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MEDIAL length, 400 miles; medial breadth, 120. Between 35° and 30° 36', N. latitude, and 4° 30' and 13° 30' W. longitude. Bounded East by North Carolina. — South by Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi; West by the river Mississippi. It was originally included in the state of North Carolina, from which it was separated, and admitted into the Union, as an independent state, in 1796.

Face of the country. In this respect this state is, probably, more diversified than any other in the western country. The Cumberland mountains range through it in an oblique direction, dividing it into two distinct sections, called East and West Tennessee. In East Tennessee, the Alleghanies branch out into a great many ridges. Among these the most lofty are Cumberland and Laurel ridge. — Stone, Yellow, Iron, Bald and Unaka are different peaks of a continued chain. Welling's and Copper ridge, and Clinch, Powell's and Bay's mountains are at the northeast of the state. It is singular that all these mountains have a dip towards the west, apparently surpassing that of their eastern declivity. Mountains and hills occupy a very great proportion of the state. There can be nothing


of grand and imposing in scenery, nothing striking and picturesque in cascades and precipitous sides of mountains, covered with wood; nothing romantic and delightful in deep and sheltered valleys, through which wind still and clear streams, which is not found in this state. Even the summits of some of the mountains exhibit plateaus of considerable extent, which admit of good roads, and are cultivated and inhabited. The mountains and hills subside, as they approach the Ohio and Mississippi. On the valleys of the small creeks and streams are many pleasant plantations, in situations beautiful, and yet so lonely, that they seem lost among the mountains. These valleys are rich, beyond any of the same description elsewhere in the western country. The alluvions of the great streams of Tennessee and Cumberland differ little from those of the other great streams of the West. As great a proportion of the cultivable land in Tennessee is first rate, as in any other of the western states. The soil in East Tennessee has uncommon proportions of dissolved lime, and nitrate of lime mixed with it, which gives it an uncommon share of fertility. The descending strata in West Tennessee appear to be arranged in the following order: first, loamy soil, or mixtures of clay and sand; next, yellow clay; thirdly, a mixture of red sand and red clay; and lastly, a sand, as white, as is seen on the shores of the Atlantic. In the southern parts of the state are immense banks of oyster shells, of a size, that in some instances, the half weighed two pounds. They are found on high table grounds, far from the Mississippi, or any water course, and at a still greater distance from the gulf of Mexico.

Earths, Fossils and Salts. Beautiful white, grey and red marbles are found in this state. Inexhaustible quarries of gypsum, of the finest quality, abound in East Tennessee in positions favorable to be transported by the boatable


waters of the Holston. Burr millstones are quarried from some of the Cumberland mountains. Beautiful specimens of rock chrystals are sometimes discovered. One or two mines of lead have been worked; and iron ore is no where mere abundant. Salt springs abound in the country; though few of them are of a strength, to justify their being worked. Nitrous earth is very abundant; and any quantity, required in the arts, might be made from the earth of the salt petre caves.

These caves themselves are among the most astonishing curiosities in the country. One of them was descended, not long since, it was judged, four hundred feet below the surface; and on the smooth lime stone at the bottom was found a stream of pure water, sufficient to turn a mill. A cave, on an elevated peak of Cumberland mountain, has a perpendicular descent, the bottom of which has not yet been sounded. Caves, in comparison with which, the one so celebrated at Antiparos is but a slight excavation, are common in this region of subterranean wonders. The circumstance of their frequency prevents their being explored. Were there fewer in number, we might, probably, amuse our readers with accurate descriptions of the noblest caves in the world. As it is, little more of them is known, than that they abound with nitrous earth; that they spring up with vaulted roofs, or run along for miles, in regular oblong excavations. A cave, which may be descended some hundred feet, and traced a mile in length is scarcely pointed out to the traveller, as an object worthy of particular notice. Some of them have been traced ten miles in extent; and taking into the account their parallel chambers, and lateral windings, much farther.

Climate and Productions. The climate of this medial region, between the northern and southern extremities of the country, is delightful. Tennessee has a much milder temperature, than Kentucky; and in West Tennessee


great quantities of cotton are raised; and the growing of that article is the staple of agriculture. Snows, however, of some depth are frequent in the winter. But the summers, especially in the more elevated regions, are mild; and have not the sustained ardors of the same season in Florida and Louisiana. Apples, pears, and plums, which are properly northern fruits, are raised in great perfection. The season of planting for maize, in the central parts of the state, is early in April. In elevated and favorable positions, it is believed, that no part of the United States is healthier. In the low valleys, where stagnant waters abound, and on the alluvions of the great rivers, the same causes produce the same effects here, as elsewhere.

Almost all the forest trees of the western country are found within the limits of this state. The laurel tribes are not common. Juniper, Red cedar, and Savine are seen on the numberless summits and declivities of the mountains. Cotton, indigo, corn, whiskey, hogs, horses, cattle, flour, gun powder, salt petre, poultry, bacon, lard, butter, apples, pork, coarse linen, some hogsheads of tobacco, and various other articles constitute the loading of boats, that come down the Cumberland and the Tennessee; and these articles are produced in great abundance. Cotton, of a certain quality, is known by the name of Tennessee cotton, in all places, where American commerce has reached. — We have no doubt, that in sheltered situations figs might be raised in perfection, and in the open air. The present outlets of the commerce of the state are the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers. As we have remarked of Tennessee valley in Alabama, the contiguous divisions of this state are so much nearer the gulf of Mexico by the Alabama, that there can be no doubt, that the enlightened and enterprising people will, before long, make canals, which


shall connect the waters of the Tennessee with those of the Alabama and Mobile; and thus shorten the very circuitous present communications of this state with the gulf of Mexico to one third of their present distance.

Rivers. We have already described the Tennessee, and its principal branches, under the head of Alabama. — It may not be amiss to repeat, that it rises in the Alleghany mountains, traverses East Tennessee, and almost the whole northern limit of Alabama, enters Tennessee, and crosses almost the whole width of it into Kentucky, and thence empties into the Ohio. Its wholecourse, from its fountains to that river, is longer than that of the Ohio from Pittsburg to its mouth, being, by its meanders, nearly 1,200 miles. It is by far the largest tributary of the Ohio; and it is a question, if it do not contribute as much water, as the main river. It is susceptible of boat navigation for at least a thousand miles. It enters the Ohio thirteen miles below the mouth, of the Cumberland, and fifty-seven above that of the Ohio. Its head branches in East Tennessee are Holston, Nolachucky, French Broad, Tellico, Richland, Clinch, Big Emery, and Hiwassee rivers. In its whole progress, it is continually receiving rivers, that have longer or shorter courses among the mountains. The principal of these are Powell's, Sequalchee, Elk and Duck rivers.

The Cumberland rises in the Cumberland mountains, in me south-east part of Kentucky, through which it has a course of nearly 200 miles. It has a circuit in Tennessee of 250 miles; and joins the Ohio in the state of Kentucky, Its principal branches, in this state are Obed's river, Carey's Fork, Stone's, Harpeth, and Red rivers. It may be remarked, that most of the tributaries of this and Tennesee rivers rise in the mountains, and are too shallow for boat navigation, except in the time of floods. Occasional freshets occur at all seasons of the year, in which flat boats can be floated down to the main river, to await the stage of


water, when that, also, shall be navigable to New Orleans. We have already mentioned, in our account of the Mississippi, the streams, which enter that river on the western boundary of the state. They are Obian, Forked Deer, Big Hatchee and Wolf rivers. These rivers form important boatable communications from the interior of that large and fine district of country, ‘the Jackson purchase,’ with the Mississippi, It would form but a barren catalogue of barbarous words, to give the names of all the rivers, large and small, that water this state. No part of the western country is better watered. It is a country of hills and mountains, and mountain streams, and beautiful valleys.

Civil Divisions.
Counties. Whites. Free blacks. Slaves. All others. Total.
Anderson, 4,295 24 349 0 4,668
Bedford, 12,334 88 3590 0 16,012
Bledsoe, 3616 28 361 0 4005
Blount, 10,154 54 1050 0 11,258
Campbell, 4093 35 116 0 4244
Carter, 4484 6 445 0 4835
Claiborne, 5101 30 377 0 6508
Cock, 4409 15 468 0 4892
Davidson, 12,066 189 7899 0 20,154
Dickson, 3861 24 1305 0 5190
Franklin, 12,338 66 4167 0 16,571
Giles, 9272 25 3261 0 12,558
Granger, 6796 199 656 0 7651
Greene, 10,465 30 829 0 11,324
Hamilton, 766 16 39 0 821
Hardman, 1317 9 136 0 1462
Hawkins, 9308 310 1331 0 10,949
Hickman, 5371 9 700 0 6080
Humphries, 3522 3 542 0 4067
Jackson, 6734 109 750 0 7593
Jefferson, 8030 31 892 0 8953
Knox 11,666 83 1285 0 13,034
Lawrence, 3066 1 204 0 3271
Lincoln, 12,506 5 2250 0 14,761
M'Minn, 1452 18 153 0 1623
Marion, 3719 2 167 0 3888
Maury, 15,620 49 6420 52 22,141
Montgomery, 7491 65 4663 0 12,219
Monroe, 2351 22 156 0 2529
Morgan, 1630 0 46 0 1676
Over ton, 6431 32 665 0 7128
Perry, 2161 0 223 0 2384
Rhea, 3858 23 334 0 4215
Roane, 7025 56 814 0 7895
Robinson, 7379 39 2520 0 9938
Rutherford, 14,165 200 5187 0 19,552
Sevier, 4469 13 290 0 4772
Shelby, 251 0 103 0 354
Smith, 13,938 88 3554 0 17,580
Stewart, 6997 48 1352 0 8397
Sullivan, 6083 96 836 0 7015
Sumner, 13,701 148 5362 0 19,211
Washington, 8506 72 979 0 9557
Wayne, 2387 0 72 0 2459
Warren, 9385 13 950 0 10,348
White, 7981 127 593 0 8701
Williamson, 13,693 75 6972 0 20,640
Wilson, 14,724 162 3844 0 18,730
Total 340,867 2737 79,157 52 422,813


Agriculture, Produce and Manufactures. Taking the whole produce of the state in one view, cotton is the staple article of growth. But the soil and climate rear all the products of Kentucky, in ample abundance; and as neither in the staple of the cotton, or its amount, can they compete with the more southern states, and taking into view the great depression of the price of that article, it is hoped, that the hardy and intelligent farmers of this great state will turn their attention to some other articles of cultivation, particularly the silk mulberry, the vine, and the


raising of bees, for which the soil and climate of this state seem to be admirably fitted. Wheat, rye, barley, spelts, oats, Indian corn, all the fruits of the United States, with the exception of oranges and figs, grow luxuriantly here. In East Tennessee, considerable attention is paid to raising cattle and horses, which are driven over the mountains to the Atlantic country for sale. In 1820, the number of persons employed in agriculture was 109,919; and in manufactures 7,860. The amount of articles manufactured was estimated at between four and five millions of dollars. — The principal articles were iron, hemp, cotton and cordage. The exports have hitherto been by the way of New Orleans. Some of, the articles of the growth of this state are sent to the head waters of the Ohio, and recently some have been wagoned across the ridges; to the waters of the Alabama; and have, Found their way to the gulf by Mobile. Nearly one thousand persons are employed in conducting the commerce of the state.

Chief Towns. Murfreesborough is the political metropolis of the state. It is situated on Stone's river, thirty-two miles south-east from Nashville; it contains about fourteen hundred inhabitants; is central to the two great divisions of the state, and is surrounded by a delightful and thriving country.

Nashville is the commercial capital of the state, and by far the largest town in it. It is very pleasantly situated on the south shore of the Cumberland, adjacent to high and fine bluffs. Steam boats can ordinarily ascend to this place, as long as they can descend from the mouth of the Cumberland to that of the Ohio. It is a place, that will be often visited, as a resort for the people of the lower country, during the sultry months. Scarcely any town in he western country has recently advanced with more rapid strides. It has a number of handsome private mansions,


and respectable public buildings. The several objects of pursuit are followed here with industry and spirit. It is the seat of a college, which has a respectable chymical and philosophical apparatus and library, and a rising reputation. It is estimated to contain at present, rising of six thousand inhabitants; and is, after New Orleans, Cincinnati, and Pittsburg, the next largest town in the western country.

Knoxville, the chief town of East Tennessee, is situated on Holston river, four miles below its junction with French Broad. It is supposed to contain 3,000 inhabitants; has considerable manufactures, a respectable seminary of learning, and is a pleasant and thriving place.

The following are considerable villages, containing from 500 to 1,500 inhabitants. Blountsville, Rogersville, and Rutledge on Holston river. Tazewell, Grantsborough and Kingston, on Clinch river; Jonesborough, Greenville, Newport, Dandridge, Sevierville on French Broad and its waters; Marysville, Washington, Pikeville, Madison, Winchester, Fayetteville, Pulaski, Shelbyville, Columbia, Vernon and Reynoldsburg on the Tennessee and its waters. Montgomery, Monroe, Sparta, Carthage, Gallatin Lebanon, M'Minnville, Jefferson, Franklin, Haysborough, Charlotte, Springfield, Clarksville on the Cumberland and its waters.

Memphis, nearly on the line between this state and Mississippi, as we have already remarked, occupies the site of fort Pickering. It stands on one of the noblest bluffs of the Mississippi, proudly elevated above that river, and its fine opposite bottoms. A beautiful rolling country surrounds it in the rear. A remnant of the tribe of the Chickasaws resides near it. The inhabitants of this village used to be chiefly of mixed Mood. Since it has taken such an imposing name, the town has made considerable


progress, and from its intermediate position between the upper and the lower country, and from its being the point of general traverse from Tennessee to the vast regions on the Arkansas, Washita and Red river, there can be no doubt, that it will ultimately become a considerable place. It is one of the places on the Mississippi, which passing steam boats generally honor with the discharge of their cannon, as they ascend the river by it.

Natural Curiosities. This would easily swell to a copious article. We have already touched on the singular configuration of the lime stone substrata of this country, from which it results that there are numberless extensive cavities in the earth. Some have supposed, that these hollows are extended under the greater part of the surface of the country. Springs and even considerable streams of water flow in them, and have subterraneous courses. Caves have been explored at great depths for an extent of ten miles. They abound in singular chambers, prodigious vaulted apartments, and many of them, when faintly illuminated with the torches of the visitants, have a gloomy grandeur, which no description could reach. The bones of animals, and in some instances human skeletons have been found in them. The earth of these caves is generally impregnated strongly with nitrate of lime, from which any quantity of gun-powder might be made.

On some spurs of the Cumberland mountains, called the enchanted mountains, are marked in the solid lime stone footsteps of men, horses, and other animals, as fresh, as though recently made, and as distinct, as though impressed upon clay mortar. The tracks often indicate, that the feet, which made them, had slidden, as would be the case in descending declivities in soft clay. They are precisely of the same class with the impress of two human feet found in a block of solid lime stone, quarried on the


margin of the Mississippi. The manner in which they were produced is utterly inexplicable.

Tennessee is abundant in petrifactions and organic remains. Near the southern boundary of the state are three trees entirely petrified. One is a cypress, four feet in diameter. The other is a sycamore and the third is a hickory. They were brought to light by the falling in of the south bank of the Tennessee. A nest of eggs of the wild turkey were dug up in a state of petrifaction. Prodigious claws, teeth, and other bones of animals are found near the salines. A tooth was recently in the possession of Jeremiah Brown, Esq., which judge Haywood affirms, measured a number of feet in length, and at the insertion of the jaw was eight inches broad. At a sulphur spring, twelve miles from Reynoldsburg, was found a tusk of such enormous dimensions, as that it is supposed to weigh from one to two hundred pounds. It is shining, yellow, and perfectly retains the original conformation. Near it were found other bones, supposed to belong to the same huge animal. It is calculated from the appearance and size of the bones, that the animal, when living, must have been twenty feet high. Logs and coal, both pit and charcoal are often dug up in this state, at depths from sixty to one hundred feet below the surface. Jugs, vases, and idols of moulded clay have been found in so many places, as hardly to be deemed curiosities. Walls of faced stone, and even walled weils have been found in so many places, and under such circumstances, and at such depths, as to preclude the idea of their having been done by the whites of the present day, or the past generation. In this state as well as in Missouri, burying grounds have been found, where the skeletons seem all to have been pigmies. Even the graves in which the bodies were deposited, are seldom more than two feet, or two feet and a half in length. To obviate the objection,


that these are all bodies of children, it is affirmed that these skulls are found to possess the dentes sapientioe, and must have belonged to persons of mature age.

There are a great many beautiful cascades in Tennessee. One of the most striking is that, known by the name of the ‘falling water.’ The cascade is eight miles above its junction with the Caney fork, and nearly fifty miles from Carthage. For some distance above, the river is a continual cataract, having fallen, in a little distance, 150 feet. The ‘fall,’ or perpendicular leap, is 200 feet, or as some measure it, 150 feet. The width of the sheet is eighty feet, and the noise is deafening. Taylor's creek fall is somewhat greater than this. It is differently estimated from 200 to 250 feet. The descent to the foot of the rock is difficult and dangerous; but the grandeur of the spectacle richly compensates the hazard. The spectator finds himself almost shut out from the view of the sky, by an overhanging cliff, between 300 and 400 feet high. — The stream before him, falling from the last rock in sheets of foam, almost deafens him with the noise. A considerable breeze is created by the fall; and the mist is driven from the falling spray, like rain. Twenty yards below this, on the south side, is the most beautiful cascade, of which the imagination can conceive. A creek, six or eight feet wide, falls from the summit of an overhanging rock, a distance of at least 300 feet. The water, in its descent, is divided into a thousand little streams, which are often driven by the wind, in showers of rain, for a number of yards distance.

Much discussion has ensued, and much useless learning been thrown away, touching some silver and copper coins, found some years since, at a little distance below the surface, near Fayetteville, in this state. One of the silver coins purports to be of Antoninus and the other of Commodus.


The earth under which the copper coins were found, was covered with trees, which could not be less than 400 years old. There can be no doubt, that such coins were found; and there seems some difficulty, in supposing them to have been deposited, merely to play upon the credulity of some virtuoso. But, as such deceptions have been known to be practiced, in some instances, we offer it as a possible solution of the difficulty of their being found there.

The paintings, that are found on some high, and apparently inaccessible rocks, in this state, have been mentioned as curiosities, ever since it has been visited by white men. The figures are of the sun, moon, animals and serpents; and are out of question the work of former races of men. The colors are presented as fresh as though recently done, and the delineations in some instances are vivid and ingenious.

A curious appearance, so common to the people of the country, as no longer to strike them with wonder, is the immensely deep channels, in which many of the streams of this country run. Descending many of them, that are large enough to be boatable, the astonished voyager looks up, and sees himself borne along a river running at the base of perpendicular lime stone walls, sometimes three or four hundred feet high. The view is still more grand and surprising, when the spectator looks down from above; and sees the dark waters rolling at such prodigious depths below him, in a regular excavation, that seems to have been hewn from the solid lime stone, on purpose to receive the river.

Constitution. This has no essential difference of feature from that of the other western states. In the legislature the number of representatives bears a given proportion to the number of taxable inhabitants, and the


of senators must never be more than one half, or less than one third of the number of representatives. To be eligible, as members of either house, the person must have resided three years in the state, and one in the county; and be possessed of 200 acres of land. The governor is elected for two years; and is eligible six years out of eight. He must be twenty-five years of age, must have resided in the state four years, and must possess 500 acres of land, to be eligible to that office. The judiciary is divided into courts of law and equity. The legislature appoints the judges, to hold their office during good behaviour. All free men twenty-one years of age, and who have resided in the county sis months preceding the election, possess the elective franchise.

Schools. There are three institutions in the state, which bear the name of colleges; one at Nashville; one at Knoxville, and one at Marysville. The Cumberland presbyterians are making great efforts to rear a theological institution, in which to train young men for their worship, The college at Nashville has been amply endowed, and under a learned president, gives promise of yielding ample aid to the literature of the state. Academies and common schools are increasing, and the people seem to be awakening to a sense of the importance of education to the preservation of our republican institutions.

History. As Tennessee is one of the oldest and most important of the western states, it seems right, that we should enter with something more of particularity into the events of its first settlement and progress. She has already swarmed her tens of thousands of emigrants into the newer states and territories; and especially into Illinois and Missouri. Although in fact but of yesterday herself, she claims precedence among these younger members of the confederacy, as a common mother. The territorial limits


between this state and Virginia were settled by commissioners from each state in 1803. Disputes existed between this state and Kentucky, respecting the extent of the state line, which were happily adjusted in 1820, when her limits were fixed, as they are given at the head of our account of this state.

In 1730, this fine country was all a vast forest. From various causes it had been long deserted by the Indians; and in the fertile bottoms and grassy barrens, game left to increase unmolested, had become abundant. To hunt in this unoccupied and beautiful country had become a lucrative business. Many of the first settlers were drawn here to pursue this object. The ancient maps of the western country enable us to judge of the situation of places at the time that France claimed the whole country south of Canada, between the Mississippi and the Allegheny mountains. French forts are represent on these maps, as standing, one at the mouth of the Kentucky river; one on the south bank of the Ohio; another on the north side of the Ohio, at the mouth of the Wabash; one near the junction of the Ohio with the Mississippi; one at the Chickasaw bluffs; one on the east bank of Red river; and one at the junction of the Coosa and the Tallapoosa, called Alabama, after the name of the river. On the head waters of the Torobeckbee, they had, also, a fort called Thoulouse, Five leagues up the Tennessee they had another. One, situated at the mouth of the Kenhawa, was called Shawnee. One, not a great way above the mouth of the Illinois, was called Creve Coeur; one, halfway up the Illinois is marked by the name French Fort, and one on the north-western extremity of lake Michigan. This was part of that famous plan of posts, and connected lines of defences by which it was the French policy to hold this vast and fertile country in subjection. In 1755, the Cherokees, at that


time a powerful tribe, were in alliance with the French, and of course hostile to the English. In 1750, a treaty was made, both with them and the Catawbas, on the condition that we should build a fort in the country of each tribe; and the motive alleged was, that they were for the defence of the women and children, when they were absent on their expeditions. With this view fort Loudon was built for them, in 1757. A garrison was placed in this fort; and the Indians offered bounties of land, to induce artizans to come settle in the vicinity. The remembrance of a three years' war was not immediately erased; and the Cherokees still manifested such symptoms of hostility, that colonel Bird was sent among them. He built and garrisoned two forts, one of them on the river Holston, opposite the upper end of Long island, in which forts his army wintered, in 1758. The fort on the Holston was beautifully situated. At this time there was not another white settlement on that river. But after the building of the fort, the reports, which were circulated of the fertility of the soil, and the abundance of game, led some persons to settle between them, before the breaking out of the Cherokee war, which commenced in 1759. The circumstance which gave rise to this war, was the taking some horses by the Indians, which belonged to the new white settlers; to replace those which the savages had lost, during the preceding war with France, in which they had joined us. The white settlers seized their horses again; and either killed, or made prisoners of the warriors, that had taken the horses. Thus was opened a vast field for the exercise of those terrible acts of ferocity, for which savages are so famous. The frontiers of Virginia and North Carolina were terribly ravaged with the flames and the tomahawk, as is customary in such cases.


Fort Loudon was situated on the north side of Little Tennessee, a mile above the mouth of Tellico, in the centre of the Cherokee country. It had a small garrison. — The Indians besieged it; and the garrison was compelled to surrender for want of provisions. They were to be allowed to retreat to the white settlements, beyond the Blue ridge. All of them, but nine, fell by indiscriminate massacre. Between two and three hundred men, women and children were slain. This event, so memorable in the first settlement of Tennessee, took place in 1760. — In 1761, colonel Grant led a strong force into their country and compelled them to sue for peace. A treaty was the result. In consequence of this war, the only settlement, which had been made in the vicinity of fort Loudon, was deserted. The treaty renewed the confidence of the immigrants from Pennsylvania and Virginia, who had deserted the country. They, and others associating with them, returned to the country, with the purpose of renewing their projects of hunting and settlement. They settled in East Tennessee. These men gave those names to the chief mountains and rivers, which have been retained since that time. The names ‘Cumberland and Laurel’ were given by them in affectionate remembrance of their native mountains. The mass of hunters and adventurers continued to advance, step by step, and broaden their circle, setting the example of American settlers in the wilderness, in all subsequent periods. They soon penetrated the interior, of what is now called East Tennessee.

In 1764, Daniel Boone, the patriarch of settlements in the western forests, made an excursion from North Carolina into the woods of Tennessee. In 1766, colonel Smith, with some friends, traversed a great portion of West Tennessee. They descended to the mouth of Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, on a trip of discovery. They saw


no white people in these regions. In 1768, an exploring party came into this country from Virginia. They spent some months, traversing it in all directions. But they found on their return, that the country, which had so recently been a wide wilderness, was no longer so. Most of the fertile spots, in eligible situations, had been occupied. The first permanent settlements were made in East Tennessee, in the winters of 1768, and 1769. The settlers came from Virginia, and North Carolina. At this time Daniel Boone joined them. The settlements continued to increase, until 1774, and 1775, when an extensive purchase of land from the Indians was made by a company. There was among these settlers the usual mixture of respectable and trifling people; and they were impelled to form these new establishments by the usual mixture of motives. But even those desperate characters, that had fled from debt and the laws, were of use here; for they stationed themselves on the frontier of this remote and unprotected settlement, and became a barrier between it and the savages. The inhabitants who had fixed themselves nearest the limits of Virginia, placed themselves under the government of that state; and those that were nearest to Carolina, threw themselves under the protection of its laws. But the troubles, which were just commencing in the Atlantic country, prevented the parent region from being able to extend efficient protection to these remote and feeble establishments in the wilderness. In 1774, the Shawnees, and other confederated Indians from the north of the Ohio, made an excursion into that part of this country, which is now called Sullivan county. They were met by the people of the country, aided by a few regular troops, and were attacked with a spirit, which had the effect to put a stop to their incursions, until 1776. The purchase which has been mentioned above, was not agreeable


to all the Indians. It was particularly disagreeable to a chief among them, called Occonnostata. He made a very animated speech against it. It was not, however, heeded by the Indians.

In 1776, the Indians of these remote regions began to feel the effects of the revolutionary troubles in the Atlantic country; and commenced their customary depredations. The people of Virginia and North Carolina sent such troops, as they could spare, who were aided by the people. This force exercised vigilance and unanimity; and in some cases anticipated the attacks of the Indians. At this time it was, that the united settlements sent delegates to the convention that established the district of Washington. — The name of captain John Sevier is one, that occurs often in the early history of this state. In 1774, he had held the commission of captain under earl Dunmore, governor of Virginia; and in 1777, governor Caswell, of North Carolina, gave him the commission of lieutenant colonel of the Washington regiment of militia under colonel Carter, A battle was fought, in June 1776, between the force of the inhabitants united with the soldiers from Virginia, and the savages, at a place called Long-island Flats, which was a great advantage to the settlers; not only because victory declared in their favour, without the loss of one man: but as it gave them confidence in themselves, in demonstrating, that they were able to compete with the savages; and by showing to the hostile Cherokees what they might expect, in the issue of a battle, if they continued to practice their hostilities.

Notwithstanding this lesson, the Cherokees not only continued to manifest a hostile spirit, but assaulted the forts; and murdered every person, who was so imprudent, or so unfortunate, as to be found alone. Aroused by the story burning and murder from these infant settlements, Virginia,


notwithstanding her pressure at home, ordered colonel Christian, with a respectable force, to march into the heart of the Cherokee settlements. His force to 1,800 men. They found no Indians, until they arrived at a town called Tamotlee. The Indians did not date to look this force in the face; and sued for peace. It was agreed, that the Indians should enter into a treaty on May following. Until that time, it was stipulated, that hostilities should cease on both sides, with the exception of two Indian towns, near which a prisoner had been burned. This enormity had been practised upon a young son of Mr. Moore, who had been captured on the Watauga. The excepted towns were burned, and the army returned to quarters. The Indians were awed; but notwithstanding their fears, and the promise of a treaty, they still showed manifest intentions to inflict all the injury they could.

In 1777, an arrangement was brought about between the states of North Carolina, Virginia and the Indians. A definitive boundary was settled for the country which now called Tennessee. It was then supposed to belong to those states. The Indians at this time professed o be in treaty with us; but they frequently murdered the settlers, when they found them unprotected and alone. This year, the district of Washington was made a county. Courts were organized, and a land-office opened, in which great quantities of land were entered. That tribe of the Cherokees, that lived on the creek, called Chicamauga, and that were called by that name, had always been hostile to the whites, and had never entered heartily into the treaties between the settlers and the Indians. By the addition of a number of hostile tribes on the Ohio, their numbers were increased to a thousand warriors. In 1779, they began openly to attack the frontiers from Georgia o Pennsylvania. A force was sent against them from North


Carolina and Virginia. This force came upon the Indians by surprize, who fled without giving battle. The soldiers pursued them, burned their villages, and destroyed their crops. This event happened at the same time, that the British governor, general Hamilton, was captured by general Clark at Vincennes. These two coincident events restored peace to the western settlements for a time. During this interval of repose and security, such numbers of people settled in Tennessee and Kentucky, that the British and Indians were never afterwards able to break up the settlements. Another county was constituted by the name of Sullivan.

In 1779, the Cherokees began to commit outrages again. The dispute, which was now fiercely agitated in the Atlantic country, between the colonies and Great Britain, became, by the instigation of the British, the mean of bringing on a general Indian war. A deep feeling, that every thing was at stake, caused the western people to act with great energy: and they often inflicted strong and summary acts of justice. From the misfortunes of the American army in South Carolina, great exertions were required on the part of the frostier people, to guard against the Indiana, who were attacking them in every direction. They had to exert all their efforts at the same time against the British, who were triumphantly overrunning the southern states.


In 1767, West Tennessee began, as East Tennessee had been, to be the temporary home of hunters. Even before this, some French people had settled, where Nashville now stands. They kept a station there for some time. There was another French station at the same time on the Tennessee, about forty miles above its mouth. There was one


also at fort Massac on the Ohio. A detachment of these hunters, in 1769, penetrated as far as the foot of the mountains on Roaring river. They there deposited the proceeds of their hunt. They found no signs of human habitancy, or cultivation. Some of their number were killed by southern Indians, who were travelling to the north. — They had traversed a country covered with high grass. — They discovered many of the caves, that are so well known at the present day. By the borders of creeks they found stones set up, apparently as burial monuments, over great masses of human bones.

In the year 1770, some members of this party set out with the proceeds of their hunt, on a trading expedition, intending to advance as far, as fort Natchez. As they descended the Cumberland, near the place, where Nashville now is, they discovered the French lick, where they saw great herds of buffalos, and other kinds of game. — They attained the objects of their journey, made a profitable trip, and returned home in safety. In 1776, with a number of others associated with them, they came again to West Tennessee to hunt. Among them was an old man, like Boone, passionately fond of hunting, and roving in the woods. He had so far lost the sight of his eyes with age, that the only way in which he could take sight at the buffalos and deer, was to tie a piece of white paper to the muzzle of his gun. In this way he killed a number of deer. This old man strayed from the encampment, lost himself in the woods, and was absent nineteen days. He survived the extreme cold, hunger and exhaustion, and the perfect helplessness, in which he was found. He recovered, and killed a number of deer afterwards. Such men of iron, were the pioneers of civilization in the west.

The country was often scoured by hunting parties; but no permanent settlements were yet made. One of a hunting


party was killed, in 1777, by a wounded buffalo from a herd; of which he had killed, and wounded a great many. A small field of corn was planted in 1778, near Bledsoe's lick; and in 1779, there were a number of families settled permanently there. They built and inhabited stockaded forts. These were formed by arranging connected lines of log cabins into a hollow square. Nashville had its share of these settlers. A number of immigrants embarked in a boat, which they called ‘The Adventure,’ on the Holston, intending to descend that river and the Tennessee; and then to ascend the Ohio and the Cumberland, to where Nashville now is. They reached this place; but suffered severely on the way. They were frequently fired upon by the Indians, and they suffered much from hunger. When they first visited that portion of the country, that surrounds Nashville, there were no marks of former habitancy. The country round French lick, which had formerly been called ‘the old field,’ was a large tract of ground, that had been thoroughly trampled by buffalos, and beaten with numberless paths; as if situated near the resorts of numerous herds of domestic cattle. Though there were no traces of former habitancy on the surface, they found in digging round the springs great numbers of graves, and the appearance of walls enclosing ancient habitations. Sometimes these walls had entrenchments added to them; and were so capacious, as to include ten acres.

In 1780, the settlers were first attacked by the Indiana. The attacking party were Delawares. Between 1780 and 1781, was fought the famous action of King's mountain, in which the first settlers of Tennessee and Kentucky had so glorious a share. Lord Cornwallis had overrun the southern states, and all was confusion and dismay, in those regions, among the friends of the United States. Major


Ferguson, a famous British partizan, marched with a force nearly two thousand strong, upon the mountains, that separate North Carolina from Tennessee. His object was at once to punish the whigs, who had either killed, or imprisoned a number of peculiarly obnoxious tories, and to encourage the tories, or loyalists, as they were called, by way of courtesy, to come forward and join the king's standard. Colonel Arthur Campbell, colonel Isaac Shelby, and colonel Sevier, commanded the forces of the mountaineers and backwoods men. There had been a number of severe skirmishes between these partizan corps, in which the Americans generally had the advantage.

The American forces, commanded by colonel M'Dowell, were attacked by major Ferguson, who had been strengthened by the addition of a large body of loyalists, and a strong reinforcement of British regulars. The engagement took place near Enoree river. It was severely fought, but in the end the British retreated, leaving a considerable number of dead, and more than 200 prisoners. The prisoners alone equalled one third of the number of the American forces. This advantange was more than balanced by the general panic and discouragement that ensued upon the defeat of general Gates and colonel Sumpter by the British. Major Ferguson was at Gilbertstown, in North Carolina, with 2,000 men. In the vicinity were more than 500 tories ready to join him. In this emergency the mountaineers, animated by the earnest persuasion of colonel Shelby, to strike on the enemy, while they were within striking distance, determined to attack them, although they were scarcely half their numbers. — The mountaineers pursued Ferguson with 910 mounted riflemen. After pursuing him, in a drizzling rain, for thirty-six hours, without alighting from their horses but once for refreshment, in the whole distance, the pursuers


came upon him encamped on King's mountain, a table eminence, five or six hundred yards in length, and seventy yards wide. Colonel Sevier commanded the right wing; colonel Campbell's and colonel Shelby's regiments composed the centre. The right wing was led to battle by colonel Sevier, and major Winston; the left, by colonels Cleveland and Williams. The attack was commenced by the two centre columns, as they were attempting to gain the eastern acclivity of the mountain. The battle at this point was furious and bloody. Columns on each side repeatedly gave way, and were as often cheered again to the contest. Towards the latter part of the action, the enemy made a fierce and gallant charge upon the American troops on the eastern summit of the mountain, and drove them almost to the foot of it. The Americans were again rallied, and returned to the charge; and the enemy in their turn gave way. The enemy was driven down the western declivity of the mountain, and forced into a disorderly mass. Colonel Campbell pressed upon them with his regiment, killing all that came in his way; and pouring in his deadly fire upon the crowded mass. The British rallied again, and came upon the Americans with fixed bayonets. Few actions on record have been more hotly contested. — Ferguson formed his troops into columns, as a last effort, and attempted to cut his way through the assailants. In the attempt he was shot dead. The fire from the Americans had become so hot and fatal, that the British were no longer able to sustain it. They laid down their arms, and were made prisoners. Colonel Campbell received the highest and most honorable testimonials of gratitude from the legislature of Virginia. The general assembly North Carolina voted similar testimonials to colonel Shelby, and colonel Sevier; the one a patriarchal soldier and settler of Kentucky, and the other of Tennessee. In


this action the mountaineers and their gallant leaders gained imperishable honors, which their countrymen to the third and fourth generation will not forget. Colonel Williams, from Ninety-six, was the only distinguished officer, that was mortally wounded. Fifteen hundred stands of arms were taken. The commander and 150 of the enemy fell on the field; and 610 were made prisoners. Only 440 escaped. The issue of this most gallant action had an effect far beyond its influence upon the people in the immediate vicinity. The drooping spirits of the people east of the mountains were again animated with the flush of hope. Lord Cornwallis, hearing of Ferguson's total defeat by the mountain riflemen, immediately paused in his victorious career, and retreated to Winnsborough, a distance of between seventy and eighty miles.

The effect of this battle upon the settlers west of the mountains was, also, highly auspicious. It repressed every incipient disposition to favor the loyalists. The rumour soon reached the Indians; and it effectually awed, and repressed them. Toward the close of 1781, the Cherokees and Chickasaws sued for peace. A land office was opened in 1783, and prospects were cheering for the settlers for a time. But the Indians soon re-commenced on the settlers of West Tennessee a war of extermination; for they killed them, wherever they found them. — The settlers that escaped into the forts, were disheartened, and many of them went to Kentucky and Illinois. Those who remained, confined themselves to two forted stations. They suffered from a variety of causes, but chiefly from want of provisions. Their supplies were principally from hunting. Large parties of men hunted together in a state of preparation for battle; until they had succeeded, in obtaining a sufficient supply of game for the garrison. A part of this distress was owing to a complete failure of the


crop for the season, owing to an inundation. When persons were compelled to leave the forts, four or five went together, always under the most vigilant watch, with arms in hand, and placed back to back. In this way they were enabled, with more safety, to scour the neighboring woods, and guard against the Indians, that might be lurking in them. Those, who survived all these horrors, until 1782, were enabled, by a law of that year, to claim the land, which they had settled and cultivated by pre-emption rights. In this year, North Carolina established courts of equity in all the districts of the state. With the close of the war of the revolution, the Indians became less troublesome; and a number of new settlers from North Carolina were added to West Tennessee. But though the return of peace with Great Britain brought back confidence and hope for the future, the savages still continued their ravages from time to time.

In 1784, North Carolina passed a law, the purport of which was to make a cession of the country, which now constitutes the state of Tennessee, to the congress of the United States, if they would accept of it at the end of two years; and, meanwhile, that North Carolina was to retain jurisdiction over it, until congress took possession. The people of the new country were under great apprehensions, that pending this negotiation, they should not only have to contend single handed, with the Indians; but that they would be entirely deprived of the benefit of the laws and courts both of North Carolina and congress, until the end of the two years. It was vital to them, in their present emergency, that they should be able legally to assemble their militia. Accordingly they chose a committee, that appointed a convention of deputies, who enacted, that the laws of North Carolina, as far as they were compatible with the condition of the new region, should continue in forge; that


they should send a memorial to congress, requesting that body to recognize the cession act, and to afford them countenance, to form themselves into an independent state. — They then drew up a plan of the association, which they had formed. They say, that the management of their political affairs shall be entrusted to a convention, chosen by the people; and that they shall choose a delegate to congress to attend to their affairs. They promised to cultivate dispositions of benevolence and virtue, and discountenance every thing opposed to good morals. For the faithful performance of the conditions, they pledged their lives and fortunes.

This step, with the measures, that naturally grew out of it, created divisions among the people. Views and wishes differed widely, as regarded the desired constitution; and as happens in such cases, the smaller the matters, upon which the difference turned, the more fierce and determined was each party in adherence to its own opinions. — One party contended, that as North Carolina had promised to repeal the act of cession, as she shortly after did, they ought to restore their allegiance to that state. But after the grievances were redressed, a majority of the people expressed a wish not to return under the laws of that state. A second convention met at Jonesborough, and commenced deliberations. Each county had elected five deputies. Mr. Sevier, whose name has already been mentioned, was the deputy from Washington. The significant name of Frankland was given to the new state. — They announced to North Carolina, that they considered themselves independent of her. The new government was immediately pushed into operation. But causes of disagreement thickened upon its very birth. The governor of North Carolina, along with the reasons, which the inhabitants of Frankland had given for their separation


from that state, published his manifesto and replies to them. The convention sent a memorial to congress with their new constitution by a person delegated for that purpose. Congress took no manner of notice of their proceedings; and the delegate was obliged to return without effecting any thing.

In 1786, the state of Frankland had two conflicting courts in its limits. The one acted under the authority of their own state, and the other under that of North Carolina. Each court claimed, that its decisions were paramount; and in fact, the only one, that had a right to act in the case. A more fruitful source of collision and quarrel can not be imagined, than such a state. The sheriff of Frankland, with his posse, in some instances, went into the other court, seized the papers, and turned the officers out of doors. The North Carolina party, as soon as it had power, retaliated in the same way. Colonel John Sevier was elected the first governor of the state of Frankland. The governor, soon after his induction into office, met the principal man on the North Carolina side of the question. From the windy and inefficient war of words, it soon proceeded to the more decisive war of blows. The argument was soon settled in the primitive way by the dint of fist. — But these leaders of state were separated, before victory declared on either side. Their humbler retainers, as they felt in duty bound, imitated the example of their superiors, and lost an eye, or a piece of flesh of less importance from some other part of the body, without being either cooled, or convinced. It was obvious, that in such a crisis things must soon come to a more serious issue, than a fist fight, or gouging an eye.

The county of Washington elected members to represent them in the assembly of North Carolina. Colonel Tipton, who had fought the governor of Frankland, was


one of these representatives. A paper containing the names of those, who were willing to accept the terms of North Carolina, and secede from the authority of Frankland, was sent by these members to the assembly. Taxes were imposed by the authority of both legislatures, and, as may be easily foreseen, the people paid neither, with much speciousness, assigning, as a reason, that they did not know, to which authority they ought to yield their money.

