one that will answer all demands that will be made upon her, and as having claims to the favorable consideration of our merchants which we hope to see respected.


GILES F. FILLEY Proprietor

These Works are located two squares north of the Sugar Refinery, and were commenced by Mr. G. F. Filley, in 1849, with a capacity of eight thousand (8,000) feet of moulding floor, and melting seven (7) tons of iron per day.

The increased demand for Stoves of western manufacture quickly rendered an extension necessary, and in 1852-4-5 other additions were erected, which have since been continued until at this time the moulding floors of this Foundry have reached an area of thirty-seven thousand (37,000) feet; and — with two Cupalos of four and a half feet each in diameter in the clear — a melting capacity of thirty-five (35) tons of metal per day.

This establishment employs an average number of two hundred and fifty (250) men, whose wages alone amount to three thousand ($3,000) dollars per week.

In addition to this extensive Foundry, there are two other large concerns in the city and another is now in course of erection; all of which have a combined capacity fully equal, we think, to the demands of the West.

The accompanying view of the Excelsior Stove Works was lithographed by Mr. A. M'Lean from a sketch furnished him by the designer of Mr. Filley's patterns. It is a correct and beautiful view, and in transferring it to stone Mr. M'Lean has displayed workmanship of rare ability.


No. 9 South Fourth street,
Egyptian, Italian and American Marble Monuments, Tombs, Mantels, Tables, and Counter Tops, &c.

There is not in our city a place possessing greater attractions for visitors than the Marble Works of Mr. Warne. Here they can feast their eyes upon specimens of Statuary rivalling in beauty the master pieces of Powers and Crawford. Here they can see every description of Tombs and Monuments, designed as mementoes to those loved ones who have gone to that home from whence none return.

Mr. Warne has been engaged in business in St. Louis for eight years, and has gained for himself and his works a reputation of which he may feel proud. We feel certain that he has not his equal as a workman in the Western States, nor his superior anywhere. To those persons who wish to erect Tomb Stones or Monuments over the graves of their friends, we would say do not neglect to call upon Mr. Warne and inspect his stock and learn his prices.

Those who wish to procure a superior article of Mantels should not fail to visit Mr. Spore's Artists' Emporium, No. 101 Fourth street, where Mr. Warne has a large stock, which Mr. Spore will take pleasure in showing to all visitors.

Mr. Warne is also the sole agent in St. Louis for the Cahokia Cement Company.

All orders from the country will receive prompt attention, and we bespeak for Mr. Warne a continuance of that patronage that has hitherto attended his efforts.



This Institution, located for the present at the corner of Washington avenue and Third street, is one of the most prominent, as well as the best conducted and most complete Institution of the kind either east or west of the Alleghanies. Its Principal is Mr. Jonathan Jones, Master of Accounts, Professor of the Theory and Practice of Book-keeping, Commercial Correspondence, etc., and who, as a lecturer and instructor of the Principles of Commercial Law, has no superior in the Western country.

Among the Faculty of the Institution, we also find the names of Ferdinand Henderson, Archibald Inglis, and Henry M. Wibracht, Practical Accountants, and permanent associates in the Book-keeping Department; Philip Schmidt, Associate in the Book-keeping Department for the Evening Session of 1857-8; Charles Stuart, Professor of Mathematics, who has special charge of Commercial Calculations; S. D. Hayden, Professor of Penmanship, and who, of course, has charge of the Writing Department.

The gentlemen above named are all proficient to a remarkable degree in the various departments assigned them — and, taken as a whole, comprise a force most worthy of public confidence and most able to teach all that relates to mercantile transactions, and are of themselves a great and lasting honor to our city. Its influence is seen and felt in every town in the West; and upon the Western rivers scarcely any other mode of Book-Keeping, save that taught at this institution, can now be found. With our merchants it is a favorite school, and the fact that most of our leading business houses have their books kept upon the same plan tends to simplify and render more expeditious the various mercantile transactions of our community.


The mere business of knowing how to set figures in their proper places is not the sole end and aim of this school, and in order that we may place the institution in its proper light before those who may be ignorant of what is proposed to be done by those connected with it, we think it proper to insert here a series of questions and answers on the plan of instruction, which we find in the Catalogue:

Question 1st. What are the peculiar characteristics of Jones' Commercial College, and what does it propose to do?

Answer. 1. It has all the facilities requisite to a thorough counting-room education, the student being taught, by practical accounts, here, just as he will be called upon to perform his duties there; a young gentleman having a diploma from this Institution, therefore, must be as perfectly able to perform the accountant's duties as though he had served an apprenticeship in the counting-house — Jones' Commercial College being, to all intents and purposes, a counting-house.

2. This Institution is divided into four separate Departments, viz: one for Book-keeping, one for Commercial Calculations, one for Commercial Law, and one for Penmanship, each being independent of the other, etc.

3. The proprietor has served a regular counting-house apprenticeship in a first-class business house, and what he knows of Book-keeping he has learned in the doing of it; and as he has been taught by a practical Book-keeper, so he teaches others to perform the duties of the practical accountant. Reference given to over three hundred Book-keepers, now in charge of books in this city, who have completed their education in this Institution.