This year the Cherokees renewed their attacks upon Tennessee. William Cocke, Esq., was delegated to congress. He made, before that body, an eloquent speech placing in a strong light the helplessness and misery of their condition, engaged in a civil war on the one hand, and assailed by the merciless savages on the other. This time he was heard, and his representations were acted upon. A general amnesty was passed, in regard to all, who expressed a readiness to yield themselves to the authorities of North Carolina. It was enacted, too, that the officers, who had held under the state of Frankland, should be displaced, and their places filled by persons appointed by North Carolina. Many, who held under the new state, had been originally appointed by North Carolina, and had been retained in their offices by Frankland. They were considered by congress in the light of persons, who admitted the authority of the new state. The pacific, and yet decisive measures of congress seemed at once to restore things to their former position, before the formation of the state of Frankland. But under the external appearances of tranquillity remained the smothered fire. There still remained a considerable number, staunch for the cause of the fallen state, and disposed, upon the first favorable appearances, to rear it up again. Governor Sevier offered the services of these men to Georgia, in the prospect of an approaching war of that state with the Creeks. The legislature


of that state having deliberated upon the proposition returned a very polite answer, expressing gratitude for the kindness of the offer, and promising a return of their services in any way, which should not be incompatible with the interests of Georgia. They sent a state of their case to Dr. Franklin, soliciting advice. He wrote them in reply, that he thought, they had better accede to the propositions of North Carolina.

Notwithstanding all these discouraging circumstances, governor Sevier retained the integrity of his faith in the new state. Georgia, as a state, indeed, was only ready to avail herself of their military services, without promising any return of good offices. But several distinguished individuals of that state wrote to him, expressing their own good wishes, and those of many of the people. He was elected a member of the distinguished society of Cincinnati. — A copy of the constitutions of the thirteen states, neatly bound, was presented him, with a very flattering address. — The common toast in Georgia was, ‘success to Frankland, and its virtuous citizens.’ But all these symptoms of convalescence notwithstanding, in 1787, the legislature of Frankland met for the last time. Little was done, and shortly after the state of Frankland fell by natural decease.

In addition to this source of discord, in East Tennessee, a party was getting up, whose object was to attack the Spanish colony of Louisiana. This was at the time, when there was so much excitement in Kentucky upon the subject of the ‘Conclusion’ of the Mississippi against the produce of the West. The Tennesseeans and Kentuckians were strongly disposed to take this matter into their own hands. Letters inculcating this purpose, and manifesting an organized plan to do it, fell into the hands of the general government. An examination was had upon the subject


and measures were taken, which resulted in the suppression of this incipient purpose.

In 1788, an execution was taken out by the existing government, organized by North Carolina, against the property of governor Sevier, as he still continued to be called. He affected to consider it illegal. His negroes had been taken by this execution, while he was absent, contending with the hostile Indians. On his return he collected 150 men, and proceeded to attack the house of colonel Tipton, where, he had understood, his negroes were placed for safe keeping. At the same time he had been told, that he was also sought by colonel Tipton's men, with a view to put him in prison. All these circumstanes contributed to rouse his anger. Colonel Tipton had been advertised, too, of the intended attack upon him. — When colonel Sevier appeared before his house, it was found to be barricaded, and defended by fifteen staunch friends of colonel Tipton. His house was situated nine miles from Jonesborough, which had been the seat of the Frankland government. The assailing force took post in front of the house, and demanded the surrender of colonel Tipton and his friends, who on his part, for that and the next day, affected to treat the whole matter with disdain, and made no reply to the proposals. He, meanwhile, was busy in sending round to call in the aid of his friends. He finally consented, that one of the fifteen, who were with him, should write to the commander of the assailants. A difficulty arose, which has often been a serious one between the commanders of larger armies, a question about etiquette. The letter was addressed only to colonel Sevier. He would not receive it, alleging the informality of the want of the title governor, and stating that his brother, who was also colonel Sevier, and for whom the letter, by the address, seemed to be intended, was not


in camp. To this the friend of colonel Tipton returned an answer, advising the assailants to disband themselves, before the regular troops of the government came to the aid of the besieged, when they would be sure to be beaten, and their leader afterwads subjected to punishment. Colonel Sevier's purposes were not so to be shaken. He remained at his post. Persons going to colonel Tipton's house were fired upon. A number of persons were wounded, and one was killed. But notwithstanding the closeness of the seige, twelve men from the adjacent country contrived to join colonel Tipton. Colonel Maxwell, with 180 men, was approaching to his assistance. The morning of the attack was snowy, and the assailing force had hardly commenced an attack upon the house, when they heard, that they in their turn, were like to be assailed from behind and before. Their courage forsook them, and they fled. Two of them were taken prisoners. Colonel Tipton had determined to hang them immediately. He was hardly swayed from his purpose by strong persuasion.

This defeat put an end to the pretensions of the partizans of Frankland. Governor Sevier concealed his mortification, by removing to the remoter deserts of the frontier, where, with a number of his devoted friends, who followed him, he still made war upon the Indians. The Cherokees assaulted the settlments about Knoxville. Colonel Sevier was chosen to head the defence of the country. A number of Indians were killed; their towns burned, and their cattle driven off. While he was thus meritoriously engaged, he was called to answer to the superior court, now sitting at the seat of his own government, to the indictment of high treason. While he was thus taken from the head of the forces, arrayed against the Indians, the regular officers and troops were compelled to go forward in the defence of the country.


The battle of Lookout mountain was fought with more advantage to the Indians, than the whites. The whole Tennessee force, amounting to 450 men, was compelled to retreat. Colonel Sevier had a strong amount of popularity with great numbers of the people. His prowess at King's mountain, and in many Indian fights had attached much confidence to his name. Though not legally authorised, he was the partizan, to whom the people looked in danger, to lead them against the Indians. Concluding, that the affair of Frankland would be forgotten in their need of his present services, he appeared openly at a meeting, held in Jonesborough for the purpose of arranging an attack upon the Indians. He was drawn into a quarrel; was taken, imprisoned, and put in irons, by order of colonel Tipton. After an imprisonment of some time, his family aided him to escape. By a law of North Carolina he was debarred from holding any office in that state. His character and services ultimately created a reaction in public opinion. In 1789, the law was repealed; and he was elected to the senate of North Carolina from Green county, and was made brigadier general for all the western counties.

In 1790, North Carolina ceded to the United States all her title and authority in the country in question. Nashville was founded in 1784; and was named after the gallant general Nash, who fell in the battle of Brandy wine. — In 1785, Davidson academy was established, and endowed with lands, which were to be exempted from taxes for ninety-nine years. During all the intestine broils, created by the erection of the state of Frankland, the people of East Tennessee had been involved in continual wars with the Indians. A state of repose now followed, in which the settlements, which had hitherto been stationary, through fear of the Indians, rapidly advanced in population.


In May, 1790, congress passed a law for the government of the country south-west of the Ohio. For the purpose of temporary government, the whole country was constituted one government. The inhabitants were to enjoy the advantages and the laws, which were given to the country north-west of the Ohio, in the ordinance constituting that country a territory in 1787. There were some special acts of reservation, among which was, that no law should be made touching the right of the people in that district to the property of their slaves. President Washington proceeded to appoint the officers of government. William Blount was appointed the first governor. In August, 1790, he received his commission. In two months he made fill the necessary preparations, and appointed all the officers called for by the new state of things, as preparatory to the assumption, by the people, of self government. The same arrangements were shortly after made in West Tennessee. He immediately made proposals to the Cherokees, in regard to a treaty. They evinced dispositions to meet his wishes. Three millions of acres of land had already been sold in the land office. — Some of this land was included within the Indian boundaries. A number of persons wished to make a settlement at the Muscle Shoals, which were within the limits of the Indian territories. By order of the president, they were forbidden by the governor to do it. In 1791, colonel Sevier was appointed by the president, brigadier general of the militia in Washington of this state. In this year some persons, in defiance of the forbidding of the governor, proceeded to the Muscle Shoals to make a settlement. On their return they were arrested. The circumstances, on investigation, proved to be these. They went to an island in the river Tennessee, at the Muscle Shoals, and built a block-house. They were soon visited by a body of


fifty Indians, who told them, that they should have permission to retire quietly, and the promise of receiving no injury. If they refused, they assured, them, they would put them to death. The adventurers of course preferred the former alternative. The Indians then burned their works. An attempt was made at the superior court to indict Coxe and his associates, who had made these settlements. But in two indictments the jury would find a true bill to neither. It soon appeared that these young men were determined to make another settlement, where they had made the first.

In 1791, the whole population of the territory was 36,043, including 3,417 slaves. The whole population of Cumberland, at the same time, was 7,042. The Cherokee chiefs, by invitation, met governor Blount, where Knoxville now stands, and a treaty, which promised perpetual peace, was concluded. The same year this treaty was ratified by the president and the senate of the United States. On November 5th, 1791, was brought into Tennessee the first printing press. It was set up at Rogersville by Mr. Roulstone. On the same day was issued the first Tennessee newspaper. It was called the ‘Knoxville Gazette,’ although that town was not laid out, until 1792.

About this time occurred the disastrous defeat of general St. Clair, on the north side of the Ohio. To prevent the northern triumphant Indians from joining the southern ones, the president was anxious, that the latter should join us in the war against the former. Governor Blount was requested to invite the Chactaws, Chickasaws, and Cherokees, to assemble at Nashville, to make a treaty with him upon the subject. The president was desirous, if possible, to ascertain the cause of the pertinacious hostilities of the savages, now, that we were at peace with England. — There were many, who believed, that emissaries of that


government still instigated these hostilities in secret. — Governor Blount discovered at once, that a majority of these Indians manifested anger, when the project of the United States, that they should join forces to make war upon the Shawnees, was hinted to them. The chiefs, who were favorably disposed to this proposition, did not dare to manifest their feelings. On the contrary, in violation of the treaty, which they had so lately made with us, a tribe of the Cherokees, who live in four towns on the south bank of the Tennessee, at a place, where the Creeks and the northern tribes cress, as they pass back and forward, and the Indians of a fifth town, who live about twelve miles from the other towns, assumed the war dress, danced the scalp dance, and after their fashion, declared war against the United States, and became allies of the Shawnees.

They immediately began to practice their customary atrocities, by killing several of a family, that were on their way from Natchez to Nashville. They brought in a little white girl as a prisoner. The head chief of the nation was, or affected to be angry, and in a solemn talk forbade all intercourse with these five towns. Governor Blount ordered out the militia, and as fast as the time of the drafted militia expired, he ordered out other drafts, keeping his forces continually on the alert. The Indians were driven hastily from some houses, which they had plundered. In these houses was left their declaration of war. It consisted of a war club, a bow and a sheaf of arrows. These Indians were sure to murder, wherever they had a chance. It was sometimes in the power of the people to exercise a severe revenge. The militia were found insufficient to sustain these continual attacks, and to keep up a continued defence. Some jealousy, also, existed between the general government and these territorial districts, in regard to


the employment of the regular troops. The general government talked of disbanding the militia from its pay and I service. Governor Blount ordered general Sevier with a part of his brigade into the service, The main force of the Tennessee troops was placed at ‘South West point.’ — This is a small distance above the confluence of the Clinch with Tennessee. Here was a fine spring and a post, which commanded a view of both rivers; and it was a good position, in which to intercept, and command the movements of the Indians. Here a fort was built, and there were other stations along the frontier. It was with difficulty, that the militia could be induced to submit to the discipline, and regularity necessary for the soldiers of a garrison. They always avowed a strong predilection to defending themselves in their own way.

At the same time, that the people here were compelled to defend themselves against the Indians, who lived on their own confines, calls were made upon them to furnish soldiers to fight the Indians of the north. It seemed to them a hardship, to suffer the massacre of whole families at home, and at the same time, to be called on to furnish men to make war at a distance. General Sevier had labored, while stationed at his post, to prevent any thing, that should create new enmities among the Indians. A portion of the Cherokees and Creeks were neutral, and disposed to peace. At once to keep them in these dispositions, and to annoy the enemy, he exerted all his influence, that a vigorous offensive war should be carried on against them. He brought documents to prove, that a large body of Creeks and Cherokees was embodied, and prepared and making ready for an invasion. Notwithstanding these proofs, the general government seemed to act upon the presumption, that the Indians of this region were pacific. By instructions from that quarter, governor Blount ordered


the greater part of the troops of general Sevier to be disbanded at Knoxville. They were accordingly marched there, and dismissed on the 8th of January, 1793.

The Indians continued to commit murders as usual, until the April following. Governor Blount was then notified of the intention of the Creeks to attack our settlements in a body. He was farther instructed, that general Logan of Kentucky, was preparing an expedition against those very Cherokees, with whom he was at this time attempting to make a treaty. They were the same Indians, whose chiefs, by the desire of the president, had been invited to visit him at Washington. Thus he found himself placed in a situation of great delicacy and perplexity. He promptly ordered out rangers and militia, to scour the woods on the frontiers of the Cumberland settlement, which was threatened with the most imminent danger. Other troops were ordered by the way of South West Point, to intercept any Indians, that might be coming in that direction. If they met with Indians, that they knew to be Cherokees, Chickasaws and Chactaws, these troops were instructed to consider them as friends, until they proved themselves to be otherwise. He was still laboring to restrain the hostilities of the Cherokees, and to persuade them to comply with their invitation to go to Philadelphia. They practised evasion, in regard to all his efforts and proposals. On the 17th of June, he repaired himself to Philadelphia. The people were loud in their complaints, that the general government had manifested backwardness to protect them, and declared that there would be no end to their sufferings until they either forsook the country, or were slain by the Indians. They averred, that they would already have taken sufficient measures to defend themselves, had they not been obliged to desist from their purpose by the interposition of the government.


It is very obvious that in such a state of feeling and circumstances, as existed here, such men, with arms in their hands, would be apt often to overstep the limits of moderation and allowable defence, and kill peaceable and unoffending Indians. When persons were arrested for such acts, such was the state of public feeling, that no jury could be procured, to pronounce them guilty. Mr. Smith, the governor's secretary, who acted for him in his absence, perceived, that a war with the whole Cherokees was inevitable; and he prepared himself to meet it. Troops were ordered to Knoxville, where an attack was expected. The attacks of the Indians had hitherto been in small parties; and there had not yet been a general engagement. In July, a considerable number of people assembled, with a determination to march on their own responsibility, into the country of the Cherokees. The secretary, who acted as governor, went among them; and attempted to change their purpose. They were found inflexible; and they marched for the Cherokee country to the number of 130 men. No authority could restrain another party from following them; — General Sevier requested, that he might be allowed to inarch at the head of 130 mounted infantry into the country, north of the Tennessee, and into the lower Cherokee towns. His request was granted. The other parties that went out, imitated the horrid fashions of the savages, by bringing in a number of scalps, as badges of victory. All personal communications with the Indians were at an end. Letters addressed to them were fastened to posts on the banks of the rivers. The people at Knoxville were much, and continually alarmed by the still increasing outrages of the enemy. They desired general Sevier to come to their assistance. He returned from his commenced expedition to their assistance.


The expected attack of the savages was made on the 25th of September, 1793, with 1,000 warriors and 100 horse. They crossed the Tennessee below the mouth of the Holston, marching all night for Knoxville. At sunrise they reached a house seven miles below that place, and killed the whole family, thirteen in number. When they attacked the house, there were three gunmen in it; and they defended it to extremities. They had already killed two Indians, and wounded three more. The savages offered them terms, if they would surrender; and they surrendered on condition, that their lives should be spared, and that they should be exchanged for Indian prisoners. They had no sooner yielded themselves, than, with their customary faithlessness, the Indians massacred everyone of them, except a single boy, whom they retained prisoner. The fort was then invested by 700 Cherokees and 200 Creeks. They made little impression upon the garrison, and speedily commenced a retreat.

At the time of this invasion, general Sevier was on the south frontier, on the bank of the Holston, eight miles from the Tennessee. His original force of 400 men was soon augmented to 1,023 privates, with 265 officers of a higher or lower grade. At the head of these troops he marched into the Cherokee nation, in pursuit of the invaders. He learned the course they had taken by their trails, and pursued them to Estonaula, on the river Coosa, where they arrived, the 24th of October. They took a number of Cherokee prisoners, who informed them, that every Cherokee town had furnished its quota for the late expedition. The Creeks had passed that place, on their return from that expedition, anticipating general Sevier's arrival but a few days. Their rendezvous was at the mouth of Hightower river. He followed their trail until the 17th of October, when he arrived at the


fork of Coosa and Hightower rivers. The Creeks and Cherokees had fortified themselves here to prevent the passage. Colonel Kelly, with a part of the Knoxville regiment, went down the river a half a mile; and crossed, unperceived, at a place where the river was fordable. — The Indians, discovering those, who had crossed, and thinking the whole army had passed there, ran down upon them. Captain Evans, who remained with the part of the army, that had not crossed, perceiving the mistake of the savages, immediately crossed at the deserted ford with his corps of mounted infantry. Very few of his troops had reached the south bank, when the foe discovered his original mistake; returned, and gave them a warm reception. An engagement took place; and although the Indians outnumbered captain Evans by four to one, he put them to flight. Spanish guns were found in the encampment. The Americans lost but three men. As many Indians were killed; and it was judged that a considerable number were wounded. The army then marched through the Indian country, destroying their towns, and laying waste their resources. After this skirmish, which was called the battle of Hightower, our troops proceeded without opposition. The country was generally deserted, although they might easily have taken more prisoners, than they did. They allowed some to escape, treating them with intentional lenity. After this expedition, the Indians were less troublesome for a considerable time. It had been believed for a long time, that the Spaniards had instigated the savages to these continual hostilities. It had been ascertained, in September, 1793, that a Spanish agent, in the Cherokee nation, had sent to governor White, of Pensacola, requesting 700 pounds of powder, and 1,400 of lead, for the use of the embodied Cherokees. — The request was granted by the direction of the baron


Carondelet of New Orleans, who had made such loud complaints against us, the June preceding, for furnishing the Chickasaws with corn and arms.

In October, the grand jury presented an address to the governor, in which they stated, that the ordinance of congress, of 1787, had promised them a legislature, whenever they should have 5,000 free male inhabitants; that they now had that number, and claimed their right; that their grand object, in desiring this, was, that they might legally protect themselves against the savages; closing with complaints, that the general government had never yielded them such efficient aid, as their case demanded. It was conceded to the people, that they should have a territorial government, according to the ordinance of 1787. In December, 1793, governor Blount authorized the election of persons to constitute a general assembly. In the elections in the different counties will be found many of the names of those, who had figured in the Indian wars. As soon as the elections were over, the governor, by proclamation, ordered the assembly to meet at Knoxville, in February, 1794. When they were assembled, the members walked in procession to the place of worship, where the Rev. Mr. Carrick made a prayer, and preached a sermon. They elected ten persons, out of whom congress were to choose five, to be a legislative council. They presented an address to the governor, recommending offensive operations, in regard to the Indians; and the erection of block-houses along the frontier, for the protection of those, who tilled the ground. They advised a guard for the members from Cumberland, on their return, as an express, that had been lately sent from Knoxville to Nashville, had been severely wounded. They also sent a memoir to congress, demanding a declaration of war against the Creeks and Cherokees. It stated, that, since the treaty of Holston, the savages had


killed upwards of 200 persons in the territory of Tennessee, and carried many into slavery; and had destroyed property to the amount of 100,000 dollars; that the inhabitants had been driven into stations, where were sometimes crowded together into small huts 300 persons; and that they had been waiting with as much patience, as they could assume, until they should have peace, or legally authorized war. They mention two invasions of the Indians, each of a force consisting of 1,000 warriors; and that both these attacks were made in the same month.

Information was received, that a part of the Cherokees were willing to treat for peace. Those of the lower towns were still determined on hostilities. They were instigated to perseverance by their chief, Double Head, or as he was called by his own people, Tucalatauga. This blood thirsty spirit had headed most of the murdering parties, and was supposed personally to have shed as much human blood, as any man in America. The Indians, in parties of forty or fifty persons, formed ambuscades, and killed and scalped passing travellers. Many people fell in this way. In some instances the friends of the murdered determined upon revenge; in which case they used to paint, and dress themselves, like Indians, and steal upon them in that disguise; killing four, or five of them; and then retreating to their forts. The Cherokees began now to manifest sincere desires to be at peace with us. The Hanging Maw, one of the Cherokee chiefs, in a letter to the governor, imputed the hostility of the Cherokees to the instigation of the Spaniards. He said, they were determined to listen to them no longer. But notwithstanding these professions, a boat passing down the Tennessee, was fired upon by the Indians. The people on board the boat returned the fire, by which two of the Indians were killed. The boat was pursued by 150 Indians to the Muscle Shoals, and was


there overtaken, and every person on board killed. In fact the history of Tennessee, for two or three years about this time, is but a dreary and wearying chronicle of Indian massacres. Many of these affairs of murder, if related by themselves, would possess a harrowing interest. Grouped together, they occur in such numbers, and under such uniform circumstances of atrocity and barbarity, that the confusion of the blended cases takes away the interest. The Cherokees and Creeks seem to have been principals in these horrid transactions; and the Chickasaws and Chactaws appear to have fallen in with their measures, as circumstances dictated. The legislation of the territorial assembly seems to have been respectable. They laid out roads, built bridges, and amidst all the horrors of an Indian war, authorized, and partially endowed two colleges; clearly indicating, that in these dark times they had a prophetic insight into the future destinies of the country.

In order to give something, like a connected view of the sufferings of the people in the commencement of this state, we have preceded the order of events. The year 1790, was an epoch of expectation and hope, not without a mixture of apprehension. North Carolina had laid down her claims of authority over this country; and the new federal government was about to be extended over all the Union. How the great community was likely to be affected by this novel experiment, was a matter of anxious solicitude to all, and of gloomy forebodings to some. In the midst of the horrors of an Indian war, hope and fear turned away from these scenes of danger and blood, to contemplate the new spectacle, that was approaching. Even the savages seem not to have been wholly exempt from curiosity, in contemplating the setting up of the new federal government. Even they suspended the wonted blows of the tomahawk for a while, to study the new order of things


and calculate its effects. It was, the suspended fury of but a moment. For three years from the setting up of the federal government, as we have seen, more particularly in the history of East Tennessee, the annals of West Tennessee were no more than a continued series of murders, sometimes of individuals, sometimes of whole families. A thousand circumstances of all the extent and refinement of Indian barbarity, on the one part, and of heart-rending agony on the other, must necessarily have been left untold, even in the most detailed narrative to be filled up by the imagination. Indeed, to a person now passing through this fine country, where every thing has settled to its proper level, as in the older states, where every thing indicates strength, confidence and security, and where they have at present as few apprehensions from the Indians, as they have in Washington or London to such a person it seems almost incredible, that within so short a period of time, as has elapsed between the present, and thirty years ago, so great a change could have been effected. Families then in the most central and populous parts of the country were under continual apprehensions. Not less than thirty individual murders or assaults of whole families and the killing a greater or less number of their members, are related to have occurred in West Tennessee, in three years. The most conspicuous characters among the Indian chiefs, were Double Head, Hanging Maw, Bloody Fellow, Mad Dog and other chiefs with ominous names, and Bowles, Watts and M'Gillivray. The influence of the Spanish government at Pensacola and New Orleans, in instigating the Indians to war, in managing their influence, in supplying them with powder, lead, blankets, muskets and other munitions of war, became an obvious feature in the order of things. The Spanish took great pains to be accurately informed of the state of things in Tennessee, and the objects and feelings of the different


parties. At this period, the chief, Watts, seems to have been the most common ambassador to Pensacola; while M'Gillivray appears to have had a paramount influence, in governing the Greeks at home. The savages made a powerful attack upon Buchanon's station. They were compelled to retreat, and were pursued by general Robertson, who seems to have been an active and powerful leader against them. In addition to the common causes of disunion and rupture, continual complaints were made on the part of the Indians, that the people of Tennessee were constantly encroaching on their lands; while our people alleged on the other hand, that the savages were faithless and refused to comply with the stipulated terms of their treaties. The Spaniards sometimes complained of us, that we supplied their enemies, the Chickasaws, with corn and provisions; and we, with more justice, complained of them, for furnishing the savages with the means of committing murder. A severe retaliation was practised upon the Indians by a force, commanded by Rains and Gordon. The name of Piomingo, a Chickasaw chief, occurs frequently in these annals of Indian war. He seems to have been generally friendly to the government of the United States. His friendship went to the extent to make war upon the Creeks, the constant and inveterate foes of our people. There were letters, criminations and recriminations frequently passing backwards and forwards between general Robertson and governor Blount, on the part of Tennessee, and Gayoso, and the barron Carondelet, on the part of the Spaniards. After a long endurance of Indian outrage, an expedition from Tennessee was planned, and executed against Nickajack, a Creek town, which was inhabited by two or three hundred men and their families. The army killed in the town a considerable number of warriors. They fired upon the Indians, who took to their canoes,


to make their escape across the river. Men, women, and children were victims of a deadly fire. Some were killed in their canoes. Some jumped into the water and attempted to swim off, and were killed by the troops, before they were out of the reach of the guns. Some girls, women and children were taken prisoners. Fifty-five warriors were killed, and both the towns at that place were reduced to ashes. In the town were found fresh scalps, taken at Cumberland; and several that were hung up in the houses, as trophies of war. In this place, too, was found a quantity of powder and lead, just received from the Spanish government, and a commission to the Breath, a chief of that town, who was killed in this action. This severe chastisement, with other events, which soon followed, began to break the spirit of the Cherokees. They were in despair of being able to prevent the settlements of the whites from spreading over all the country. With this despair, their vindictive propensities seem to have subsided. In June, 1794, they applied for peace. On the 26th of July a treaty, made between them and the United States, was ratified at Philadelphia. This treaty re-established that at Holston.

But this expedition against Nickajack, which wrought such a salutary result for the people of this region, had not only been unauthorized by the general government; but every person, who had any share, responsibility, or agency in planning, and executing it, was careful to conceal that share. The spirit of the people stole an unauthorized re-revenge. The people were tired of being scalped and murdered; or cooped up, in trembling apprehension, in uncomfortable stations, to wait for the tardy progress of aid from legislative provisions at such a distance from them, as the seat of the general government. The movements of the troops both of the Cumberland counties, and of Kentucky;


for the affair of Nickajack, was a joint concern between the troops of both, were carried on with such secresy, that the governor affected to be ignorant of them. When he could no longer disguise his knowledge of the intended expedition, he wrote, in apparent surprise and anger, to general Robertson, to enquire about it.

General Robertson wrote in reply, a moderate, but firm letter; entering into the details of murder and rumours of intended expeditions against the people, as in his judgment, justified striking this blow, and anticipating the certain consequences of allowing the savages to carry on their enormities unmolested. After giving an account of twenty or thirty murders, the wounding of a number of persons, the carrying others into slavery, for the Creeks and Cherokees at this time, actually retained many of our people in slavery, after enumerating a great number of thefts, robberies and burnings, recently committed by the Indians, he alleges, that it could not be considered a wanton outrage, to retaliate upon them, as the affair of Nickajack had been represented to be.

It can not be without affording a lesson for the powerful and flourishing state of Tennessee to look back upon the smallness and feebleness of her beginnings in the wilderness; to reflect, through how much poverty, danger and misery the hardy pioneers of civilization waded. — Probably none of the United States suffered more from the continual assaults and murders of the Indians. There was difficulty at home, from conflicting claims of grants of land. That never ending source of trouble, litigation of contending patents and boundaries, had already commenced. There were conflicting claims of cessions by the Indians. They revenged the murder of fathers and mothers and infant children and brothers and sisters, and they found themselves involved at once with the


general government, and with that of their own territory. They were bayed by the Spanish, and the English, teazed by the French, disturbed by insurgents, besieged by public creditors and murmured at by those, who were excluded for a time from the possession of their lands by Indian treaties. No people have evinced more bravery in danger; and few people have displayed more patience under the pressure of untoward circumstances.

From the position of the Spanish possessions, commanding the lower courses of the Mississippi, and the shores of the gulf of Mexico, it will be obvious at once, what bearing the relations of Spain with us would have upon the prosperity of this region. The general government, aware of this, pressed for an adjustment of our difficulties with her. The king of Spain announced by his minister, in 1794, that he was satisfied, that the Indians had been the aggressors in the wars with the people of Georgia and Tennessee; and that he had transmitted instructions to the governors of Louisiana and Florida, to give them no countenance, or assistance. Of course, all the incitement to hostilities, derived from Spanish instigation, was removed, and the relations of our government with that nation were in such a train of amicable adjustment, as gave the sure presage of a fortunate termination.

On the 20th of August, 1793, the commissioners of Spain had complained to the government of the United States, of attempts to excite the inhabitants of Kentucky to an enterprize against the Spanish dominions on the Mississippi. The president of the United States requested the governor of Kentucky, to look into the grounds of this charge, and be on his guard, to prevent any enterprize of the kind. It was perceived, that at this time, when our government was negotiating with Spain for the free navigation of the Mississippi, it would be a great oversight in Kentucky, to countenance


any thing of the kind. The president of course was assured, that no inclination to favor any such projects existed.

In November 6, 1793, the Spanish commissioners notified the governor of Kentucky, that, in the October preceding, four Frenchmen had left Philadelphia, authorized by Genet, minister of France, to travel through Kentucky; and while there, and on their way, to persuade as many persons as possible, to join them in undertaking an expedition against the Spanish possessions in our vicinity; and, more particularly, to make a descent upon New Orleans. The governor was requested to use legal means, to suppress the attempt; and if those means were inefficient, to call in the militia. In order to produce a disinclination to be seduced by these attempts, the governor informed the people, that the grand object of the president, in the negotiation with Spain, was to obtain the free navigation of the Mississippi; and that the only advantage, the people could propose to themselves, in such an expedition, was to obtain a privilege at the hazard and expense of money and blood, which they would, in this way, obtain peaceably and by treaty. The people were warned against any such schemes for the future. The governor himself, who, in common with the western people in general, had thought, that the general government had not been sufficiently attentive to the interests of this section of the country, was respectfully requested, to review the subject. The commissions, given by Genet, were recalled, and it was discovered, that they had been scattered over the states of Carolina and Georgia, as well as Tennessee, Kentucky, and Ohio. The governors, except the governor of South Carolina, took active measures to suppress these incipient yieldings to contemplated expeditions in the minds of the people.


In 1794, complaint was again made by the agents of Spain to the secretary of state, that some influential persons in Carolina were attempting to get up an expedition to attack East Florida. Troops were actually enrolled. — Colonel Hammond, an American, was appointed commander-in-chief, and brigadier general in the French service. The soldiers were enrolled under his standard. — Ammunition and provisions were purchased; and French vessels at the same time were to attack East Florida by sea. In this case South Carolina and Georgia were united; and took prompt and decisive measures for the entire suppression of the expedition. The means used were at once mild and energetic; and Spain must have been convinced, that her North American settlements had been saved to her by the good temper and forbearance of the United States. But so deeply rooted were the Spanish prejudices against us, that even this conviction, did not entirely remove alleged grounds of complaint. Barron Carondelet still continued to complain against governor Blount, to which, however, no attention was paid.

The mind of the president seemed to possess a kind of ubiquity; for, amidst all his harassing and multifarious concerns, the little nation of Chickasaws, that had lately evinced fidelity, amidst general treachery and hostility to us, was not overlooked. The chiefs of this tribe were invited, through governor Blount, to visit the president. — They consented. Piomingo was the head chief. The Chickasaws had been actively engaged, as auxiliaries, in the army of general Wayne, in the war with the northern Indians. The chiefs arrived at Philadelphia, and were received by the president with great kindness. To one of the chiefs he gave the commission of captain; and to Piomingo a paper, fixing the boundaries of their country; and forbidding all interference with their possession of these


lands. Considerable presents were made to the nation, which were to be forwarded to Knoxville, from which place they were to take them into their own country. Besides this, they were to receive an annual instalment of 3,000 dollars, in goods, as a mark of the satisfaction of the president with their fidelity. At the same time presents were ordered to the Chactaws. Instructions had not been received, touching our negotiations with the court of Madrid, in regard to the impending treaty; and the Indians were still troublesome on the frontiers. The Spanish built a fort at the Chickasaw bluffs, now fort Pickering, or Memphis. It was within the guaranteed limits of the Chickasaws; and they complained of it to our government. A remonstrance was immediately sent to the Spanish authorities in Louisiana, complaining of this encroachment, not only on the lands of the Chickasaws, but the territory of the United States. The commanders at these stations exercised much insolence, often interdicting boats from passing down the Mississippi, and especially, when loaded with provisions for the Chickasaws. These Indians were perishing from famine, owing to their wars, which had prevented their cultivating their lands. Governor Gayoso was informed, that it was expected, that he would order the fort in question to be demolished, and the troops withdrawn.

As late as 1795, the Spanish still had their emissaries among all the Indian tribes, that were disposed to be hostile to us. But in this year intelligence was received, that Spain had finally acceded to the proposed treaty, which put an end to all grounds of controversy between their government and ours. This event took place in October. — The boundaries between that country and ours were definitively settled, as the United States had contended, they ought to be. The western people now clearly perceived,


that what they had interpreted in the general government, to be indifference to their interests and sufferings, was in fact but patience, prudence and forbearance, to bring about a greater good. The Chickasaws, from the year 1785 had been almost constantly engaged in a war with the Creeks, the enemies of our country, and in which they confidently looked for aid from us. They came to Nashville with scalps, which they had taken from Creeks, that were on their way to commit murders on the Tennessee frontier. They informed governor Blount, that it was their intention to make a war of extermination with the Creeks, who had been constantly engaged in shedding the blood of their brothers, the whites. They seemed very anxious to know, if their great father, the president, was not going to join them in this war with the Creeks? In answer, the governor said, that from the known wisdom of the president, he believed, and hoped it; but, that he had no official information to that effect. The Chickasaws, sanguine, as savages always are, that the American army, destined for this war, would soon arrive among them, continued their attacks upon the Creeks, and in this way, engaged themselves, single handed and unsupported in a war with that powerful nation.

Public feeling in Tennessee was strongly in their favor. It did not comport with the feelings of a gallant people, to look with indifference upon the unequal contest of this tribe, which had been commenced, to avenge murders committed upon their own people. A thousand Chickasaw warriors were supported at Nashville some time. — The governor, who had had every opportunity to understand savage character, was unwilling to deny them supplies, through fear of making them enemies. He clearly foresaw, that if they should be much annoyed by the Creeks, and unassisted by us, a slight weight, so laid in the balance


against us, would incline them to enmity with us. At the same time our government wished to avoid a war with the Creeks, who entertained a deep and rooted hatred towards the Chickasaws. The Creeks, on their side were not idle, and endeavored to enlist the Cherokees and Chactaws on their side of the question. Happily, their endeavors were without effect. General Robertson, although he was not authorized by the government, raised some men for their cause. There was at first some backwardness to enlist; for fear, that as the expedition was not authorized by the government, the men would not be paid for their services. The Chickasaws had left an agent at Nashville, to ascertain, whether or not, any troops would be sent to their aid by the United States. This agent pledged himself, that if the United States did not see fit to pay these men, the Chickasaws would. On these terms a considerable number of men were persuaded to enlist; but only fifteen actually marched to the assistance of the Chickasaws. Another party had descended in a boat, and were fired upon by the Creeks. Some were killed, and the rest returned in discouragement. Captain Smith, who commanded the fifteen, was an intrepid partizan for the Chickasaws; and on his way persuaded a number more to join them. The men murmured, on account of their hardships, and captain Smith fed them at his own expense to induce them to remain.

There were several skirmishes between the parties; and lives were lost upon both sides. The cause of the Chickasaws was that of the people of Tennessee; and they continued to aid them, as much, as they could. The stipulated sum of 3,000 dollars, in goods, was sent according to engagement to the Chickasaws. The Cherokees requested governor Blount to keep peace between them and the Chickasaws. He attempted, too, to bring about peace between


that tribe and the Creeks. But this powerful and vindictive people was still keen for hostilities; and endeavored to draw the Shawnees and northern Indians into their quarrel. The Chickasaws were persuaded by governor Blount, to transmit a talk to the intendant at New Orleans, requesting him to transmit it to the Creeks. They in turn, pretended to be disposed to peace; but the pretence was entirely deceitful. It operated, however, to for the Chickasaws, should be withheld. The Chickasaws, blind the general government, which ordered, that some guns and ammuniton, which had been ordered at the same time, were assured, that if they continued to make war upon the Creeks, after they were disposed to peace, they must expect no more aid from the United States. It was soon discovered in Tennessee, that the friendly professions of the Creeks were a mere feint, to detach us from their aid; and to throw them off their guard, and thus to make them an easy prey. The lower Creek towns abhorred the duplicity of the upper Creeks. Governor Blount gave them to understand, that they must make peace with the Chickasaws. All savages place the ultimate point of honor in revenge, and perseverance; and they determined to measure back in retaliation, what they had suffered from the Chickasaws. Their attacks were continued; and they fitted out a large expedition against the Chickasaws, which marched against their country, but returned, after inflicting very inconsiderable injury.

The Chickasaw chiefs again visited Philadelphia; but evidently in a moody humor. Governor Blount made great exertions to please them, in order to prevent their manifestation of their ill humor by becoming enemies. In December, the happy event of a peace between them and the Creeks was brought about, by the interference of the United States. There was, also, a treaty made between the


United States and the Creek nation, in 1796. Roads of communication through Tennessee, and the country adjacent were opened. General James Robertson had been one of the first settlers both of East and West Tennessee. He lived to see her take her place among the states of the Union. Peace seemed to be firmly settled between all the Indian tribes. Unfortunately some white person at this time killed a Cherokee; and the nation demanded revenge. Governor Blount was unable to discover the perpetrator; and they proceeded to revenge themselves. Among the many murders and assaults, that ensued in consequence, we relate the following. It will serve as a fair sample of the general aspect of these assaults, and as a fair specimen of the general modes of attack and resistance. There is no bravery so desperate, as that, which is inspired by living among savages in the wilderness. We may fairly infer, that resistance of the same in character, if less fortunate in result, took place in almost every case of the numberless assaults and murders, mutually inflicted by our people, and the savages, in the long and bloody contest, through which Tennessee waded to strength and independence.

On the 27th of January, a party of Indians killed Geo. Mason on Flat creek, about twelve miles from Knoxville. During the night he heard a noise at his stable, and stepped out to ascertain the cause; and the Indians, coining between him and the door, intercepted his return. He fled, but was fired upon, and wounded. He reached a cave, a quarter of a mile from his house, out of which, already weltering in his blood, he was dragged and murdered. — Having finished this business, they returned to the house to despatch his wife and children. Mrs. Mason, unconscious of the fate of her husband, heard them talking to each other, as they approached the house. At first she


was delighted with the hope, that her neighbors, aroused by the firing, had come to her assistance. But, understanding English and German, the languages of her neighbors, and perceiving, that the conversation was in neither of these tongues, she instantly inferred, that they were savages coming to attack the house. This heroine had that very morning learned how the double trigger of a rifle wag set. Fortunately the children were not awakened by the firing; and she took care not to awaken them. She shut the door; and barred it with benches and tables; and took down the well charged rifle of her husband. She placed herself directly opposite the opening, which would be made by forcing the door. Her husband came not, and she was but too well aware, that he was slain. She was alone in the darkness. The yelling savages were without, pressing upon the house. She took counsel from her own magnanimity, heightened by affection for her children, sleeping unconsciously around her. The Indians, pushing with great violence, gradually opened the door sufficiently wide, to attempt an entrance. The body of one was thrust into the opening, and just filled it. He was struggling for admittance. Two, or three more, directly behind him were propelling him forward. She set the trigger of the rifle; put the muzzle near the body of the foremost, and in a direction, that the ball, after passing through his body would penetrate those behind. She fired. The first Indian fell. The next one uttered the scream of mortal agony. This intrepid woman saw the policy of profound silence. She observed it. The Indians, in consequence were led to believe, that armed men were in the house. — They withdrew from the house, took three horses from the stable, and set it on fire. It was afterwards ascertained, that this high minded widow had saved herself and her children from the attack of twenty-five assailants.


A considerable number of murders ensued. The Creeks still continued secret enemies, although they had persuaded the general government otherwise. A considerable jealousy existed between the authorities of Tennessee and the general government. The south-western people were every day more impatient, to be in a position to manage their affairs in their own way. The Creeks, too, deserted on one side by the Spanish, and on the other by the Cherokees, and moreover beginning to have partisans for the United States among themselves, began to be sick of hostilities. A marauding party, headed by Bill M'Intosh, had just returned from our frontiers with a number of stolen horses. Some blood had been spilled on the occasion; and it was the last. The Creeks set themselves in earnest, to restore the stolen property, and prisoners of our people, that were in slavery among them.

On the 18th of October, 1795, at a very full meeting of the Cherokee and Creek chiefs, conferences were begun, and continued for several days between governor Blount and them. They terminated favorably. Many of the Indians applied to have their children educated by our government. Governor Blount recommended to have them educated on the frontiers, in friendly habits with the young men of our country. He inculcated general lessons of charity and good feeling, and forgetfulness of the past towards them.

On the last Monday in June, 1795, the members of assembly were convoked by proclamation of the governor, to discuss the expediency of erecting the territorial government into an independent state. The assembly passed a law for enumerating the inhabitants, to ascertain whether the numbers exceeded 60,000. They were found by the census to amount to 77,262. The governor issued his proclamation for an election, in which five persons should


be chosen in each county, to represent them in a convention. It was to meet at Knoxville, on the 11th January, 1796; for the purpose of forming a constitution, or permanent system of government. The convention met at the time and place appointed. On the 6th of February, 1796, in the name of the people of the territory of the United States, south-west of the river Ohio, they mutually agreed with each other, to form themselves into a free and independent state, by the name of Tennessee. On the 9th of February, governor Blount forwarded to Mr. Pickering, secretary of state, a copy of the constitution, formed for the permanent government of the state of Tennessee. — The copy of the constitution was sent by Mr. M'Minn; and he was instructed to stay there long enough to ascertain, whether the members of congress from that state would be received. Mr. White, the territorial delegate in congress, was instructed to attempt the procuring an act, as soon as might be, for the admission of the state into the Union. This act was passed on the 6th of June, 1796. — Writs of election were issued for the election of senators and representatives, to represent their counties in general assembly, and also for a governor for the state of Tennessee. The members of assembly were elected pursuant to the mode, which the constitution prescribed, and John Sevier, Esq., was elected first governor.

Since that time the state has advanced with rapid strides in wealth, power, and consequence. The people are a hardy, high minded and respectable body of freemen. — Their gallantry in the high places of the field has been amply tested, even from their earliest settlements; and no people in the Union have sustained the test better. The part, which this state took in the late war, and in the campaign among the Creeks has been related in another place.



Civil Divisions
Counties. Whites. Free blacks, Slaves. Total.
Cape Girardeau, 5058 45 865 5968
Cooper, 6307 15 637 6959
Franklin, 2170 0 299 2379
Howard, 11,319 18 2089 13,426
Jefferson, 1620 3 212 1835
Lincoln, 1419 1 242 1682
Madison, 1672 4 371 2047
Montgomery, 2547 1 526 3074
New Madrid, 2001 4 291 2296
Pike, 3071 0 676 3747
St. Charles, 3275 13 682 3970
St. Genevieve, 3932 47 983 4962
St. Louis, 8014 225 1810 10,049
Washington, 2344 0 425 2769
Wayne, 1239 0 204 1443
Total 55,988 376 10,222 66,586


Face of the country. A large extent of this great state, in its south-east angle, commencing above New Madrid, and extending clown the great swamp, and through the alluvial region, a considerable distance back from the Mississippi, is low, swampy, full of lakes, and in many places subject to be inundated. Beyond that region, which is generally marked by a bold line of rolling and fertile high lands, the country gradually rises into high flint knobs, still rising beyond that region to the mountainous country of the lead mines. This country extends to the Osage and its tributaries. Beyond this, the country is broken and hilly; until we open upon the boundless belt of open prairies, which spreads beyond the western limits of this state. The best portion, and the most inhabited parts of the state are between the Missouri and Mississippi. This vast tract is no where mountainous. It contains great tracts of alluvial and hilly prairies. It is for the most part a surface, delightfully rolling and variegated. There is no part of the globe, where greater extents of country can be traversed more easily, and in any direction by carriages of any description, where there are no roads, and that is yet in a state of nature.

Soil. One specific difference between the soil of this country, and the country bordering on the Ohio is, that the land here contains a much greater proportion of sand, is more loamy and friable, and the soil is not so stiff. There are tracts over all this country, where we find the clayey soils of Ohio and Kentucky. But they are small. The roads generally, run over tracts, where the falling rain and snow are so readily absorbed, even in the winter, that the people are not troubled with the deep and almost impassable roads, I that we find in those states. The rich uplands are of a darkish grey color; with the exception of the great tract about; the lead mines, were the soil, composed of decomposed,


pyrite, is reddish, and of a color brighter than Spanish brown. The poorer uplands are generally covered with white oak, and that small shrubby species of oak denominated here pin oak. It is usually a stiffer and more clayey soil than the other; and it is of a light yellow color. There are two extensive tracts of that fine kind of timbered upland alluvion, which constitutes the finest central portions of Kentucky. The one is, perhaps, fifteen or twenty miles in extent It is south-west of the mine country, and is called Bellevue settlement. The other tract is much larger, and is called in this country the Boone's lick settlement. There are smaller extents of this kind of land, spread over all the state. In a state of nature, it strikes the eye delightfully. The surface rolls gently and almost imperceptibly. It has the same trees and shrubs, and the grand vegetation, that designate the rich alluvions; and at the same time it has the diversified surface, and the associated ideas of health, and springs of water that are naturally connected with the notion of uplands. These lands are timbered with the same trees, which the alluvions bear. Like those, they are surmounted with grape vines, and are free from under brush. The graceful pawpaw, the persimon, and the wild cherry tree, all denoting rich soils, abound in these regions; and they are nearly as fertile as the bottoms of the Missouri, or the Mississippi.

The prairies are generally level and of an intermediate character between the richer and the poorer uplands. The alluvial prairies are universally rich, and nearly as fertile as the bottoms. Some tracts of the upland prairies are rich. But there are scarcely any lands in this state sufficiently level for cultivation, that have not fertility enough to bring good crops of corn without manure; and in many instances the poorer lands are better for wheat than the richer, The bottoms of all the water courses are


rich. There is a specific difference in the soils of the two wide alluvial belts, along the two great rivers of this state. The bottoms of the Missouri are generally loamy, with a large proportion of sand. But, even where the proportion of sand seems to be in excess, the soil is of the very richest character; and at first more productive, than that of the upper Mississippi. Intermixed with the glaize, or earth of a greasy and adhesive feeling, is a considerable proportion of marle or dissolved lime, which communicates to the soil, which in other respects is compounded in no small proportion, with dissolved vegetable matter, an astonishing fertility.

The lands of the upper Mississippi bottoms are blacker, more clayey, less marly and sandy, and if not so immediately fertile, are more inexhaustible; and probably better fitted to sustain the high heats and the drought of summer. The bottoms of the smaller streams partake of the character of the region, through which they flow, and are composed of more or less sand, marl, or clay, according as the hills, acclivities, or soils, along which they flow, have more or less of these ingredients. On the whole, the good lands of this country generally have a great degree of fertility. The vegetable mould is friable, tender and deep; and in many instances the soils thrown from the bottom of the deepest wells, appears no less fertile, than that on the surface. The rank and abundant vegetation very where indicates the prolific character of nature working at the root. On the richer prairies and bottoms, tall and coarse grass, and weeds resembling hemp, rise up of such a thickness, size and height, as almost to make it impracticable to travel on horse back. The leaves of the trees and shrubs, by their unusual size and verdure, every where indicate the prolific vigor and power of nature. — The upper Mississippi is skirted with a prairie, commencing


ten miles above the mouth of the Missouri, and extending along the west bank of the river sixty or seventy miles, and with an average width of between four and five miles. The uplands on the upper Mississippi are also extremely rich; but interspersed with round flint knobs, which often rise in regular cones, two or three hundred feet high. There are large tracts of poor land, in the south west division of the state covered with yellow pine, with bald and rocky hills, and even moving sands. In fact, this state abounds with the strongest contrasts of soil from the best to the worst; and there are very extensive tracts of each.

Productions. Hitherto, wheat and corn have been the staples of this country. The warmth and looseness of the soil, the large proportions of dissolved limestone in it, and even the dryness of the atmosphere render it an admirable country for wheat. The season of the year, in which wheat ripens and matures, is peculiarly adapted to the culture of this rich grain. This period is warm and dry; and seldom has any rains, except transient showers. The wheat, however, receives such an impulse from the spring rains, that it matures, and fills, even during the severest droughts. Thirty bushels to an acre is an average crop; though it often rises as high as forty. Rye, barley and oats, though not extensively cultivated, succeed equally well. — Corn is, also, cultivated in the highest perfection. The intense heats of the summer agree with it. It throws such deep and strong roots into the soil, that it soon shelters them, by its shade from the burning ardors of the sun; and the crop has never been known to fail from drought. — From fifty to seventy-five bushels to the acre is an average crop; although it is affirmed, that an hundred are often raised. Although the droughts are often severe, yet such is the depth and looseness of the soil, that a crop seldom


fails. Flax is raised, in considerable quantities, and it is believed, that no country will produce better hemp. Its fault appears to be, that it grows too coarse and rank. Tobacco has become an article of extensive culture in this state; and its quality is said to be excellent, as the yield is most abundant. Cotton is raised in considerable quantities in the warm prairies back of New Madrid. It yields a tolerable crop, when the frosts are not too late in the spring, nor too early in the autumn. Sweet and Irish potatoes succeed sufficiently well. But this state alone has lands already fit for the plough, sufficient, it is believed, to produce wheat enough for whole nations. Prairies of hundreds of thousands of acres of first rate wheat lands covered with grass, and perfectly free from shrubs and bushes, invite the plough; and if the country were cultivated to a proper extent, it might be the granary of the world.

Cultivated grasses have not yet succeeded as well, as the other articles of culture. The only kind, yet experimented to any considerable degree, is timothy; and this requires a close and wet soil, which is a very uncommon one in Missouri. It appears to us to possess, in the highest degree, the requisites to be fitted for grasses by the use of plaster. If this should be found to be the case, abundant crops of red clover might be made, by the use of this manure. Plaster is found of the best quality, and in inexhaustible quantities, on the waters of the Missouri. From analogy and from the character of the natural grasses, we may safely infer, that St. Foin, and the coarser and, more succulent grasses will flourish abundantly in this deep and rich soil. Turnips and bulbous rooted vegetables grow to a great size. Pumpkins, squashes and melon are raised no where in greater abundance. At present, the fodder, provided for the stable in winter, is chiefly


corn, its leaves and husks, and what is called prairie grass. This is a coarse and tall grass, covering the prairies in the greatest abundance. In the early stages of its growth, it very nearly resembles young wheat, and in that stage furnishes a succulent and rich feed for cattle. They have been seen, when running in wheat fields, where the young wheat covered the ground, to choose the prairie grass on the margins of the fields, in preference to the wheat. It is impossible to imagine better butter, than is made, while the grass is in this stage. Cattle and horses, that have lived unsheltered and without fodder through the winter, and of course in the spring, scarcely able to mount the hills, through leanness and weakness, when feeding on this grass, are transformed to a healthy and sleek appearance, as if by a charm. But as the summer advances, the grass becomes tough and wiry. By a strange mistake, as we deem it, this grass is not mowed for fodder, until after the autumnal frosts. Of course, it is a harsh and coarse fodder. It is believed by many, that if it were cut, before has thrown out its seeds, and become wiry, it would be a fodder equally valuable, and perhaps superior to timothy. It creates an extremely tough sward, but is soon killed by being close fed. An abundant crop of coarse and tall weeds takes its place.

In the meadows and bottoms and wet prairies are observed a great variety of grasses, most of them, as far as we know, nondescripts. Some of them, no doubt, would be found worthy of cultivation, and the rather so, as they are naturalized to the soil and climate. Above all countries that we have seen, this is the country of flowers. In our general views of the country, we have spoken of the aspect of the prairies with a more especial reference to those of the southern country. In the season of flowers, every prairie here is an immense flower garden. In the


early stages of spring, rises a generation of flowers, whose prevalent hue is peach-blow. The next is a deeper red. — Then succeeds the yellow, and to the latest period of autumn the prairies exhibit a most brilliant golden hue.

This state spreads a wide belt, on which is found many trees and shrubs, different from those, that are common in the more southern parts of the valley. They differ, also, from those, that grow in the same latitudes on the Ohio. — Crab apple trees, pawpaws and persimons are abundant. — We have no where seen such quantities of the red and yellow prairie plums. Wild hops cover the extent of whole prairies. Peccans, hazlenuts, and nuts of the different tribes of the hickories, are found in great quantities. There are three species of the vine, that are common in all parts of the country. The first is called the June grape, and ripens in that month. It is small, sweet, and uncommon; not being found except in untrodden islands in the rivers, or remote places beyond the reach of domestic animals. The French formerly made a very pleasant wine from it. It ought to be more known, and experimented. — The summer grape is small, purple, and a tolerably rich fruit in the month of October. When carefully dried in the sun, these grapes are not much inferior to raisins. — When ripe, they are too dry to make wine. The winter grape is small, austere and sour. When matured by the winter frosts, it becomes tolerably pleasant.

From the temperature of the climate, from the warmth and looseness of the soil, and more than all from the dryness of the atmosphere, we would suppose this country, as favorable for the cultivation of the vine, as any other in the United States. It is believed, that the atmosphere is drier here, than in Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana. The fault of the fruit there is to grow too abundant, succulent and watery. The few attempts, that have been made to cultivate


the vine here, warrant the conclusion, that one day the southern exposures of the gentle eminences here will be covered with vines. All the fruits of the northern and middle states thrive in an uncommon degree in this region. The apple tree attains its utmost developement and beauty, An inhabitant from the northern states is struck with surprize, to see this tree in three years from the time of its transplanting, and as soon as it attains the size of a man's wrist, loading itself with fruit. Peach trees break down from the weight of their fruit. Pear trees, apricots and nectarines, though they have been introduced in but few instances, prosper. This seems to be the native country of fruit trees. Few attempts have yet been made to inoculate, and engraft good kinds of fruit trees, and every thing in most instances has been left to nature. Apples are already abundant in the older settlements. Barley yields a fine crop; and it is hoped, that not many years will elapse, before beer and porter, drinks so proper for this hot climate, will take the place of that murderer both of soul and body, whiskey. The mulberry tree is very common in the woods; and this is, undoubtedly, among the best of the middle climates, for breeding the silk worm, and the making of silk. In short, every production of the northern and middle states thrives here. The heats of summer and the dryness of the atmosphere peculiarly fit this soil for the cultivation of the medicinal plants, rhubarb, palma christi and the poppy.

Animals. We have but little to add, to what has been already remarked, touching the animals of the country in general. Bears, wolves and panthers, are as common, as in the more southern regions. The prairie wolf, the most mischievous of the species, is but too common. Buffalos and elk are only found in the prairies beyond the limits of this state. Deer, as the Indians retire,


and as cultivation becomes more common, are seen evidently to increase in numbers. They are so frequently seen, from four to twenty in a drove, even in the immediate vicinity of the most populous villages, as to be no objects of curiosity. That large and mischievous species of the mole, called gopher, is extremely annoying on the prairies and barrens. It is seldom seen on the timbered bottoms. These animals live in communities, in the vicinity of which they raise thousands of eminences. They form these eminences, by removing the earth from their holes by a pouch, with which nature has furnished them on each side of their mouth. They are extremely mischievous in corn and potatoe fields, and in gardens they prey upon all kinds of bulbous roots. Their bite is said to be poisonous. —The prairie dog begins to be seen in the western extremities of this state.

Rattle snakes and copper heads and ground vipers are found in the unsettled region; and especially near the flint knobs and ledgy hills, where they spend the winter. — The small and pernicious rattle snakes, called snappers, live in great numbers in particular places on the prairies, On the whole, poisonous reptiles are not so common, as in unsettled regions of the same latitude, where the country is generally timbered. Burning the prairies undoubtedly destroys multitudes of them. The ponds, lakes and rivers, during the spring and autumn, and during the migrating season of water fowls, are literally covered with swans, pelicans, cranes, geese, brants and ducks, of all the tribes and varieties. Many of these fowls rear their young on the islands and sand bars of the large rivers. In the autumn, multitudes of them are killed for their quills, feathers and flesh. The birds, called quails in New England, and partridges here, are numerous, as is also a bird, somewhat larger than a domestic hen, called prairie-hen. In the autumns


of some seasons, they are seen hovering over the corn fields, in flocks of hundreds. They are easily taken, and when fat, are fine for the table. There are two larger and still more beautiful species of the grouse tribe, found far up the Missouri. Turtle doves are always numerous, as in some seasons are the wild pigeons. Singing birds are not so common as in the country farther south; or the more settled and cultivated regions of the north. It is a striking fact, that they become more common in any region, as cultivation advances. The robin red-breast is seen in flocks in the autumn, but does not rear its young here. — The magpie, or French black bird, that is so frequently heard chattering its notes in the meadows of New England in spring, has only been observed here, since the country has begun to be peopled and cultivated. The red bird, or Virginia nightingale, rears its young, and spends the winter here, and on a mild day in winter its mild whistle is delightful in the deep forests. The blue bird is heard in all the mild days of winter. The beautiful parroquet frequents the sycamore bottoms, and poorly compensates by the extreme beauty of its plumage for the injury it does the orchard and garden fruits.

The domestic animals are the same, as elsewhere in the United States. The wide prairies, every where covered with grass, invite the raising of cattle. Many of the farmers possess great droves; and they may be multiplied to an indefinite extent. The cattle are large and fine; and the beef is good. When the same attention is here bestowed upon rearing the largest and best kind of horses, that is given to the subject by the Pennsylvania farmer, that noble animal will probably be raised in the utmost perfection in this state. Sheep prosper here; nor does the fleece degenerate. North of 40°, on the prairies between the Missouri and Mississippi, shepherds will one day find


their homes, and the sheep will there yield the finest and best wool. At present the wolf is a fatal enemy to them; and the number of weeds, that bear burs, is so great, that their fleeces become matted and tangled with them; and in cutting them off, the staple of the fleece is injured. Swine are raised with the same or perhaps with greater facility, than in Ohio. Hickory and acorn bearing trees are more abundant, than in that state. On the whole, for the rearing cattle, sheep, and horses, we deem this state, and Illinois, to have advantages over any other of the western states.

Agriculture. Experimental improvements have commenced, and ought to make rapid progress. There is no country, in which a farm is made with less difficulty, or where tillage is more easy. A great proportion of the land is fit for the plough. The soil is almost universally, easy to work. The greatest obstacle in the way of present farming is the want of good fencing materials. Stones are seldom to be found for this purpose; and no where, except in quarries and ledges; and when they are found, they are not at all used for the purpose of fencing. Unless forests are planted, there will soon be an absolute want of a sufficiency of any kind of timber for fencing. The substitute ought to be found as soon as may be in hedges. —Whenever the wealthy farmers of this country understand their true interests, they will immediately, and universally commence the planting of hedges. The subject has as yet engaged the contemplation of only a few intelligent husbandmen. They have thought, that the native gooseberry, which here grows wild, and of a size and tangled luxuriance, unknown in the country east of the Alleghanies, would be sufficiently thorny and impenetrable for a hedge. Others have recommended the thorny locust, or acacia, the crab apple tree, the privet, a most beautiful shrub of the laurel class, used in the middle states to form borders and


walks. There seems no good reason, why the British hawthorn, or the Columbian thorn should not be adopted for that purpose. It would grow here more rapidly, than in Pennsylvania and Delaware, where experience has demonstrated, that it soon becomes a fence sufficient to turn cattle. The beauty of a wheat field in full verdure in autumn, in contrast with the brown of the prairies is now a striking feature in the cultivated landscape. It would be still more so, when its outline was skirted with a living and verdant hedge. The planting of the Alleghany white pine and the chesnut ought also to be objects of immediate attention. The scarcity of wood and timber imperiously calls upon those, who have any thought for the generations to come, to attend to this sort of improvement. Enquiries, respecting the different qualities of the soil, the trial of grains, and grasses congenial to it, and experiments to ascertain the best modes of culture, are all important matters, which are yet to be attempted.

Houses, &c. But a few years since, and a house of better structure, than a temporary log cabin was a rare object. The ease of subsistence was so great, and there was for a considerable time so little emulation among the people, that they hardly consulted comfort, much less ornament. Most of the first settlers were hardy backwoods men, used to the hardships of a laborious life. Indolent, and satisfied with the supply of the most common wants of nature, they lived in open and miserable habitations, which neither excluded the rain, the heat, or the cold. It was a long time, before the country had mills, and the materials for building bore a high price. The sites of water mills are not common. But such have been found and put in operation. Mills on the principle of the inclined plane, and steam mills have been commenced. Good houses have been reared, not only in the towns and villages, but in


the country. Log cabins and log houses are disappearing in all directions, and frame and brick houses are taking their place. Rivalry and emulation have been inspired; and the people have, in many instances, been tempted to build larger and more showy houses, than were called for either for comfort, or conformity to the circumstances of the builder. Brick and stone houses, from the scarcity of timber, and from their being at once more durable and comfortable, have been generally preferred.

Climate. Soon after we descend below the mouth of the Ohio, the climate begins to verge towards the character of a southern one. This state occupies a middle position, and has a temperature intermediate between that of New York and Louisiana. We have seen, from the circumstance, that the valley of the Mississippi spreads, like an immense inclined plane, towards the gulf of Mexico, that it results that, north and south winds alternate through this valley. This fact applies most strongly to the immediate valley of the Mississippi. As the prevailing winds blow either up, or down the valley, the changes are great and sudden. When the breeze for any length of time descends the Mississippi, the weather soon becomes cold, and if the same direction of the winds continues for successive days, if it be in the winter, the Missouri and the Mississippi are frozen, and the mercury in some instances falls below zero. After this wind has prevailed for a length of time, the opposite wind gets the ascendency again; and it is not at all uncommon to have days, when we can sit at the open window, with comfort, in January, Hence the climate is extremely fickle and variable. The transitions are so rapid, as not only to be very uncomfortable, but to have an unfavorable effect upon the constitution. But the country is always exempt from those damp and


uncomfortable north-east breezes, that prevail so much on the Atlantic shore.

The winter commences in its severity about Christmas; and is frequently so severe, as to bridge the mighty current of the Missouri so firmly, as that it may be passed for many weeks with loaded teams. In the winter of 1818, this was the case for nine weeks. During this period, however, there are often truly warm days, with a sky perfectly brilliant, and destitute of that leaden hue, which it has at the same period on the Atlantic shore. Snow seldom falls in this state more than six inches deep; and generally does no more than cover the ground, disappearing after two or three days. Its severity ceases with February. Through the months of March, and April, there are often summer days, and the trees sometimes blossom in the former month. But it seldom happens, that there are not alternations of cold even into May. On the whole, instead of the climate becoming more mild, as we advance on the same parallel, it is believed, that the reverse of this is the case. The greater part of the summer is intensely hot. The country is bare and open to the full influence of the sun. The soil, moreover, is of a warm and sandy texture, strongly imbibing the sun's rays. The sky for the greater part of the summer is brilliant and cloudless. All these circumstances concur to give this country a very warm summer. Nevertheless, the openness of the country, and its freedom from mountains, which impede the course of the winds, always creates more or less of a breeze, which tempers the extreme heat and renders it more endurable.

Another circumstance, which distinguishes this climate from most others on our continent, is its extreme dryness. The sky is of an azure, which denotes dryness and purity. Evaporation takes place with great rapidity. The climate


differs in this respect from the wooded valley of the Ohio, and still more from that of the Mississippi below the mouth of the Ohio. Polished steel, in the southern parts of the Mississippi valley, contracts rust in a few hours, and the dews are like rains. The three years, 1816, '17, and '18, gave an average of only fifty clouded days in the season, and not more than twenty-five that were rainy. It is believed, that the average amount of rain, that falls in Missouri, does not exceed eighteen inches a year. There are exceptions, however, as in the year 1811, commonly called by the French l'annee des eaux, in which year it was thought, there fell more than forty inches. The two great rivers that year filled their bottoms, in some places, quite to the bluffs; and their courses in such places were often five or six miles wide. The Missouri country may be pronounced, in the general, a dry one. The steady rains are from the south-west. The long rains, that occur in the Atlantic country without thunder, seldom happen here. The summer rains are generally thunder showers. They rise near the courses of the great rivers, and appear to be supplied by evaporations from them. The lightning is vivid, and the thunder loud and frequent. The autumn of Missouri, in common with the whole of the Mississippi valley, is serene, temperate, delightful; and in salubrity and pleasantness, probably, not exceeded by any country in the world.

Such is the general aspect of the climate. But in a country so large, and so open, there sometimes occur seasons very wide from this general character. The uniformity of the autumns is indeed almost invariable. But for the rest, the general character of this climate is, that less dependence can be placed upon the analogy of the past, as a clue to the future, than almost any other, of which we


have read. There are fewer grounds of this sort, for safe calculation for the future.

Salubrity of the country. When it was first settled by the Americans, there were some years of extraordinary mortality from sickness; which at first acquired for the country a character of sickliness. Such was the year of waters, as the French call 1811. A part of the fatality of that year may be fairly attributed to the circumstance, that; the immigrants, were unsheltered, except by miserable hovels; and that there were few mills to supply the people with bread. The diet was changed. The modes of life were changed. The people were imprudent, and exposed. — The season was uncommonly rainy and humid. On the level lands and in the hollows rested immense quantities of stagnant water, which escaped only by the evaporation of a powerful sun. One or two sickly seasons have occurred since. In the neighborhood of deep and inundated bottoms, where waters escape during the floods from the rivers, and are retained in the gullies and ponds of the bottoms, in the vicinity of small lakes, and stagnant waters, the effect is the same here, as elsewhere; with the added inconvenience, that the high heats of summer, and the powerful evaporation, consequent upon the heat and dryness of the atmosphere, increase the noxious activity of the causes of disease. Whenever an unacclimated family fixes itself in the vicinity of such collections of water, it may calculate upon severe sickness. Intermitting fevers are the consequence of inhaling the miasma of swamps and putrifying vegetation, the change of temperature from the coolness of the night to the heats of the day, from exposure to the heavy dews, and various other mixed causes. They are here, or elsewhere in the west, the most common diseases of the country. The tendency of all complaints in the summer is to assume a highly bilious


type. It has been asserted, in common parlance, that this is universally the case in all countries near large streams of water. But in Missouri, we think, bilious complaints are not so common near the river Missouri, as in points more remote from it. Bilious fevers are apt to prevail in the autumn. In some seasons they are endemic in particular districts. They sometimes take the form of continued fevers and are then dangerous. But more frequently they are remittents, and then when properly managed, they yield readily to medicine. If the attendance of a judicious and experienced physician is early and constant, they are seldom fatal. Pleurisy and lung fevers sometimes prevail in the winter. Pulmonic complaints attended with cough, and terminating in consumption, notwithstanding the inconstancy of the weather are very uncommon here. There is no doubt, that increase of population and cultivation, by draining away stagnant waters, and removing by the feeding and trampling of cattle, and in other ways, the redundant vegetation directly tends to increase the salubrity of a new country. In process of time this must become a very healthy country. It can not be accounted a sickly one at present. Except in deep bottoms, and in unfavorable situations, we judge, that the chances of life and health are as favorable here, as in countries, which have been longer settled, and which are reputed healthy.

Scenery, Roads, &c. The hills, or as they are called, the Ozark mountains of the mine country, are sufficiently precipitous and grand, to add the sublimity of mountain scenery to the prospect. In the bottoms, and along the mountain streams of this region, contrary to the common assertions in books, the soil has uncommon fertility, and we have not witnessed situations with scenery of a character more solitary, wild and yet beautiful, than we have


seen in the mine country. Along all the considerable water courses there are those bluffs, that every where in the western country mark the alluvial outline of streams. In some places, especially on the upper Mississippi, they swell to high hills, which run out at right angles from the river, and seem like mountainous waves of the sea, suddenly arrested and fixed. Compared, however, with the northern states, and these partial exceptions aside, the habitable part of Missouri is one vast plain. We have already described the prairies of the west. All know, that the name is a French one, importing the same as meadow. — Those, who have not seen a prairie may easily form a conception of one. Yet the grandest objects of nature will, probably, not excite so much surprize in the mind of a traveller from the Atlantic states, as the first view of a prairie. Riding, day after day, through forests, where the small improvements made in the wilderness scarcely interrupt the general aspect of woods, he opens at once upon the view of a boundless horizon. In the early periods of summer, he beholds outstretched under his eye a perfectly level plain, of the most soft and beautiful verdure, covered with a thousand flowers of every scent and hue, Here and there, in the skirts of the prairies, and often in their centre are clumps of oaks, and peccans and black walnuts, disposed in forms so regular, and generally circular, as could not fail to fill the eye of an admirer of the ancient style of gardening. He is unprepared for such a view, seen in such strong contrast with dark and lonely forests. It is, after all, impossible to convey by description the impression, which these views create. In these vast and beautiful prairies, or on the verge of the bluffs, that overlook them, taking into view a verdant and sleeping ocean of grass, vast rivers rolling their mighty masses of waters through the dark forests, romantic hills


stretching away in the distance, and here and there a cabin, or a house throwing up its column of smoke, and the cattle, horses, and sheep sleeping about it, in such views we have often seen landscapes, as we deemed, as worthy of the pencil, as any country can furnish.

There are as yet few roads, that are much wrought. — But nature has been more indulgent to this country, in that respect, than, perhaps, to any other. It is neither a boundless sandy plain; nor a tame and level prairie. But a diversified surface of gentle hills and easy slopes. Wherever the current of passing has marked a road, it is generally a good one. If a person in a carriage is dissatisfied with the beaten one, he selects one for himself; and can travel with ease and comfort, in most instances, through the untrodden forest. The roads are passable at all times of the year; and scarcely ever muddy more than two or three days at a time. This is a circumstance, that eminently distinguishes this country from that on the Ohio. New as the country is, and little as the roads have been worked, the communications are easy, and expeditious through the year.

Minerals, Fossils, &c. There is little ground to doubt that the Rocky mountains, which are a continuation of the Mineral mountains of New Mexico, so abundant in the precious metals, contain them too. Travellers, who have ascended the Missouri to its sources, say, that gold dust is mingled with its sands, at the mouth of the Roche Jaune, or Yellow Stone. Fossile coal is found in great abundance along the Missouri; and in a thousand places in the great valley of that river. It is found near St. Charles, and near St. Louis. The extent of the veins and the quality of the coal have not been much tested, as yet, In a region so bare of wood, these internal provisions for that deficiency will one day be thoroughly explored, and


will be found to constitute one of the essential resources of the country. We have seen most beautiful specimens of plaster, which were brought from the Platte. Immense bodies of iron are found in Bellevue, on Big river and its waters, and in various points back of Herculaneum, and on the St. Francis and Black rivers; and in fact, iron ore is indicated in all points of this state. Manganese, zinc, antimony and cobalt are found, along with lead ore in the lead mines. Red and white chalk, flint, ochres of different colors, common salt, nitre, steatite, marl, plumbago, porphyry, jasper, chalcedony, ponderous barytes, and pumice stone are found in the country. It is affirmed, that cinnabar, or the red ores of mercury are found here. — Marble and blue lime stone abound; and the lime, made from it, is of the best quality. Along the banks of the Missouri, in many places, the bluffs are composed of thin, smooth, and perfectly regular strata of rock, apparently composed of iron and lime stone. They have an appearance, like slate, and it is believed would answer the same purpose for covering houses. The flint knobs are curiosities. They abound in the south-west part of the state, and along the upper Mississippi, within its limits. They are frequently in the shape of cones, rising 300 feet with a base often less than a mile in diameter. They appear to be composed of siliceous masses of stone, among which are thousands of fleche, or arrow stones, which serve the Indians for gun flints. Pumice stones of the largest and most beautiful specimens are often seen floating on the Missouri. The Indian pipe stone, so abundant on the river St. Peters, is said to be found, also, in this state. We have remarked, that it is of a beautiful dark red color, and receives a polish equal to that of alabaster. Pyrite of copper is found dispersed over the country in various places. The river Cuivre was so named by the French,


as supposing that its banks abounded in copper ore. Masses of pure, malleable copper, weighing from three to ten pounds, are shown, as native curiosities. We have seen splendid specimens of rock chrystal, that were found here.

But the mineral, for which this region is more particularly noted, is that of lead. Lead ore is dug in various parts of the state; and there is no doubt, but it may be found every where in a line of hills, reaching from the Illinois lead mines near Rock river, quite across to the Missouri. These mines will more properly be described under the head of the state of Illinois. In speaking of the lead mines of Missouri, we shall confine ourselves to those, which are situated in the county of Washington and the region contiguous. This district extends nearly an hundred miles in length, and perhaps forty miles in width; though discoveries, as they are called, are constantly making, in the regions adjoining, in the one direction quite to the Missouri; and in the other to White river. But the principal ‘diggings’ are included in an extent of fifteen miles in one direction, and thirty in the other. The centre of this district is situated from fifty to seventy miles southwest from St. Louis; and little more than half that distance from Herculaneum on the Mississippi; and from thirty to fifty from St. Genevieve. The lead is principally wagoned from the mines to the former and the latter place, to be thence transported down the Mississippi, and up the Ohio. A great number of wagons are constantly employed in this occupation. This tract is abundantly watered by Big river, and its branches. No part of the country west of the Mississippi is watered by a greater number of clear and full mountain streams. These streams are branches of Big river, which is itself one of the principal branches of the Maramec. The hills, or mountains, as they


have been recently called, lie in alternate ridges. Some of them are sterile; and some of them have a rich and productive soil. The valleys between them are almost uniformly fertile. The declivity of one ridge is covered with masses of chrystalized spar of every form and size. This is here called ‘mineral blossom.’ Most beautiful samples may be easily selected from this infinite variety. It is the custom not to dig, where this mineral blossom lies on the surface. The ore is sought, where this spar is found about two feet deep in the earth. The earth is of a bright color between red and yellow, and the ore is generally found imbedded in rock and hard gravel.

It is remarkable, that although a vast extent has been dug over, through all this district, nothing, like a continued vein has yet been found. Indeed, at a depth of nearly eighty feet, to which depth Mr. Austin sunk a shaft, a vein was found, which seemed to have more resemblance to those continued veins, or matrices of ore, where, in the language of mineralogists, the ore is in situ, or in place. But the water came in upon this digging, and it was abandoned. Of all the immense amounts of lead, that have been smelted here, the ore has hitherto been found in detached masses, not in situ, and apparently transported there by some inexplicable and prodigious changes, that as we have seen elsewhere, have so changed the structure of the earth in all this region. These masses are found with every degree of dip to the horizon, from two to twenty feet below the surface. The operative miners lease a certain tract of land, which is staked out to them. One or many persons fall to digging upon this spot. Sometimes a single man will dig a ton of ore in a day; and sometimes he will dig a week without lighting upon a single pound. The digging itself is a species of gambling of the 1,200 laborers, who are sometimes digging here


at a time, very few are not steadily addicted to that practice. This immorality is naturally inspired by the pursuit, so like gambling itself; and by all that is seen or felt in example. Few attempts have yet been made to mine upon scientific principles. Adventurers go, as fancy directs them. There are creeds of mineralogy peculiar to these wild people; and there are not a few, who believe implicitly in Bletonism, or the mysteries of the divining rod. Some, who have long resided here, and observed keenly, and noted in their memories the circumstances, that usually accompany the finding of ore, have acquired a great fund of practical knowledge upon the subject. Discoveries, as they are called, are continually making, when the adventurers flock from one place to another, according as the fame of recent success has been blazoned of it. The names of the principal diggings are as follow. Barton, Shibboleth, Lebaum's, Old mines, Bryan's, Pratt's, Robbins', Astraddle, La Motte, a Joe, Renault's, New Diggings, Liberty, Canon's, Silver's, A. Martin, &c. The business of digging has increased and diminished a great many times, according to the changing circumstances of the country. — At present, that our lead is protected by a duty, upon that brought from abroad, the business is increasing. Fifty diggings are occupied. Something more than 3,000,000 pounds are annually smelted, giving employment to nearly 1,200 hands. The ore is principally of that class, called galena, and is very rich, yielding from seventy-five to eighty per cent. So much lead remains in the slag, that there are people, who purchase it, to smelt it anew. A considerable portion of arsenic is driven from the lead, while it is smelting. The fumes of the smelting masses of ore are clearly poisonous; and cattle die from licking the slag, that is thrown out. In digging the lead ore zinc, calamine, and manganese are dug up with it, and are thrown by, as


useless. Barytes is also common among the lead ore. Its great specific gravity, its whiteness, and its susceptibility of being ground to an impalpable powder, render it a valuable addition to white lead. The quality of the paint is supposed to be improved by the addition. The manufacture of red lead has been attempted here. But we are not informed, that the making of white lead, or even sheet lead has yet been attempted to any extent. Shot towers are erected at Herculaneum and at other places, and great quantities of that article are exported. The mine country is remarkable for its salubrity; for the number of its sites for water mills; for the fertility of its soil, and the enterprize of its farmers. It should seem, that no part of the country, west of the Mississippi, so earnestly invited manufactures, especially those of lead. Those of iron have been attempted on a large scale. These mines, if worked to the extent, of which they are capable, would not only supply lead enough for the United States, but for the world. The country, where the diggings have been made, exhibits a curious spectacle. Coarse, and dilapidated air furnaces, immense piles of slags, and all the accompaniments of smelting, show, in how many deserted places these operations have been performed. The earth, thrown up in the diggings, has portions of oxided minerals, and acquires in the air a brilliant reddish hue; and the numberless excavations have the appearance of being graves for giants. It is an hundred years, since the French began to dig lead ore in this region. Salt is made in large quantities at Boon's lick, and near St. Genevieve and Herculaneum.

Rivers. This state takes its name from the Missouri, which empties into the Mississippi on its eastern limit. — This is by far the largest tributary of the Mississippi, bringing down more water, than the upper Mississippi itself. — In fact, it is a longer river, than the Mississippi, from its


farthest source to the Mexican gulf. There are many circumstances, which render it one of the most interesting rivers; and it is clearly the longest tributary stream on the globe. Many have thought, that from its length, the amount of its waters, and the circumstance of its communicating its own character, in every respect to the Mississippi below the junction, that it ought to have been considered the main river, and to have continued to bear its own name to the sea. In opposition to this claim, we remark, that the valley of the Missouri seems, in the grand scale of conformation, to be secondary to that of the Mississippi. The Missouri has not the general direction of that river, which it joins nearly at right angles. The valley of the Mississippi is wider, than that of the Missouri, as is also the river broader than the other. The course of the river, and the direction of the valley are the same, above and below the junction of the Missouri. From these and many other considerations, the ‘father of waters’ seems fairly entitled to the name, which he has so long borne.

The Missouri has a course of between four and five hundred miles in this state, and the whole of the remainder in the territory of Missouri. It seems proper, therefore, that we should here give a general description of this river, as belonging to this state. Its prodigious length of course, its uncommon turbidness, its impetuous and wild character, and the singular country, through which it runs, impart to this river a natural grandeur belonging to the sublime. We have never crossed it, without experiencing a feeling of that sort; nor without a stretch, almost laborious in the attempt to trace it in thought, along its immense distances, and through its distant regions and countries to the lonely and stupendous mountains, from which it springs.


It rises in the Rocky mountains, nearly in the same parallel with the Mississippi. The most authentic information we have yet had of the sources of this mighty river, is from its first intrepid American discoverers, Lewis and Clarke. What may properly be called the Missouri seems to be formed by three considerable branches, which unite not far from the bases of the principal ranges of the mountains. To the northern they gave the name of Jefferson, to the middle, Gallatin, and to the southern, Madison. — Each of these branches fork again into a number of small mountain streams. It is but a short distance from some of these to the head waters of the Columbia, on the other side of the mountains. A person may drink from the spring sources of each, without travelling more than a mile. After this junction, the river continues a considerable distance to be still a foaming mountain torrent. It then spreads into a broad and comparatively gentle stream full of islands. Precipitous peaks of blackish rock frown above the river, in perpendicular elevations of 1,000 feet The mountains, whose bases it sweeps, are covered with terebinthines, such as pines, cedars and firs; and mountain sheep are seen bounding on their summits, where they are apparently inaccessible. In this distance the mountains have an aspect of inexpressible loneliness and grandeur.

The river then becomes almost a continued cataract for a distance of about seventeen miles. In this distance its perpendicular descent is 362 feet. The first fall is ninety eight feet; the second, nineteen; the third, forty-seven; the fourth, twenty-six. It continues rapid for a long distance beyond. Not far below these falls, enters Maria's river from the north. This is a very considerable stream. Still farther down on the opposite side enter Dearborn and Fancy, each about 150 yards wide. Manoles 100.


Big horn, 100, Muscle shell, 100, Big dry, 400, Dry, 100, Porcupine, 112; all these enter from the south side. Below these enters the Roche Jaune, or Yellow Stone, probably the largest tributary of the Missouri. It rises in the same ranges of mountains with the main river, and has many points of resemblance to it. It enters from the south by a mouth 850 yards wide. It is a broad, deep and sweeping river; and at its junction appears the largest of the two. Its course is commonly calculated at 1,600 miles. But the sizes and lengths of all these tributaries are probably over rated. Its shores, for a long distance above its entrance, are heavily timbered, and its bottoms wide, and of the finest soil. Its entrance is deemed to be 1,880 miles above the mouth of the Missouri; and it was selected by the government, as an eligible situation for a military post, and an extensive settlement. White bears, elk, and mountain sheep, are the principal animals seen along this part of the river.

At the point of junction with the Yellow Stone, the Missouri has wide and fine bottoms. Unfortunately, its banks are for the most part destitute of timber, and this for a long series of years will prevent its capacity for habitancy. White earth river from the north is a small stream. Goose river, 300 yards wide, comes in from the south side. Little Missouri is shallow and rapid, and is about 130 yards wide. Knife river comes in from the south side, just above the Mandan villages. Cannon ball river enters from the south side, and is 140 yards wide. Winnipenhu, south side. Serwarserna, south side. Chienne is represented to be boatable nearly 800 miles; and enters from the south side, by a mouth 400 yards wide. Tyber's river. White river, boatable 600 miles south side, is a very beautiful stream, and has a mouth 300 yards wide. Poncas, south side, Qui-Courre, a fine stream with a short course, south


side. Rivierre, a Jaque, a noted resort for traders and trappers. White stone, Big Sioux, Floyd's river. — La Platte enters from the south, and has a longer course, than any other river of the Missouri. It rises in the same ranges of mountains with the parent stream, and, measured by its meanders, is supposed to have a course of 2,000 miles before it joins that river. It is nearly a mile in width at its entrance; but is as its name imports,very shallow, and is not boatable except at its highest floods. Nodawa, north side. Little Platte, north side. Kansas, is a very large tributary from the south, and has a course of 1,200 miles; and is boatable for most of the distance. — Blue water, and two or three small streams below, come in on the south side. Grand river is a large, long and deep stream, boatable for a great distance, and enters on the north side. The two Charatons, come in on the same side. The La Mine enters on the south side. Bonne Femme, and Manitou, enter on the north side, and Salt river on the south.