Question 2d. What is required of applicants for admission into Jones' Commercial College?

Answer. That the young gentleman be of good moral character,


industrious business habits, and at least through the rudiments of an ordinary English education.

The permanent establishment of an Institution, devoted exclusively to the instruction of gentlemen, in a select and limited number of the most important and useful branches of a General Education — confining its operations mainly to those branches which experience has long since proved can not be successfully taught in connection with the great variety of studies requisite to a scientific and liberal Education — it has long been the opinion of many of our most prominent business men that such an Academy would be of public utility, an efficient aid to the "Common School System," and an acceptable auxiliary to our deservedly popular "Literary Institutions," in their most laudable efforts; while, at the same time, it reaches a certain class, and effects an important end, in a commercial community, which could not be accomplished in any other way.

We are not unconscious of what it requires, in the way of expenditure and persevering toil, to revolutionize popular sentiment, where an entire business community have long been accustomed to look one way at the same subject; but experience has long since convinced us that it is an easy task to teach a person a thing which it is his interest to know, and to enlist the cooperation of a class deservedly popular for their enlightened liberality and enlarged views of progressive improvements and practical reforms.

The practicability of directing the education of a young gentleman with reference to that pursuit which nature or inclination may lead him to choose, and thus create a firm basis for an intelligent, rational and systematic disposition of his time, his talents, or his capital, is becoming more apparent to all; and hence the increasing demand for Mathematical and Law Institutes — Theological, Medical and Commercial Colleges;


stitutions called into being by a necessity growing out of the very organization of society, and the diversified demands and reciprocal duties of a business community. For the correctness of this conclusion, apart from our own experience, we have the highest authority. In an address on this subject, of more than usual interest to young gentlemen, the late Judge Walker (an eminent member of the Cincinnati bar) remarks:

"The result to which I would conduct your minds is, that, to the merchant, knowledge is capital. If it be a general truth in human affairs, that knowledge is power, I hold it to be preeminently so in regard to mercantile pursuits. Without it, all the capital of a Girard or an Astor would not make a merchant; and with it, as the principal thing, capital soon follows as an incident. Accordingly, the first duty of every person destined for a merchant, is to prepare himself, by a suitable education, for an intelligent discharge of his diversified functions — just as much so as of a lawyer, a physician, or a clergyman; and to this end, there is just as much need of commercial schools and colleges as of any other; and these, I rejoice to say, we are beginning to have in all our commercial cities. We have, too, commercial dictionaries and magazines — a distinct commercial department for newspapers — chambers of commerce — boards of trade — reading-rooms, and, best of all, library associations. All these things bear gratifying testimony to the increased interest taken in mercantile education. And why should it not be so? Why should not the mercantile profession stand side by side with the other so-called liberal professions? There is, in truth, no good reason, whether we look to its dignity, difficulty, or utility."



There has been, in the mercantile community, a universal prejudice of long standing, touching the art of Double-entry Book-keeping, as ordinarily taught in the "Literary and Scientific Institutions" of our day, which the incompetency of many who have attempted to teach Book-keeping theoretically, as well as the defects peculiar to their systems, have naturally enough created. This prejudice is both well founded and just; but if those institutions have mistaken Double-entry Book-keeping (a practical art) for an abstruse, complex and difficult science, and delivered long printed lectures upon its "Speculative Theory," or required the student to memorize arbitrary rules, and finally failed in the end to accomplish their object, does it hence follow that we are to have no improvement in the art of teaching? or, are systems founded upon entirely different principles — principles diametrically opposed to those in their bearing and practical application — subject to the same fate, and that, too, without a fair trial? This conclusion is disingenuous, illogical, and unjust. It is obvious to every intelligent practical accountant that Book-keeping has a theory as well as a practice to be acquired; and to that young gentlemen aspiring to the highest rank as a scientific and practical accountant, much will depend upon the demonstrator of those principles which are to govern him in the performance of his duties. The utility of Double-entry Book-keeping, in the management of accounts, is no longer questioned. Its perfect adaptation (with proper forms) to mercantile, steamboat, manufacturing, and joint stock operations, has been so fully tested, that but few business men now consider their capital safe where the books of the company are not kept by double-entry.


The only question is, how are young gentlemen, inexperienced in the management of accounts by double-entry — though familiarized with the general routine of business, writing legible hands, and competent to perform the ordinary calculations of accountants — to be qualified as practical book-keepers for the performance of their duties in the counting-house? Or, in other words, where is a supply of practical accountants, equal to the demand, to be obtained? To this we unhesitatingly reply, they can only be taught, trained and qualified by practical accountants, who understand the entire routine of the counting-house, its duties and requirements. Hence, no literary institution, school or college ever did produce a single practical accountant, competent to assume the charge of a set of books, upon the ordinary class and text-book plan of instruction.