The Osage, which enters on the south side, is a large, and very important stream of the Missouri, boatable 660 miles and interlocking with the waters of the Arkansas. Three or four inconsiderable streams enter on the opposite side, as Miry, Otter and Cedar rivers. On the south side enters the Gasconade, boatable for 66 miles, and is important for having on its banks extensive pine forests, from which the great supply of plank and timber of that kind is brought to St. Charles and St. Louis. On the south side, below the Gasconade are a number of inconsiderable rivers, as Buffalo, St. John's, Wood riverr Bonhomme, &c.; and on the other side, the Charette, Femme Osage, and one or two other small branches, before it precipitates itself into the Mississippi.


The bottoms of this river have a character, very distinguishable from those of the upper Mississippi. They are higher, not so wet, more sandy, with trees which are not so large, but taller and straighter. Its alluvions are something narrower; that is to say, having for the first 500 miles a medial width of something more than four miles. Its bluffs, like those of the other river, are generally lime stone, but not so perpendicular; and have more tendency to run into the mamelle form. The bottoms abound with deer, turkeys and small game. The river seldom overflows any part of its banks, in this distance. It is little inclined to be swampy. There are much fewer lakes, bayous, and small ponds, than along the Mississippi. Prairies are scarcely seen on the banks of the river, within the distance of the first 400 miles of its course. It is heavily timbered, and yet from the softness of the wood, easily cleared. The water, though uncommonly turbid with a whitish earth, which it holds in suspension, soon and easily settles, and is then remarkably pure, pleasant and healthy water. The river is so rapid and sweeping in its course, and its bed is composed of such masses of sand, that it is continually shifting its sand bars. A chart of the river, as it runs this year, gives little ground for calculation, in navigating it the next. It has numerous islands, and generally near them is the most difficult to be stemmed. — Still more than the Mississippi below its mouth, it tears up in one place, and deposits in another; and makes more frequent and powerful changes in its channel, than any other western river.

Its bottoms are considerably settled for a distance of 400 miles above its mouth. That of Charaton is the highest compact settlement. But the largest and most populous settlement in the state is that called Boone's lick. Indeed, there are American settlers, here and there, on the bottoms


above the Platte, and far beyond the limits of the state of Missouri. Above the Platte the open and prairie character of the country begins to develope. The prairies come quite in to the banks of the river; and stretch from it indefinitely, in naked grass plains, where the traveller may wander for days, without seeing either wood or water. — The ‘Council Bluffs’ are an important military station, about 600 miles up the Missouri. Beyond this point commences a country of great interest and grandeur in many respects; and denominated, by way of eminence, the Upper Missouri. The country is composed of vast and almost boundless grass plains, through which stretch the Platte, the Yellow Stone, and the other rivers of this ocean of grass. The savages of this region have a peculiar physiognomy and mode of life. It is a country, where commence new tribes of plants. It is the home of buffalos, elk, white bears, antelopes and mountain sheep. Sometimes the river washes the bases of the dark hills of a friable and crumbling soil. Here are found, as Lewis and Clark, and other respectable travellers relate, large and singular petrifactions, both animal and vegetable. — On the top of one of these hills they found the petrified skeleton of a huge fish, forty-five feet in length. The herds of the gregarious animals, particularly the buffalos, are innumerable. Such is the general character of the country, until we come in contact with the spurs of the Rocky mountains.

As far as the limits of the state, this river is capable of supporting a dense population, for a considerable distance from its banks. Above those limits it is generally too destitute of wood, to become habitable by any other people, than hunters and shepherds. All the great tributaries of this river are copies, more, or less exact, of the parent stream. One general remark applies to the whole country.


The rivers have a narrow margin of fertility. The country, as it recedes from the river, becomes more and more sterile, sandy and destitute of water, until it approximates in character towards the sandy deserts of Arabia.

The Osage, as we have mentioned, is one of the principal tributaries of the Missouri in this state. It comes in on the south side of the Missouri, 130 miles above its junction with the Mississippi. At its mouth it is nearly 400 yards wide. Its general course is from south to north; and the best cotton country in the state of Missouri is on the head waters of this river. Its principal branches are Mary's, Big Bone, Yungar, Potatoe, and Grand Fork rivers. Yungar is nearly as large, as the parent stream; and is navigable for small crafts, except at its grand cascade, for nearly an hundred miles. The cascade is a great cataract of ninety feet fall. When the river is full, the, roar is heard far through the desert. It is a fine country, through which the river runs. The banks are timbered, and abound with game, particularly bears. An interesting missionary station is situated on its waters. This station is under the care of the ‘American board of foreign missions,’ and it has many Indian children in its school; and is in a very flourishing condition. The Maramec is a beautiful river, which runs through the mineral region, and enters the Mississippi eighteen miles below St. Louis. It is between two and three hundred yards wide at its mouth; and is beatable in time of high waters 200 miles. Big river, Bourbon, and Negro Fork are branches of this river, which in their turn are fed by numerous mountain streams, that wind through the mine country. Bonhomme is an inconsiderable stream, that enters the Missouri twenty-eight miles above its mouth. We have already named the Gasconade, so important to this country from the supplies of pine plank and lumber, with which it furnishes the


country below it. There are a great number of considerable streams, which enter the Missouri and the Mississippi from the south, whose names we have already mentioned. The principal of them, are the Swashing, Gabourie, Saline, Apple creek, &c. St Francis, and White river with their numerous branches rise in this state. Above St. Louis, on the eastern limits of the state, a number of considerable rivers enter the upper Mississippi, as Dardenne, Cuivre, Salt river, Two rivers, &c. Of these, Salt river is the most considerable, having a boatable course of forty or fifty miles. This river waters as fine a tract of country, as any in the state. The lands are also excellent about Two rivers. There are fifty other streams in this state, that, in the winter carry considerable water, and in summer become almost, or quite dry. This circumstance, common to the smaller streams over all the West, is peculiarly so here, where the intense ardor of the summer's sun, the sandy nature of the soil, the unfrequency of summer rains, the dryness of the atmosphere, and the open and untimbered face of the country, all conspire to dry up all streams, but those, that are supplied by perennial springs, or by continued ranges of high hills. As a general fact we should observe, that Missouri has a great many advantages in her soil, climate, and position, counterbalanced in some degree by the disadvantage of not being as well watered, as most of the other western states. From this cause, and from the levelness of the general face of the country, mill seats, commanding a lasting water power are uncommon. It is well known, that western husbandmen almost universally prefer a spring to a well, where they can obtain the one, or the other. Of course, it is considered an essential requisite, in the capability of a tract of land to be settled, that it should have a spring on it. There are, however, large tracts of the richest land in this state so level,


as to be incapable of springs; and where the farmers of course are obliged to resort to wells.

Game, &c. The hunter will find in no country a finer field for his pursuits, than in this. In the unsettled parts, and in certain districts, bears are still sufficiently common to be hunted, as an employment. The oil of the bear is an article of extensive culinary use and of sale. Deer, as we have remarked, are in some places, almost as numerous, as the domestic cattle. Wild turkeys in many places furnish admirable sport to the gunner. In the last of autumn and the first of winter, prairie hens are seen in flocks. Partridges are frequent all the year. Squirrels, ground hogs, wood chucks, and raccoons abound. — Wolves, panthers, and wild cats are but too common. In all the considerable rivers, fish are abundant. But they are generally large, coarse, and of an inferior quality.

Chief Towns. St. Louis is the commercial capital of Missouri, and the largest town in this valley west of the Mississippi. It is situated eighteen miles below the mouth of the Missouri, between thirty and forty below the mouth of Illinois, nearly 200 above the mouth of the Ohio, and about 1,200 above New Orleans. Nature seldom offers a more delightful site for a town. In many respects it resembles that of Albany in New York. It is on a kind of second bottom, that rises gently from the water to a second bank. The ascent to this is not at all precipitous. Having surmounted this bank, an extensive plain opens to view. In the immediate vicinity of the town, this plain is covered with bushes and shrub oaks. Beyond is an extensive belt of grassy plain, or naked prairie. The timber within nine or ten miles has been cut away for fuel. In summer the eye reposes with pleasure upon this sweep of verdure, bounded on the verge of the horizon with forests. But in winter the prospect is bleak and desolate. The eye always


dwells with delight upon the level bottom and the noble forest on the opposite shore of the river. In 1814, there were but few American houses in the place. There were a few stone houses covered with plaster. The circular stone forts beyond the town, white with plaster, and the hoariness of age, together with the whiteness of the houses in general, from the French fashion of annual white washing, gave the town a romantic and imposing appearance, when seen from a distance. With the exception of two or three aristocratic establishments, when contemplated near at hand, the houses were mean, frail and uncomfortable establishments. The streets were narrow and dirty; and it was in fact, on the whole, a disagreeable town. — Soon after that time, a new impulse was given to the town by American laws, enterprize and occupancy. Most of the houses, that have been added within the last ten years, have been of brick or stone. Some of the public buildings are handsome. There are two respectable protestant churches. The catholic cathedral, when completed, is intended to be a magnificent structure. It is not yet completed. The town has extended itself along the hill, and some of the best houses are on that delightful elevation. The houses in 1820, were reckoned at more than 600, and the inhabitants in the the town and vicinity at 6,000. The town was then stationary, or perhaps retrograde. But since that time the lead business has been re-animated by a protecting duty upon foreign lead. The fur trade has received a new impulse. The town has recovered from the shock caused by the failure of its banks. A healthy circulation has been restored, and the town is now rapidly increasing in business and population. In the year 1818, 100 houses were added to the place. The principal street is more than a mile in length. Three or four gazettes are printed here. There is an academy, a catholic


seminary and a number of respectable schools. The French have communicated to the people a taste for gardening; and there are a number of very handsome gardens in and about the town. Very few towns in the United States, or the world, have a more mixed population. Among the original inhabitants, there is no inconsiderable mixture of Indian blood. The American population now predominates over that of the French; and is made up of immigrants from all the states. There is also a sprinkling of people from all quarters of the world. As a central point in the Mississippi valley, it has been an asylum, at least for a time, to immigrants, and adventurers of every character. Making due allowance for this circumstance, the people are generally quiet and decent in their manners. Many adventurers come here, and find themselves in a position to claim a standing in society, which they have not been accustomed to possess. Hence the occassions for broils, from supposed neglect, contempt, or questioning of character will be numerous; and fatal rencontres, denominated ‘affairs of honor,’ area bloody stain upon the character of the place. There is a presbyterian, baptist, methodist, and catholic society in the town; and the institutions of religion are beginning to have considerable effect upon the manners and moral character of the people. Whoever observes the position of this town on the map, will see, that it is very favorably situated to become a town of supply of merchandize to a vast tract of country. In the centre of the Mississippi valley, commanding the trade of the Missouri, the upper Mississippi and the Illinois, the capital of a very extensive fur trade and the depot for as rich lead mines, as are in the world it must necessarily become a large town. It has one obvious advantage over any town on the Ohio. Steam boats: can come to St. Louis from New Orleans, at the lowest


stages of the water. It is even now very common for travellers from the Atlantic country, who are bound in the autumn to New Orleans, to take passage from Cincinnati across the country, to St. Louis, in order to avail themselves of the advantage of a direct passage to New Orleans in the steam boat. The lowness of the water in the Ohio, and the difficulty of passing over the falls at Louisville, render a direct steam boat passage from Cincinnati to New Orleans, at that season of the year, an uncommon occurrence. A great number of keel boats, and river crafts of all descriptions, bound to all points of the boatable waters of the Mississippi, are seen at all seasons lying in the harbor at St. Louis. Miners, trappers, hunters, adventurers, immigrants, and people of all characters and languages, and with all kinds of views and objects, meet here, and in pursuit of their various projects, scatter hence to the remotest points of the valley. The moral character of this town, so rapidly, approaching the tank; and consequence of a city, is rising. It still furnishes a temporary home to desperate and abandoned characters, who hope, in crossing the Mississippi, to fly beyond law and conscience. The character of the permanent inhabitants is repectable. Good regulations of every sort are advancing. The Sabbath is respected; and a wholesome police is establishing. Such a stream of immigrants is continually pouring in upon the place, and the people have so learned the habit of distrust, that hospitality to strangers is not a characteristic of the people.

St. Genevieve is situated at the upper extremity of a beautiful alluvial prairie, about a mile west of the Mississippi. It is built on the Gabourie, a small creek, which is occasionally boatable. The town contains a catholic church, some neat French houses, a great many indifferent ones, and but few American establishments. The


situation of this village is happy. Much lead is brought here for exportation; and yet the town does not appear to thrive; not possessing more inhabitants, than it did thirty years ago. The present number is supposed to be about 1,500. The prairie below the town is of extreme fertility, and containing 6,000 acres, fenced, and cultivated in common. On the hill, west of the town, there is a handsome building erected for an academy. From this place there is a magnificent view of the village, the bluffs above it, the prairie below, and the Mississippi sweeping along in the distance. The catholic worship is the prevailing one here; and the inhabitants are principally French.

Jackson, the county town of Cape Girardeau county, and about twelve miles west of the Mississippi is a respectable village, containing ,near 100 houses, some of them handsomely built of brick, It is in the centre of one of the most populous and thriving counties in the state.

Cape Girardeau is on a beautiful bluff on the Mississippi, fifty miles above the mouth of the Ohio. It has a fine harbor for boats, and commands a noble view of the river above and below. It exhibits symptoms of decay. About this town, that beautiful tree, called yellow poplar, or tulipifera liriodendron attains its utmost developement. Potosi is the county town of Washington, and is the centre of the mine district. It is situated in a pleasant valley, surrounded by hills. It is sixty-five miles south-west from St. Louis, and forty-five west from St. Genevieve. St. Michael is an old French village also among the mines. There are a number of other small villages, commenced in the mine district. Herculaneum is situated on the west bank of the Mississippi, thirty miles below St. Louis. It is a narrow alluvial plain, hemmed in on all sides, but the river, by high and romantic bluffs, rendered still more imposing by having a number of shot towers placed on their summits.


This is the chief place of deposit for the lead of the lead mines. New Madrid is situated on the Mississippi, fifty miles below the mouth of the Ohio. This small village was once much more considerable, than it now is. It is memorable for the romantic history of its origin under general Morgan, in the times of the Spanish regime. It is memorable for the singular history connected with many of its inhabitants, some of whom were distinguished Europeans. It is memorable for the terrible earthquakes, which it endured in 1811, and 1812. These earthquakes were more severe, than any on the records of our part of the continent. The western country was shook in every direction. Thousands of acres were sunk, and multitudes of lakes and ponds were created. The church yard of this village, with all its sleeping tenants, was precipitated into the river. The trees lashed together, were thrown down, or bent in every direction. The earth burst, in what were called sand blows. Earth, sand and water were thrown up to great heights in the air. The river was dammed up, and flowed backwards. Birds descended from the air, and took shelter in the bosoms of people, that were passing. The whole country was inundated. A great number of boats, passing on the river, were sunk. — One or two, that were fastened to islands, were sunk with the islands. The country was but sparsely peopled, and most of the buildings, fortunately, were cabins, or of logs; and it was from these circumstances, that but few people perished. No country can recount a history of earthquakes, attended with more terrific circumstances of commotion in all the elements, and threatening more exterminating war with man and with nature, than this. The thriving country about this village was desolated; and as the earthquakes continued in gentler shocks, and have not ceased even to this time, there seemed to he good reasons


for abandoning the country. The people are becoming more assured with respect to the future, and are returning to the country again.

There is a large and very fine tract of alluvial and prairie country back of this village. The Big prairie, about twelve miles distant, is a charming tract of country for farmers. But from the number of lakes, created by the earthquakes, and from the extent of the swampy and inundated country in its vicinity, the country about New Madrid has the reputation of being unhealthy, A bayou, that enters the river just above the village, creates a great eddy and an admirable harbor, and New Madrid is next to Natchez, the most noted landing place for boats above New Orleans on the Mississippi.

St. Charles, on the Missouri, is a pleasant village of about 1,900 inhabitants. There is one long street, on which are a good number of handsome brick buildings. It is situated twenty miles above the mouth of the Missouri, and the same distance north-west of St. Louis. All former accounts assigned to this place crumbling and falling-in banks, and a level below precipitous bluffs, only wide enough for one street. The fact is, that the banks between the village and the river are of solid lime stone; and above the village we ascend by a moderate acclivity to a most beautiful plateau of great extent. These bluffs command a noble view of the Missouri and its islands. Back of the village is a large extent of level country, covered with hazle copses, yielding abundance of wild hops, grapes and prairie plums. — At two miles distance below the town, opens the beautiful Point prairie, and we know of no place in the western country, that has a more interesting country adjoining it, than this village. There is a protestant and a catholic church here. It was for a number of years the political metropolis of the state. There are fine farms in the vicinity,


and the inhabitants are noted for their sober and orderly habits. About one third of the inhabitants of this pleasant village are French. Carondelet is a small French village, six miles below St. Louis. Many of the garden vegetables, sold in St. Louis market, are raised here. Troy, Louisianaville, Clarksville and Petersburg, are small villages on the upper Mississippi and its waters. Jefferson is a new town above the mouth of the Osage on the south side of the Missouri. It is nearly central to the state; and is designated by the legislature, as its future political metropolis. Franklin is situated on the north bank of the Missouri, 150 miles by land above St Louis, and more than 200 by the river. It is estimated to contain over 200 houses; and about 1,200 inhabitants. It is surrounded by the largest body of rich land in the state; and is the centre of a very populous region of rich and respectable farmers. — Booneville, opposite to Franklin, on the other side of the Missouri, was originally settled by Col. Boone, the patriarch of Kentucky. Charaton is a small village at the mouth of a river of the same name. Bluffton is a village upon the same side of the river, and still higher on it, being, in fact, but a little distance within the western territorial limits of the state.

Constitution, Laws, &c. This state adopted her constitution, and was admitted into the union in 1820. In its general features it resembles those of the other states. The senators are elected for four years, and the representatives for two. The governor is elected for four years. The judiciary is vested in a supreme court, a chancellor's court, and circuit, and other subordinate courts, the judges of which hold their offices, during good behavior. Every free citizen, who has resided a year in the state, and the last three months preceding the election in the district, is to his vote in that district. It is well known, that


the article which allowed slavery, in the constitution, Was long and bitterly contested in the national legislature.

Manners, &c. The same provisions are made for education, as in most of the other Western states. In the towns and villages there are respectable schools; and the people generally are impressed with the importance and necessity of educating their children. There is evidently a growing interest in this concern. With those, who are, able to educate their children, pride, united with better motives and considerations, is sufficient to induce parents to place the means of education within the reach of their children. There exist too many rude and ignorant people here, as in all the western country, who say, that they have been enabled to go through life comfortably, without education; and that their children are as able to do so, as they were. Beside the schools, which we have mentioned in St. Louis, there are schools, dignified with the name of academies in different parts of the state. The catholics have two or three establishments of religious, who receive young ladies for instruction. There is, also, a theological school of some distinction in the barrens below St. Genevieve for the preparation of catholic eleves for the ministry. In St. Louis, St. Charles, and some of the other villages, society exhibits in the main, the same aspect, that it does in other towns of a like size in the United States. It must be admitted, that in the country there is a perceptible shade of the roughness of people, who are far removed from the bosom of society, and whose manners are little softened, or restrained by the moulding influence of public opinion. The roughness of the backwoods men is often, however, accompanied with an open hospitality, an honest simplicity, and a genuine kindness of heart, which render a residence among them as pleasant, as in those regions where observance, and public opinion have created a greater


degree of apparent refinement. It might be expected, that in a country west of the Mississippi, a new and almost a boundless one, with few of the barriers of laws, or local limits of habitancy and property, over an extent of nearly 1,000 leagues between it and the Western sea, would be the natural resort of wild and adventurous spirits, whose object was, as they often express it themselves, to fly ‘beyond Sabbath.’ It is so in fact. But there is more of order and quietness, and of regulated society and correct public opinion, than in such a state of things we should have a right to expect. There is a considerable and increasing number of religious societies, among which those of the methodists are the most numerous. The presbyterians and baptists have also many congregations and churches. The Cumberland presbyterians are making considerable progress here, as they are in all these regions. The French and Irish people are for the most part catholics. The number of catholic congregations, probably, exceeds that of any particular denomination of the protestants. The spirit of religious tolerance prevails to an excellent degree. Neighbors and relatives worship in churches of different denominations, without disturbing the intercourse of common life.

The French of this country have their characteristic national manners. They are the same gay, and seemingly happy people. Those among them that have standing, wealth and education, have no other differences of character from the same people of other nations, except such, as result from their national temperament and manners. — The poorer classes of the French people have an unique and peculiar character. They were born for the most part in the woods, or at least far from society. They are accustomed from infancy rather to the life of huntsmen, trappers and boatmen, than of husbandmen. They generally


make indifferent farmers. Their cabin indeed shows well at a distance; and the mud daubing is carefully white washed. They have gardens neatly laid out, and kept clean of weeds. Beyond this the establishments of the petits paysans are generally sterile and comfortless. — Their ancestors were accustomed to continual intercourse with the savages. They were in the habit of travelling many hundred leagues from their habitations in canoes, or on the banks of the streams, to hunt, procure furs, or honey; or traffic with the Indians. They were accustomed to the prompt and despotic mandate and decision of a commandant. Of course they were prepared to have but very inadequate ideas of the inestimable value of the mild, but protracted dispensation of justice in our courts. They were accustomed to regard our laws, as a bottomless gulf; and had for a long time, after they came under our government, a salutary dread of a process, which had a happy influence, to deter them from litigation. Familiarity with our decisions has gradually lessened this dread; and when they once acquire a passion for litigation, they are more keen in pursuit of their object, than the Americans. It is indeed an unpleasant, but just reflection, that while we have given them political consideration, and have learned them the value of land, and the necessity of cultivation, the comforts of municipal life, and the importance of education, we have also communicated to them a passion for litigation, and a fondness for ardent spirits. — They are intermarrying and amalgamating with the Anglo Americans. But even yet, on entering a village, composed of equal divisions of French and American population, the French are seen, as a distinct people by their stature, their gait, their complexion, their houses, and the appearance of their children. They are smaller in stature; have a different costume, walk quicker, have more


meagre forms, and more tanned and sallow complexions. They bow with more grace — are more fluent in conversation, and these are almost universal traits. The Kentuckian, who lives beside them, is heavier, has a rounder and fuller face, a more clear and ruddy complexion, bows less gracefully, or perhaps not at all. He pays no compliments. But we place greater reliance upon his word and the sincerity of his friendship. The wives of the French of this class are accustomed to more drudgery, and submission, than those of their American neighbors; and on the whole there is a much nearer assimilation to Indian thoughts and habits, than there is in our people. They are slow in adopting our improvements in dress and agriculture, and all that concerns their domestic establishment. They are strongly attached to the ways of their forefathers; and are generally bigotted catholics. They have the national gaietie du coeur, the French enviable cheerfulness under all circumstances. They are generally temperate and sober; and from their manner of life better calculated to endure the extremes of heat and cold, than the Americans. They support the vicissitudes of climate better; and are not so much exposed to diseases of the country. They make excellent boatsmen, huntsmen, and coureurs du bois. Their fondness for conversation and traccaserie prevents their living in detached and solitary houses, like the Americans. They generally fix themselves in compact villages, where they spend much of their time together, and in conversation.

The catholic worship has the same hold of their affections, which it had in the hearts of their forefathers, two centuries ago. Their veneration for their priests is unlimited; and the latter dare rely upon a credulity, which in other catholic countries has long since passed away. For instance, they had, not many years since, processions to


pray the Mississippi down, when it threatened a desolating inundation, and to banish the locusts by the intercession of the saints. So firmly are they fixed in their religious opinions, that they are apt to regard protestant efforts to convert them, not as arrogant only, but impious. To all attempts which protestant missionaries have made, to change I them to our faith, they have a reply, but too unanswerable, in their charges of dissipated and immoral life, in the case of their protestant neighbors and friends.

History. The general history of upper Louisiana has already been given. St. Louis was founded in 1704, by Pierre Laclade, Maxan and company. The principal inhabitants were from Canada. It was conceived to be a favorable point for concentering the fur and Indian trade of the upper and lower Missouri and Mississippi. Among the first and most respectable settlers was M. Choteau, a name still very respectable in the country. In 1766, this village received a large accession of inhabitants from the opposite shore of the Mississippi, of people, who preferred the regime of Spain to that of England. Hunting, trapping and trading with the Indians was the great business of the country. Spain expended great sums of money in the country, and drew little or nothing from it. Those who chose to immigrate there, could obtain a settlement right of 640 acres for a trifling douceur to the commandant, and, provided they yielded a decent observance to the existing institutions of the country, the Spanish yoke sat very lightly on their shoulders. There were few countries in which the people lived more happily, and to their own! minds than this, until the attack from Michilimacinac, called in the annals of French tradition, I'annec du coup. After that attack, St. Louis was fortified with those circular stone bastions, that at present give the town such a picturesque appearance in the distance. From St. Louis the


French hive swarmed to Carondelet, St. Ferdinand, St. Charles, Mine a Burton, St. Michaels, Cote Satis dessein, and French trading and hunting establishments were made almost to the bases of the Rocky mountains. The country continued slowly and gradually to settle, and improve, until, as has been related, it passed under the American government. The proudest eulogium, that ever was uttered upon our government, was the immediate rise in the value of lands, consequent upon this transaction. French people, who were in the habit of complaining of this transfer, and of our laws, were not the less willing to take advantage of the immediate and triple value, which their lands acquired. The settlement rights, which had been acquired under the Spanish regime almost for the asking, became at once a competent fortune to their owners. Immigration was discouraged by the sickly season of 1811, commonly called the ‘year of waters.’ The late war, too, effectually repressed the increase of the country. Many settlements, as that at Boone's lick, and Salt river were broken up. The French seemed in many instances rather disposed to take part with the Indians. But in the progress of the war, the indiscriminate savage appetite for slaughter finally brought the savages to commit murders in the French villages; and this circumstance induced a hearty co-operation with the other population, to resist savage aggressions. There had been a great number of murders committed upon the inhabitants of the remote and unprotected settlements. A considerable force, denominated ‘rangers,’ was raised in their territory. They marched promptly into the Indian country; and conducted gallantly; and although they had few opportunities of distinguishing themselves, by coming in actual contact with the enemy, this expedition, no doubt, had a great effect to awe, and repress the savage marauders on the frontiers.


The title of immigration, which had been arrested during the war, set with greater strength towards this country, on the return of peace. The mass of immigrants was constantly accumulating, until the year 1817, when it seems to have reached its height. An hundred persons have been numbered in a day passing through St. Charles, either to Boone's lick, or Salt river. There were sometimes ten wagons in a line, harnessed with from four to six horses. — The whole appearance with their train, the cattle with their hundred bells, the negroes with delight in their countenances, for their labors are suspended, and their imaginations excited; the wagons often carrying two, or three tons, so loaded that the mistress and the children are strolling carelessly along in a gait, which enables them to keep up with the slow travelling carriage, the whole group occupies three quarters of a mile. The slaves generally seem quite as much delighted, and interested in the immigration, as their masters. The whole is a patriarchial scene, and carries the thoughts back to the plains of Mamre.

Up to this time the march of improvement in Missouri was rapid. The face of the country was visibly changing under the eye. St. Louis was built up with houses, which would not have disgraced Philadelphia. St. Charles, and the villages generally, began to be re-built of brick. Fine houses arose in the country. Tread mills and steam mills began to be erected. Schools were established; and important manufactories were either commenced, or in prospect. The rage for speculation in lands became a mania, which apparently infected the country. The militia made progress in organization. The population was supposed to amount to 60,000.

A sudden change, operating re-action with more or less force through the whole United States, began to be visible


here, about the year 1817; and went on increasing for four or five years. It resulted from the sudden reduction of prices in the Atlantic country; the pressure of the times; and the sudden failure of the numerous banks of the western country; of which, it appeared, but a few had ever been conducted upon banking principles. As long as the price of lands remained high, and the immigrants continued to pour in, bringing with them the money, with which they bought their lands; as long as the abundant and unnatural circulation of paper, both good and spurious, continued to pass unquestioned, these bills answered all the purposes of money. But the moment this pressure began to operate, in preventing the people, who were disposed to remove to the country, from selling their lands, the tide was arrested. The merchants, who had sold as liberally, as the unnatural abundance of money had enabled the people to purchase, called for payment. The spurious bills failed in the hands of the holders. The merchants remitted from the country all the specie, upon which they could lay their hands. Lands sunk in value at first, and soon would sell for no price at all. A wretched system of expedients was adopted under the name of ‘relief laws’. In Missouri and Illinois, they established a banking system, which was called a loan office. The money was redeemable, in equal annual instalments, of ten per cent, per annum, for ten years. The money not having its credit based on specie, in the vaults of its bank, but on the faith of the state, pledged for its redemption, was declared by some of the courts to be illegal, as a tender, as the legislature had made it. Other courts gave an opposite decision. It depreciated successively to seventy-five, fifty, thirty-seven, and finally to twenty-five per cent. of its nominal value.

There was, probably, no part of the United States more severely pressed, than these two states. Improvements of


every sort not only came to a dead pause; but seemed to retrograde. A great number of immigrants had been sick, on removing to a new climate. Clothes, and those groceries, that from habitual use, had become necessaries, could not be procured. Even wealthy people felt the distress of the times; for there was not sufficient money to keep up a circulating medium. They falsely imputed these evils of circumstances and the times to that particular section of the country. Many of them packed up their moveables; collected their cattle; left their farms unsold; and returned to the countries, whence they had emigrated.

Many people deemed, that a part of these evils resulted from their being in a territorial government. It appeared by the census, that the state had more inhabitants, than were required by the constitution, in order to form a state. Delegates were accordingly chosen, in 1819, for this purpose. The great object in the canvass that preceded the election, was to prevent any person from being returned, as a member, who was adverse to its becoming a slave-holding state. The slave question was discussed with an asperity, that might naturally be expected to result from the character of the inhabitants, and the magnitude of the interests involved in the question. By a very large majority the allowance to hold slaves was incorporated in the provisions of the constitution. It, also, contained an article interdicting ministers of the gospel from being eligible to any office in the state. We need not repeat here, that the asperity, with which the slave question was discussed at home was transferred to the national legislature, and was canvassed there with more bitterness, than even here. But the provision finally prevailed there, and this state was admitted, in 1820, into the Union, with the privilege of holding slaves.

In the scramble for offices for the state government, that ensued, all the elements of vanity, ambition and aspiring


consequence burst forth. In calling from the common level of society people, unknown to one another and to the state, in the new offices, that were to be filled, a chance was offered for distinction which might never occur again. The electioneering campaign was hardly fought. Many political essays came from the press, which will not, probably, go down to posterity. But on the whole, the redeeming principle, which seems to be mixed with the administration of government on American principles, brought about the issue with a quietness, which, considering the bitterness of the competition, the nature of the case, and the elements of strife and discord, which were so abundantly mixed in this chaotic political mass, was incredible. Alexander M'Nair, was elected the first governor of the state. He had been, for a long time, an inhabitant of St. Louis, and had endeared himself to the people by his familiar and winning manners. The legislature convened at St. Charles. The government went into quiet operation. No political event of a striking character has since occurred. The state continued to labor under its pecuniary embarrassments for some years. But a sound circulation of money was gradually restored. A duty placed upon imported lead gave activity to the working of the mines. —The fur trade resumed its former activity. The steam boat system of freight and transport had a bearing peculiarly favorable upon this state, which has such a great length of coast washed by the Mississippi, and accessible by that species of vessels at all seasons of the year, except when the Mississippi is impeded by ice. About the year 1824, it could be discovered, that the order of prosperity was advancing a new. The towns, especially St. Louis, began to improve again. The tide of immigration once more set this way; and at the present moment, it is almost as powerful as it was in 1817. It has every prospect of becoming a wealthy, populous and powerful state.



LENGTH, 350 miles. — Breadth, 180. Between 37° and 42° 30' N. latitude, and 10° 20' and 14° 21' W. longitude. It contains 50,000 square miles, and nearly 40,000,000 acres. Bounded on the North by the North-western territory. East by lake Michigan, Indiana, and the river Wabash. South by the Ohio, which separates it from Kentucky; and West, in its whole extent, by the Mississippi, which separates it from Missouri, and the Missouri territory.

Face of the country. Next to Louisiana and Delaware, this is, perhaps, the most level state in the Union. — Although north-west of Shawneetown there is a range of hills of some height, which some have chosen to denominate mountains. There are, also, considerable elevations along the Illinois; and the bluffs of the Mississippi in some places might almost pass for mountains. In the mineral regions, in the north-west angle of the state, there are also high hills. But the far greaten proportion of the state is either distributed in vast plains or in barrens, that are only gently rolling. We may travel on the vast prairies of this state for days without encountering an elevation, that is worthy to be called a hill. In no part of the peopled divisions of the United States are there such great sections of prairie country, as in this state. One vast prairie, with very little interruption, spreads from the shores of the Mississippi to those of lake


Michigan. These prairies are more distinctly, than in the countries west of the Mississippi, divided into wet and dry prairies; and those, that are alluvial, and those, which are rolling. The low, wet and flat prairies seem once to have been timbered morasses. They contain, in many instances, peat and other fossil indications with logs and the bones of animals, that are now some feet below the surface, and that probably when the trees and the animals fell, were on the surface. These prairies constitute the sources of many of the rivers, which wind through their plains. The alluvial prairies are high and dry; of a rich, black loam, and an exceedingly fertile soil; and are covered with a coarse grass of incredible size and height. The high and rolling prairies are sometimes checquered with groves of sparse trees. The quality of their soil, seldom exceeds second rate, and they abound, in many instances, with springs. Grape vines are abundant upon them; and they constitute an inexhaustible summer range for cattle.

The vast extent of level plains in this country is an injury to it. There is often not sufficient inclination to carry off the water, that falls in rains. Even the high prairies, when they happen to be of a stiff soil, are too wet for cultivation. When the high heats of summer come, these lands discharge their waters, by evaporation, rendered still more noxious by the vast quantities of vegetation which have been steeping in them. Hence it happens, that these beautiful countries are sometimes sickly, where every thing to the eye would only promise health, as well as abundance.

On the route from Cincinnati to St. Louis, the great road passes through this state, in its whole extent of width. More than one hundred miles of this distance is high, and rich prairie. In all this distance in Illinois, the margins of the streams are almost the only places, where


timbered land is found; and the streams have only narrow skirts of wood. The largest prairie in this direction is called ‘Grand prairie.’ The first stratum of soil, in this wide extent of country, is a black, friable, and sandy loam. It is from two to five feet in thickness. The next stratum is a red clay, mixed with fine sand, and is from five to ten feet in thickness. The third stratum is a hard blue clay, of a beautiful appearance, and a greasy feeling, mixed with pebbles, and when exposed to the air, emitting a foetid smell. In this stratum, the water of the wells is found; which is, of course, both disagreeable and unhealthy. The soil is of the first quality. In the season of flowers the eye and all the senses receive the highest gratification. In the time of strawberries, thousands of acres are reddened with them; and they are of the finest quality. But this country, which strikes the eye so delightfully, and where millions of acres invite the plough, wants timber for building, fencing and fuel. It wants good water; and in too many instances the inhabitants want health. — Many of these evils may be remedied by the amelioration of cultivation. Forests may soon be raised upon these prairies. Coal and peat may be discovered for fuel. — Hedges and ditches may fence it; and pure water may be found, by carrying the wells below the stratum of earth, that is supposed to impart the sulphureous and disagreeable taste, which the water possesses.

Between Carlisle and St. Louis, an extent of about fifty or sixty miles, we meet with woods, streams, hills, lime stone ledges, and a rolling country; although we cross an occasional prairie quite to the American bottom. On the north of this road, and between it and the Illinois, the surface is generally more irregular. Considerable of the country may be termed broken. The hills abound with stone coal. A range of hills commences at the bluffs, that


bound the American bottom, near Kaskaskia; and stretches north-eastwardly through the state, towards Jake Michigan. A noble lime stone bluff breaks off, almost at right angles to this chain, and stretches along the margin of the American bottom to the point nearly opposite the Missouri. This bluff has, in many places, a regular front of perpendicular lime stone, not unfrequently 300 feet high. Another line of river bluffs commences opposite the mouth of the Missouri, and reaches to the mouth of the Illinois. — At Portage des Sioux, and in other places, these bluffs shoot up into detached points and pinnacles, which, with the hoary color of the rocks, have at a distance the appearance of the ancient spires and towers of a town. This chain of bluffs marks the limits of the alluvion of the Illinois. As along the Mississippi, the face of this grand wall of nature is frequently perpendicular. When the limits of the alluvion are marked on one side by this wall, on the opposite side they are bounded by a succession of singular hills, parallel to each other, called by the French ‘mamelles.’ What is singular is, that a beautiful prairie is seen on that side, which is bounded by the perpendicular bluffs; and a thick and tangled and heavily timbered bottom on the side of the river, that is marked with these mamelles. When the prairie is found on the right or left of the river, so are all these accompaniments, and they regularly alternate, and are found first on one side, and then on the other.

We have already spoken of that beautiful tract of country, denominated the ‘American bottom,’ commencing not far below Kaskaskia, and stretching along the eastern shore of the Mississippi for a distance of eighty miles; and terminating a little distance below the point, opposite the mouth of the Missouri. It is from three to six miles wide; and is divided into two belt. The first, bordering the


Mississippi, is a heavily timbered bottom. The next belt, reaching to the foot of the perpendicular bluffs, is prairie of the richest quality, covered, in the season of vegetation, with grass and flowers. Parts of this tract have been in cultivation with the exhausting crop of maize 100 years, without producing apparently the slightest exhaustion of the soil. No description will convey an adequate idea of the power of vegetation, and the rank luxuriance, with which it operates at the root, along this plain of exhaustless fertility. Unhappily, here, as almost universally, nature has compensated the prodigality of her gifts on the one hand, by counterbalancing disadvantages on the other. Wherever the gifts of nature are offered with so little labor, and in such abundance, as here, men will be found. But in the autumn, you will enter but few houses in the whole distance, where some of the members of the family are not sick.

A bottom very similar to this, alternately on the right and left bank of the Illinois, marks its course almost from its mouth to its source. It is in the same manner bounded by bluffs. The same line of hills marks a belt beyond the bluffs. In short, this configuration of the country marks the outlines of all the rivers in the valley of the Mississippi. Each of the great rivers has some distinctive marks impressed upon its bluffs and hills. But the term, ‘river, bluffs, and hills,’ is a general one, and when predicated of a tract of country, that has not been seen, raises in the mind of a person, acquainted with the general configuration of this country, a clear and distinct idea.

The military bounty lands in Illinois are laid off in the delta of the Illinois and Mississippi. Their shape is that of a curvilinear triangle. More than five million acres have been surveyed, to meet the appropriation of three million and a half acres, which were assigned by congress,


as a bounty for soldiers of a certain class. These lands embrace all the varieties of soil, found in any part of the valley of the Mississippi. There are rich bottoms, inundated swamps, grassy prairies, timbered alluvions, perpendicular bluffs, ‘mamelle’ and river hills, barrens, and all qualities of soil from the best to the worst. Some portions of these lands may be affirmed to be in healthy situations; but such is not the general character of them. — A great portion of them is of first rate quality, as regards richness. The lower portion next the Mississippi, and where the two rivers, for a long distance, are near each other, seldom diverging more than eight miles, is generally of extraordinary fertility; but often inundated, and too often unhealthy. As we ascend the Illinois, and the two rivers diverge, the character of the country becomes more diversified, less subject to inundation, more happily sprinkled with hill, dale, copse and prairie. The north-eastern extent of this tract is in general a very fine country.

It would lead us into a particularity, beyond our object, if we were to go into a detailed description of all the bodies of excellent land in this state. For, we may remark, that not only here, but over all the western country, the lands seem to be distributed in bodies, either of rich, or sterile, level, or broken lands. On Rock river, the Illinois, the Kaskaskia, Embarras, between the Big and Little Wabash, on the Parassaw, the Maccopen, the Sangamo, and on all the considerable streams of this state, there are very large bodies of first rate lands. The Grand prairie, the Mound prairie, the prairie, on which the Marine settlement is fixed, and that, occupied by the society of Christians from New England, are all exceedingly rich tracts.

The Sangamo, in particular, is described as an Arcadian region; in which nature has delighted to bring together


her happiest combinations of landscape. It is generally a level country. The prairies are not so extensive, as to be incapable of settlement from want of timber. The Sangamo itself is a fine boatable water of the Illinois, entering it on the south side, 140 miles above the mouth of the Illinois. All the waters, that enter this beautiful river, have sandy and pebbly bottoms, and pure and transparent waters. There is a happy proportion of timbered and prairie lands. The soil is of great fertility. The climate is not very different from that of New York; and the latitude is about the same. The summer range for cattle is inexhaustible. — The growth of forest trees is similar to that of the rich lands in the western country in general. The proportion, of locust, black walnut, and peccan trees, that indicate the; richest soils, is very great. Iron and copper ore, salt springs, gypsum, and stone coal are abundant. All, who have visited this fine tract of country, admire the beauty of the landscape, which nature has here formed in her primeval freshness. So beautiful a tract of country was early selected by immigrants from New England, New York, and North Carolina. More than 200 families had fixed themselves here, before it was surveyed. It now constitutes a county, and is thickly settled by thriving farmers But even here, delightful as the country appears to the eye, and destitute, as it would seem of all causes for sickliness, the fever and ague, and autumnal bilious fevers are prevalent. This fine tract of country is nearly central to the state.

A body of lands, perhaps equally extensive and fine with that on the Sangamo, lies along the course of the Kaskaskia, or Okau. This river has a long course through the central parts of the state, and through a country of a surface, happily diversified with hill and vale and prairie and forest. The streams, that fall into this river, have sufficient


fall to be favorable for the site of mills. The best settled parts of the state are watered by this river; and on its banks is Kaskaskia, the ancient metropolis, and Vandalia, the present one of the state.

In fact, although there are extensive bodies of sterile, broken, and uncultivable lands in Illinois, yet take the whole of its wide surface together, and we should think, it contained a greater proportion of first rate land, than any state in the Union; and probably as great in proportion to its extent, as any country on the globe. One of the inconveniences, appended to this extent of rich country, is too great a proportion of prairies. Some have conjectured, that two thirds of the country is covered with prairie. But the prevalence of coal and peat under the surface, and the ease and rapidity, with which forest trees are raised, will render even the extensive prairies habitaable in process of time.

Rivers. It is only necessary to look on the map of this state, to see what astonishing advantages for inland navigation, nature has given it. On its northern extent, it has for a great distance, the waters of lake Michigan, and the boatable streams that empty into it; and by this vast body of waters, a communication is opened with the northern fronts of Indiana and Ohio; with New York and Canada. On the north-west frontier it has Rock river, a long, beautiful and boatable river of the Mississippi. On the whole western front it is washed by the Mississippi; and on its northern by the Ohio. On the east it is bounded by the Wabash. Through its centre, winds, in one direction, the Illinois, connecting the Mississippi with lake Michigan by the Plein and Kankakee, a river, excepting a short distance of shoals, almost as uniformly boatable, as a canal; and in another direction, the beautiful Kaskaskia winds through we state. Besides these, there are great numbers of boatable


streams, perforating the state in every direction. — Such is the intersection of this state by such waters, that no settlement in it can be made far from a point of boatable communication, either with lake Michigan, the Mississippi, or the Ohio. It may be added, that when the state shall have been inhabited, as it ought to be, and as it will be, as no country affords greater facilities for making canals, by the friability of the soil, its levelness, and the proximity of the sources of the boatable waters to each other, canals will complete the chain of communications and transport will be almost as entirely by water in Illinois as it now is in Holland or China. At present the state is supposed to have 4,000 miles of boatable waters in her limits.

The Illinois, which gives name to the state, may be considered the most important river, whose whole course is in the state. It rises in the north-eastern parts of the state, not more than thirty-five miles from the south-western extremity of lake Michigan, and interlocking by a morass with the river Chicago, which empties into that lake. Its two main head branches are Plein and Kankakee. Thirty miles from the junction of these rivers, enters Fox river from the north. Between this and the Vermilion, enter two or three inconsiderable rivers. The Vermilion is a considerable stream, which enters the Illinois from the south, 260 miles above the Mississippi. Not far below this river, and 210 miles above the Mississippi, commences Peoria lake, which is no more than an enlargement of the river, two miles wide on an average, and twenty miles in length. Such is the depth and regularity of the bottom, that it has no perceptible current whatever. It is a beautiful sheet of water, with romantic shores, generally bounded by prairies; and no waters in the world furnish finer sport for the angler. M'Kee's and Red bud enter not far from


this point. Crow-meadow river almost interlocks, at its source, with the Vermilion of the Wabash. Two or three inconsiderable streams enter the river from the north, not far from the lower extremity of Peoria lake. Still lower down enters from the south Michilimackinack, a very considerable stream, boatable nearly an hundred miles from the river into the interior. Below this enter Spoon and Crooked rivers. Still lower down on the same side, enters the Sangamo, by a mouth 100 yards wide; and is boatable 140 miles. From its position and the excellence of its lands, it is one of the most important rivers of the state. — Chariton, Otter, Apple, and Maccopen rivers are all considerable streams, that water fine tracts of country.

On the north side of the Illinois, the rivers that enter on that shore, have their courses, for the most part, in mountainous bluffs, which often approach near the river. For a great distance above its mouth, the river is almost as straight as a canal; has in summer scarcely a perceptible current, and the waters, though transparent, have a marshy taste to a degree to be almost unpotable. The river is wide and deep; and for the greater part of its width, is filled with aquatic weeds, to such a degree, that no person could swim among them. Only a few yards width, in the centre of the stream, is free from them. It enters the Mississippi, through a deep forest, by a mouth 400 yards wide. Perhaps no river of the western country has so fine a boatable navigation, for such a great distance; or waters a richer and more luxuriant tract of country. It was on the banks of this river, that the first French immigrants from Canada fixed themselves; and here was the scenery, on which they founded their extravagant paintings of the western country. By a very moderate amount of labor and expense, this river might be united with the Chicago of lake Michigan. Appropriations have already been made


by the state for the canal, that is intended to effectuate these purposes. We have already remarked, that at certain seasons of the year, boats of five tons burden already pass through the morass, from one extremity of which the waters are discharged into the Chicago of lake Michigan; and from the other into the Plein of the Illinois; thus furnishing a natural communication between two rivers, whose outlets are so wide and opposite from each other. — Indeed, by the most obvious appearances, along the Illinois and some of its waters; as the Plein for example, it is manifest that lake Michigan once discharged at least, a part of its surplus waters into the Mississippi. This, too, may explain the obvious appearance, in that lake, of being now many feet lower, than once it was. This fact is palpably marked every where on the rocky shores of the lake.

Rock river is one of the most clear and beautiful tributaries of the Mississippi. It has its source beyond the northern limits of the state, and in a ridge of hills, thaw separates between the waters of the Mississippi and those of lake Michigan. On its waters are extensive and rich lead mines. Its general course is south-west, and it enters the Mississippi, not far above the commencement of the military bounty lands. Opposite the mouth of this river, in the Mississippi, is the beautiful island, called from the, name of the river, and on which is a military station of the United States.

Kaskaskia river rises in the interior of the state, nearly interlocking with the waters of lake Michigan, It has a course, in a south-west direction, of between two and three hundred miles, for the greater part of which course, in high stages of water, it is boatable. It runs, as we have seen, through a fine and settled country. It empties into the Mississippi a few miles below the town of the same name. In its long course, it interlocks with the waters


Sangamo, St. Mary, Big muddy, the little and great Wabash. It receives a great number of tributaries, among which the most considerable are Crooked, Horse, Prairie Long, Silver, Sugar, and Shoal creeks. Its lower course is known to the French people by the name of Okau.

Little Wabash rises forty miles south-east of the Kaskaskia; and runs in a southerly direction 130 miles, emptying into the main Wabash, a few miles above its junction with the Ohio. It is eighty yards wide at its mouth. It is susceptible of a long navigation, when the timber shall have been removed from its bed; and some of its sand bars dug down. An appropriation has been made by the legislature for this purpose. It waters a rich country, abounding in small streams. Fox river is no more than a bayou of the Wabash, Embarras, Macontin, St. Germain, Tortue, Brouette, Dachette, Erablier,Rejoicing and Tippicanoe are all considerable streams of this state, which enter into the Wabash. Most of them have their sources in low prairies, or marshy lakes. They abound in fish and water fowl. Tippicanoe receives its name from a kind of pike, called Piccanau by the savages, which abounds in this river. It is famous for the bloody battle fought on its banks, between our troops under general Harrison, and the savages at the commencement of the late war. As the Wabash belongs in a great measure to Indiana, we shall reserve a further description of it for that state. Henderson is a considerable river entering the Mississippi, 240 miles above St. Louis.

Parassaw enters the Mississippi between Portage des Sioux and the mouth of the Illinois. It has been but recently inhabited. It runs through a fine tract of land. A considerable body of Irish catholics have fixed themselves on this creek. It has a course of nearly fifty miles. Some


little distance below the mouth of the Missouri, enters into the Mississippi Wood creek, which has a course of thirty or forty miles; and has a number of mills erected on it. — Cahokia creek has a considerable length of course, in the American bottom; and enters the Mississippi not far below St. Louis. Big muddy, called also by the French A Vase, or Au Vau, enters the Mississippi thirty-two miles below the mouth of Kaskaskia. It is a deep, slow stream, carrying a great body of water, considering its width, which is not more than seventy yards. It is boatable 150 miles. It flows through a low and level country, and some parts of its alluvion are subject to inundation. Near its banks are found immense banks of stone coal. St. Mary's is an inconsiderable stream, that empties into the Mississippi a league and a half below the Kaskaskia.

The following rivers of this state empty into the Ohio. The Saline unites its waters with that river, thirty miles below the mouth of the Wabash. It is navigable to the United States Saline, back of Shawneetown, twenty miles from its mouth. Grand Pierre, Lush creek, and Big bay are inconsiderable streams, that are useful, as furnishing sites for mills. Cash is a considerable stream, boatable fifty miles, and is fifty yards wide at its mouth. It enters the Ohio five miles above its mouth.

Minerals. In the north-west angle of this state, and in the adjacent territories are found the richest veins of lead ore, probably, in the world. The mine country, like that in Missouri, is found to be more extensive, in proportion as more researches are made. We have seen specimens of native malleable copper, weighing from one to three pounds. They were found in a hilly region, at a considerable distance east of the Mississippi; and the finder represented the region, where they were found, as having the marks of volcanic explosion about it. Gypsum and mineral


coal are abundant in this state; as are also Salines; though we know of but one place in the state, where salt is extensively manufactured. Immense quantities of this necessary article are manufactured at the Saline back of Shawneetown.

Climate. This state, in general, has the same climate with Missouri, being much more nearly assimilated in this respect to that state, than to Indiana, or Ohio. But being something lower and more level, than the Missouri country, and more subject to inundation, it is, probably, more humid; and at its north-eastern extremity, where it feels the bleak and desolating gales of the lakes, it is more cold, and has a more uncomfortable air in the winter. It embraces between five and six degrees of latitude. The southern parts will bring cotton, in favorable years, for domestic use. While the climate of the northern parts is not much unlike that of New York and Albany. The productions are the same, as those of the adjoining state of Missouri.

Civil Divisions.
Counties. Whites. Free blacks. Slaves. All others. Total.
Alexander, 626 0 0 0 626
Bond, 2822 22 27 0 2931
Clark, 930 0 1 0 931
Crawford, 2927 72 0 23 3022
Edwards, 3422 15 7 0 3444
Franklin, 1691 65 7 0 1763
Gallatin, 2860 28 267 0 3155
Jackson, 1503 0 39 0 1542
Jefferson, 689 1 1 0 691
Johnson, 829 1 13 0 843
Madison, 13,423 17 110 0 13,550
Monroe, 1493 10 13 21 1537
Pope, 2576 34 0 0 2610
Randolph. 3175 84 233 0 3492
St. Clair, 5068 82 98 5 5253
Union, 2338 0 24 0 2362
Washington, 1482 7 26 0 1517
Wayne, 1111 0 3 0 1114
White, 4761 19 48 0 4828
Total 53,788 917 457 49 55,211


Agriculture, and Manufactures. This state, having a vast extent of the most fertile soil, must of course raise with the greatest ease, all the articles, to which her soil and climate are favorable, in an amount far beyond her consumption. By her long line of coast on the Mississippi which is never hindered from being navigable, by the lowness of the waters, she has advantages for conveying her articles to market, which the states situated on the Ohio have not. From her immense prairies, and boundless summer range for cattle, she has advantages for raising cattle and horses, over the other western states. Her prairies yield variety of good fodder. In the eastern parts of this state, in the vicinity of French, Indian, or American habitancy, wherever the natural prairie grass is ‘killed out,’ as the phrase is, a fine species of spear grass, here called blue grass, naturally takes place of it. The eastern parts of this state more easily clothe themselves with a fine and verdant turf, than the more sandy soils of Missouri. These circumstances indicate this to be naturally a grazing state. Of course it already sends great numbers of fine cattle and horses to New Orleans. Most of the clothing of the people is manufactured in the domestic way. The coarser kinds of manufactures are found at home. The number of artizans by the census of 1820, exceeded a thousand.

Chief Towns. Vandalia has been fixed on, as the political metropolis of this state. It is pleasantly situated on a high bank of the Kaskaskia river, in the centre of a rich


and thriving country. It has been founded but a few years. But respectable houses for the accommodation of the government and the courts have already been erected. Many handsome brick buildings have arisen. A weekly gazette is issued, and it exhibits in many respects the aspect of a town, and has more than fifty houses. Edwardsville, on Cahokia creek, twenty miles north-east from St. Louis, is a country town, and a village of considerable consequence. Until within a few years, it was the seat of government, which had been transferred from Kaskaskia to that place. Belleville is in the centre of Turkey hill settlement, eighteen miles south-east of St. Louis, and a few miles east of the American bottom. It is a flourishing village in the midst of a compact settlement and most excellent lands. Alton is a new village, a little above the mouth of the Missouri. In four years from its commencement it contained 100 houses, and a respectable boarding school. Many of the people were immigrants from New York. From the favorableness of its position, and from the apparent healthiness of its situation, it bids fair to become a town of consequence.

Carlisle is situated on the west bank of the Kaskaskia, on the great road from Cincinnati to St. Louis. The road from Shawneetown to St. Louis, also passes through this place. Boats of burthen, in good stages of water, can ascend the river to this place. There are few positions in the state, more central to the resources of the country.

Cahokia, on the creek of that name, is situated in the American bottom, a few miles below St. Louis. It is one of the most ancient villages in the country. Its inhabitants are chiefly French; and it is a village of considerable extent. Prairie du Rocher, twelve miles above Kaskaskia, is a French village in the American bottom, situated near


a most beautiful lime stone bluff. It is nearly the size of the former village.

Kaskaskia is situated on an extensive plain, not far from the commencement of the American bottom, eleven miles from the mouth of the river, on which it stands, and six miles from the nearest point of the Mississippi. This town was one of the first establishments, made by the French in the valley of the Mississippi; and is a place, whose origin dates farther back, than Philadelphia. It once was a place of great importance, containing 7,000 inhabitants. At present it numbers 160 houses, and 1,000 inhabitants.

A more beautiful situation for a town can hardly be imagined. It is in the centre of a beautiful and gently sloping basin, on a fine navigable stream, and in the midst of a country, proverbial for its fertility. It is the seat of justice for its county — has a bank, a printing office, a catholic church, and a land office.

Albion is situated near Bon Pas creek, and is the centre of what is called the Marine settlement, formed by Mr. Birkbeck, Flower, and other English immigrants. — There are many wealthy farmers in this vicinity, that were once mariners.

Shawneetown is situated on the Ohio, nine miles below the mouth of the Wabash. The great United States' Saline, situated twelve miles back of this town, contributes to give it consequence. It is the seat of justice for its county. It has a bank, with a large capital, and a land office Colconda, and America are inconsiderable villages on the Ohio. America, from its position, it should seem, must become one day of consequence. It is a point to which large steam boats can ascend from below, to wait for the smaller boats, that descend the Ohio in low stages of the water. Oxford, Carmi, Palmyra and Palestine are commencing villages on different waters of the Wabash.


Diseases, &c. The climate is so nearly the same with that of Missouri, which we have already described with some particularity, that we need add but little more in this place. It is generally a lower, more extensively watered, and something more humid climate, than that of its sister state, opposite the Mississippi. Its diseases are the same, though, we think it something more subject to intermittent and remittent fevers.

In this state, as well as that, in the extensive and rich bottoms, the cows are subject to a terrible and inexplicable, or at least as yet unexplained disease, called ‘milk sickness.’ It occurs most frequently in autumn, and about that period of autumn, when the first severe frosts happen. — From this circumstance, and the fact, that the cattle are then driven by necessity to pasture on the succulent vines and herbage of the forest, that remain unhurt by the frost, it is generally supposed to be occasioned by the eating of some poisonous vegetable. Much search and investigation, to find what it is, has been bestowed to no purpose. The animal, affected with it, becomes apparently weary, faint, weak in the limbs; can travel but a little distance without falling; seems languid, and stupid, and so continues to droop, until it dies. At this time, and under the influence of this sickness, the milk of the cows, taken in any quantity, seems to produce the same disease in men, or whatever animals swallow the milk. The persons are subject to extreme nausea, faintness, vertigo, recklessness and death. There are, probably, many supposed cases of this disease, that are really of another class, and an entirely different origin. Some have questioned, if it be not altogether a fabulous disease. We have no doubt upon the subject. We have conversed with so many, who have had it, and have recovered, and have heard of so many deaths, that were well attested to have arisen from this


cause, that we have no more doubt of its having affected j men, than animals. It has been a subject of earnest local j disputation among the farmers and physicians, where it occurs. But there has, as yet, appeared nothing satisfactory upon the subject. The only precaution taken by farmers, in such places, is, to pen their cattle at the season, and to be very cautious in the use of milk.

Roads, Public Improvements, &c. The soil in this state, as we remarked of Missouri, in general is favorable to roads. The low and clayey prairies are exceptions. —

But there are vast extents of country, where nature has furnished as good roads, as could be desired. Some oil the ferries are difficult to cross, in rainy periods, from the muddiness of the approaches to them. There are considerable portions of the country, where the roads are very deep and heavy in the winter. The rivers, furnish most of the communications for transport, that are required. In no part of the United States would it be easier, to make canals for the rest. One between the Chicago and Des Plaines, as we have seen, has been contemplated. The general government has appropriated 100,000 acres of land to aid the project. At this time, when canals are so generally in contemplation, other routes for canals have been surveyed. The same provisions for schools have been made here, as in the other western states. In addition to a thirty-sixth of the whole of public lands, three percent, on all the sales of public lands are added to the school fund. It is contemplated, to establish an university. One sixth part of the school funds and two entire townships have been appropriated for this purpose. There is, in many places great need of primary schools; though the people display a growing sense of the vital importance of education to the well being of the state. In the more populous and opulent villages, schools are on the same footing,


as in the other places similarly situated, in the United States.

Constitution and Laws. The constitution of this state was adopted in 1818. The representatives and senators are chosen biennially; the governor and lieutenant governor for four years. The judiciary is vested in a supreme court, and such other subordinate courts, as the legislature may see fit to establish. The supreme court consists of a chief justice, and three associate justices, who hold their offices for a given time. All free white males, who have resided six months in the state, are qualified to vote, and they give in their votes at elections viva voce.

History. The early history of this country has necessarily been anticipated in the general history of Louisiana. Here were the first French establishments, which were made in the valley of the Mississippi. Some of the French villages date back considerably beyond an hundred years. This colony was known for a long period in French history by the name of the Illinois. They often furnished aid from this colony to Louisiana in her wars with the Spanish and Indians. There was a time, when the Illinois colony furnished, chiefly from the country about Kaskaskia, great quantities of flour and provisions to the colony of Louisiana. During the revolutionary war these French colonies were quiet for the greater part of the time. We have already related the fate of the expedition from Michilimackinack against St. Louis. — In the subsequent Indian wars, this region was the theatre of many a gallant exploit of our partizan warriors. We have already mentioned the brilliant action of general Clark, in capturing a British general and detachment at Vincennes. This country suffered much from the savages, during the late war. Having an immense extent of frontier, contiguous to the lakes and to


savage tribes, that were under British influence, and steadily hostile to us; this was to be naturally expected. We have already narrated the bloody tragedy, that ensued upon the evacuation of fort Chicago. Many frontier settlements were broken up, and many individual murders were committed by the Indians. It would only be a repetition of those horrible narratives, that belong to every frontier country, similarly situated, when assailed by the savages, to give a detailed account of them. The principal theatre of the operations of the rangers was in this state. — Those operations had a great effect, to repress the incursions of the savages.

A considerable number of Sacs and Foxes still inhabit the banks of Rock river, or its waters. The Kaskaskia, Cahokias, Peorias, Piankashaws, Mascontins, Delawares, and Shawnees, are chiefly extinct tribes, or have emigrated from this region. Chippeways and Pottawattomies are still seen in the limits of this state, as occasional hunters or vagrants among the people. But by different treaties, the Indians have ceded the greater part of their territorial claims to lands. The country has experienced, until recently, almost entire freedom from their depredations since the war; and has rapidly advanced in population and improvement. For a series of years, in every autumn, long; lines of teams might be seen moving towards Sangamo or Mauvaise terre, the grand points of attraction to immigrants. Nearly the same order of events occurred here, as in Missouri, in relation to the pecuniary embarrassments of the people, after the war. The same expedients of ‘relief laws,’ loan office, banking paper, &c., were adopted, with precisely the same results. The history of events in Missouri will answer for that of Illinois, with very little variation. Illinois has adopted a constitution, which does not admit involuntary servitude, or the tenure


by which, masters hold slaves. Some unsuccessful efforts were made by the immigrants from the slave holding states, to have their constitution amended, to admit of slavery. — The question was casually agitated in the papers, and a convention for the purpose was proposed. But the moderation and good sense of the people, allowed this irritating investigation to sleep undisturbed. This great state, with unoccupied and fertile soil, to support millions of agricultural people in affluence, must ultimately become populous, powerful and prosperous.

Curiosities. Rock fort is a projection from the left bank of the river Illinois. Its base is washed on three sides by the Illinois, which here flows rapidly over a rocky bed. Broken masses of rock are seen above the surface of the water. The judgment of the beholder would give the height of this cliff at 250 feet. The actual measurement might, however, fall short of this. Its perpendicular sides, arising from the river, are inaccessible. It is connected with a chain of hills, that extend up the Illinois by a narrow ledge, the only ascent to which, is by a winding and precipitous path. This rock has on its top a level surface, three fourths of an acre in extent; and covered by a soil several feet in depth, which has thrown up a growth of young trees. These form, as they receive their peculiar tints from the seasons, a verdant, or gorgeous, and party colored crown, for this battlement of nature's creation. The advantages which it affords, as an impregnable retreat, induced a band of Illinois Indians, who sought a refuge from the fury of the Pottawattomies, with whom they were at war, to intrench themselves here. — They repulsed all the assaults of their beseigers, and would have remained masters of their high tower, but for the impossibility of longer obtaining supplies of water. They had been used to attaching vessels to ropes of bark,


and dropping them into the river from an overhanging point. Their enemies stationed themselves in canoes at the base of the cliff, and cut off the ropes, as fast as they were let down. The consequence of this was a surrender and the entire extirpation of the band. An entrenchment corresponding to the edge of the precipice, is distinctly visible, and fragments of antique pottery, and other curious remains of the vanished race, are strewn around. — From this elevated point, the Illinois may be traced as it winds through deep and solitary forests, or outspread plains, onward to the Mississippi, until it disappears from the vision in the distance. In the opposite direction, a prairie stretches out, and blends with the horizon. At the foot of Rock fort, on the land side, the eye reposes on a verdant carpet enamelled with flowers, in the spring time, of surpassing beauty. To relieve the uniformity from which even this beautiful view would suffer, the forest boundary of the opposite side of the prairie, presents its gracefully curved line, and seems to offer from the noble size of the trees and the thickness and depth of verdure of their foliage ‘that boundless contiguity of shaded,’ sought after by the poet.

‘The Cave in Rock,’ or ‘House of Nature,’ below Shawneetown is pointed out to passengers on the Ohio, as a great curiosity; and its front is marked with the names of its visitors. Above and below it are high perpendicular lime stone bluffs, surmounted with cedars, above which are sailing in the blue, eagles, birds of prey, or aquatic fowls. The entrance to the cave is just above high water mark. It has an arched roof, twenty-five or thirty feet high, and extends back 120 feet. It has occasionally afforded a temporary winter asylum to families, descending the river. The immense prairies, and the numberless sink holes of this state are curiosities, no way different from the same spectacles elsewhere.



LENGTH, 250. — Breadth, 150 miles. Between 37° 47' and 41° 50' N. latitude; and 7° 45' and 11° W. longitude. Bounded north by Michigan territory and lake. West by the state of Illinois. South by the Ohio, which divides it from Kentucky; East by the state of Ohio.

The whole of this state belongs to the valley of the Ohio, or lake Michigan. It is the first of the states, in advancing towards the east, and the north, where nature seems to have divided her surface between prairie and wood land. The greater proportion of this state is clearly timbered country. Here, too, we first find the number and manners of northern people predominating among the immigrants. Here we first discover, in many places, a clear ascendency of New England dialect, manners and population. Here, too, we discover the natural tendency of this order of things, and this class of immigrants rapidly, and yet silently to fill the country with inhabitants. Missouri and Illinois have occupied a greater space in public estimation, in newspaper description, and in general notoriety. The immigration to those states has been with four or six horse wagons, with large droves of cattle, with considerable numbers of negroes, and composed of immigrants, who had name and standing, who were heads of families, when they removed, and whose immigration accompanied with a certain degree of eclat. Of


course the immigration of a few families was attended with circumstances, which gave it public notoriety. The immigration to this state has been generally of a different character. It has been for the most part composed of young men, either unmarried or without families. It has been noiseless, and unnoticed. But the difference of the result strikes us with surprize. While the population of neither of these states exceeds 80,000, the population of this state, at this time, is supposed to exceed 200,000.

Face of the country, soil, &c. The south front of this state is skirted with the usual belt of river hills, bluffs and knobs, known here by the name of ‘Ohio hills.’ They occupy a greater or less distance from the river; sometimes leaving between their base and the river, a bottom of two or three miles in width; and sometimes, and for no inconsiderable part of the whole length of the southern boundary, they tower directly from the waters of the Ohio. They have a thousand aspects of grandeur and beauty, often rising higher, than 300 feet above the level of the river; and the eye of the southern traveller, ascending the Ohio, which has been used to rest on bottoms boundless to vision, on swamps and plains, and regions without a rock or a hill in the scenery, never tires, in surveying these beautiful bluffs, especially in the spring, when their declivities are crimsoned with the fed bud, or whitened with the brilliant blossoms of the dog wood, or rendered verdant with the beautiful May apple.

A range of knobs, stretching from the Ohio to White river of the Wabash, forms the limits of the table lands that separate the waters of the Ohio from those of White river. North of the Wabash, between Tippicanoe an Ouitanon, the Wabash hills are precipitous, and a considerable extent of country is rough and broken. There are in different parts of the state, considerable extents


country that may be pronounced hilly. Such is the south front of the state to a considerable distance from the Ohio. There are not such extensive plains in this state, as in Illinois. Nor are there any hills to vie in height with those back of Shawneetown. But, with some few exceptions, the greater proportion of this state may be pronounced one vast level. To particularize the level tracts would be to describe three fifths of the state. The prairies here, as elsewhere, are uniformly level. The wide extent of country, watered by White river, is generally level. The prairies have the usual distinction of being high, and low, swampy and alluvial. For a wide extent on the north front of the state, between the Wabash and lake Michigan the country is generally an extended plain, alternately prairie and timbered land; with a great proportion of swampy lands, and small lakes and ponds. The prairies are no ways different from those of Illinois. They are alike rich, level, and covered with grass and flowering plants. Some of them, like those of Illinois and Missouri, are broader than can be measured by the eye. Their divisions are marked off, wherever streams cross them, by belts of timbered land. All the rivers of this state have remarkably wide alluvions. Every traveller has spoken with admiration of the beauty and fertility of the prairies along the course of the Wabash, particularly of those in the vicinity of fort Harrison. We have heard competent judges, who have had opportunities of comparison, prefer the prairies on this part of the river, both for beauty and fertility to those of the Illinois, and the upper Mississippi, Perhaps no part of the western world can show greater extents of rich lands in one body, than that extent of the White river country of which Indianapolis is the centre. — Judging of Indiana, from travelling through the south front, from twelve to twenty miles from the Ohio, we should


not, probably, compare it with Ohio or Illinois. But now, that the greater part of the territory is purchased of the Indians, and that all is surveyed, and well understood, it is found, that this state possesses as large a proportion of first rate lands, as any in the western country. With some few exceptions of wide and naked prairies, the divisions of timbered and prairie lands are more happily balanced, than in other parts of the western country. Many rich prairies are long and narrow, so that the whole can be taken up, and yet timber be easily accessible by all the settlers. — There are hundreds of prairies only large enough for a few farms. Even in the large prairies there are those beautiful islands of timbered land, which form such a striking feature in the western prairies. The great extents of fertile land, the happy distribution of rivers and springs may be one reason for the unexampled rapidity, with which this state has peopled. Another reason may be, that being a non-slaveholding state, and next in position beyond Ohio it was happily situated to arrest the tide of immigration, that set beyond Ohio, after that state was filled.

But as one of the chief objects, in such a work as this, must necessarily be, to point out the relative position and quality of the first rate lands, we shall, perhaps, be least likely to confuse the reader, by adding a few remarks in a single view, upon the qualities of the soil, upon the several rivers, and near the several towns, which we shall describe in the progress of our remarks. The forest trees, shrubs, plants and grasses do not materially differ from those of Illinois and Missouri. There is one specific difference, that should be noted. There is a much greater proportion of beech timber, which increases so much, as we advance east, that in Ohio, it is clearly the principal kind of timber. This state is equally fertile in corn, rye, oats, barley, wheat and the cereal gramina in general. Vast


quantities of the richer prairies and bottoms are too rich for wheat, until the natural wild luxuriance of tendency in the soil has been reduced by cropping. Upland rice has been attempted with success. Some of the warm and sheltered valleys have yielded, in favorable years, considerable crops of cotton. No country can exceed this in its adaptedness for rearing the finest fruits and fruit bearing shrubs. Wild berries, in many places are abundant; and on some of the prairies, the strawberries are large, rich and abundant It is affirmed, that in the northern parts of this state in the low prairies, whole tracts are covered with the beautiful fowl-meadow grass, poa pratensis, of the north. It is a certain and admitted fact, that wherever the Indians, or the French have inhabited, long enough to destroy the natural prairie grass, which, it is well known, is soon eradicated, by being pastured by the domestic animals, that surround a farmer's barn, this grass is replaced by the blue grass of the western country, which furnishes not only a verdant and beautiful sward, but covers the earth with a perfect mat of rich fodder, not unlike the second crop, which is cut in the northern states, as the most valuable kind of fodder. For all the objects of farming, and raising grain, flour, hemp, tobacco, cattle, sheep, swine, horses, and generally the articles of the northern and middle states, immigrants could not desire a better country, than may be found in Indiana. In the rich bottoms in the southern parts, the reed cane, and uncommonly large ginseng are abundant.

Climate, &c. Little need be said upon this head; for this state, situated in nearly the same parallels with Illinois and Missouri, has much the same temperature. That part of it, which is contiguous to lake Michigan, is more subject to copious and frequent rains; and being otherwise low and marshy, much of the land becomes too wet for


cultivation. Some have described the country and climate, near lake Michigan, as productive and delightful. — Neither the soil, timber, nor the experiments of the inhabitants, that have attempted cultivation here, justify these descriptions. For a considerable distance from the lake, sand heaps covered with a few stinted junipers, and swept by the cold, dreary and desolating gales of the lake, give no promise of a fine country or climate. But beyond the influence of the lake breeze, the climate is cool, mild and temperate. The state in general is somewhat less exposed to the extremes of heat and cold, than Illinois.

In point of salubrity, we can do no more than repeat the remarks, which have so often been found applicable to the western country in general, and which from the nature of things must apply to all countries. The high and rolling regions of this state are as healthy, as the same kind of lands is found to be in the other parts of the United States, The wet prairies, the swampy lands, the tracts that are contiguous to the small lakes and ponds, deep and inundated bottoms, intersected by bayous, generate fever and ague, and autumnal fevers, and create a bilious tendency in all the disorders of the country. The beautiful prairies above Vincennes, on the Wabash, in the neighborhood of fort Harrison and Tippicanoe, are found to have an unfavorable balance against their fertility, the beauty of their appearance, and the ease, with which they are cultivated, in their insalubrity. That the settlers in general have found this state, taken as a whole, favorable to health, the astonishing increase of the population bears ample testimony.

The winters are mild, compared with those of New England, or even Pennsylvania. Winter commences, in its severity about Christmas, and lasts seldom more than six weeks. During this time in most seasons, the rivers, that


have not ver rapid currents, are frozen. Though winters occur, in which the Wabash can not be crossed upon the ice. About the middle of February, the severity of winter is past. In the northern parts of the state, snow sometimes, though rarely, falls a foot and a half in depth. In the middle and southern parts, it seldom falls more than six inches. Peach trees are generally in blossom early in March. The forests begin to be green from the 5th to the 15th of April. Vast numbers of flowering shrubs are in full flower, before they are in leaf, which gives an inexpressible charm to the early appearance of spring. Vegetation is liable to be injured both by early and late frosts.

Civil Divisions.
Counties. Whites. Free blacks. Slaves. Total.
Clark, 8571 138 0 8709
Crawford, 2583 0 0 2583
Davies, 3400 32 0 3432
Dearborn, 11,396 72 0 11,468
Delaware, 3677 0 0 3677
Dubois, 1160 8 0 1168
Fayette, 5941 9 0 5950
Floyd, 2707 69 0 2776
Franklin, 10,698 65 0 10,763
Gibson, 3801 45 30 3876
Harrison, 7806 69 0 7875
Jackson, 3974 36 0 4010
Jefferson, 7926 112 0 8038
Jennings, 1955 45 0 2000
Knox, 5153 166 118 5437
Lawrence, 4101 15 0 4116
Martin, 1028 4 0 1032
Monroe, 2671 8 0 2679
Owen, 827 10 1 838
Orange, 5272 96 0 5368
Perry, 2314 15 1 2330
Pike, 1465 4 3 1472
Posey, 4044 6 11 4061


Counties. Whites. Free blacks. Slaves. Total.
Randolph, 1803 5 0 1808
Ripley, 1820 2 0 1822
Scott, 2328 0 6 2334
Spencer, 1877 2 3 1882
Sullivan, 3470 20 8 3498
Switzerland, 3925 9 0 3934
Vanderburg, 1787 3 8 1798
Vigo, 3364 26 0 3390
Wabash, 142 5 0 147
Warrick, 1742 6 1 1749
Washington, 8980 59 0 9039
Wayne, 12,053 66 0 12,119
Total 146,761 1227 190 147,178

Rivers. The southern shore of this state is washed by the Ohio, from the mouth of the Big Miami to that of the Wabash, a distance of nearly 500 miles, by the meanders of the river. We reserve a description of this noble Stream for our account of the state of Ohio. Between the Miami and the Wabash die following considerable streams, together with many small ones, enter the Ohio. Tanner's creek falls in two miles below Lawrenceburg. It has a course of thirty miles. Loughery's creek enters eleven miles below the Miami, and is forty miles in length. Indian creek, called by the Swiss, in remembrance of a stream in their native country, Venoge, bounds the Swiss settlements on the south, and enters the Ohio eight miles below the point opposite to Kentucky river. — Wyandot, Big Blue, Little Blue, Anderson's river, Pigeon, and Beaver creeks enter, in the order, in which we have mentioned them, as we descend the Ohio. Beside these, in descending this distance, we discover the deep break through the banks of the Ohio, where a great many smaller streams enter. Many of these streams, at some distance from the Ohio, afford mill seats. We may, therefore, affirm, that the south front of Indiana is well watered.


The Wabash is the chief river of this state; and after the Tennessee, one of the most considerable tributaries of the Ohio. It glides through the central parts of the state, and by its extensive branches, waters a vast extent of it. — One of the main branches heads near fort St. Mary's, in Darke county, Ohio. The next considerable branch called Little river, heads seven miles south of fort Wayne, and enters the Wabash, eighty miles below St. Mary's portage. The next is Massassineway, which also heads in Ohio, between forts Greenville and Recovery; and joins with it a league and a half below the mouth of Little river. Eel river, another branch, rises in ponds and lakes, eighteen miles west of fort Wayne, and joins the Wabash, eight miles below the mouth of the Massassineway. Rejoicing, Mascontin, Ouitanon, and Deche are inconsiderable tributaries.

White river enters the Wabash from the eastern side, sixteen miles below Vincennes. It is the most considerable tributary of the Wabash; and one of the most important rivers in the state. It comes in after having watered a great extent of very fertile country, in a lateral direction to the main stream. Its head waters interlock with the waters of the Miami. Its principal tributaries are Driftwood branch, Muddy fork, and Tea kettle branch.

Little river, St. Mary's, Rock river, and Pomme, are inconsiderable tributaries, that enter from the eastern side. It receives a great number of considerable tributaries from The west. Richard's creek and Rock river enter above Tippicanoe. This stream has acquired lasting fame by the bloody action, which was fought on its banks, between the United States' troops, under general Harrison, and the Wabash savages in November, 1811. It originates by many branches in ponds and lakes, which, like that at the source of the Plein of the Illinois, discharge


at one extremity into the waters of the Wabash, and at the other into the Miami of the lakes. Before the battle of Tippicanoe the Indians had fields in high cultivation, along the banks of this river. Below this river from the west, enter in succession, Pine, Redwood, Rejoicing, Little Vermilion, Erabliere, Duchette and Brouette rivers, which are inconsiderable streams, that head in the state of Illinois.

White water is a branch of the Big Miami, and a very interesting river. It rises near fort Greenville in Ohio. — Not far from its source, it crosses into this state, and in its devious course, waters a large extent of fertile country. — The West Fork unites with it at Brookville, thirty miles above its entrance into the Miami. This beautiful stream is supposed to water nearly a million acres of land. It abounds in fine fish, and exceeds all the other rivers of the country in the unusual transparency of its waters. It has its sources in copious hill springs, and its waters are uncommonly cold. The people in its vicinity have an idea, that its waters are too much wanting in specific gravity, or from other causes too little buoyant, for ordinary swimmers to trust themselves to bathe in it.

The northern front of the state, bordering on the territory of Michigan, and the lake of that name, is watered copiously by rivers, that empty into that lake and lake Erie, The principal of these are the St. Joseph of the Miami of the lakes, and its numerous branches, the river Raisin of lake Erie, Black river of lake Michigan with its numerous branches; Chemin, Big and Little Kenomic, all of that lake, and Theakiki, Kickapoo, Plein, and the Vermilion of Illinois. These numerous rivers generally have short courses, and carry large volumes of water. — Most of them originate in ponds, and lakes, of which an hundred exist along the northern frontier. Many of them have the peculiar character of such waters in this region


that is to say, a position on an elevated plateau, from one extremity of which the water discharges into the lakes, and from the other into the waters of the Mississippi.

Although this state has not so great an extent of inland navigation, as Illinois, the amount of that navigation is still very great. Many of its waters interlock with those of the Illinois. It possesses the whole extent of the noble Wabash, and White river, and its numerous boatable branches. By these large marshy ponds, which discharge at once into lake Michigan and Erie on the one hand, and the gulf of Mexico on the other, with a small expense of money, and labor, the lakes will be united by canals with the Ohio and the Illinois. A navigable canal already connects the White water by the Big Miami with the Ohio at Cincinnati. This state so rapidly populating, is the younger sister of Ohio, and will soon dispute the point of population and importance. It will ere long emulate the enterprize, the canals, and the great public works of its model. By the lakes the northern frontier is already connected with Canada and New York. The whole extent of the inland navigation may be fairly rated at between three and four thousand miles.

Chief Towns. Character of the country, in which they are situated, &c. None of the western states have shown a greater propensity for town making, than this. — Nature has furnished it with so many delightful sites for towns, that their very frequency subtract from the importance of any individual position. In no part of the world has the art of trumpeting, and lauding the advantages, conveniences and future prospects of the town, to be sold, been carried to greater perfection. To mention, in detail, all the villages, that have really attained some degree of consequence, would only furnish a barren catalogue of names. We will mention the chief of those on the Ohio, in descending


order, beginning with Lawrenceburg on the southeastern angle of the state.

This town is the seat of justice for the county of Dearborn. It stands on the north bank of the Ohio, twenty-three miles below Cincinnati, and two below the Big Miami, which is the eastern limit of the state. This town is in the centre of a rich and deep bottom. The ancient village was built on the first bottom, which was frequently exposed to inundation. It is not uncommon for the water to rise four or five feet above the foundations of the houses and stores, in which case the inhabitants remove to the upper story, and drive their domestic animals to the hills Visits and tea parties are projected in the inundated town and the vehicles of transport are skiffs and periogues. — The period of the flood, from ancient custom, and from the suspension of all the customary pursuits, has become a time of carnival. The floods, instead of creating disease wash the surface of the earth, carry off vegetable and animal matter, that would otherwise putrify, and are supposed to be rather conducive to health than otherwise. The old town, built on the first bank, had been stationary for many years. New Lawrenceburg has been recently built on the second bank, and on elevated ground, formed by the bank of Tanner's creek. Since the commencement of this town, few places have made more rapid progress. Many of the new houses are handsome; and some of them make a splendid show from the river. Its position, in relation to the river, and the rich adjacent country, and the Big Miami is highly eligible. It has a number of respectable commencing manufactories, and promises to be a large town.

Aurora is a new village, at the mouth of Hogan creek, four miles below, on the Ohio. It contains between sixty and seventy dwellings. Rising Sun, thirteen miles


Lawrenceburg, occupies a beautiful position on the Ohio, and is a village something larger, than Aurora.