But, if inexperienced theoretical teachers fail to supply the counting-house with practical book-keepers, and the demand for such services induce experienced practical accountants to adopt teaching as a profession — if they organize an institution with all the facilities known in the actual performance of their duties — if they teach young gentlemen, of good business habits, to perform their duties just as they have been taught, and use the exact forms and auxiliaries approved and adopted by our leading mercantile houses — can any intelligent business man question their ability to produce just as thorough practical accountants as those raised in the counting-house? Equally obvious will it appear to every unprejudiced, observing business man, that if a gentleman, of good business habits, be required to take a Blotter, containing every variety of entry that can possibly occur in the "counting-house," and put it through (in its proper shape) the Cash Book, Journal and Ledger, and give all the reasons involved in the opening, journalizing, posting, taking off the monthly trials, and finally, in the closing of the


Books, he must be competent to properly open, successfully conduct, and correctly close any set of Books under all and every circumstance.

In this particular the operations at Jones' Commercial College are peculiar; instead of placing in the hands of the pupil a treatise (such as Bennett's or Colt's Book-keeping) containing lectures, rules, &c., to memorize or to copy, a practical Book-keeper demonstrates the legitimate design of Debit and Credit, and then brings those principles to bear upon actual business transactions, such as occur in every counting-house. The student, being first taught the true nature of the relation that exists between the Merchant, the Salesman, and the Book-keeper, copies his Blotter, journalizes, posts, takes his monthly Trial Balances, &c., and proceeds in the practical discharge of his duties as though he were conducting a set of Books in an extensive establishment.

The practicability of this course, its superiority over all others, and its perfect adaptation to the making of thorough Accountants, have been fully tested in this community during the last seventeen years. Hundreds of young gentlemen out of employment, Mechanics unable to follow their pursuits, Salesmen, Second Clerks, &c., have been qualified for the Counting-house and Steamboat Clerkship, and placed in situations worth $600, $800, $900, $1200 and $1500 per annum — to whom personal reference will be given by calling upon the Principal.


From the simplicity of the practical forms now in use for Cash Books, Freight Book, Passage Book, &c. — the limited variety of transactions and uniform manner of adjusting each respective trip's work, in the ordinary routine consequent upon doing a cash business exclusively — many have been led to


Steamboat Book-keeping to be a very simple and easy thing. While to the thorough accountant and experienced steamboat clerk such is the fact, in a great majority of cases the precise reverse holds good. That is, Steamboat Book-keeping, without a knowledge of the Mercantile, is more complex, varied, and difficult than Mercantile Book-keeping in the ordinary pursuits — and why should it not be so? Steamboats incur responsibilities, contract debts, and deliver goods without pay, just as merchants do; they often speculate just as merchants speculate, and not unfrequently negotiate bills of exchange, to "raise the wind," or "to make ends meet," under circumstances that would make a "Levee merchant" blush. I have known a gentleman to purchase a steamboat without a dollar in hand, drop her down to the wharf, "stick up his single" for New Orleans, get a full cargo, step into one of our offices, effect an insurance on his "freight list," negotiate a bill of exchange on his agent in New Orleans to pay charges and outfit here, make a successful trip or two, pay for his boat, and in sixty days on the lookout for a similar speculation. Such, and three times as much more of a kindred nature, not unfrequently falls to the lot of a man but partially familiarized with the management of accounts, to blunder through. Understanding the nature of one account, he has left him an alternative, that is, to throw all transactions into his Cash Account, Recapitulate, and hand over a "Cash Memorandum" to his successor.

This clerk turns over a new leaf, counts the actual cash on board, and commences his work on "a clean sheet;" but pays no further attention to the "Cash Memorandum" (it being no part of his business). The memorandum is soon misplaced or lost, debts due the boat remain uncollected, and bills against her commence coming in — of which there is no entry in the books. The season advancing, and the receipts falling off, the


owners conclude to "tie up;" whereupon the following interesting conversation takes place, viz:

Owners. "Well, Capt. — what's the word?"

Captain."Gentlemen, we have had a fine run, a splendid business, carried more freight and passengers, made better time, burned less wood, carried a smaller crew, had the best steward in the trade — indeed, gentlemen, it is acknowledged by all hands, in port and out of port, high water or low water, that she is, emphatically, ‘the boat.’"

Owners. "Good morning, Mr. — , (clerk.) What's the good news with you?"

Clerk. "Good morning, gentlemen. ‘Right side up!’ Only give this boat a fair chance, and ‘she'll stack you up a cord of it.’"

Owners. "What do you mean by a fair chance, Mr. —?"

Clerk. "Let the owners square off old debts up to date, put in an extra boiler, paint up and put her in first rate running order, and let Capt. — manage affairs to suit his own notion."

Owners. "How much short will the boat be, after paying off as far as she is now able?"

Clerk. "Can't tell exactly; indeed, a Philadelphia lawyer couldn't tell, from the manner in which these books have been kept, up to the time of my taking charge of them; bills are coming in every trip, but, so far as known, about fourteen hundred dollars will be ‘the pile.’"

Owners. "Well! well!! This will do pretty fair for ‘green hands’ at steamboating. A splendid boat — a fine and popular captain — an economical steward — had a splendid run, made lots of money; but no cash on board!"

This might be thought a fancy sketch by some (with a few thousand dollars in spare cash) just ready to embark in a steamboat speculation; but it is our real and candid opinion, that if


"an infallible medium" were to issue a "Narrative," containing the History of steamboating and the Lives of steamboat owners (especially of those unskilled in the tmanagement of accounts), the facts disclosed would prove that hundreds of captains, pilots, engineers, etc., &c., had been ruined or rendered bankrupt, and thousands of dollars squandered, by incompetent, inexperienced, and careless steamboat clerks. But we are happy to know that an important change is rapidly taking place, and interested parties are becoming impressed with the importance of confining themselves to their legitimate professions, or of qualifying themselves for others before engaging in them. Honest, competent and worthy accountants are beginning to be appreciated and properly remunerated for their services. Young gentlemen of the highest respectability, who have distinguished themselves alike for moral character, industry, and superior professional qualifications, are abandoning the "counting-house" for "the office."

Owners are requiring the books to be correctly kept, and exacting Trip Statements and such other checks as are necessary to protect their interests from the incompetent, the careless, and the designing.

The old-fashioned steamboat clerks, who understood nothing but the "Recapitulation of Cash," are abandoning "the office," and seeking employment in other professions, or they are qualifying themselves for a practical and intelligent discharge of their duties; and we are anticipating a period not distant, when steamboating, as a professsion, will be elevated to its legitimate and proper position, and its lucrative offices entrusted to those only who are competent.

An extensive acquaintance with steamboat owners, and an experience of seventeen years in overhauling and adjusting Steamboat Books, have induced us to believe it a duty we owe


alike to ourselves and to those who are not perfect, but wish to be thoroughly qualified for the duties of their office, to call attention to this subject, and to give a more extensive outline of what our Institution contemplates. It is not a school, in the common acceptation of that term, but it is preeminently a counting-house, or an office. Each respective gentleman has his own table, chair and drawer, and receives personal or individual instruction during his continuance at the rooms.

The preparatory course to Steamboat Book-keeping is substantially the same as that of the Mercantile (except Commission operations, etc.), after which the pupil enters upon his duties as second clerk. With his "Memorandum Book," he receives his freight, dray-load after dray-load, signing his "tickets," as in the practical performance of his duties on the wharf; when fully prepared, he opens his Books and proceeds in,his work, receiving and paying out cash, recording his freight list, collecting his passage and freight bills, adjusting the accounts for damages, etc., winds up his trip, and makes out his "balance sheet," exhibiting the gains or losses for every trip or month, as the case may be. The utility of this course has been fully established, in the popularity of those who have adopted it, as well as by those who are interested in Books kept by pupils of this Institution.


The practicability of adopting Commercial Law as an important branch in a liberal and useful education will be apparent to all, and the absolute necessity of making it a constituent part of "a business man's education" grows out of the nature of the relation that commercial usages and the mercantile profession sustain to the profession of law.

If a gentleman choose to adopt the mercantile profession,


should he not know what constitutes a bargain in the eye of the law? with all that relates to a contract of sale? how far, in making a bargain, he may rightly avail himself of knowledge which he knows another does not possess, without informing him of it? In other words, should he not know where is the dividing line between fair dealing and cheating?

If a merchant buy goods in a distant market, should he not understand his own rights, and also the duties and responsibilities of common carriers?

If (as most prudent merchants do) he effect an insurance upon his goods — if, in the regular course of transportation, or while in the warehouse, or when on sale in the store, those goods are subject to various perils — is it not absolutely necessary for him to understand his own duties, and also the responsibilities of the Underwriters?

If, to meet the demands for an increase of capital, or to supply themselves with additional counsel or assistance in trade, merchants find it convenient to associate themselves in partnership, should they not, therefore, be well acquainted with their respective legal rights, duties and guaranties?

Indeed, the two professions are so intimately connected, and their reciprocal duties so marked, as to puzzle the intelligent business man to determine which is the greatest "boor," or the most unfortunate victim — a lawyer, unskilled in the management of accounts, acting as "Master in Chancery," or a merchant, unfamiliarized with the laws of trade, embarking in various complicated speculations, or incurring high responsibilities. "Ah!" remarks a casual observer, "would you require every merchant to be educated for a lawyer?" "I answer (says Judge Walker), that while there is a vast field of law which I would advise the merchant not to meddle with, I would have him study the general principles of mercantile law, for


the same reason that I would have a mechanic familiar with the tools of his trade. Indeed, so essential do I deem this kind of knowledge to every merchant, that, were I educating my son for that profession, I would set apart at least two years of his novitiate expressly for this study; nay, more — so much do the two professions run into each other, especially in commercial cities, that if I were educating my son for the law, I should desire to have him spend at least the same period in a good counting-room. I speak now from my own professional experience. After having occupied more than the usual time in preparing to practice law, when I entered upon the practice, the most serious want I encountered was the want of a more accurate knowledge of those customs of merchants which constitute so large a part of mercantile law. But, while I I make this confession, let me say, on the other hand, that a somewhat extensive professional intercourse with the mercantile class has often caused me to feel astonished at their profound ignorance of their legal rights and duties, although to that very ignorance I was indebted for the need of my professional services."