Vevay is the seat of justice for Switzerland county, and is situated eight miles above the point, opposite the mouth of Kentucky river, and forty-five miles below Cincinnati. It contains between two and three hundred houses, a court house, jail, academy, a printing office, from which issues a weekly journal, a branch of the bank of Indiana, and some other public buildings. This interesting town was commenced in 1804, by thirty Swiss families, to whom the United States made a grant, under particular and favorable stipulations, of a considerable tract of land, to patronize the cultivation of the vine. The patriarch of this colony was a Swiss gentleman, of the name of J. J. Dufour, who has continued an active and intelligent friend to the town ever since. The colony soon received considerable accessions from the mountains of Switzerland. In grateful remembrance of their native hills, and to create in the bosom of their adopted country tender associations with their ancient country, they named their stream Venoge, and their town Vevay. Messrs. Dufour, Morerod, Bettens, Siebenthal, and others, commenced the cultivation of the grape on a large scale. This cultivation has gone on steadily increasing. An hundred experiments have been since commenced, in different points of the West. But this still remains the largest vineyard in the United States. — We have witnessed nothing in our country, in the department of gardening and cultivation, which can compare with the richness of this vineyard, in the autumn, when the clusters are in maturity. Words feebly paint such a spectacle. The horn of plenty seems to have been emptied in the production of this rich fruit. We principally remarked the blue Cape grape and the Madeira grape. The wine of the former has been preferred to the Claret of Bordeaux.


The fruit seems to have a tendency to become too succulent, and abundant. It is now supposed, that some of our native grapes, will more easily acclimate to the country and soil, and make a better wine. These amiable, industrious and intelligent people are constantly profiting by the benefit of experience. This species of agriculture already yields them a better profit, than any other practised in our country. They are every year improving on the vintage of the past. They are the simple, amiable, and intelligent people, that we might expect from the prepossessions of early reading, from the vine clad hills of Switzerland. They are mostly protestants, in their worship. They happily compound the vivacity of the French with the industry of the Germans. Like the former they love gaiety and dancing. Like the latter, they easily fall in with the spirit of our institutions, love our country and its laws; intermarry with our people, and are in all respects a most amiable people. They have a considerable number of professional men in Vevay; a public library, a literary society, and many of the comforts and improvements of a town. Mr. Dufour has distinguished himself by agricultural publications, particularly upon the culture of the vine. This industrious people have created some manufactures, peculiar to themselves, particularly that of straw bonnets. The position of the town is extremely fortunate, in relation to the back country, and the other interior large towns. It is equi-distant from Lexington, Louisville and Cincinnati, being forty-five miles from each.

Madison, still lower on the Ohio, is considered to be nearly equi-distant between Louisville, and Cincinnati. It was commenced in 1811, and is about the size of Vevay; and is perhaps still better built, than that town. It is central


to a great extent of flourishing back country; and is one of the most pleasant and thriving towns in the state.

New London, ten miles lower on the river, and Charlestown, twenty-nine miles lower, and two miles back from the Ohio, are small villages. The land about the latter town was a grant of gratitude from Virginia to the brave general Clark, and his soldiers, for their achievements at the close of the revolutionary war.

Jeffersonville is situated just above the falls of Ohio. — The town of Louisville on the opposite shore, and the beautiful and rich country beyond, together with the broad and rapid river, forming whitening sheets and cascades from shore to shore, the display of steam boats, added to the high banks, the neat village, and the noble woods on the north bank, unite to render the scenery of this village uncommonly rich and diversified. It is a considerable and handsome village with some houses, that have a show of magnificence. It has a land office, a post office, a printing office, and some other public buildings. It was contemplated to canal the falls on this side of the river; and a company with a large capital was incorporated by the legislature. In 1819, the work was commenced, but has not been prosecuted with the success, that was hoped. — The completion of the canal on the opposite side, will, probably, merge this project, by rendering it useless. — One of the principal chutes of the river, in low water, is hear this shore; and experienced pilots, appointed by the state, are always in readiness, to conduct boats over the fells. Clarksville is a small village just below this place. New Albany is the seat of justice for Floyd county; and is four and a half miles below Jeffersonville. The front street is three quarters of a mile in length, and makes a respectable appearance from the river. Many steam boats, that can not pass the falls, are laid up for repair at


this place, during the summer. It has a convenient ship yard for building steam boats. It is a thriving and busy village.

Fredonia, Leavenworth, Rockport, and Evansville occur, as we descend the Ohio. The last, is a village of some consequence. It is the landing place for immigrants, descending the Ohio, for the Wabash. It is at the mouth of Big Pigeon creek, fifty-four miles south of Vincennes, and forty-five above the mouth of the Wabash. — Being about half way between the falls of Ohio and the mouth, it is a noted stopping place for steam boats.

Corydon, the seat of justice for the county of Harrison, was for a considerable time the political metropolis of the state. It is distant twenty-three miles from Jeffersonville, and thirteen from the Ohio. It is situated in the forks of Indian creek. North of the town, spreads an extensive region of barrens full of sink holes, and lime stone caves.

Salem is on a small branch of Blue river, thirty-four miles north of Corydon. It is a very flourishing county town, and contains more than 100 houses. Brownstown, Paoli, and Washington are interior county towns. The following towns are on the Wabash, as we descend the river. Above Tippicanoe is the old French post of Ouitanon. It is at the head of boatable navigation on the river, in the centre of what was recently the country of the savages. Its origin dates back nearly 100 years. — The inhabitants are a mixture of French and Indian blood. Merom is on a high bluff of the Wabash, opposite La Motte prairie, in Illinois. It is in the centre of rich and beautiful prairies. It has peopled with great rapidity. Terre Haute is situated two miles below fort Harrison, as its name imports, on a high bank of the Wabash. It is a growing and important village. Shakertown, fifteen miles above Vincennes, contains a community


of the industrious people, called, Shakers, and exhibits the marks of order and neatness, that are so characteristic of those people everywhere.

Vincennes is, after Kaskaskia, the oldest place in the western world. It was settled in 1735, by French emigrants from Canada. They fixed themselves here in a beautiful, rich and isolated spot, in the midst of the deserts of the new world. For an age they had little intercourse with any other people, than savages. Their interests, pursuits and feelings were identified with them. Their descendants are reclaimed from their savage propensities; and have the characteristic vivacity, amiableness, and politeness of the French people everywhere. It is distant 150 miles above the mouth of the Wabash; and fifty-four from the nearest point of the Ohio. It has improved rapidly of late; and is said to contain more than 300 houses, a brick court house and hotel, a jail, a respectable building for an academy, a Roman catholic and a presbyterian church, a land office, a post office, two printing offices, from one of which is issued a respectable gazette, a bank, and some other public buildings. It is situated contiguous to a beautiful and extensive prairie, 5,000 acres of which are cultivated as a common field, after the ancient French customs. It was for a long time the seat of the territorial government, and still has more trade, than any other place in the state. The plat of the town is level, and laid off with great regularity. The houses have extensive gardens back of them, filled, after the French fashion, with crowded fruit trees. It is accessible, for the greater part of the year, by steam boats; and is a place of extensive supply of merchandize to the interior of the state. Volney, who visited this place not long after the setting up of the Federal government here gives a very graphic and faithful account of the appearance of this place, and the adjoining country, of the


French inhabitants and their manners. At the same time, he presents a revolting picture of the manner, in winch the Americans had treated them. He represents them to have been plundered, and insulted by the Kentuckians, soon after the close of the revolutionary war. Perhaps he had not learned, that Vincennes had been, for a long time, a nest of savages, from which they fitted out their murderous expeditions; and that it was natural, that the Kentuckians, who had suffered so much from them, should be disposed to retaliate upon the people, who had harbored them. He represents them, subsequently, to have been cheated out of their lands by the Americans. Their ignorance, he says, at this time was profound. But little more than half their number could read, or write; and he avers, that he could instantly distinguish them, when mixed with the Americans, by their meagre and tanned faces, and their look of poverty and desolation. However just this picture may have been in 1796, it is all reversed now. — Most of the inhabitants have an air of ease and affluence and Vincennes furnishes a pleasant and respectable society.

Harmony, fifty-four miles below Vincennes, and something more than 100 by water above the mouth of the Wabash, is the seat of justice for the county of Posey. It is situated on the east bank of the river, sixteen miles from the nearest point of the Ohio, on a wide, rich, and heavily timbered plateau, or second bottom. It is high, health has a fertile soil, and is in the vicinity of small and rich prairies; and is, on the whole, a pleasant and well chosen position. It was first settled, in 1814, by a religious sect of Germans, denominated Harmonites. They were emigrants from Germany, and settled first on Beaver creek in Pennsylvania. They moved in a body, consisting of 800 souls, to this place. Their spiritual and temporal leader


was George Rapp; and all the lands and possessions were held in his name. Their society seems to have been a kind of intermediate sect between the Shakers and Moravians. They held their property in common. Their regulations were extremely strict and severe. In their order, industry, neatness, and perfect subordination, they resembled the Shakers. They soon erected from eighty to one hundred large and substantial buildings. Their lands were laid off with the most perfect regularity, and were as right angled, and square as compass could make them. They were wonderfully successful here, as they had been in other places, in converting a wilderness into a garden in a short time. They had even the luxury of a botanic garden and a green house. Their great house of assembly, with its wings and appendages, was nearly an hundred feet square. Here they lived, and labored in common, and in profound peace. But from some cause, their eyes were turned from the rich fields, and the wide prairies, and the more southern and temperate climate of the Wabash towards Beaver creek, the place, where they had first settled. While they were under the influence of these yearnings, the leader of a new sect came upon them. — This was no other than Robert Owen of New Lanark, in Scotland; a professed philosopher of a new school, who advocated new principles, and took new views of society, He calls his views upon this subject ‘the social system.’ He was opulent, and disposed to make a grand experiment of his principles on the prairies of the Wabash. He purchased the lands and the village of Mr. Rapp, at an expense, it is said, of 190,000 dollars. In a short time there were admitted to the new establishment from seven to eight hundred persons. They danced, all together, one night in every week, and had a concert of music in another. The Sabbath was occupied in the delivery and hearing


of philosophical lectures. Two of Mr. Owen's sons and Mr. M'Clure, joined him from Scotland. The society at New Harmony, as the place was called, excited a great deal of interest and remark in every part of the United States. Great numbers of distinguished men in all the walks of life wrote to the society, making enquiries, respecting its prospects, and rules; and expressing a desire, at some future time, to join it. Mr. Owen remained at New Harmony, but little more than a year; in which time he made a voyage to Europe. The fourth of July, 1826, he promulgated his famous declaration of ‘mental independence.’ The society had began to moulder before this time. He has left New Harmony, and ‘the social system’ seems to be abandoned. It is to be hoped, that this beautiful village, which has been the theatre of such singular and opposite experiments, will again flourish.

Brookville is a pleasant and a very considerable village, in the forks of the beautiful river White water. It is noted for the number and enterprize of its mechanics and manufacturers. A number of its public and private buildings are of brick, and are respectable. It has grist mills, saw mills, carding machines, a printing office, and numbers of the common mechanic shops, where the usual articles of city manufacture are made for exportation. The town and the public square are on a fine and commanding level. — The streets are so situated, that they are easily kept clean. The position of the town, its salubrity, the clearness and coldness of its waters, and the adjoining scenery give this place uncommon advantages for manufactures. The enterprising inhabitants have not failed to avail themselves of these advantages. The surrounding country is finely timbered, and watered. The soil is rich and productive; and has acquired reputation for the excellence of its tobacco. It is at once extensive and populous. This village


can not fail to become a considerable town. The number of houses exceeds one hundred.

Harrison is situated on the north shore of White water, eight miles from its mouth, eighteen north-east of Brookville, and in the centre of an excellent body of land. — The village is divided between the jurisdiction of Ohio and Indiana. In the very rich and extensive bottoms, that surround this village, are found great numbers of Indian mounds. They contain large quantities of human bones, in all stages of decay. Indian axes, vases, and implements of war and domestic use, abound in them. In the bottom of most of them are found brands, coal and ashes; indications, from which antiquarians have inferred, that they were places of sacrifice, and that the victims were probably human.

Paoli, Mount Sterling, Washington, Princeton, Salisbury, New Lexington, Charleston, Salem, Brownston, &c. are seats of justice to their several counties, and are places of greater or less importance. In a country, where every year produces new towns, some of them of considerable importance, and where the scene of cultivation, population and improvement, is shifting under the eye of the surveyor and traveller, it can not be supposed, that this is, by any means, a complete list of the towns, that have arisen, and are continually springing up, in this rapidly populating state. It is as complete, as is attainable by our means at present. We close the list with the political metropolis of the state.

Indianapolis. This town, situated on the west bank of White river, has had as rapid a growth, as any one that has arisen in the western country. It is in the centre of one of the most extensive and fertile bodies of land in the western world; nearly central to the state, on White river, and at a point accessible by steam boats, in common stages


of the Wabash. No river in America, according to its size and extent, has greater bodies of fertile land, than White river. The country is populating about this town with unexampled rapidity. The town itself has grown up like the prophet's gourd. But a few years since, and it was a solid and deep forest, where the surprised traveller now sees compact streets and squares of brick buildings, respectable public buildings, manufactories, mechanic shops, printing offices, business and bustle. Such is the present aspect of Indianapolis, which is supposed to contain between two and three hundred houses. It will, probably, become one of the largest towns between Cincinnati and the Mississippi.

The Ohio river washes the southern boundary of Indiana for the distance of 472
Wabash, navigable 470
White, river, and its forks, 160
Petoka, 30
Blue river, 40
White water, 40
Rocky river, 45
Pomme, 30
Massissineway, 45
Eel, and Little rivers, 60
Western Tributaries of the Wabash, 330
St. Joseph's of Miami and Panther's creek, 75
Elkhorn and part of St. Joseph's of L. Mich. 100
Great and Little Kennomic, 120
Chemin river, 40
Chicago and Kickapoo, 80
Theakaki, and parts of Fox, Plein, and Illinois, 300
Southern coast of lake Michigan, 50
Total; 2487


‘The foregoing estimate does not embrace streams boatable less than thirty miles; besides, several of those named are navigable for canoes and small boats many miles further, than the given distances annexed.

The distance from Chicago to New Orleans, by water, is 1,680 miles — to Buffalo, about 800. The surplus products of three-fourths of the state, will find their way to the New Orleans market.

View of portages. All the streams in the northern parts of the state, which empty into the Wabash and Illinois, have their branches interwoven with many of the rivers running into lakes Erie and Michigan. Indeed, as before observed, they not unfrequently issue from the same marsh, prairie, pond, or lake. There are upwards of twenty portages near the Michigan frontier, only two of which have hitherto been used by the whites. The first of these is between the St. Mary's and the Little river branch of the Wabash, and is nine miles long. The road which is good in dry seasons, leaves the St. Mary's near fort Wayne, where teams are kept for the transportation of boats and merchandize. It was by this route that the French, while in possession of Canada, passed from the lakes to their posts on the Wabash. From the levelness of the intervening country, a canal could be easily opened, uniting the two streams. The second is the short portage between the Chicago, and the Kickapoo branch of the Illinois, rendered important by the inundations, which at certain seasons cover the intermediate prairie, from which the two opposite streams flow. By this means nature has herself opened a navigable communication between the great lakes and the Mississippi; and it is a fact, however difficult it may be of belief to many, that boats not unfrequently pass from lake Michigan to the Illinois, and in some instances without being subjected to the necessity of having


their lading taken out. I have never been on this portage, and therefore can not speak from personal knowledge, yet the fact has reached me through so many authentic channels, that I have no doubt of its truth. General P. B. Porter, whose geographical knowledge of the countries bordering the lakes, is excelled by that of no gentleman in the western country, has given his corroborative testimony in his speech on internal navigation, delivered on the floor of congress in 1810. Lieutenant Hamilton, of the United States' army, a meritorious officer, whose services have not been adequately requited, informed a friend of mine living in Detroit, that he had passed with a laden boat, and met with no obstructions on the portage, except from the grass, through which, however, the men easily forced the boat. But, in order to multiply proof and remove every doubt, I consulted the Hon. N. Pope, the territorial delegate in congress from Illinois, who, in answer to my enquiries, stated, that "at high water, boats pass out of lake Michigan into the Illinois river, and so vice versa, without landing. A canal uniting them is deemed practicable at a small expense," &c. When on the upper lakes, I frequently met with voyagers who had assisted in navigating boats across this portage.

This morass is one possessing two distinct outlets, and I have myself witnessed this phenomenon in several instances; but never when there was water sufficient to float a laden boat. Let us hear what the justly celebrated Volney, says on this subject.

"During the vernal floods, the north branch of the Great Miami mixes its waters with the southern branch of the Miami of the lake. The carrying place, or portage, of a league, which separates their heads, disappears beneath the flood, and we can pass in canoes from the Ohio to lake Erie, as I myself witnessed, in 179.


"At Loramier's fort, or store, an eastern branch of the Wabash serves as a simple canal to connect the two Miamis; and the same Wabash, by a northern branch, communicates above fort Wayne, in the time of inundation with the Miami of lake Erie.

"In the winter of 1792, and '93, two boats (periogues) were detached from Detroit, by a mercantile house, from whom I received the information, which passed without interruption, from the Huron river, which enters lake Erie, into Grand river, which falls into lake Michigan, by means of the rise at the heads of the two streams.

"The Muskingum, which flows into the Ohio, communicates, at its sources, through some small lakes, with the Cayahoga, belonging to lake Erie."

There is a portage of four miles between the St. Joseph's of lake Michigan, and the Theakaki; of two miles between the Theakaki and the Great Kennomic; of half a mile between the Great and Little Kennomic; of four miles between the Chemin and Little Kennomic; and of three miles between the west fork of Chicago and Plein; besides numerous ones between the head branches of the two St. Joseph's; Black, Raisin and Eel rivers, which vary in length according to the dryness or moisture of the season. There is a short portage between the St. Mary's and the main branch of the Wabash, over which, in times of inundation the Indians pass with their light periogues,

In the great peninsula in Upper Canada, formed by the lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron, Simcoe, &c. there are immense swamps from which the waters flow off almost imperceptibly in opposite directions. Through these swamps canoes can pass from the Chippeway creek in to the Grand


river, and from lake Simcoe to Nautausawaga, running into lake Huron.’ — Western Gazetteer.

The river Chicago empties into lake Michigan, near the territorial limits of Indiana and Illinois. Its harbor is the south-western extremity of that lake. Fort Dearborn, where the bloody tragedy of September, 1815, was enacted by the Indians, in the massacre of its garrison, was, until recently, a military post of the United States. It has lately been abandoned. At the mouth of this river is the only harbor on the lake for a great distance; and when ever a canal shall unite the Illinois with the lake, it will become a place of great commercial importance.

Indians. Until recently, they owned the greater part of the fertile lands in this state. Most of these lands have lately been purchased of them by treaty. The names on the tribes, as they used to be, convey little idea of their present position and numbers. Great numbers of them have emigrated far to the west, on White river and Arkansas. Others have strayed into Canada, or towards the sources of the Mississippi, and their deserted places are rapidly filling with the habitations of white men. Their names, as they used to be, are Mascontins, Piankashaws, Kickapoos, Delawares, Miamies, Shawnees, Weeas, Ouitanons, Eel rivers and Pottawattomies. Their present numbers can not exceed four or five thousand souls. It is an unquestionable evidence of the fertility of the country in the interior of Indiana, that it was once the seat of the most dense Indian population in the western country. — The Indians invariably fixed in greatest numbers, where the soil was fertile, the country healthy, and the means transport on water courses easy and extensive. Such countries abounded in fish and game, and such was the country in question. The Indians in this country were invaded, in 1791, by general Wilkinson. He destroyed their principal


town. It contained 120 houses, eighty of which were roofed with shingles. The gardens and improvements about it were delightful. There was a tavern with cellars, bar, public and private rooms; and the whole indicated no small degree of order and civilization. The prophet's town, destroyed by general Harrison in November, 1811, was a considerable place.

Game and Fish. The interior and northern parts of this state are abundantly stocked with game. Bears, and especially deer, abound. Wild turkeys have been supposed by some to abound as much on the waters of White river, as they do in the settled regions. Hundreds are sometimes driven from one corn field. Prairie hens, partridges and grouse abound on the prairies, and in some seasons, wild pigeons are seen here in countless numbers. Where they roost, the limbs of the trees are broken off in all directions by their numbers. Venomous snakes and noxious reptiles are sometimes seen, especially in the vicinity of ledges of rocks. The rattle snake and the copper head are the most numerous and dangerous. The streams, and especially those that communicate with lake Michigan, are abundant in fish of the best qualities. The number and excellence of the fish, and the ease, with which they are taken, are circumstances of real importance and advantage to the first settlers, and help to sustain them, until they are enabled to subsist by the avails of cultivation.

Minerals and Fossils. There are salt springs in different parts of the state. We do not know, that any of them are worked to much extent. The salt has hitherto been chiefly brought from the United States' Saline, back of Shawneetown, or from the Salines of Kenhawa. — Stone coal of the best quality is found in various places. — Native copper has been discovered in small masses, in the northern parts of the state. Iron ore is also discovered in


some places. But in general it is a country too level to be a mineral one. Although from the first settlement of the country, it has been asserted, that there is a silver mine near Ouitanon.

Antiquities. We have seen, that this state possessed a numerous Indian population. Their mounds, their sepulchres, their ruined villages, the sward of blue grass, which indicates in times nearer, or remote, the position of an Indian village, their implements of war and agriculture, dug up by the spade, or turned up by the plough, strike us on all sides, as we travel through this state. They can not but excite deep and serious thoughts in a reflecting mind. — French traditions relate, that an exterminating battle took place in a spot, which is now designated by two or three small mounds, near where fort Harrison now stands. The battle was fought between the Indians of the Mississippi, and of the Wabash. The prize of conquest was the lands, which were adjacent to the field of battle. A thousand warriors fought on each side. The contest commenced with the sun, and was fought with all the barbarity and desperation of Indian bravery. The Wabash warriors were victorious with seven survivors; and the vanquished came off with only five.

Curiosities. Like Alabama and Tennessee, this state abounds with subterranean wonders, in the form of caves. Many have been explored, and some of them have been described. One of them, extensively known in the western country by the name of ‘the Epsom salts cave,’ merits a particular description. We shall give it in the words of a letter communicated to the American Antiquarian Society, by John H. Farnham, Esq.

‘Your letter, requesting a description of my Epsom salts cave has come to hand. From the particulars enumerated


in your request, the information on each point must necessarily be very limited.

The cave is situated in the north-west quarter of section 27, in township No. 3, of the second easterly range in the district of lands offered for sale at Jeffersonville. — The precise time of its discovery is difficult to ascertain. I have conversed with several men who had made several transient visits to the interior of the cave about eleven years ago, at which time it must have exhibited a very interesting appearance, being, to use their own phraseology, covered like snow with the salts. At this period, some describe the salts to have been from six to nine inches deep, on the bottom of the cave, on which lumps of an enormous size were interspersed, while the sides presented the same impressive spectacle with the bottom, being covered with the same production. Making liberal allowances for the hyperbole of discoverers and visitors, I can not help thinking that the scenery of the interior at this time was highly interesting, and extremely picturesque. I found this opinion upon conversations with general Harrison and major Floyd, who visited the cave at an early period, and whose intelligence would render them less liable to be deceived by novel appearances.

The hill, in which the cave is situated, is about 400 feet high from the base to the most elevated point; and the prospect to the south-east, in a clear day, is exceedingly fine, commanding an extensive view of the hills and valleys bordering on Big Blue river. The top of the hill is covered principally with oak and chesnut. The side to the south-east is mantled with cedar. The entrance is about mid way from the base to the summit, and the surface of the cave preserves in general, about that elevation; although I must acknowledge this to be conjectural, as no experiments have been made with a view to ascertain the


fact. It is, probably, owing to this middle situation of the cave, that it is much drier than is common.

After entering the cave by an aperture of twelve or fifteen feet wide, and in height, in one place, three or four feet, you descend with easy and gradual steps into a large and spacious room, which continues about a quarter of a mile, pretty nearly the same appearance, varying in height from eight to thirty feet, and in breadth from ten to twenty, In this distance the roof is, in some places, arched; in others a plane; and in one place, particularly, it resembles an inside view of the roof of a house. At the distance above named, the cave forks; but the right hand fork soon terminates, while the left rises by a flight of rocky stairs, nearly ten feet high, into another story, and pursues a course at this place nearly south-east. Here the roof commences a regular arch, the height of which, from the floor, varies from five to eight feet, and the width of the cave from six to twelve feet; which continues to what is called the creeping place, from the circumstance of having to crawl ten or twelve feet into the next large room. From this place to the ‘Pillar,’ a distance of about one mile and a quarter, the visitor finds an alternate succession of large and small rooms, variously decorated; sometimes mounting elevated points by gradual or difficult ascents, and again descending as far below; sometimes travelling on a pavement, or climbing over huge piles of rocks, detached from the roof by some convulsion of nature; and thus continues his route, until he arrives at the pillar.

The aspect of this large and stately white column, as it comes in sight from the dim reflection of the torches, is grand and impressive. Visitors have seldom pushed their enquiries farther than two or three hundred yards beyond this pillar. This column is about fifteen feet


in diameter, from twenty to thirty in height, and regularly reeded from the top to the bottom. In the vicinity of this spot are some inferior pillars of the same appearance and texture. Chemically speaking, it is difficult for me to say what are the constituent parts of these columns, but lime appears to be the base. Major Warren, who is certainly a competent judge, is of opinion that they are satin spar.

I have thus given you an imperfect sketch of the mechanical structure and appearance of the cave. It only remains to mention its productions.

The first in importance is the sulphat of magnesia, or Epsom salts, which, as has been previously remarked, abounds throughout this cave in almost its whole extent, and which, I believe, has no parallel in the history of that article. This neutral salt is found in a great variety of forms, and in many different stages of formation. Sometimes in lumps, varying from one to ten pounds in weight. The earth exhibits a shining appearance, from the numerous particles interspersed throughout the huge piles of dirt collected in different parts of the cave. The walls are covered in different places with the same article, and re-production goes on rapidly. With a view to ascertain this fact, I removed from a particular place every vestige of salt, and in four or five weeks the place was covered with small needle-shaped crystals, exhibiting the appearance of frost.

The quality of the salt in this cave is inferior to none; and when it takes its proper stand in regular and domestic practice, must be of national utility. With respect to the resources of this cave, I will venture to say, that, every competent judge must pronounce it inexhaustible. The worst earth that has been tried, will yield four pounds of salt to the bushel; and the best, from twenty to twenty-five pounds.


The next production is the nitrate of lime, or saltpetre earth. There are vast quantities of this earth, and equal in strength to any that I have ever seen. There are also large quantities of the nitrate of allumine, or nitrate of argil, which will yield as much nitrate of potash, or saltpetre, in proportion to the quantities of earth, as the nitrate, of lime.

'he three articles above enumerated, are first in quantity and importance; but there are several others, which deserve notice as subjects of philosophical curiosity. The sulphat of lime, or plaster of Paris, is to be seen variously formed; ponderous, crystalized and impalpable or soft light, and rattier spongy. Vestiges of the sulphat of iron are also to be seen in one or two places. Small specimens of the carbonate, and also the nitrate of magnesia have been found. The rocks in the cave principally consist of carbonate of lime, or common lime stone.

I had almost forgotten to state, that near the forks of the cave are two specimens of painting, probably of Indian origin. The one appears to be a savage, with something like a bow in his hand, and furnishes the hint, that it was done when that instrument of death was in use. The other is so much defaced, that it is impossible to say what it was intended to represent.

Roads, Canals, Improvements, &c. The same provisions are made here, as in most of the other western states for the improvement of roads and the making of bridges. In the summer and autumn, the passing in this state is tolerable, from the circumstance of the levelness of the lands. Few of the roads are much wrought, or kept in good repair. There are ferries on all the great waters of passing. The roads, during the winter and spring, are excessively deep and heavy. The national road will pass through


the centre of this state touching at Indianapolis. None of the western states afford greater facilities for canals. We have seen, that great numbers of ponds and lakes here connect both with the waters of the Mississippi and the lakes and afford the spectacle of canals, commenced by nature. A canal, beside that mentioned, as having been commenced at Jeffersonville, has been proposed to connect the waters of the Wabash with those of the Miami of the lake, uniting that river with the lakes; and 100,000 acres of land have been appropriated by congress for that object.

That spirit of regard for schools, religious societies and institutions, connected with them, which has so honorably distinguished the commencing institutions of Ohio, has displayed itself also in this state. There are districts, no doubt, where people have but just made beginnings; and where they are more anxious about carrying on the first operations of making a new establishment, than about educating their children. But it ought to be recorded to the honor of the people in this state, that among the first public works in an incipient village, is a school house, and among the first associations, that for establishing a school. Schools are of course established in all the considerable towns and villages in the state. In many of the compact villages, there is a reading room, and a social library. — The spirit of enquiry, resulting from our free institutions, is pervading the country, and a thirst for all kinds of information is universal. Higher schools, as academies and colleges, are in operation or contemplation. This state will soon take a high place among her sister states, in point of population. It is hoped and believed, that her advance in intellectual improvement, and in the social and religious institutions will be in corresponding proportion. The only endowed college, with which we are acquainted, is fixed at Vincennes.


Constitution and Government. This state was admitted into the Union in 1816. The constitution docs not differ essentially from that of the other western states. Where it does differ, it is in having a more popular form, than the rest. The governor is elected for three years; and is eligible six years out of nine. The judiciary is composed of a supreme and circuit courts.

The judges of the supreme court are appointed by the governor, and have appellate jurisdiction. The circuit courts are to be held by one judge and two associates the former to be appointed by the legislature, and the latter by the people; all to be held for the term of seven years. All free white males, of twenty-one years and upwards, that are citizens of the United States, are admitted to the elective franchise.

History. All the striking historical events, that relate to the country, which is now the state of Indiana, have either been related in the general history of the Mississippi valley, or remain to be more properly related under the history of Ohio, in which country, under the name of the North Western Territory, it was originally included. — It has been the scene of a number of bloody contests at different periods. The country on the Wabash was early visited by French traders, or hunters from Canada. The settlement of Vincennes, dates back as far as 1702. The first settlement was composed of soldiers of Louis XIV. They were, for more than an age almost separated from the rest of makind; and had, in many respects, assimilated with the savages, with whom they intermarried. In the time of the American revolution, they manifested a disposition so unequivocally favorable to it, that the general government ceded to them a tract of land about Vincennes, at the close of that war. — The sparse population in this then wilderness, suffered


severely from the savages, until the peace, which was restored by the treaty at Greenville. The Indians still owned the greater portion of the territorial surface. In the year 1811, in consequence of their depredations and murders, a military force was sent against them; and they were defeated, and compelled to sue for peace. The bloody battle of Tippicanoe has already been related. Since the peace they have been quiet, and have ceded the greater part of their lands to the United States. In 1801, Indiana was erected into a territorial government. During the late war the tide of immigration was almost completely arrested. Many of the settlements were broken up by the savages. Immediately on the termination of that war, the tide set strongly again, through Ohio, to this state; and population poured in upon the woods and prairies. It has been filling up with almost unexampled rapidity, since that time. It suffered severely along with the other western states by the change of times, that occurred after the close of the war. The same foolish, or iniquitous system of spurious banks, or relief laws, was adopted here as in the states farther west and with the same results. The bank of New Lexington was a notorious scheme of iniquity; and was one of the first bubbles, that burst in this young community. Though the people did not immediately take warning, they were among the first, that discarded all the rediculous temporizing expedients of relief, and restored a sound circulation.

The progress of the state in population and prosperity, some years past, has been uniform. It will now, probably, have 250,000 inhabitants; and in 1830, 300,000. If we could prevent a scenic map of this state, exhibiting its Present condition, it would present us a grand and very interesting landscape of deep forests, wide and flowering prairies, thousands of log cabins, and in the villages, brick


houses rising beside them. We should see chasms cut out of the forests in all directions. We should see thousands of dead trees surrounding the incipient establishments. — On the edges of the prairies, we should see cabins, or houses, sending up their smokes. We should see vast droves of cattle, ruminating in the vicinity of these establishments, in the shade. There would be a singular melange of nature and art; and to give interest to the scene, the bark hovels of the Indians, in many places, would remain intermixed with the habitations of the whites. But the most pleasing part of the picture would be to see independent and respectable yeomen presiding over these great changes. The young children would be seen playing about the rustic establishments; full fed and happy, sure presages of the numbers, healthfulness and independence of the coming generation.



LENGTH, 300 miles. Medial breadth, 150 miles. Contains 40,000 square miles. Bounded North by the river Ohio, which separates it from Ohio, Indiana and Illinois; East by Virginia, South by Tennessee, and West by the Mississippi, which separates it from Missouri.

From the eastern limit of this state, where it bounds upon Virginia, to the mouth of the Ohio is between six and seven hundred miles. In this whole distance, the northern limit of the state is upon the Ohio. Thence it bounds upon the Mississippi between fifty and sixty miles. Almost the whole of the state, therefore, in its configuration, belongs to the valley of the Ohio. The eastern and southern front of the state touches upon the Alleghany mountains, and their spurs descend, for a considerable distance, into it. Beyond the lower part of the valley of the Tennessee, it slopes to the Mississippi. The rivers Tennessee, Cumberland, and Kentucky have broad and deep valleys. The valley of Green river, and that in the central parts of the state are noted all over the world, for their extent, beauty and fertility. But, though Kentucky has been generally considered to have larger bodies of fertile land, than any other of the western states, and although nothing can exceed, in this respect, the great valley, of which Lexington is the centre, yet there are even in Kentucky large sterile tracts, and much land too mountainous, or too poor for


cultivation. The centre of the state is delightfully rolling, A tract of country, nearly one hundred miles in one direction and fifty in the other, is found here, which for beauty of surface, amenity of landscape, the delightful aspect of its open groves, and the extreme fertility of its soil, exceeds any other tract of country of the same extent, which we have ever seen. Under this great extent of country, at a distance of from three to ten feet is a substratum or floor: of lime stone. So much dissolved lime is mixed with the soil, as to have imparted to it a warm and an exciting quality, which gives, when the earth is sufficiently moist, an inexpressible freshness and vigor to the vegetation. Through this beautiful country meander the Little Sandy, Licking, Kentucky and Salt rivers, and their numerous branches. There are very few precipitous hills, in all this region. — Much of the soil is of that character, technically known here by the name of ‘mulatto land.’ The woods have a charming aspect, as though they were trees, promiscuously arranged for the effect of a pleasure ground. Grape vines of prodigious size climb the trees; and spread their umbrageous and dark green leaves over all the other verdure. Black walnut, black cherry, honey locust, buck eye, pawpaw, sugar tree, mulberry, elm, ash, hawthorn, coffee tree, and the grand yellow poplar, trees which indicate the richest soil, are everywhere abundant. In the first periods of the settlement of the country, it was covered with a thick cane brake, that has disappeared; and there is a beautiful grass sward of a peculiar cast even in the forest. In the early periods of spring, along with the purple and redundant flowers of the red bud, and the beautiful white blossoms of the dog wood, there is an abundance on the surface of the May apple, the rich verdure of which, in the first starting of spring, has an indescribable effect upon the eye. The trees generally are not large, but tall, straight,


and taper; and have an aspect, as of having been transplanted to the places, which they occupy. Innumerable branches wind among these copses; and in the declivities burst out springs of pure lime stone water.

That part of the state, which borders on Tennessee and Virginia, resembles the country in the vicinity of the Alleghanies in Tennessee. The landscape painter could come here, and find, that nature had transcended any mental conceptions of the beau ideal. The numerous mountain branches wind round the bases of the small table hills, cutting down deep and almost frightful gullies, and forming ‘caves,’ as they are called by the people, or gulfs, covered with the shade of immensely large poplars, often eight feet in diameter. Such a tree will throw into the air a column of an hundred feet shaft. No words would convey adequate ideas of the lonely beauty of some of these secluded spots.

Between the Rolling Fork of Salt river and Green river is a very extensive tract, called ‘barrens.’ The soil is generally good, though not of the best quality. But the country, sparsely shaded with trees, is covered with grass, like a prairie; and affords fine range for cattle. Between Green and Cumberland rivers is a still larger tract of ‘barrens.’ Spread over this district, is an immense number of knobs, covered with shrubby and post oaks. In the year 1800, the legislature made a gratuitous grant of 400 acres of this land to every man, who chose to become an actual settler. A great many occupants were found on these conditions. The country was proved to be uncommonly healthy. So much of the land was incapable of clearing and cultivation from a variety of causes, that the range will probably remain unimpaired for a long time. Game abounds. Swine are raised with the greatest ease. Enough of the land is capable of cultivation, to supply all the


needs of the settlers. Many of them on this soil make fine tobacco. These lands have come into reputation; and many of these planters, who received their farms, as a freed gift, are now living sumptuously, and rearing respectable families in rustic independence.

In short, for variety of hill and dale, for the excellence of a soil, yielding in ample abundance, all that is necessary for comfortable subsistence, for amenity of landscape, for beauty of forest, for the number of clear streams, and fine rivers, for health, and the finest developement of the human form, and for patriarchial simplicity of rural opulence, we question, if any country can be found, that surpasses Kentucky. We have heard the hoary ‘residenters,’ the compatriots of Daniel Boone, speak of the country, as it appeared to them, when they first emigrated from their native Virginia and North Carolina. It was in the spring, when they arrived. The only paths among the beautiful groves, were those, which the buffalos and bears had broken through the cane brakes. The wilderness seemed to them one extended tuft of blossoms. A man, stationed near one of these paths, could kill game enough, large and small, with a proportion of turkeys and other birds, in an hour, to supply the wants of a month. There can be no wonder, that hunters, men who had been reared among the comparatively sterile hills of Virginia and North Carolina, men who loved to range the mountain stream, and the sheltered glade, should have fancied this a terrestrial paradise, a land of promise. The beautiful configuration of the soil remains. The whole state is studded with plantations. The buffalos, the bears, the Indians, and the cane brake, the wild, the terrible, and much of the naturally beautiful of the country, is no more. The aged settlers look back to the first settlement of the country, as a golden age. To them the earth seems to have been cursed with


natural and moral degeneracy, deformity and sterility, in consequence of having been settled. This is one of the solutions for that restless desire to leave the settled country, and to emigrate to new regions, which so strongly marks many of the old settlers.

Rivers. The Ohio, as we have seen, washes a vast extent of the northern frontier of this state; and the Mississippi a considerable distance of the south-western side of it. The former river, we propose to describe under the head of the state of Ohio; and the latter has already been described. Most of the rivers of this state rise in its southern limits, and flow northwardly into the Ohio. Indeed, the state may be considered, as one vast plateau, or glacis, sloping from the Alleghany hills to the Ohio.

Big Sandy rises in the Alleghany mountains, near the heads of Cumberland and Clinch, and forms the eastern boundary of the state, for nearly 200 miles. Forty miles, before its entrance into the Ohio, it divides into two branches, the North-East and the South forks. It is navigable to the Ouascioto mountains. At its entrance into the Ohio, it is 200 yards broad. In its progress, it receives a great number of large creeks, among which are Shelby, Bear, Turtle, Bartle's, Paint and Blane's, all of which run east, or north-east. Between Sandy and Licking, the following creeks and streams enter the Ohio. They are from twenty to seventy miles long, and from fifty to twelve yards wide at their mouth. Little Sandy enters twenty-two miles below Big Sandy; and the following creeks are disposed along the Ohio, at moderate distances from each other; not exceeding twenty-two, and not falling short of two or three miles from each other; viz: Tiger's creek, Conoconeque, Salt Lick creek, Sycamore, Crooked creek, Cabin creek, Brook creek, Lime stone and Bracken.


Licking river rises in the north-east corner of the state, almost interlocking with the head waters of Cumberland river. It seeks the Ohio by a north-western course; and meets it at Newport, opposite Cincinnati. It has a very sinuous course of 200 miles. In dry summers the water almost disappears in the channel. When the streams are full, in the winter and spring, many flat boats descend this river from a distance of seventy, or eighty miles from its mouth. It waters a rich and well settled country.

Kentucky is an important stream, and gives name to the state. It rises in the south-east parts of the state, interlocking with the head waters of Licking and Cumberland. By a north-west course, it finds the Ohio at Port William, seventy-seven miles above Louisville. It is 150 yards wide at its mouth, and is navigable 150 miles. It has a rapid current, and high banks. For a great part of its length, it flows in a deep chasm, cut out of perpendicular banks of lime stone. Nothing can be more singular, than the sensation arising from floating down this stream and looking up this high parapet at the sun and the sky, from the dark chasm, down which the waters float the boat Elkhorn, a beautiful stream, that enters Kentucky river ten miles below Frankfort, has two forks. The first heads near Lexington, and the second near Georgetown. These branches water Scott and Fayette counties, and are well calculated for driving mills of all kinds. Dick's river is a branch of Kentucky. It has a course of fifty miles, and is fifty yards wide at its mouth. Its current, like that of the parent stream, is rapid; and its course confined by precipices of lime stone, down which the astonished spectator looks often 300 feet, before the eye catches the dark stream, that is rolling below. Salt river rises in Mercer county from three head sources, and enters the Ohio, twenty miles below Louisville. It is boatable 150 miles, and is 150


yards wide at its month. It passes through Jefferson, Greenup, Washington, and Mercer counties.

Green river rises in Lincoln county. It enters the Ohio, 200 miles below Louisville, and fifty miles above the mouth of Cumberland. It is boatable 200 miles, and is 200 yards wide at its mouth. It receives, in its progress, a great number of tributaries, among which are Great Barren, Little Barren, Rough river, and Panther's creek. It is one of the most important rivers in the state, and has a great extent of boatable water.