It is not the design of this department to produce lawyers, but it shall be its highest aim to keep merchants out of law. Very great and insuperable obstacles have hitherto prevented the carrying into execution of our original intentions touching this interesting subject, but our arrangements are such as to enable us to give the fullest assurance to the public that in future a regular course of Lectures will be delivered during each session, embracing the following subjects, viz: Contracts in General, Contracts of Sale, Contracts of Affreightment, Contracts with Common Carriers, etc., etc.; Fire Insurance and Marine Insurance, with such other subjects as have a direct bearing on Mercantile Contracts; Bailments in General,


and Domestic Bills of Exchange, Promissory Notes, Bonds, Covenants, and other sealed obligations; Set-off and Recoupment, Principal and Agent, Principal and Security, Corporations, etc., etc.; with such other subjects as may be of practical utility to the business man, and enable the merchant to understand his rights and responsibilities.


This department occupies the third story of the College building, situated on the south-east corner of Washington avenue and Third street, and will hereafter be under the control of Charles Stuart, Professor of Mathematics, whose superior qualifications as a successful teacher have been long known and properly appreciated in this community; and his complete system of "Ready Reckoning" makes this course of the highest importance to those wishing to become thorough practical accountants. The course of instruction embraces a knowledge of every species of Calculation necessary for a business man to know; the system is Analytical, Inductive, and Practical, including all the modern improvements in the Art of Teaching (many of which are original, and peculiar to this Institution), such as the "Cancelling Method," Rules for Interest Calculations, General Average, etc., etc.


To write a free, legible hand — such as should be used in the keeping of books, the making out of bills, or in the ordinary correspondence of a business man — is a desirable accomplishment in the education of young gentlemen for every profession; but most especially is it an object of first importance with those desirous of qualifying themselves for mercantile and business pursuits.


No pains will be spared, on the part of the Professor in this department, to give a free and natural use of the arm, wrist and fingers, and to impart a cultivated taste for a plain, uniform and expeditious system of fine writing. Everything resembling a flourish positively prohibited with those designed for the counting-room.


One somewhat "posted up" touching men and things, would, at first view, naturally enough presume it but an easy and pleasing task, to teach another a thing, which that person's own professional duties — the duties he owes to his creditors — the duties he owes to his family, as well as his own personal interest and reputation — require him to know. Acting under such mistaken notions, and from a well-matured conviction that none but a thorough Accountant, himself skilled in the practical duties and personally familiarized with the entire routine of the counting-house, could successfully train young gentlemen for the performance of their duties as practical Book-keepers, the Principal of this Institution opened Jones' Commercial School, of St. Louis, early in 1841, UPON A NEW AND STRICTLY ORIGINAL PLAN OF IMPARTING INSTRUCTION. Although that plan differs, in every essential particular, from those of its predecessors and cotemporaries, who had attempted, or were endeavoring, through the use of Bennett's, Colt's, Foster's, and other works on Book-keeping, to qualify young gentlemen as practical Accountants, and invariably failed in their efforts, this school, for a long time, seemed destined to share the same fate; but of late years things seem to have changed, and the notions of business men seem to have changed with them. Then, it was universally maintained that young gentlemen should go to the counting-house in order to be educated for business pursuits.


Now, it is pretty generally held to be essentially necessary that young gentlemen be educated for the counting-house, just as much so as for any other profession or pursuit. For seventeen consecutive years we have labored in this city for the accomplishment of a single object, viz: the formation and permanent establishment of a reliable reputation as a Public Accountant and successful Educator. That has been our highest aim, and this our only Profession. How far we have succeeded in making an impression upon the business community, we leave our "Living Epistles" to say — more than three hundred of whom, in this city, are recognized as practical Book-keepers, and receiving as ample remuneration for their services as those who have been qualified under any other circumstances. Our Rooms are open to the public during business hours, and we have at all times endeavored to cultivate the friendly acquaintance of Practical Accountants, knowing full well that they only are fully prepared to appreciate what is of utility, and reprobate that which is useless, in a business education; and we say without fear of contradiction, that no experienced business man or Practical Accountant can visit our rooms and become acquainted with our peculiar mode of imparting instruction, and detect the slightest difference between our operations and those of the counting-house in which he was educated; and, notwithstanding all this, there are some good men in this community, gentlemen of reputed intelligence and high moral charcter, who are deservedly popular in their profession as Practical Accountants, that think they are doing their young friends a kindly office by indiscriminately branding Commercial Schools and Colleges "humbugs"!! For such we have never held unkind feelings. Indeed, entertaining the opinions they do, and occupying the positions they hold, we can not see how they could believe and do otherwise. The old-fashioned schools with which


they were acquainted, "in the days of their youth," were all of this stamp (i. e., humbugs!), and they never visit institutions of this kind; and therefore their "ways are equal," and their views are but an inevitable result growing out of an impartial comparison of what they themselves have acquired under the tuition of experienced Practical Accountants, with what inexperienced, incompetent, theoretical teachers have attempted to do. Did we understand the plan and extent of instruction adopted in this Institution no better than they do, it is more than probable that we should lend them a helping hand to exterminate the imaginary evil, and add our warning voice to the young and unsuspecting; but, in this particular, we have an advantage over them: hence their innocency and our accountability. There is a practical Book-keeper, whose name is H — , at this time in charge of books in one of our most respectable mercantile houses, at a salary of one thousand dollars per annum, who, upon completing his course in Book-keeping, under our instruction, some years since, commenced and conducted the following conversation with the Principal of this Institution, in the presence of the whole School.