Cumberland river rises in the south-east corner of this state, interlocking with the south fork of Big Sandy. We have already partially described this river; but as it is almost as much one of this state, as of Tennessee, we observe, that it runs eighty miles in this state; then crosses into Tennessee; runs forty miles in that state; and makes a curve by which it returns into this state again. It once more enters that state, after a course of fifty miles in this. It winds 200 miles through Tennessee; passes by Nashville, and once more enters this state. It unites with the Ohio by a mouth 300 yards in width; and is navigable by steam boats of the first class to Nashville; and by keel boats, in moderate stages of the water, 300 miles farther. It is a broad, deep, and beautiful river, and uncommonly favorable to navigation. Trade water, and Red river are its principal branches, in Kentucky. The one is seventy, and the other fifty yards wide at its mouth. Tennessee, of which we have already given a description, enters the Ohio in this state; and runs in it for a distance of seventy-five miles. — Kaskinompas river rises near the Tennessee, and running a western course, enters the Mississippi, halfway between the mouth of Ohio and New Madrid.

Minerals, and Mineral Waters. The state is all of Secondary formation. Lime stone and marble, of the most


beautiful species, abound. Coal appears in some places, especially along the Ohio. Iron ore is in the greatest abundance; and is wrought to a considerable extent. — Lead, and copperas, and aluminous earths are found. — There are numbers of salt springs in the state, from which great quantities of salt used to be made. But salt is made so much cheaper, and more abundant at the Kenhawa works, that it has become the custom to import it chiefly from that place.

The Olympian springs, forty-seven miles east of Lexington, are in a romantic situation. They consist of a number of springs of different medicinal qualities. They are partly sulphureous, and partly chalybeate, and a place of great resort. Big bone lick is twenty miles below Cincinnati on the Kentucky side of the river, and not far from it. The waters appear to be impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen gas, and are supposed to have a peculiarly favorable effect, in dropsical cases, and affections of the liver. The huge organic remains of animals, called by the name mammoth, were found in great numbers, by digging near this lick. There are great numbers of mineral springs, of different qualities found in different parts of the state. But the medicinal springs, which is far the most frequented of any in this state, is that near Harrodsburg. The water has a slight sweetish and styptic taste. — It contains sulphate of magnesia, and, probably, a slight impregnation of arsenic. There are fine accommodations for invalids. The situation is healthy and delightful; and in the summer it has become a great and fashionable resort for invalids from this and the neighboring states. The waters are found to be salutary in affections of the liver, in dyspeptic and chronic complaints; and this is, probably one of the few springs, where the waters are really a salutary and efficient remedy for the cases to which they are suited,


Civil Divisions,
Counties. Whites. Free blacks. Slaves. All others. Total.
Adair, 7,249 7 1,509 0 8,765
Allen, 4,594 10 723 0 5,327
Barren, 7,875 7 2,446 0 10,328
Bath, 6,685 52 1,224 0 7,960
Boone, 5,227 19 1,296 0 6,542
Bourbon, 12,369 130 5,165 0 17,664
Bracken, 4,560 44 676 0 5,280
Breckenridge, 6,217 1 1,267 0 7,485
Bullet, 4,578 8 1,245 0 5,831
Butler, 2,611 0 472 0 3,083
Caldwell, 7,567 11 1,444 0 9,022
Campbell, 6,115 10 897 0 7,022
Casey, 3,876 17 456 0 4,349
Christian, 6,943 25 3,491 0 10,459
Clark, 7,945 41 5,463 0 11,449
Clay, 4,018 90 285 0 4,393
Cumberland, 6,712 14 1,332 0 8,058
Daviess, 3,017 7 852 0 3,876
Estell, 3,218 8 281 0 3,507
Fayette, 10,205 133 7,633 0 17,971
Town of Lexington, 3,523 115 1,641 0 5,279
Fleming, 11,011 31 1,144 0 12,186
Floyd, 7,867 143 197 0 8,207
Franklin, 6,377 61 2,907 0 9,345
Town of Frankfort, 884 78 643 74 1,679
Gallatin, 5,817 16 1,242 0 7,075
Garrard, 7,901 32 2,918 0 10,851
Grant, 1,666 2 137 0 1,805
Grayson, 3,836 35 184 0 4,055
Greene, J8,683 19 3,241 0 11,943
Greenup, 3,730 15 566 0 4,311
Hardin, 9,009 23 1,466 0 10,498
Harland, 1,851 2 108 0 1,961
Harrison, 10,051 90 2,137 0 12,278
Hart, 3,572 16 596 0 4,184
Henderson, 3,419 30 2,265 0 5,714
Henry, 8,808 4 2,004 0 10,816
Hopkins, 4,334 6 982 0 5,322


Counties. Whites. Free blacks. Slaves. All others. Total.
Jefferson, 10,779 122 5,855 0 16,756
Town of Louisville, 2,886 93 1,031 2 4,012
Jessamine, 6,395 100 2,802 0 9,297
Knox, 3,305 19 337 0 3,661
Lewis, 3,505 4 464 0 3,973
Lincoln, 6,862 58 3,053 6 9,979
Livingston, 4,770 34 1,020 0 5,824
Logan, 8,566 126 4,019 0 12,711
Town of Russelville, 1,024 9 679 0 1,712
Madison, 11,738 62 4,154 0 15,954
Mason, 10,160 62 3,366 0 13,588
Mercer, 11,530 132 3,825 100 15,587
Monroe, 4,453 5 498 0 4,956
Montgomery, 7,504 29 2,054 0 9,587
Muhlenburg, 4,302 2 675 0 4,979
Nelson, 12,340 58 3,875 0 16,273
Nicholas, 7,021 33 919 0 7,973
Ohio, 3,392 19 468 0 3,879
Owen, 1,823 1 207 0 2,031
Pendleton, 2,758 0 328 0 3,086
Pulaski, 6,951 9 637 0 7,597
Rockcastle, 2,088 6 155 0 2,249
Scott, 9,545 54 4,620 0 14,219
Shelby, 15,796 93 5,158 0 21,047
Simpson, 4,032 17 803 0 4,852
Todd, 3,356 4 1,729 0 5,089
Trigg, 3,039 19 816 0 3,874
Union, 2,429 6 1,035 0 3,470
Warren, 9,169 53 2,554 0 11,776
Washington, 12,159 54 3,734 0 15,947
Wayne, 7,393 5 553 0 7,951
Whitley, 2,232 12 96 0 2,340
Woodford, 7,422 107 4,678 0 12,207
Total 434,644 2,759 126,732 182 564,317

In 1790, the population was 73,677; in 1800, 220,960; in 1810, 406,511. At present the population probably exceeds 600,000.


Agriculture and produce. Kentucky, from her first settlement, has always had the reputation of being among the most fertile of the western states. It is the current opinion here, that to whatever article of agriculture this state turns her chief attention, she is sure to glut the market with that article. In fact, the astonishing productiveness of her good lands, the extent of her cultivation, the multitude of flat boats, which she loads, for New Orleans market, and the great quantities of produce, which she now sends off by steam boats, seem to justify the conclusion. — All the grains, pulses and fruits, of the temperate climates, she raises in the greatest abundance. Her wheat is of the finest kind; and there is, probably, no part of the western country, where maize is raised with greater ease and abundance. Garden vegetables of all kinds succeed well. Grapes of the cultivated kinds are raised, for table fruit, in many places; and there are considerable numbers of vineyards, where they are raised for wine. Cotton is not raised, except for domestic use. Hemp and tobacco, next to flour, may be considered the staples of the state. Both are raised in the greatest perfection. In 1820, the number of persons employed in agriculture, was 132,161, and of manufactures, 11,779; and of persons employed in commerce, 1,617. The products of manufacture, in 1810, was as in the following table:

Articles. Value.
Tanned Hides, 255,000
Cloth, 2,057,000
Hemp, 691,000
Maple Sugar, 309,000
Gun powder, 39,000
Salt, 325,000
Saltpetre, 33,000
Paper, 19,000
Cordage, 393,000
Cotton bagging, 159,000


The present exports from this state, are chiefly to New Orleans; though a considerable quantity of her produce and manufactures, ascends the Ohio to Pittsburg. It is not uncommon for the growers of the produce, of this state, on arriving at New Orleans, to ship it, on their own account, to the Atlantic states, to Vera Cruz, and the West Indies. Besides the articles mentioned in the above table, she sends off immense quantities of flour, lard, butter, cheese, pork, beef, Indian corn and meal, whiskey, cider, cider royal, fruit, both fresh and dried, and various kinds of domestic manufactures.

Horses are raised in great numbers, and of the noblest kinds. A handsome horse is the highest pride of a Kentuckian, and common farmers own from ten to fifty. Great numbers are carried over the mountains to the Atlantic states; and the principal supply of saddle and carriage horses in the lower country is drawn from Kentucky, or the other western states. The horses are carried down in flat boats. Great droves of cattle are also driven from this state, over the mountains, to Virginia and Pennsylvania. The amount of exports of this sort can not be determined by any exact present data; but must certainly be very considerable.

Chief Towns. Frankfort is the political metropolis of the state. It is situated on the east bank of the Kentucky river, sixty miles above its entrance into the Ohio. — The site of this town is a deep valley, surrounded by hills. The alluvial plain is fertile and extensive. The river: flows in deep lime stone banks; the quarries of which yield a fine stone, or marble, of which a considerable number of the houses are built. The town is not as large as Lexington. Many of the houses are neat and handsome and evidence good taste. The public houses are, a state house, a court house, a penitentiary, a jail, a market,


a state bank, an academy, three houses of public worship, and three or four printing offices, from which weekly gazettes are issued. The state house is a handsome building eighty-six by fifty-four feet, and built of rough marble. The penitentiary generally contains about 100 convicts; the produce of whose labor has sometimes exceeded the expenses of their imprisonment. The town has respectable manufacturing establishments; as rope walks, bagging manufactories, a powder mill, grist and saw mill, and the usual number of stores of all descriptions. It is a place of much gaiety; and the people are showy in their dress and establishments. The public inns are large and respectable. Sea vessels have been built here, and floated down the Kentucky, the Ohio, and Mississippi. The latitude of the town is 38° 14' North. It is twenty-four miles north-west of Lexington. A chain bridge across the Kentucky connects it with the country on the opposite shore.

Lexington is the commercial metropolis of the state; and until very lately, was the largest town on the south side of the Ohio, above New Orleans. Nashville, probably, vies with it, at present, in size. Few towns in the western country, or the world, are more delightfully situated. It has an air of neatness, opulence and repose, that render it a pleasant town to the eye of a stranger. It is situated in the heart of the richest country in Kentucky. Nothing can be more beautiful than the scenery and the farms in the neighborhood. The frequency of handsome villas, and fine and ornamented rural mansions, might lead to the impression, that we were near a large commercial metropolis. A beautiful branch of the Elkhorn runs through the town, and waters it plentifully. The main street is a mile and a quarter in length, eighty feet wide, handsomely paved, and in the sumptuousness of the buildings, holds a respectable competition with the towns of the Atlantic country.


In the centre of the town is the public square, surrounded by large and handsome buildings. In this square is the market house, which is amply supplied with all the products of the state. It contains over 1,000 houses, and about 7,000 inhabitants. The presbyterians have three churches, and the methodists, baptists, seceders, episcopalians, and Roman catholics, one each. The court house is a spacious and respectable building. The masonic hall and bank make a handsome appearance. — The university buildings are situated in a beautiful square, and are large and handsome. The hotels and taverns are noted for their size and convenience. The appearance of show and splendor, and the display of merchandize are sure to strike Atlantic strangers, who see the town for the first time, with surprize. There are the customary numbers of all kinds of stores, and of all kinds of pursuits and employments. The woollen manufactory, built by Mr. Prentiss, about a mile from the town, is a noble establishment. In addition to an adequate number of all the common manufactures of large towns, the staple manufactures of the place are cordage and bagging. It is supposed, that the amount of manufactures of this article is nearly a million of dollars. The woollen establishment manufactures broad cloths, cassirneres, blankets and flannels. The manufacture of paper is extensive, as is also that of cotton. The number of beautiful mansions, visible on all the ways of approach to the city, prepare the stranger to be pleased with it. The inhabitants are a cheerful, gay and conversable people, most of them capable of conversing upon literary subjects. The professional men are more than commonly intelligent; and many distinguished men have had their origin here. The University with its professors and students, and the numerous distinguished strangers that are visiting here, during


the summer months, add to the attractions of the city. — The people are addicted to hospitality and parties; and the tone of society is fashionable and pleasant. Strangers generally are found to be delighted with a visit here, and are introduced with ease to all, that is respectable and interesting in the place. There are large towns in the West; but none, that convey higher ideas of the luxury, refinement and polish of the country. The circumstance, that gave name to the town is an impressive one. When the battle of Lexington, the first in the revolutionary war, was fought, the place where this handsome town, and the cultivated adjacent country now is, was all one vast and compact wilderness. Some hunters were on the site of this place, engaged in the employment of laying out the future town. — They were reclining on their buffalo robes about their evening fires. A messenger arrived in their camp, in these distant woods, with the intelligence, that the battle of Lexington had been fought. They had been debating about a proper name for the new town. It was carried by acclamation, that it should be Lexington.

Louisville, at the falls of the Ohio, is about the size of Lexington, or perhaps, at this time, more populous. In a commercial point of view, it is by far the most important town in the state. The main street is nearly a mile in length, and is as noble, as compact, and has as much the air of a maratime town, as any street in the western country. It is situated on an extensive sloping plain, below the mouth of Beargrass, about a quarter of a mile above the principal declivity of the falls. The three principal streets run parallel with the river, and command fine views of the villages, and the beautiful country on the opposite shore. It has several churches, among them, churches for the Presbyterians, baptists, and Roman catholics. The mouth of Beargrass affords an admirable harbor for the steam


boats, and river craft. The public buildings are not numerous, but respectable; and the people are more noted for commercial enterprise, than for works of public utility. It has a proportion of all the mechanic establishments, common in the western country; and very considerable manufactories of cordage and bagging. There is naturally a connection between this town and Portland, two miles below the mouth of Beargrass. The large steam boats, that run between this town and New Orleans, seldom are able to pass over these falls; and perhaps, on an average, not more than two months in the year. Of course they lie by in the fine harbor, made by the eddy of the falls. There are always great numbers of steam boats lying there, either for repair there, or on the opposite side of the river; or advertised as up for a trip. It is the greatest port for steam boats between Pittsburg and Natchez. The cargoes of the steam boats, that are intended for the country above are obliged to be discharged here, and drayed round the falls to the mouth of Beargrass. — Lines of steam boats from above and below meet here, and ordinarily have an understanding. One cause of the commercial prosperity of Louisville has been this necessity of its merchants being employed not only, as factors for the important business, that terminates at this town, but for all that, which passes up the Ohio. The falls have a romantic appearance from the town. The river is divided by a fine island, which renders the scenery more impressive and picturesque. Except in very high stages of water the whole width of the river, which is here a full mile, has the appearance of a great many broken rivers of foam, making their way over the falls.

A canal is now in successful progress, which is intended to remove this obstacle to the navigation of the Ohio. Mr. L. Baldwin, an intelligent and practical engineer, surveyed,


the ground, and directed the plan of the canal. It will be two miles in length, and the excavation is required to be forty feet in depth in some places. A part of this depth is cut from solid lime stone. It is on a scale to admit steam boats and vessels of the largest size. From the nature of the country, and from the great difference between the highest and lowest stages of the water, amounting to nearly sixty feet, it is necessarily a work of great magnitude. It will soon be completed, and in operation. There are various opinions, in reference to the bearing of this work upon the future prosperity of Louisville. Great part of the important and lucrative business of factorage will pass away from this place of course; and as boats can ascend from Louisville to Cincinnati, with at least as great a draft of water, as is required by the depth of the water from Louisville to the mouth of the Ohio, most of the boats from the Mississippi, that used to be arrested at the falls, will of course pass on to the country above. But other bearings of utility to this place, not yet contemplated, will, probably grow, out of the increased activity, given by the canal to business, and to commerce. No axiom is better established in these days, than that every part of a country, so connected as the whole coast of Ohio, flourishes, and increases with the growth of every other part. If the country, above and below, be flourishing, so also will be Louisville. Besides, this important town has intrinsic resources, which will not fail to make it a great place. More steam boats are up in New Orleans for this place, than for any other; and except during the season of ice, or of extremely low water, there seldom elapses a week, without an arrival from New Orleans. — The gun of the arriving or departing steam boats is heard at every hour of the day and the night; and no person has an adequate idea of the business and bustle of Louisville,


until he has arrived at the town. The country, of which this town is the county seat, is one of the most fertile, and best settled in the state. The town was formerly subject to frequent attacks of endemic sickness, in the summer and autumn, owing to stagnant waters in its vicinity. — The ponds and marshes have been in a great measure drained; and the health of the town has improved in consequence. It has been for some years nearly as healthy, as any other town in the same latitude on the Ohio. We witnessed this year much greater amounts of plank boards and lumber, brought here for building, than we had ever seen before. The amount of lumber, brought in rafts from the river Alleghany was immense, exceeding, we were told, three million feet.

Maysville is the next town in Kentucky, in point of commercial importance, to Louisville. It is situated just below the mouth of Lime stone creek, 275 miles by land, and 500 by water, below Pittsburg. It has a fine harbor for boats. It is situated on a narrow bottom on the verge of a chain of high hills. There are three streets running parallel with the river; and four streets crossing them at right angles. The houses are about 500 in number; and the inhabitants probably about 4,000. This place has the usual stores and manufactories. Glass and some other articles are manufactured to a considerable extent. It has a market house, court house, three houses for public worship, and some other public buildings. What has given particular importance to Maysville is, that it is, and long has been the principal place of importation for the north-east part of the state. The greater part of the goods for Kentucky, from Philadelphia and the eastern cities, are landed here, and distributed hence all over the state. It is a very thriving, active town, and a number of steam boats have been built here.


Washington, three miles south of this place, is a considerable village, in the centre of a fertile and well peopled country. It has three parallel streets, two houses for public worship, a court house, jail, two seminaries of learning, a post and printing office, the customary stores and mechanic shops, and a branch of the Kentucky bank.

Paris, the chief town of Bourbon county, is situated on a fine hill, on Stoner fork of Licking river, at the mouth of Houston creek. There are a number of important manufactures here. A number of the houses have the appearance of magnificence. It is central to a delightful and populous country. It is entirely an interior town, twenty miles east of Lexington, sixty miles south-east of Newport, opposite Cincinnati, and in north latitude 38° 18'. The scenery of no place in the western country surpasses that on the road between this place and Lexington.

Georgetown, the county town of Scott county, is also surrounded by that fine and rich country in the centre of this state, of which travellers have spoken in terms of so much praise. Royal spring, a branch of Elkhorn, runs through the town. It has a number of considerable manufacturing establishments, genteel houses, and some public buildings, among them a church, a printing office, a post office, and rope walk. It is fourteen miles north of Lexington, on the road to Cincinnati.

Harrodsburg is a pretty village on both sides of Salt river, which turns a number of mills. It contains ninety houses, with the customary stores, a church and post office. Danville, thirty-three miles south-west from Lexington, is an important village, containing between two and three hundred houses, and all the usual appendages to a town of that size in this country. Stamford, ten miles southeast from Danville, contains 120 houses. Somerset, twelve miles south-east of Stamford, contains nearly 100 houses.


Monticello, between Cumberland river and the state of Tennessee, is situated on a ridge of hills, contains something more than sixty houses; and is in the vicinity of the noted nitre caves. Lead ore has been found in the vicinity of this place.

Versailles, the chief town of Woodford county, contains over 100 houses, and is situated on a creek, which discharges into the Kentucky river. It is thirteen miles south-west from Lexington, and is surrounded by the same beautiful country, which is adjacent to that place. Shelbyville, on Brasheare's creek, twelve miles above its junction with Salt river, is a considerable village. Augusta, twenty-two miles below Maysville, on the Ohio, has eighty houses.

Newport, opposite to Cincinnati, is the county town for Campbell county, and is situated at the mouth of Licking. It has a charming prospect of Cincinnati, and the surrounding country, and from that town, seems a pleasure ground, dotted with houses. Few places can show more pleasing scenery. It has a spacious arsenal, containing arms, and munitions of war for the United States. It has a good number of public buildings, among which are a banking house, court house, jail, market house, a post office, a school house, and an academy. Bagging, cordage, and tobacco are manufactured here.

Covington is situated below Newport, and on the opposite side of Licking. It is laid out with great regularity. — The streets are intended to be continuations of those of Cincinnati. Liberal donations are made for the erection of public buildings. Nothing can exceed the beauty of a panoramic view of these towns, from the hills north of Cincinnati. The Ohio, in the distance, seems but a rivulet, and these towns are so connected by the eye, as to seem to make a part of Cincinnati. These places of course are connected with Cincinnati in business; and only want a


bridge across the Ohio, or a tunnel under it, both of which projects are in contemplation, actually to make a part of Cincinnati.

Cynthiana, the county town for Harrison county, stands on the north-east bank of the south fork of Licking, twenty-six miles north-east from Lexington, and thirty-four in the same direction from Frankfort. It contains more than 100 houses; and a number of respectable public buildings. It is on a wide and fertile bottom, in the midst of a rich and populous settlement. There are a great number of water mills near the town.

Port William, the county town of Gallatin county, stands on the right shore of the Kentucky, a little above its entrance into the Ohio. It contains sixty or seventy houses. But although its position is fine, at the outlet of this noble river, and adjacent to a charming country, it has not flourished according to the expectations of its inhabitants. This may be owing to the circumstance, that the Delta on which it is situated, has been sometimes inundated.

Russelville, the county town of Logan county, is an interior town, intermediate between Green and Cumberland rivers; and thirty-five miles distant from each. It contains an important seminary, denominated a college; and a number of respectable public buildings, together with 160 private houses. It is 180 miles south-west from Frankfort, and thirty-five south of Louisville. It is in the vicinity of the extensive prairies and barrens, that appear in this part of the country. Salt licks abound near the town. Many of the adjacent prairies are of great beauty.

There are forty or fifty more considerable villages in this state. It would be but tiresome repetition to describe them with any degree of particularity. The names


of the principal ones follow, together with the rivers on which they are situated. Catletsburg, at the outlet of Big Sandy. Clarksburg, on the Ohio, forty-eight miles below Catletsburg. Yellow Banks, Henderson, Morganfield, and Smithland, are on the Ohio, below Louisville. — The last named town is at the mouth of Cumberland river. Columbia is on the south bank of the Mississippi, eleven miles below the mouth of the Ohio. Prestonburg is on the west branch of Big Sandy, near the Cumberland mountains. The following towns are on Licking: Olympian Springs, Mount Sterling, Millersburg, Marysville, and Falmouth. On the Kentucky and its waters, besides those already enumerated, are Mount Vernon, Stamford, Lancaster, Richmond, Winchester, Nicholasville, Harrodsburg and Laurensburg. On Salt river and its waters, are Springfield, Bealsburg, Shelbyville, Middletown, and Shepherdsville. Bairdstown is an important village, with a beautiful view of adjacent hills, and mountains; and is; noted for a respectable catholic seminary, in the centre of a considerable catholic settlement, to which many people send their children for instruction, from the remotest points of the Mississippi valley. On Green river and its waters, are Caseyville, Columbia, Greensburg, Summersville, Monroe, Glasgow, Scottsville, Bowling Green, Morgantown, Litchfield, Hardensburg, Hartford, Greenville, and Madisonville. On Cumberland river, Barboursville, Burkville, Hopkinsville, Princeton, and Centreville. — Some of these villages have churches. Some of them are county towns; and in a country, where the whole scene is shifting under the eye of the beholder; some of them, no doubt, are more important, than some of those, which we have particularly noticed in description. Other villages may have become important, that have not yet been described;


and there are villages deemed of consequence, at least, in their immediate vicinity, which are not here named.

Among the antiquities of this state are great numbers of those Indian mounds, that are found over all the western country. There is nothing, however, in the mounds of Kentucky, to distinguish them from those in the other parts of the West. Every one has heard, that when this country was first discovered, some hundreds of mummies, in a state of entire preservation, were found in a cave near Lexington. It is to be regretted, that the pioneers of the settlements in this country, did not attach much consequence to skeletons; and none of them remain. The body that was found in the Saltpetre cave, has been examined by hundreds. It was considerably smaller than the men of our times. The teeth and nails did not seem to intimate the shrinking of the flesh from them, in the desiccating process, by which it had been preserved. The teeth were separated by considerable intervals; and were long, white, and sharp, reviving the horrible images of the nursery tales of Ogre's teeth. The hair seemed to have been sandy, or inclining to yellow. It is well known, that nothing is so uniform in the present Indian, as his lank black hair. From the pains taken to preserve this body, and the great labor of preparing the funeral robes, in which it was enclosed, it must have been a personage of great consideration in its day. We saw this body. The person had evidently died by a blow on the skull. The blood had coagulated there into a mass of a texture and color, sufficiently marked to show, that it had been blood. The envelope of the body was double. Two splendid blankets, completely woven with the most beautiful feathers of the turkey, arranged in regular stripes and compartments, encircled it. The cloth, on which these feathers were woven, was a kind of linen of neat texture, and of


the same kind with that, which is now woven from the fibres of the nettle. The body was evidently that of a female of middle age, and we should suppose, it might have weighed six or eight pounds.

In an ancient mound on Cany Fork of Cumberland river, four feet below the surface, a vessel was found, of which it would be difficult to convey an adequate idea, without an engraving. It consisted of three heads, joined together at the back part of them near the top, by a stem, or handle, which rises above the heads about three inches. The stem is hollow, six inches in circumference at the top, increasing in size, as it descends. These heads are all of the same dimensions, being about four inches, from the apex to the chin. The face at the eyes is three inches broad, decreasing in breadth all the way to the chin. Most persons have supposed, that they are fac similes of the Tartar countenance. They do not so strike us. Neither does their model appear to have been any thing, like the present Indian countenance. The faces are remarkable for their fullness, and evince no inconsiderable skill in the moulder. It is of the common earthen fabric, of the pottery generally found about the mounds. The face of the eldest is painted around the eyes with yellow, shaded with a streak of the same color, beginning at the top of the ear, running in a semi-circular form to the ear, on the other side of the head. Another painted line begins at the lower part of the eye, and runs down each ear, about one inch. The second figure represents a person of a grave countenance, much younger, than the preceding one, painted differently, and of a different color. A streak of reddish brown surrounds each eye. Another line of the same color, beginning at the top of one ear, passes under the chin, and ends at the top of the other ear. The ears, also, are slightly tinged with the same color. The whole


face of the third is slightly tinged with vermilion, or some paint resembling it. Each cheek has a spot on it of the size of a quarter of a dollar, brightly tinged with the same paint. On the chin is a similar spot. One circumstance, worthy of remark, is, that though these colors must have been exposed to the damp earth for many centuries, they have, notwithstanding, preserved every shade in its brilliancy. They are, probably, idols of the worship of the days, in which they were moulded. The vessel is in the western museum at Cincinnati, and is the most beautiful specimen of Indian pottery and moulding, that we have seen. In another mound, within twenty miles of Lexington, were found nine very large and beautiful marine shells of the murex class, and perfectly similar in their general contour to those, called conch shells. They have all the freshness of those found on the shores of the sea. This state, like Tennessee, abounds in lime stone caves, of an extent and grandeur, to which the famous cave at Antiparos will hold no comparison.

There are numberless caves, sinks and precipices, that in any other country would be regarded, as curiosities. — They are sources of wealth in many instances to their proprietors. No earth, in any country has been found more strongly impregnated with nitre. It is affirmed, that fifty pounds of crude nitre have been extracted from an hundred pounds of the earth. During the late war, 400,000 pounds a year were manufactured from this earth in this state; and probably as great an amount of gun powder. — We have already mentioned, as striking curiosities, the prodigious depths, in which many of the rivers in this state run, which are worn through strata of solid lime stone. The caves, the sink holes, the gulfs, and the deeply excavated beds of the rivers, afford a continual source of curiosity


and astonishment to travellers, who are not thoroughly used to this country.

Character, Manners, &c. The people of this state have a character as strongly marked by nationality, as those of any state of the union. It is a character extremely difficult to describe, although all the shades of it are strongly marked to the eye of a person, who has been long acquainted with them. They are not only unique in their manners, but in their origin. They are scions from a noble stock, the descendants from affluent and respectable planters from Virginia and North Carolina. They are in that condition in life, which is, perhaps, best calculated to develope high mindedness and self respect. They have a distinct and striking moral physiognomy, an enthusiasm, a vivacity and ardor of character, courage, frankness and generosity, that have been developed with the peculiar circumstances, under which they have been placed. They have a delightful frankness of hospitality, which renders a sojourn among them exceedingly pleasant to a stranger. — Their language, the very amusing dialect of the common people, their opinions and modes of thinking, from various circumstances, have been very extensively communicated, and impressed upon the general character of the people of the West. Their bravery has been evinced in the field and in the forest from Louisiana to Canada. Their enthusiasm of character is very observable, in the ardor with which all classes of people express themselves, in reference to their favorite views and opinions. All their feelings tend to extremes. It is not altogether in burlesque, that they are described as boastful, and accustomed to assume to themselves the pride of having the best horse, dog, gun, wife, statesmen, and country. Their fearless ardor and frankness, and self confidence become to their young men, in other parts of the West, in competition for place


and precedence, as a good star. When a Kentuckian presents himself in another state, as a candidate for an office, in competition with a candidate from another state, other circumstances being equal, the Kentuckian carries it. — Wherever the Kentuckian travels, he earnestly and affectionately remembers his native hills and plains. His thoughts as incessantly turn towards home, as the Swiss are represented to do. He invokes the genius of his country in trouble, danger and solitude. It is to him the home of plenty, beauty, greatness and every thing, that he desires, or respects. This nationality never deserts him. No country will bear a comparison with his country; no people with his people. The English are said to go into battle with a song about roast beef in their mouths. When the Kentuckian encounters the danger of battle, or of any kind, when he is even on board a foundering ship, his last exclamation is, ‘hurrah for old Kentucky.’

Religion. The prevailing penominations are baptists, presbyterians, methodists, Cumberland presbyterians, and seceders. The people manifest their excitable and ardent character upon this, as upon all other subjects. They have an insatiable curiosity to hear new preachers, and an extreme eagerness for novelty. Religious excitements are common, and carried to the highest point of emotion. — Religion, in some form, seems to be very generally respected; and there is scarcely a village, or a populous settlement in the state, that has not one, or more, favorite preachers. It would be difficult to gay, which is the predominant denomination, that of the baptists, methodists or presbyterians. But notwithstanding the marked enthusiasm of the character of this people, notwithstanding they are much addicted to bitter political disputation, notwithstanding all the collisions from opposing courts, parties and clans, as a


state, the people have uniformly distinguished themselves for religious order, quiet and tolerance.

Transylvania University. This institution was chartered and endowed in 1798; and is the most ancient one of the kind in the western country. In point of buildings, professorships, and funds, it has generally been considered still to retain this pre-eminence. Its library, philosophical and chemical apparatus would be considered respectable in any country. Its medical school has been far more numerously attended, than any other one in the western country. A law school is now added to its foundation. It is situated delightfully, and in a central point of the great valley of the West; and ought to have a happy and powerful influence upon the science and literature of all the country west of the Alleghany mountains.

There is another college, denominated the Central college, of which Gideon Blackburn, D. D. is president — The respectable catholic institution at Bairdstown has been already mentioned.

Education. In all the considerable towns and villages there are good schools. Many opulent families employ private instructors. Domestic education is more cherished here, than in any of the western states. All families o any considerable standing are acquainted with the literature of the day, and purchase the new publications. The seminary at Bairdstown has considerable reputation; and children, especially those of catholic parents, are sent to this institution from all points of the Mississippi valley — There are boarding schools at Lexington and in other places, that have obtained deserved estimation, as places of resort for the children from Louisiana and Mississippi — Many of the respectable and intelligent people of this state are still aware, that there are capital defects in the general


system of education, and in the arrangement and distribution of the primary schools.

Constitution, Government, &c. The legislative power is divided as usual. The senators are elected for four years and the representatives for one. A person to be eligible as a senator, must be thirty-five years of age, a citizen of the United States, must have resided six years in the state, and one year in the district for which he is chosen. A representative must be twenty-four years of age, a citizen of the United States, must have resided in the state two years, and in the district one. The governor is elected for four years; and is eligible four years out of eleven. He must be thirty years of age, a citizen of the United States, and must have resided in the state two years, and in the district one. He has a qualified negative upon the proceedings of the assembly, has a pardoning power, and makes appointments with the consent of the senate. — The judiciary consists in a supreme court, and in such inferior courts as the assembly may appoint, and the judges retain their offices during good behaviour. Every free white male citizen of the age of twenty-one, who has resided in the state two years, or one year in the district is entitled to the elective franchise.

History. This state takes its name from the Indian appellation of one of its chief rivers, ‘Kan-tuck-kee.’ It was first visited, in 1767, by Mr. Finley from North Carolina. He was accompanied, in this adventurous advance into an unknown wilderness, by a few wandering and kindred spirits, who were actuated by the same fondness for the wild, untrammelled, existence of a hunting and roaming life in the woods. A preference, once contracted for such an existence, is never relinquished. If these hunters expected to visit undiscovered races, and to find Peruvian treasures, they were disappointed. But they were not


disappointed in finding an abundance of deer, elk, foxes, wild cats, wolves, panthers, bears and buffalos. They were delighted with the fresh and luxuriant aspect of nature, the beautiful lawns, the rich pastures and cane brakes, and the charming flowering forests. Having explored the country to a considerable extent, they returned to North Carolina, full of the excited conceptions of travellers, to relate what they had seen. They described it as a terrestrial paradise, full of game, and forests crowned with flowers; nor did they forget the huge bones, which they had seen and handled at ‘Big bone lick.’

This wonderful country, and their travels and adventures, excited, as may be supposed, abundant conversation. But two years elapsed, before Finley revisited the country; and he was now accompanied by Daniel Boone. The people of North Carolina and Virginia naturally wished to secure the possession of this extensive and fertile domain. The project, not being encouraged in England, was abandoned.

At the breaking out of the war of 1739, between Great Britain and Spain, governor Spotswood, of Virginia, who had been living in retirement, was appointed to command a body of colonial troops, and was instructed to carry into effect what had been his favorite project, the occupancy of the country on the Ohio. During the war between Great Britain and France, about the year 1754, many colonists from the east side of the mountains, had settled on the upper waters of that river. In the year 1763, Fort Pitt came into the possession of the British crown. But the whole country of what is now called Kentucky was as yet an unknown and unexplored wilderness. The famous Ohio company had only extended their settlement from the north-west extremity of Virginia, to the country about the upper courses of the Ohio. These circumstances


account for the first settlement of Kentucky by a few hunting adventurers from North Carolina.

After the return of Mr. Finley and Daniel Boone, we hear little more of the former; and his name, except as the precursor of the other, in the discovery of Kentucky, seems to have perished from the annals of its history. — As the name of the latter will be forever identified with the discovery and settlement of this state, and as it will frequently recur in the following annals, we shall take leave, in this place, to introduce a sketch of his character. He naturally takes a conspicuous place among those hardy backwoods men, who were the pioneers of settlement and civilization in the West. They were a remarkable class of people, trained by circumstances to a singular and unique character, very unlike that of the first settlers in the Atlantic country. They were as remarkable for high notions of honor and justice, as they were for hardihood, strength and bravery. A boundless wilderness, filled with game, was the region, in which their thoughts expatiated; and when alone in those forests, with their dogs and their gun, they indulged in the pursuits most dear to their heart.

Daniel Boone was born in Maryland, about the year 1756. His first buddings of character indicated that deeply rooted propensity, that followed him through life. But the back forests of Maryland, as he grew into life, were too limited, and too hackneyed a range for such a Nimrod. He removed with his parents to Virginia, and subsequently to North Carolina. But those parts of these states, east of the mountains, were, also, too much explored, and settled for him. In following Finley over those mountains into the flowering forests of Kentucky, in the cane brakes of these lawns, among the bears, buffalos and Indians, he found, at last his beau ideal. In 1769, we find him there, seeking a spot on which to build a cabin,


where he wished to carry his wife, and be stationary. He was uneducated, in the sense, in which that term is now understood. He had been accustomed, from his earliest years, to wander alone in the woods for days together, with no other communion, than his own thoughts. One of the first things, taught him by this mode of life, was self reliance, and self dependence. Evidently he had a mind above the common, upon which to build his peculiar character. The quickness of apprehension, the self possession and self command, which he afterwards so often evinced, could, perhaps, have been acquired in no other way, than in his peculiar modes of life. He was remarkable for his humanity of disposition, and gentleness of manners; but still more so for his pre-eminent and unconquerable fortitude, a trait which nothing could waver, and nothing but death destroy.

In his second sojourn in Kentucky, his sufferings commenced. As he and his companion, Stewart, one morning left their camp, they were taken prisoners by the Indians, who plundered them of every thing, they possessed. They were compelled to a painful march into the wilderness, in which they were closely watched. On the 8th night, being left unguarded, they escaped, and returned to their desolate and plundered camp, where they would have perished with hunger, as they had neither food, guns, nor ammunition, except at this emergency they had been visited by a brother of Boone's from Carolina, who supplied them with these articles. Soon after they were fired upon by a considerable body of savages, and Stewart was killed. The brothers escaped; and with their tomahawks built themselves a cabin of poles and bark, in which they spent the winter. In the spring of 1770, his brother returned to Worth Carolina, and left him alone in the woods, the only white man in Kentucky. He had neither bread, nor salt,


nor even a dog for a companion. During the absence of his brother, he made an exploring trip to the Ohio, returned on his steps, and in July, met his brother returning from North Carolina, according to his agreement, when they parted. They then explored the country together, as far as the river Cumberland, and in 1771, returned to their families, with the intention of removing them to Kentucky.

In the autumn of 1773, Daniel Boone returned with his family, joined by five other persons. In Powell's valley, the party received an accession of forty other persons, all confiding in the guidance and management of Daniel Boone. The party thence advanced into the wilderness in high spirits, until the 10th of October, when the Indians fired upon their rear, and killed six men. Among the slain was the eldest son of Daniel Boone. They faced upon the foe, and drove them off, but not until their cattle were dispersed. The immigrants themselves were so much afflicted, and disheartened, that it was deemed expedient to retire to the settlement on Clinch river. Here Daniel Boone continued to hunt, until June, 1774.

At this time he was requested by the governor of Virginia, to whom fame had made him known, to repair to the falls of Ohio, to conduct thence a party of surveyors, whose stay there was deemed unsafe, on account of the recent hostility of the northern savages. With a man of the name of Stoner for companion, he made his way through the woods to the falls in safety; and piloted the surveyors away, according to request. He was absent from his home two months. This year the Shawnees and other northern Indians commenced open hostilities upon the frontier settlements. Daniel Boone was ordered, with the rank of captain, to take command of three contiguous forts, where he discharged his assigned duty, until peace


was made with the Indians. Being relieved from this duty, he was solicited by Henderson and company of North Carolina, as their agent, to attend a meeting of the southern Indians, which they had convoked, with a view to purchase of them lands south of Kentucky river. In 1775, he met the Indians, pursuant to his appointment, and made the purchases. He was then requested to head a party, sent to take possession of the lands. He opened a road from Holston to the Kentucky, with their assistance; but was attacked, during the enterprize, by the Indians; and four of the party were killed, and five wounded. In 1775, Boone reached Kentucky river with the survivors; and commenced a fort at the lick, where Boonesborough now stands. The party, enfeebled, and discouraged by their losses, did not complete the fort until June.

Leaving some men to guard the fort, Boone took the remainder to Clinch settlement, to escort his family to the country, and his wife and daughter were the first white women, who arrived in Kentucky. Here he remained a number of years, aiding, and encouraging those, who were bold enough to follow his example, and to choose his mode of life. The Indians were continually harrassing, and murdering the new settlers; and he was always ready to head the parties of woodsmen, who sought revenge, to put them on the trail of their foe, and give them a chance to retaliate. The future historical incidents of his career are naturally interwoven in the historical annals, that follow. With the following brief sketch of his character, we shall return to the order of these annals.

The very name of Daniel Boone is a romance of itself. A Nimrod by instinct and physical character, his home was in the range of woods; his beau ideal the chase, and forests full of buffalos, bears, and deer. More expert at their own arts, than the Indians themselves, to fight them,


and foil them, gives scope to the exulting consciousness of the exercises of his own appropriate and peculiar powers. He fights them in numerous woods and ambushes. His companions fall about him. He is one of those peculiar persons whom destiny seems to have charmed against balls. When by daring or stratagem, or good fortune, he comes off safe from a desperate conflict, it affords him a delightful theme to recount to his listening companions around the cabin fire, or as feasting on the smoking buffalo hump, on a winter evening, his strange adventures and his hairbreadth escapes. At length he is taken. But the savages have too much reverence for such a grand ‘medicine’ of a man as Boone, to kill him. He assumes such an air of entire satisfaction along with them, and they are so naturally delighted with such a mighty hunter, and such a free and fortunate spirit, that they are charmed, and deceived into a confidence that he is really at home with them, and would not escape if he could. It is probable, too, that his seeming satisfaction is not altogether affected. The Indian way of life is the way of his heart. It is almost one thing to him, so that he wanders in the woods with expert hunters, whether he takes his diversion with the whites, or the Indians. They are lulled into such confidence, as to allow him almost his own range. He seizes his opportunity, and in escaping, undergoes such incredible hardships, and privations, and dangers, as nothing would render credible, but the most indubitable evidence, that they have been actually so endured.