Mr. H — (standing up at his desk.) "Mr. Jones, why is it that you have so many enemies among the Practical Accountants and business men of this city?"

J. J — Mr. H. — "You astonish me, sir! It is true I am but a comparative stranger in the city; have made the acquaintance of but few Practical Accountants and business men; have formed rather a favorable opinion of those with whom I have become acquainted; had thought they were not very neighborly, but I was quite certain that when we became a little more intimate, we would be as friendly as David and Jonthan were. But please, Mr. H — , explain yourself more fully on this subject."


Mr. H — "Do you remember my commencing a course of instruction with you, some two or three years since, and my unceremonious discontinuance?"

J. J — "Quite well, sir."

Mr. H — "I was at that time acting in a subordinate situation in one of the city Insurance Offices, and one day I accidentally named to Mr. — , our Secretary, that I was attending your School in order to learn Book-keeping. ‘Oh! fudge,’ said he; all a humbug, sir, a humbug. You can not not learn any thing there — it is only throwing away time and money, without the possibility of any practical good to be derived; and such was my confidence in the gentleman's judgment and his kind intentions towards me as a friend, that I dropped off attending your School, and made engagements with S. Bro. & Co., at a nominal salary, and left for Illinois. Some weeks since, I received a letter from Mr. P., containing a proposition for me to take charge of their books, on condition that I would take a preparatory course of instruction in your Institution; which I have accordingly done, to my entire satisfaction, and to-morrow I take charge of A. & P.'s books, with full confidence in my ability to keep them correctly and to their entire satisfaction; and had I known as much of your Institution at the time I spoke to Mr. — as I do now, I could have had double the salary and two years of valuable experience; and but for Mr. P. I should have remained ignorant of the true nature and design of your Institution, as I presume thousands are in this city at this time."

Mr. H — took charge of the books referred to at the time specified; and from that day until now he has been recognized as a competent Book-keeper, and pursued no other profession, although he had never written in books kept by Double-entry previously to his entering this Institution,


This is but a fair specimen of what we could present by the hundred during our first four or five years' experience in this city, of young gentlemen of good business habits, writing beautifully, ready and accurate in their calculation, and perfectly familiarized with business routine, who might this day command their twelve hundred dollars per annum, had they not become the unsuspecting dupes of this class of "Old Fogies." And whom have these "Old Fogies" benefitted by their "dog-in-the-manger" policy? Have they benevolently stepped forward and supplied these young gentlemen and the business community with this lack of competent practical instruction? Not they! When experienced Practical Accountants adopt teaching as a profession, and organize an Institution with all the facilities known in the actual performance of their duties in the counting-house, do these "ancient worthies" visit such institutions and speak from what they have seen or known? Not they ! Their argument is, we have attended Commercial Schools "DOWN EAST," and were humbugged! They have not got any thing as good "OUT WEST" as they have "ON EAST"!! Therefore all Commercial Schools and Colleges are "Humbugs"!!! It is true that for a time they succeeded in diverting the attention of just such young men as were the best qualified to appreciate the merits or to condemn the policy of an Institution of this kind. But then we have gone to the carpenter shop, to the paint shop, to the printing office, and to the plow-handle and selected our materials, and produced a class of Book-keepers of an entirely new and different stamp. Those old-fashioned Accountants understand Bookkeeping, but "THEY DON'T KNOW ANYTHING ELSE!!" This new class of accountants were business men in the enlarged sense of that term, before taking lessons in Book-keeping and mercantile usages — educated in the school of experience, in


which men as they are, and things as they should be, constitute the standard text-book — raised to business, accustomed to industrial pursuits, and not ashamed or too proud to work. Thus, in keeping with the progress of this wonderful age, the economical merchant is accommodated with a Book-keeper and a practical business man in the same contract. Practical Accountants, business men, and gentlemen desirous of qualifying themselves for business pursuits, are urgently but respectfully requested to visit our rooms during business hours, and examine our mode of imparting instruction, in contradistinction to that ordinarily adopted in Schools and Colleges, and become personally acquainted with the actual workings of this Institution, as such visits do not in the least interrupt the regular operations of the School.

The foregoing thoroughly demonstrates at once the usefulness and necessity of such an Institution as "Jones' Commercial College," and so firmly has this conviction fastened itself upon the minds of our people that already the school is filled with more scholars than it can well accommodate, rendering the building of a new College necessary, which is to be done the present summer. It is proposed to make it of a capacity to accommodate from five to eight hundred students, and will be furnished with every thing calculated to facilitate the studies of those who may be seeking after the true principles of Book-keeping in connection with a thorough business education.

All information concerning the Institution, terms, etc., can be learned by addressing Mr. Jonathan Jones, who gladly replies to all reasonable enquiries connected with his College.


No. 16 Vine street, opposite King's Hotel.
S. F. SUMMERS, Proprietor.

This is the most extensive and best arranged establishment in the United States, and has a reputation for superiority which leaves far behind all other similar houses. The proprietor, Mr. S. F. Summers, has long been engaged in the manufacture of Trunks in St. Louis, and by strict attention to business has gained the confidence of the entire community. As an evidence of the regard in which his Trunks are held by the people of the United States, we will refer to the fact that at the great World's Fair held in New York in 1852, he carried away the first premium; he was also the successful competitor at the Illinois State Fair. At the great Agricultural and Mechanical Fairs held in St. Louis in 1856 and '57 he was awarded the first premiums.

Mr. Summers has also letters patent granted him for an Improved Travelling Trunk, which fully answers all that is claimed for it over Trunks manufactured in the ordinary manner.

The essential features of my improvement consist in solid metalic ends, connecting with iron bars inside, extending length-wise across the bottom and up the ends, forming a firm support for the tray, and securing the castors on the bottom, allowing the leather to intervene between the castor and inside bar. The elasticity of the leather prevents the castors from being broken off; and it can be more firmly riveted on, doing away entirely with the bottom strips, which are a continual annoyance, liable to be broken and torn off every time they are used. A Trunk made


on this principle, the body must be made of one piece of leather, and will not permit of being pieced as Trunks are generally made in the ordinary way, and covered with the bottom strip, completely hiding the piecing on the bottom. This Trunk must be made honestly, as it can not be slighted; and nothing can injure it unless the force would be sufficient to crush the material of which it is constructed. The principle is cheap and simple — allowing a neater finish — costing the purchaser no more. As he has not advanced the price, the public are respectfully invited to call and examine his stock before purchasing elsewhere, as he has determined his Improved Trunk shall be all it is represented.

We have examined numerous letters from eminent Trunk Manufacturers in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Louisville, New York, &c., &c., certifying to the superior character of this Trunk, and from the specimens we have inspected we unhesitatingly pronounce it superior to any thing that has yet been presented to the public.

Mr. Summers has constantly on hand solid Sole Leather, and Ladies' French Trunks, Hat Cases, Wood Folios, Valises, Carpet Bags, Packing Trunks, and Trunks especially for the Santa Fe trade. Merchants and dealers in Trunks will find the largest assortment, and at lower prices than at any establishment in the city.

Trunks made to order, covered or exchanged, at the Eagle Wholesale and Retail Trunk Manufactory, No. 16 Vine street, opposite King's Hotel, and No. 68 Second street, near the Monroe House.


Business Directory.


The following gentlemen engaged in the Agency business in St. Louis are honest, upright and responsible men, who will faithfully perform every trust reposed in them.

N. RANNEY, Agent for buying and selling Missouri Securities. No. 42 Commercial street.

WM. H. RUSSELL, Fire Proof Hemp Warehouse. Will store Hemp and sell on commission when desired. Nos. 281 and 283 North Main street.


We can with confidence recommend to our readers the following houses as eminently worthy of patronage.

H. N. KENDALL & Co., corner of Sixth and Pine streets.

J. GARNEAU, corner of Seventeenth and Morgan streets, and No. 9 Commercial street.

CHARLES HOLMES, Nos. 67 and 69, and 86 and 88 Green street.



G. ROSENBAUM, Premium Boot and Shoe Manufacturer, No. 9 Olive street.

C. R. STINDE & Co., No. 18 Main street, up stairs.


The following houses keep constantly on hand a full supply of the best brands of Cigars, Chewing and Smoking Tobacco, which they offer at reduced rates.

JOSEPH WARREN, No. 134 Market street.

J. OPAL, No. 157 North Fourth street.

H. F. HILGENDORF, No. 163 North Main street.

JOSEPH A. AIKEN, Vine street, two doors from Second, under King's Hotel.


This branch of trade is well stocked with good men. The following we can recommend as being "all right:"

UBSDELL, PIERSON & Co., corner Fourth, Vine and St. Charles streets.

P. & B. SLEVIN, No. 132 Main street.

J. J. DONEGAN & Co., No. 60 Market street.

BROWNLEE, HOMER & Co., No. 75 Main street.


DOAN, KING & Co., Nos. 107 & 109 Main street.

PITTMAN & TENNANT, No. 101 Main street.

LUCAS, THOMPSON & Co., No. 99 Main street.

WISE, SINGER & Co., No. 13 Main street.

MCCLELLAND, SCRUGGS & Co., corner St. Charles and Fourth streets.


AMERICAN EXPRESS COMPANY. General Office, 62 Broadway, N. Y., and Nos. 9, 11 & 13 West Seneca street, Buffalo; St. Louis — Office No. 56 Main street. Livingston, Fargo & Co. and Wells, Butterfield & Co., Proprietors.

THE ADAMS EXPRESS COMPANY. Principal Offices — No. 84 Washington street, Boston; No. 59 Broadway, N. Y.; No. 320 Chesriut street, Philadelphia; No. 164 Baltimore street, Baltimore; No. — Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D. C.; No. 64 Fourth street, Pittsburgh; No. 56 East Third street, Cincinnati; No. 52 North Main street, St. Louis; No. 96 Camp street, N. O.

UNITED STATES EXPRESS COMPANY. General Offices, No. 82 Broadway, N. Y.; No. 3, corner Pearl and Seneca streets, Buffalo; No. 12 Main street, St. Louis.

To dealers wishing to secure a supply of Fancy and Variety Goods, Toys, &c., we recommend —
WOLFF & HOPPE, Nos. 159 & 161 North Main street.
F. DINGS & Co., No. 39 North Main street, up stairs.


L. & C. SPECK & Co., No. 60 North Main street.

JOHN O'MALLEY, North-west corner Levee and Market street.

MRS. BARNHURST, No. 74 Market street.


The following houses have long held a high position in the affections of our people from their honorable career in business, and to which we cordially recommend our readers:

D. NICHOLSON, Nos. 118 & 120 Market street, opposite the Court House.

J. R. WENDOVER & Co., 208 Broadway and 195 Fourth street. M. S. MEPHAM, corner of Green and Second streets.

VON PHUL & WATERS, No. 127 North Second street, one door from Washington avenue.

D. A. JANUARY Co., 143 & 145 North Second street, between Washington avenue and Green street.

SMALL, WELLS & Co., 139 North Second street, between Washington avenue and Green street.

SAMUEL MCCARTNEY, 110 & 112 North Second street, between Locust and Vine.

MYRON F. BENJAMIN, 75 & 80 Front Levee.

THOMPSON, WHITE & PRYOR, 30 & 32 North Second street.

SPAUNHORST & Co., 204 North Main street, between Green and Morgan streets.

S. CRANWILL, 219 & 221 North Main street.


ERFORT & PETRING, 153 & 155 Second street, corner of Green.

MARK HAMILTON, 141 Second street, between Washington avenue and Green street.

W. L. EWING & Co., 104 Second street, one door north of Locust street.

SHACKELFORD, FINNEY & Co., 132 Second street, between Washington avenue and Vine street.

FELTE & BRO., 105 & 107 South Main street, between Spruce and Almond streets.

GOODRICH, WILLARD & Co., 130 North Second street, between Washington avenue and Vine street.

H. GILDERHAUSE & Co., 164 North Second street, two doors south of Green street.

FENTON, BROTHERS, 78 Levee and 156 Commercial street.

HIBBARD & HOLLISTER, Forwarding and Commission Merchants, No. 1 North Levee, up stairs.


DR. T. G. COMSTOCK, Homoeopathic Physician, Surgeon and Obstetrician, office South-east corner of Fifth and Pine streets, up stairs.


SAMUEL MCNEILLY, Juniata Iron and Wheeling Nail Store, Nos. 12 & 13 Levee, corner of Chesnut.



The following wholesale and retail houses, engaged in this trade, are the most prominent in the city:

JOHN How, No. 140 North Main street.

C. G. FELL & BRO., Leather and Shoe Manufacturers' Articles, No. 6 South Main street, opposite the Merchants' Exchange.

H. A. CONANT, dealer in Hides, Leather and Wool, No. 79 Second street.


Persons desirous of purchasing a Stock of Pure Liquors, should not fail to visit —

D. H. EVANS, Nos. 191 & 193 North Main street.

MONKS & OHIO, No. 178 North Second street.

G. W. BROOKS, corner Fourth and Green streets.

THEODORE BREDOW, No. 11 Pine street.


MESSRS. JAMES A. ROGERS & SON, Lumber Dealers, corner of Broadway and Mullanphy street; also Proprietors of the Broadway Planing Mill, and Sash, Door and Blind Factotory, between Cass avenue and O'Fallon street.



The houses engaged in this branch of trade in our city can not be excelled. The following are the most extensive:
WASHINGTON MARBLE WORKS, corner of Fifth street and Washington avenue. PARK & McCLINTOCK keep constantly on hand an elegant assortment of Marble Mantels, Monuments, Head Stones, Tombs, Marble Tiles, Furniture Slabs, Plaster of Paris, and Cement. All orders filled with promptness and care.

EMPIRE STEAM MARBLE WORKS, Nos. 63 & 65 Market street. WEBB, BRISON & Co. Monuments, Tombs, Grave Stones, Marble Mantels, Statuary, Garden Figures, Cabinet and Counter Slabs, &c., furnished to order on the shortest notice.

E. W. WARNE'S MARBLE WORKS, No. 9 South Fourth street, dealer in Egyptian, Italian and American Marble Monuments, Tombs, Mantels, Tables, and Counter Tops, &c.


St. Louis boasts of as great a number of Music Publishers as any city in the Union; among the number we mention —

BALMER & WEBER, No. 56 Fourth street, Publishers of Music, and dealers in Piano-fortes and Musical Instruments of every description.

CHARLES FRITZ, No. 52 Fourth street, importer and dealer in Musical Instruments, and European and American Music.

H. D. HEWITT, Agent for Stodart's unrivalled New York Piano — fortes, corner Fifth and Pine streets.



1. Since the above was written the Legislature of Missouri has passed an act establishing a number of banks, which are now in successful operation. — EDS. SKETCH BOOK.