Boone thought little of titles and courts of record. — Fences, butts, and bounds, and partition lines, and all the barbarous terms, invented by the spirit of Meum and Tuum, the paltry letts and hindrances of civilization, were terms of unhappy omen in his ear. He finds himself circumvented by those, who had thought with more respect


of these things; and in his age, he fled from landholders and lawsuits in Kentucky to the banks of the Missouri. — Here, on a river, with a course of something more than a thousand leagues, all through wilderness, an ample and a pleasant range was opened to his imagination. We saw him on those banks. With thin gray hair, a high forehead, a keen eye, a cheerful expression, a singularly bold conformation of countenance and breast, and a sharp and commanding voice, and with a creed for the future, embracing not many articles beyond his red rival hunters, he appeared to us the same Daniel Boone, if we may use the expression, jerked and dried to high preservation, that we had figured, as the wanderer in woods, and the slayer of bears and Indians. He could no longer well descry the wild turkey on the trees, but his eye still kindled at the hunter's tale, and he remarked, that the population on that part of the Missouri was becoming too dense, and the farms too near each other, for comfortable range, and that he never wished to reside in a place, where he could not fall trees enough into his yard to keep up his winter fire. Dim, as was his eye, with age, it would not have been difficult, we apprehend, to have obtained him as a volunteer on a hunting expedition over the Rocky mountains. No man ever exemplified more strongly the ‘ruling passion strong in death.’

Kentucky was at this time a kind of open forest; in which the lawns were tangled with cane, and other luxuriant vegetation, and grass, in which fed innumerable flocks of deer, bears, buffalos, and other game. It was of course a favorite hunting ground of the Indians. Various nations hunted on it; but none claimed it, in individual property. It might be expected, that when savages of different tribes often came in collision, under such circumstances, the mutual pretensions would be often settled by the


right of the strongest. From the frequent and bloody rencontres, which took place among them, and from the depths of its forests, during the summer verdure, it took the name of the ‘dark and bloody ground.’

In 1770, a party of nine persons, headed by colonel James Knox, reached Kentucky with a view to hunt, and explore. It is not known, that Knox and Boone ever met, or had any knowledge, that the other was in the country. This may be accounted for by the circumstance, that their different attempts were made in different parts of the country. Boone saw the country only with the eye of a hunter, with very little forecast of its future value and destiny. Knox and his party viewed this fair region with different eyes, and saw it in the aspect of its value under the hands of cultivation and habitency. While they, however, were meditating, whether it were better to induce a great body of their countrymen to immigrate there with them, or to enter on their enterprize alone, the whole country, which had hitherto been claimed by France, passed by ceded transfer to the possession of England. The Virginia troops, who had served in the Canadian war, received bounties in these western lands; and were anxious to survey them, and ascertain their value. The claimants, with their surveyors, arrived in the country, in 1773, to view and select their lands. They descended the Ohio from Fort Pitt to the falls, and explored the country on the Kentucky side of the river. They examined some of the salines, or licks, and among others ‘Big bone lick;’ and contemplated, with astonishment, those enormous animal remains found there. They returned delighted with the appearance of the country. About the same time general Thompson, of Pennsylvania, commenced an extensive course of surveys of the rich lands on the north fork of Licking. In 1774, other surveyors followed the


same route. After reaching the falls of Ohio, they travelled up on both sides of Kentucky river, as far as Elkhorn, on the north, and Dick's river on the south.

This year, the first cabin for family habitancy was built on the present site of Harrodsburg, by James Harrod. — This habitation answered the double purpose of a house and a fort. The occupants were emigrants from Monongahela. All the Indians north-west of the Ohio were now at open war with the Virginians. A severe battle was fought between the parties at the mouth of the Great Kenhawa. It terminated in favor of the Virginians. The battle field was called Point Pleasant. Many of the soldiers returned to the south-western parts of Virginia through Kentucky. Governor Dunmore, who then commanded the main army of militia, who had not been in the action of Point Pleasant, marched into the Indian country. Peace was soon after made between him and the Indians. The surveyors were again able to execute their commissions. While the government of Virginia made use of these means to render the country safely habitable, individuals in several places built cabins, inhabited them one season, and then returned to their homes; in this way giving themselves a future claim to the land, upon which they had built. Harrodsburg, Boonesborough and Logan's camp, near the present site of Stamford, were the first permanent settlements. The two latter settlements were made under the auspices of Virginia. Henderson and company had been induced, by exaggerated accounts of the fertility of the soil, to wish for some claim, to enable them to monopolize the profits, which would accrue from the occupancy and sale of the new country. They accordingly made that purchase of lands from the Indians, to which we have referred, and in which Boone was their agent — Boone was now upon the ground. A fort was built, and


land office opened by Henderson and company, for the sale of their lands. The purchasers were to receive titles in virtue of that, which Henderson and company had received from the Indians. This would have been a golden speculation indeed, could this company have realized their expectations. Virginia had as yet attached little value to her western possessions. The great conflict between the colonies and the mother country had occupied all her chief thoughts and energies. Things so remained, until in common with the other states, she proclaimed herself free and independent, and alone possessing the right of extinguishing the Indian claims within her territory, and making sales of her lands.

The legislature of that state declared Henderson's purchase null; as far as concerned the validity of the claim; but effectual so far as related to extinguishing the claims of the Indians within her territories. To indemnify Henderson for his loss, they made him a compensation of 200,000 acres of land, lying at the mouth of Green river. The association was satisfied with this grant; and the settlers under titles received from them in other parts of the country, looked to Virginia for protection in their rights. — The legislature at the same time confirmed a purchase, made by colonel Donaldson from the six nations, of the country north of Kentucky river. The Indian claim to the whole of Kentucky, north of the Tennessee, was now extinguished by purchase. James Harrod and his men joined the Virginians at the battle of Point Pleasant. After peace with the Indians, he returned to Harrodsburg, and gathered around him a sufficient number of woodsmen, to render Harrodsburg a safe retreat of refuge for travellers and immigrants. A road, sufficiently wide for a single file of pack horses, had been opened by Daniel Boone from the settlement on Holston to Kentucky river.


He removed with his family and followers to Boonesborough. Several families moved to Harrodsburg in the month of September, 1775. Three women with their husbands and children, came this year to encounter all the dangers of the savage wilderness, the privations and hardships of a backwood's life, and the severe confinement of being shut up in the limits of a fort. These permanent settlements were viewed by the Indians with extreme jealousy. They seem to have been perfectly aware, to what results these things must lead. They commenced a systematic course of murdering all, whom they could find unprotected, and beyond the limits of the forts.

James Harrod, the founder of this settlement, was another character, like Boone, exactly fitted for the duties and calls of the relation, which he sustained to the colony. It was not ambition, that placed him at the head of a party, and his little colony; but the call of the people, and an intimate and deep feeling, that he was more qualified for those duties, than any one around him. He was a brave and expert huntsman, and a man of generous, frank, and independent character. He possessed, in an eminent degree, that instinctive keenness of tact, to seize the clue and circumstances, that guide the hunter in a straight and safe direction through the pathless woods. He united the instincts of an Indian to the calculations and reasoning powers of civilized man. Any one, at all conversant with the scenes of a first settler in the wilderness, and the requisite traits for counsel and guidance in the leader of such an establishment, can see at once what an invaluable acquisition such a man would be to such a settlement. When the Indians had committed thefts, or murders, he was always at hand to head an expedition of retaliation, or recovery. When a family made known, that their stock of provisions was running low. he was ready to shoulder his


rifle, and to scour the woods to hunt for a supply. The hunting of lost cattle and horses in the woods is a profession, in which the genius and skill of a backwoods man has a peculiar field of development. Those, who live in the old settlement can never imagine the skill, which men in situations, like his, acquire in that way. The finding of cattle, lost in the woods, is a thing of vital importance to the first settlers in such a country. They, who had lost them, repaired to Mr. Harrod. He sallied forth, availing himself of his peculiar resources in this sort of experience, and their cattle were found.

So dear did this way of life become to him, that after this primitive state of things had all passed away, after he had obtained the commission of colonel, had a family, friends, and comforts of all kinds multiplied around him, he used to leave his house, and repair to those parts of Kentucky, that were still wide and waste wilderness abounding in game. He would there remain, in the depth of woods, two or three weeks, secluded from the sight of every human being. In one of these expeditions he lost his life; but how, or where, is not exactly known. He left a daughter, and an ample estate in lands. The early stages of the settlement of this state were fruitful in producing characters of this kind. Their names and exploits and their hair breadth escapes will remain themes of interest in the narratives of their descendants around the evening fire.

The third station, as we have mentioned, was at Logan's camp. Benjamin Logan was by birth a Virginian. By the death of his father, when he was only fourteen, he was left with the care of a large family. He provided for the support of his mother; saw his family settled, left Virginia, and repaired west of the mountains, to these new regions, to provide for himself. He purchased lands, married, and


commenced improvements on the Holston. He was with lord Dunmore, when he made peace with the Indians, in 1774. The next year he visited Kentucky, selected the spot, where he afterwards built his fort, and in 1776, removed his family to the country. These three settlements of Boone, Harrod, and Logan were the grand rallying points for the solitary settlers dispersed over all the country. The Indians were considered as enemies, for there was no security by day or night, but in these stations.

The 14th of July, 1776, a daughter of Daniel Boone, and two daughters of colonel Calloway were encountered by the Indians, beyond the precincts of the fort, and were carried away prisoners. Daniel Boone collected a party of eight men, and immediately followed them. On the 16th of the month, they were retaken uninjured, and two of the Indians were killed. It would be useless to attempt to describe the joy of the parents and their lost daughters at this meeting. It is a scene which no words can paint.

Soon afterwards, the settlers ascertained, that the Indians had brought a considerable force into the country, and had divided it into small bodies, with which it was intended to attack, and destroy the settlements in detail. They had no knowledge of the modes of bringing, and sustaining a considerable force into the field. They can not make great efforts in a pitched battle, or in besieging a fort. But they are cunning, persevering, and terrible beyond conception, in carrying into effect the injuries and murders, which they meditate in this way. It is inconceivable, with what dexterity, they provide for their own safety, while they plan the murder of their enemy. They conceal themselves in a thicket, among the weeds, behind the fence, or any covert. Here they lie through the whole day, or night to way-lay the path, where they suppose, the object of their revenge will pass. When they imagine their aim is sure, they fire —


and if circumstances warrant, dart on their victim and take his scalp. If they dare not do this, they slide back to their ambush, retreat, and are gone, carrying with them the pleasant thought, that they have destroyed one or more of their enemies. They cut off the supplies of a garrison, by killing or driving off their cattle. They secrete themselves in ambush near the springs and watering places, that they may kill or capture those, who repair there, unconscious of their danger. In the night, they place themselves near the gate of the fort, and watch patiently, until the morning, that they may kill the first person, that comes forth. They are remarkably adroit in stratagems, to decoy the garrison out on one side, while they enter on the other, and kill the women and children. When they have exhausted their stock of provisions, they supply themselves anew from the chase, and return to the siege, in the hope of getting another scalp. Their object is in this way, to kill the garrison, or destroy the settlement in detail.

When we now consider the horror of women and children, in conceiving such an enemy always about them in the pathless wilderness, it astonishes us, that settlers could ever have been found, who would put their lives in their hand, and march so far away from their native country and home, to encounter these dangers. We are surprized, that they could cheerfully meet the labors of cultivation and the field, constantly surrounded by these dangers; and still more, that they would expose themselves to the greater dangers of hunting, under such circumstances. But notwithstanding all these difficulties and dangers, in number and magnitude not to be described, the population of Kentucky was constantly increasing. The country was so extensive, that the numbers of the Indians were not sufficient, to allow them to spread over the whole of it. Consequently, the solitary family, that, plunged deep into the


wilderness, although far from the protection of the forts, might escape, through the ignorance of the Indians of their situation. It appears from the records of pre-emption rights, that more improvements were made, in 1776, than any preceding year. Many of those, who afterwards filled the most conspicuous places in the country, were immigrants of this year. Among these we may name George Rogers Clark. Leestown, situated a mile below where Frankfort now stands, and so named from Willis Lee, who had been killed by the Indians, was established this year, as a rendezvous for the hunters, and improvers on the north side of the river. It was at first nothing more, than a cluster of cabins. Some of the other establishments were inferior even to this.

These isolated settlements could not withstand the fury of the Indian attacks, and were all deserted the first year. Virginia was now so much interested in these remote settlements, and the country which she claimed here, that during the session of her legislature, in 1776, there was a law passed, constituting that part of the country, which had hitherto been a part of the county of Fincastle, in Virginia, a separate county by the name of Kentucky. The boundaries of the new county were defined, and constituted much the same country, which now composes this state. The act gave the inhabitants of the new county a right to a county court, with the customary jurisdiction, and all the usual civil and military officers.

The county was duly organized. A court of justice was established, to hold quarterly sessions at Harrodsburg, which was composed of six or eight men, most respectable for talent and information. They were, ex officio, justices of peace. They could, besides, hold monthly sessions for the despatch of ordinary business. Benjamin Logan was of their number. They were duly attended


by their sheriff The officers for a regiment of militia were commissioned. They immediately classed the citizens whether resident, or not, in companies, or battalions. The military operations were under the control of a county lieutenant, with the title of colonel.

During the winter, the Indians were forced into a kind of truce by the severity of the season. The return of spring brought with it the renewal of Indian hostilities. — Benjamin Logan removed to his own camp, which he fortified for defence. Although the Indians were in the country, this camp escaped attack until May. Harrodsburg was attacked in March. From the beginning this had been the strongest post in the country. Unfortunately, at the time of the assault, some of the men that belonged to it, were absent. The 6th of March, a large party of Indians, marching privately through the woods, surprised three persons, who were making an improvement. One was taken prisoner. One was killed, and one escaped, and gave information to the garrison of Harrodsburg, of the appearance of the Indians. He was a mere youth, by name, James Ray, the same, who was afterwards general Ray. The Indians, aware, that the place was forewarned, and prepared for them, deferred the attack, until the next day, when Harrodsburg was invested, after the Indian method of warfare. The notice, short as it was, had enabled the people to put the place in the best order for defence. The fire commenced, and some were wounded on both sides. The assailants soon became satisfied with their reception, and withdrew, leaving one of their number slain behind. This fact always indicates great discomfiture on the part of the Indians, or greater rashness on the part of the slain. For it is well known to be their most sacred and invariable custom, to remove their dead and wounded. —


Some have supposed, that this custom has its origin in a purpose to prevent the enemy from ascertaining their loss.

After their repulse, the Indians encamped in a body near the fort. They were in too great numbers to be pursued. On the 15th of April, Boonesborough in turn was attacked by 100 savages. They were received there with such a determined spirit, that they retired after having killed one person, and wounded four. Their own killed and wounded were withdrawn, so that their loss could not be ascertained. Nearly the same number, and probably the same force, that had besieged Boonesborough, soon afterwards attacked Logan's fort. It contained fifteen persons, of whom two were killed, and a third wounded. The enemy's loss, as before, was not ascertained. The forts of Boone and Harrod were about equi-distant from Logan's; and they were the only places, whence help could be expected. These places, besides, were kept in such continual alarm, that it was useless to look for help from them. The little garrison suffered greatly. They were sustained by the dauntless example of Logan, and a consciousness of the result of capture. The savages hung pertinaciously round the fort, as though determined to reap the full measure of vengeance, of which they had been disappointed at the two other forts.

At the moment of attack, the women were without the fort, milking the cows. The men were guarding them. The Indians approached them under covert of a thick cane brake, which had not been cleared away from around the cabins. Thence they fired upon the people, and killed two, as we have mentioned. A third person was wounded. The remainder with the women reached the fort unhurt. As soon as they reached the fort, the Indians, unwilling to lose their powder and lead, relaxed their fire. An affecting incident occurred, which,


as strongly illustrative of Indian manners, and the circumstances of these kinds of warfare, we will relate.

The besieged, looking from the fort, perceived, that one of those whom they had supposed killed by the Indian fire, was still alive, and struggling to crawl towards the fort. He evidently dreaded being mangled, and scalped by the Indians; and yet seemed to feel, that if he made exertions to drag himself to the fort, they might be sufficient, to attract the attention of the Indians, and yet not sufficient, to enable him to accomplish his purpose. The unhappy man, meanwhile, knew that he had a family in the fort, and that deliverance was within a few rods of him. The generous feelings of the intrepid Logan would not allow him, to see him making these ineffectual struggles, without an effort to aid him. He tried to raise volunteers from the garrison, to go out with him, and make an exertion to bring the wounded man in. But such was the probability that death would be the forfeit of the exposure, that none could be found, but a certain man, named Martin, who had prided himself on the reputation of a soldier, to offer his services. The man raised himself upon his knees, and seemed to be struggling forward. The two intended deliverers proceeded together to the gate. At that point Martin recoiled, and turned back. Logan was left alone. He saw the poor man after crawling a few steps, sink to the earth. His compassion could not sustain the sight. Collecting his powers, and putting his life in his hand, he rushed forth, took up the half dead victim in his arms, and bore him amidst a shower of balls, into the fort. Some of the balls were buried in the pallisades close by his head.

But along with this happy omen, another of a different aspect was seen. On the return of the wounded man, the garrison discovered, that they had but a few more shots of


ammunition left; and there was no chance of replenishing their stock, nearer than the other two forts. They were aware at the same time, that these garrisons would need all they had, for themselves. To detach any of their number, to go to the settlement on Holston, would be so to weaken their number, as to leave them almost a certain prey to the invader. To sustain the seige without ammunition, was impossible. To go to Holston was the elected alternative. As the life of every member of the garrison depended upon the success of the expedition, it was necessary to select on the party men, who could judge with promptness and decision, what was best to be done in cases of emergency; and who were expert woodsmen, and capable of sustaining every kind of fatigue and suffering.

Logan, indispensable as his presence was in the garrison, was unanimously elected to head the party, to be despatched on this still more important expedition. It would be difficult for imagination to group a more affecting picture, than the parting of this small forlorn hope from their families, left in the desolate forests thus reduced in numbers, and without ammunition, and surrounded by a savage foe. We can see them looking back upon the pale faces of their families, and contemplating from without the thick cane brake, and the pathless wilderness, which their imaginations would naturally represent, as filled with their ruthless enemies. But these men of iron sinew, although they had generous and tender hearts, had sound judgments and strong minds. They felt, that the step was necessary. They might be allowed to drop ‘natural tears,’ and to cast fond looks behind, as they went forth with stealthy pace from their weeping friends, to thread their way through the woods, without being seen by the besieging savages. They took for this purpose, an entirely untrodden track through the forests: and crossed the


Cumberland mountain by a route, which had, probably, never been trodden before. We presume, it never has been since.

They reached Holston in safety; and obtained the requisite supplies, Logan entrusted them to the remainder of his small party, with directions, how to proceed; and started on his way home alone, preceding the slower advance of this party, to carry in ammunition. Within ten days from the time of his departure from the fort, he performed this long and hazardous and lonely journey, and reached the fort again. It was still invested by the savages, and almost in despair. His return seemed an interposition of Providence, and naturally tended to invigorate, and encourage the besieged. The return of the party soon after, with ammunition, yielded them the physical means of annoying the enemy, and sustaining the siege.

A new difficulty arose. The garrison was approaching a state of starvation, and must hunt to relieve their necessities. This new difficulty once more spread the gloom of despair over their prospects. But as they were resigning their hopes of escaping the savages, colonel Bowman arrived at the fort with an hundred men, and dispersed the savages. In getting into the fort, a detachment of these men, which preceded the main body, were killed by the besiegers. On one of the dead bodies, the Canadians had left a proclamation, which had been prepared by the governor of Canada. It seemed to be intended for circulation among the people. It offered protection to those of the people, who would abjure their allegiance to the revolted colonies, and threatened those, who would not. — The paper was carried to Logan, who concealed it carefully, through fear of the effect, it might work upon the minds of the people.


The arrival of the force under colonel Bowman, and the consequent dispersion of the Indians, was calculated to raise the spirits of the garrison. But in the midst of their exultation and joy, they learned, that his men were enlisted but for a short time, great part of which had been consumed on their march to their relief. They foresaw, that the departure of this force would be the sure renewal of the horrors of the Indian invasion. They were again in want of ammunition; and Logan again undertook the long and lonely expedition to Holston; and once more returned with a supply. Nothing inspires animation and intrepidity in men, like seeing by experiment what may be done by patience and courage, in sustaining, or vanquishing difficulties; and being found equal to all emergencies. About this time, too, they were animated by being joined by Mr. Montgomery with a party of men.

On the 4th of July, the Indians, untiring, and determined in their hostilities, again attacked Boonesborough. To prevent this fort from receiving assistance from the two others, they had recourse to their customary plan of annoyance; and sent detachments from their main body, to intimidate each of the forts, so as to prevent its aiding the other. In this siege the Indians killed one man, and wounded two others. It was ascertained, that they lost some of their own number; although the killed were removed, according to custom. They kept up the siege with great vigor two days and nights; but finding all their efforts to take the place ineffectual, they suddenly disappeared.

On the 25th of this month, a party, consisting of forty-five men, joined Boone from North Carolina. In the intervals of these sieges, the inhabitants of the forts cleared and cultivated their fields. A part kept guard, while the other part labored. This state of continued hostility naturally inspired a spirit of adventurous revenge; and gave


to these contests all the interest, which the strongest feelings of the human heart can impart. The continued recurrence of danger, created a natural callousness and indifference to it; and it became a point of keen and intense study, which party should see each other first, and get the first shot. In this species of dexterity the woodsmen were quite as close, and sure marksmen, as the savages. The latter began to acquire a respectful caution, in reference to meeting the former, and were very shy in approaching the garrisons. The Indians had already denominated the Virginians ‘Long Knife.’ They could now add, that they were close shooters. Winter returned, and the Indians, as usual, left them. The term of service, also, of the militia men, of whom we have spoken, expired this autumn, and they returned to their homes. There remained at Boonesborough twenty-two, and at Harrodsburg sixty-five, and at Logan's fort fifteen men.

The 1st of January, 1776, Boone, with thirty men, went to the lower ‘Blue licks,’ to make salt for the different settlements. The 7th of the next month, while he was in the woods, on a hunt to supply the salt makers with food, he came upon a party of 102 Indians, marching to the assault of Boonesborough, the third attempt upon this ill-fated place. It was clearly of all the settlements the object of their most settled dislike and revenge. Boone fled, but the savages pursued, and took him prisoner. They then advanced upon the licks, and made twenty-seven of the salt makers prisoners by capitulation. The Indians, delighted with this signal success, marched their prisoners in triumph through the forests, and across the Ohio to Chillicothe. On this march the weather was exceedingly inclement, and common suffering from its severity induced the savages to show lenity to their prisoners. If, instead of marching home with, their spoils, the savages had bent all


their efforts against Boonesborough, weakened as it was by the loss of so many of its men, it is probable, that they would this time have succeeded, in capturing the place. — Flushed by this success, they would have vanquished the other two forts, and, no doubt, would have murdered the inhabitants, as they threatened, and would thus have broken up the settlements for this time. But though the savages generally manifest sufficient cunning, they appear to want combined thought; and seldom make use of one advantage, as a mean of obtaining another; and notwithstanding their own exultation, and the depression of the settlers, in consequence of this great success, they left the forts unmolested for a considerable time afterwards. Could the savages have realized all the misery, which the inhabitants suffered, in consequence of the carrying off so many of their numbers into such a dreadful captivity, even their vindictive spirit would have been satisfied with the extent of the suffering inflicted.

In the month of March, eleven of the prisoners, among whom was Boone, were led away from Chillicothe to Detroit, and presented to the British commandant, Hamilton. The governor offered them an hundred pounds, as a ransom for Boone, intending, as he said, to set him at liberty on parole; for the reader will not need to be informed, that this was at the commencement of the revolutionary war. They refused it. A situation more vexatious to a spirit, like his, than that, in which he was thus placed, can not easily be imagined. The least attempted movement towards escape would alarm the vigilant savages; and on the other hand he refused the offer of supplies of indispensable necessaries by the British, as enemies of his country, and as never expecting to be able to repay them. The companions of his captivity were left to the British at Detroit, and he was compelled to return with his savage masters


to Chillicothe. Soon after his return to that place, he was adopted into the family of one of the principal men of the tribe, and wisely appeared to be reconciled to his new way of life, and to accommodate himself to it with cheerfulness. Such deportment by such a mighty hunter, and such an untamed spirit could not but win the confidence and affection of his masters. When challenged to a trial of his skill with the rifle, he found it much less difficult to surpass them in the closeness of his shooting, than to vanquish the envy and ill-will created by this visible superiority in a point of so much importance in the eyes of that race. He proved himself a most successful hunter. He found it easy to ingratiate himself with the king chief of the Shawnees, by showing great apparent deference to him, and by always granting him a share of the proceeds of his hunt. Thus leading a life, in accordance with his instinctive propensities, and acquired habits, and in great honor among that primitive race; it is probable, that this seeming acquiescence to his lot would have become real, had it not been for the remembrance of his wife and children at Boonesborough. But these cherished recollections haunted him, and continually prompted the desire, and the purpose to escape. In the June following his captivity, he was taken to the Scioto salt works, and there employed so diligently in working salt, that he found no means of escape.

On his return with his masters to Chillicothe, he found 150 warriors, in all their horrible painting and war garnish, prepared for an expedition against Boonesborough. With all the love of country and family, natural to such a man, he now, for the first time, rejoiced in his captivity, as it enabled him to obtain such information respecting the objects of this expedition, as, could he transmit it to the fort, might save it from destruction. He determined to put in execution his long meditated purpose of escape. He arose


early in the morning, and was allowed to go forth, as usual, to hunt. He contrived to secrete a little food, enough to answer for one meal, and with this slender provision he made his escape. In less than five days he traversed a distance of 160 miles, in which distance, besides other rivers, he crossed the Ohio. He made but one meal on the journey. The fort was found in no state of preparation for the formidable attack, that was preparing for it. But this forewarning, a distinct perception of the danger, and the energy and industry of Boone, soon put it in as high a state of defence, as their means and the shortness of the time of preparation would allow.

Having made their preparations, the garrison were now anxiously awaiting the appearance of their enemy. The escape of one of Boone's companions from captivity brought news of the expedition to the fort, and informed, that in consequence of his ecape, the expedition had been deferred three weeks. Fortunately, the garrison had received accessions of considerable numbers, since the captivity of Boone. Meanwhile, Boone determined to anticipate their movements. With nineteen select associates, he set out from the fort, on an expedition to surprise ‘Paint creek town,’ an Indian village on the Scioto. Having arrived within four miles of that place, they were met by thirty Indians, who were marching to join the main army, now on its way to Boonesborough. A battle was immediately commenced, which terminated in the flight of the savages. Not a man of Boone's party fell. Boone immediately marched back towards Boonesborough, with all possible despatch. On the sixth day of his march, he passed the main Indian army unperceived, and on the seventh arrived at the fort.

The day after his arrival, the Indian force appeared, commanded by captain Duquesne and eleven other Canadian


Frenchmen, and a number of the savage chiefs. The British flag was displayed in their centre. They immediately invested the fort, and sent a regular summons, requiring Boone to surrender. This was by far the most imposing force that had ever been seen in the country; and it was natural that the first view of it should produce consternation in the fort. Boone requested two days, in which to consider about the propriety of a surrender; and the savages weakly granted the request. The garrison consisted of fifty men, and the odds in numbers was fearful. Boone assembled them; harangued them, and placed before them the chances of their alternatives; on the one hand victory, or defeat, in case of resistance; and on the other hand the entire plunder, and the hopeless condition of captivity, in consequence of surrender. The consultation was short, and the answer unanimous, that as long as one man lived, the fort should be defended. It may be supposed, that the garrison diligently employed these two days of truce, in completing their defences. They had collected their cattle and horses, and driven them into the fort. At the expiration of the time, Boone, from one of the bastions thanked the commander of the Indians, for the time allowed him for preparation, and proclaimed the result of the determinations of the garrison. Duquesne, disappointed in the expectation of surrender, endeavored to carry his point by duplicity. He declared, that he was charged by governor Hamilton, to take the garrison prisoners; but not to treat them harshly, and that if nine of the principal men would come out, and enter into parley with him, he would withdraw, upon condition, that the garrison would swear allegiance to his Brittanic majesty. To treat upon such terms would at least gain time, and Boone consented. — The conference was opened within fifty yards of the fort gate. The articles were few, explicit, and soon settled. —


But it was remarked, that many Indians, who had nothing to do in the treaty, stalked about the contracting parties, under suspicious circumstances. The articles were signed. Boone was informed, that it was customary in such cases, that two principal Indians should shake hands with one of each of the whites of Boone's party. This, too, was granted; and two approaching each of the nine, endeavored to drag them off, as prisoners. Boone instantly perceived their purpose. He and his men, by a violent struggle disengaged themselves from the grasp of the Indians, and made for the fort. A volley of balls was fired upon them, and one man was wounded. The enemy immediately commenced an unremitting attack. The besiegers soon attempted to undermine the fort. This attempt was probably dictated to them by their French commander; for they knew little of war, except the use of gun powder and brute force. The garrison discovered that their enemy was attempting to undermine the fort, on the side of the river, by remarking that the river, which was clear above, was turbid below with the earth and clay, thrown out by the excavation. To counteract the effect of this mine, the garrison dug a trench within; and by throwing the earth of the trench over the wall, manifested to their foe, that they penetrated their purpose. Perceiving that they were not like to carry their purpose, either by fraud or force, the enemy decamped, on the 20th of August — Two men were killed, and four wounded in the fort — The savages had thirty-seven killed. The number of their wounded could not be ascertained from the circumstance, that they were immediately carried off. — This was the last combined and powerful effort against Boonesborough. The assailants were to the besieged, as six to one. They had skilful leaders, and were not deficient in ferocious courage. The walls of the fortification


were combustible, and but twelve feet high; and the garrison no better armed, or supplied, than their foe. It was a striking example of the difficulty of conquering a small force of intrepid men, who have determined never to surrender.

In the succeeding autumn, Boone made a journey to North Carolina to bring back his wife, who, during his captivity among the Indians, had returned to her father's house, despairing of his return. The Indians had made no open attack upon Logan's fort, during this period. He had, however, casual skirmishes with them, as his men met them at different points in the woods. In one of these rencontres he was severely wounded. That these infant settlements survived these sustained hostilities of the savages, and continued to increase in the woods, so far away from the protection of the parent state, evidences the intrepidity and spirit of these primitive nurslings of storms and dangers. All this while, the parent state was engaged in a struggle for existence with the gigantic force of Great Britain; and could do little more, than look occasionally from her own suspended conflicts, with admiration upon the bravery of her children in the new country, contending with hosts of savages, headed, urged on, and supplied by the British of Canada with the means of annoyance. But in 1778, having a moment of breathing time, Virginia felt, that sound policy, as well as maternal and good feeling called upon her for some efficient measures, to render a residence in the woods of Kentucky more safe and desirable. It was within the scope of her policy, to reduce the British posts on the frontiers of the Ohio country, and of the Wabash, whence the savages were supplied with arms, munitions, and incitement to sally forth, and make incursions upon the new settlements. For this purpose she raised a regiment of troops, and gave the command to


George Rogers Clark. The force consisted of between two and three hundred men. Colonel Clark was intimately acquainted with the topography of the western country, and, as after events abundantly showed, admirably qualified for a command of this kind. His main force descended by water from the Monongahela to the falls of Ohio, where he was joined by some troops from Kentucky. — Thirteen families accompanied him on this expedition, who fixed themselves on an island near the falls, called since ‘Corn island.’ This was the germ, whence sprang the flourishing town of Louisville. We have already related, in another part of this work, the signal and entire success, that crowned the splendid achievements of colonel Clark, in the capture of Vincennes, and the British troops there; and the relief of St. Louis from the ravages, of the large force of Indians and Canadians, that had marched upon that place. This achievement, no doubt, had a happy bearing upon the settling our frontier limits, in the subsequent treaty of peace with Great Britain.

The settlement which colonel Clark had left at ‘Corn island’ had a deep interest in his success. They were sixty or seventy miles distant from any aid in Kentucky. — They were equally exposed to the attacks of the British and Indians; and dared not remove from the shelter of the island, until after the capture of Vincennes by colonel Clark. They then removed themselves to Louisville, fixing themselves just below the mouth of Beargrass. Being the head-quarters of colonel Clark, and otherwise a naturally eligible situation, it soon received such accessions of strength and numbers, as to become an important settlement and the nucleus of various others.

We may, perhaps, in this place most properly introduce another of the famous partizans, in savage warfare, Simon Kentpn, alias Butler, who, from humble beginnings, made


himself conspicuous by distinguished services and achievements, in the first settlement of this country, and ought to be recorded, as one of the patriarchs of Kentucky. He was born in Virginia, in 1753. He grew to maturity without being able to read, or write; but from his early exploits, he seems to have been endowed with feelings, which the educated, and those born in the upper walks of life, appear to suppose a monopoly reserved for themselves. It is recorded of him, that at the age of nineteen, he had a violent contest with another competitor for the favor of the lady of his love. She refused to make an election between them; and the subject of this notice indignantly exiled himself from his native place. After various peregrinations on the long rivers of the west, he fixed himself in Kentucky; and soon became a distinguished partizan against the savages. In 1774, he joined himself to lord Dunmore, and was appointed one of his spies. He made various excursions, and performed important services in this employ. — He finally selected a place for improvement on the site, where Washington now is. Returning one day from hunting, he found one of his companions slain by the Indians, and his body thrown into the fire. He left Washington in consequence; and joined himself to colonel Clark in his fortunate and gallant expedition against Vincennes and Kaskaskia. He was sent by that commander with despatches far Kentucky. He passed through the streets of Vincennes, then in possession of the British and Indians, without discovery. Arriving at White river, he and his party made a raft, on which to cross with their guns and baggage, driving their horses into the river, and compelling them to swim it. A party of Indians was concealed on the opposite bank, who took possession of the horses, as they mounted the bank, from crossing the river. Butler and his company, seeing this, continued to float down the river


on their raft, without coming to land. They concealed themselves in the bushes, until night, when they crossed the river, pursued their journey, and delivered their despatches.

After this, Butler made a journey of discovery to the northern regions of the Ohio country, and was made prisoner by the Indians. They painted him black, as is their custom, when a victim is devoted to their torture; and informed him, that he was destined to be burned at Chillicome. Meanwhile, for their own amusement, and as a prelude of his torture, they manacled him, hand and foot placed him on an unbridled and unbroken horse, and turned the animal loose, driving it off at its utmost speed, with shouts, delighted with witnessing its mode of managing with its living burden. The horse, unable to shake off this new and strange incumbrance, made for the thickest covert of woods, and brambles with the speed of the winds. It is easy to conjecture the position and sufferings of the victim. The terrified animal exhausted itself in fruitless efforts, to shake off its burden, and worn down and subdued, brought Butler back amidst the exulting yells of the savages to the camp.

Arrived within a mile of Chillicothe, they halted, took Butler from his horse, and tied him to a stake, where he remained twenty-four hours in one position. He was taken from the stake to ‘run the gauntlet.’ The Indian mode of managing this kind of torture was, as follows: The inhabitants of the tribe, old and young, were placed in paralllel lines, armed with clubs and switches. The victim was to make his way to the council house, through these files, every member of which struggled to beat him, as he passed, as severely, as possible. If he reached the council house alive, he was to be spared. In the lines were nearly 600 Indians, and Butler had to make his way almost a


mile in the endurance of this infernal sport. He was started by a blow; but soon broke through the files, and had almost reached the council house, when a stout warrior knocked him down with a club. He was severely beaten in this position, and taken back again to custody.

It seems incredible, that they sometimes adopted their prisoners; and treated them with the utmost lenity and even kindness. At other times, ingenuity was exhausted to invent tortures, and every renewed endurance of the victim seemed to stimulate their vengeance to new discoveries of cruelty. Butler was one of these ill-fated subjects. No way satisfied with what they had done, they marched him from village to village, to give all a spectacle of his sufferings. He run the gauntlet thirteen times. He made various attempts to escape; and in one instance would have effected it, had he not been arrested by some savages, who were accidentally returning to the village, from which he was escaping. It was finally determined to burn him at the lower Sandusky, but an apparent accident changed his destiny.

In passing to the stake, the procession went by the cabin of Simon Girty, a renegado white man, who lived among the Indians, and had just returned from an unsuccessful expedition against the whites on the frontiers of Pennsylvania. The wretch burned with disappointment and revenge; and hearing that there was a white man going to the torture, determined to wreak his vengeance on him. He found the unfortunate Butler, threw him to the ground, and began to beat him. Butler, who instantly recognized in Girty a former companion of his youth, made himself known to him. His savage heart relented. He raised him up, and promised to use his influence to save him. Girty had a council called, and he moved the savages to give Butler up to him. He took the unfortunate man


home, fed, and clothed him, and Butler began to recruit from his wounds and torture. But the relenting of the savages in his favor was only momentary. After five days, they repented of their relaxation in his favor, reclaimed him, and marched him to Lower Sandusky, to be burned, according to their original purpose. By a surprising coincidence, he there met the Indian agent from Detroit, who, from motives of humanity, exerted his influence with the savages for his release, and took him with him to Detroit. Here he was paroled by the governor. He escaped, and by a march of thirty days through the wilderness, reached Kentucky.

In 1779, while the states generally were struggling with the taxes and burdens of the revolutionary war, without means, or resources, Virginia discovered, that she possessed an unwrought mine, in her rich western lands. In this year she opened a land office for the sale of these lands, prescribing the terms of conveyance; and found that after all legal claims and grants were filled, an immense extent of country still remained at her disposal. The successes of colonel Clark, and the clearness and security of the offered titles induced many immigrants to repair to the country. Some settled near the old stations; and some scattered themselves in new positions in the woods, as their fancy led them to select; and the general and promiscuous settlement of the country may be said now to have fairly commenced.

In April, 1779, a block house was built on the present site of Lexington. Several stations were selected in this vicinity, and in that of the present position of Danville Settlements were also made this year on the waters of Bear grass, Green and Licking rivers. A station was a collected parallelogram of cabins, united by palisades, so as to present a continued wall on the outer side; and the cabin


doors opened into a common square on the inner side. Of course, these stations were the strong holds of the settlers. They united the strength, furnished the society, and cemented the friendships of the inhabitants; and were often the germs of populous and busy villages. Adventurers crowded upon the country, some selecting lands for immediate and permanent settlement; and others choosing spots, on which they purposed hereafter to build, returned to their native place.

The Indians, though they must now have perceived the impossibility of arresting this advance of population, and the permanent occupancy of these hunting grounds, continued their pertinacious purpose of revenge, by their customary modes of detached aggression, and the murder of individuals and families. It is astonishing, how little the frequent recurrence of these terrible catastrophes seems to have retarded the settlement of the country, and the steady advance of the settlers in building and improvement. The people began to be conscious of their strength, and of the necessity of an efficient union, to put an end to the aggressions of the savages. An assemblage of the settlers was called at Harrodsburg, to devise the means of carrying their purposes into effect. The result of the common council was to carry the war into the enemy's country; and, as the Shawnees had been most conspicuous in their hostilities, it was determined to fit out an expedition against old Chillicothe, which was their chief town. The volunteers were to unite at Harrodsburg, and the command was assigned to colonel Bowman. Logan, Holder, Harrod and Bulger, commanded under him. Some of the most respectable citizens of the country served, as privates. The united force amounted to 200.

They reached Chillicothe undiscovered, in July, towards sunset. After deliberation, it was determined to defer the


attack, until the dawn of the succeeding morning. The force was divided into two detachments, one commanded by colonel Bowman and the other by captain Logan. The one party was ordered to march to the right, and the other to the left; and upon a given signal, to surround the town, and attack it in concert. The party commanded by Logan, repaired to the assigned point, and waited in vain for the signal. The attention of the Indians was drawn to this point by the barking of a dog. At this moment one of the other party discharged a gun. The whole village of course was alarmed in a moment. The women and children were hurried into the woods, through a path not yet occupied by the assailants; and the warriors collected in a strong cabin. All this passed under the eyes of Logan's party, who immediately took possession of some of the deserted cabins. It was now day light, and frequent shots were exchanged between the parties. The expedient of Logan, to march safely to the assault of the cabin, was an ingenious one; and as far as our reading extends, original. He proposed to his party, to tear off the Indian cabin doors, and each to carry one before him, as a breast work, in advancing upon the Indian cabin, where the warriors were assembled. As they were marching upon the foe behind their movable wall, colonel Bowman, perceiving, that their plan of surprising the Indians was disconcerted, sent them an order to retreat. Captain Logan's party were astonished at this order, and reluctant to obey it. The retreat must take place over an open prairie, exposed to the covert fire of the Indians. Instead of a concerted retreat, in good order, every one endeavored to make the best of his way from the danger, in the mode dictated by his own judgment. Each one started away from behind his concealment; and made for the woods at his utmost speed. Some of their number fell by the bullets,


which the savages showered upon them, as they fled over the prairie. The stragglers assembled in the woods, and resumed something like order. The Indians sallied out upon the invaders, commanded by their chief, Black Fish. They were much inferior in numbers, not exceeding thirty; yet colonel Bowman's force, once intimidated, continued to fly before them under the impulse of terror, and were severely pressed. His force was brought to a halt, in a low and sheltered ground. His fire upon the surrounding enemy, who were protected behind bushes, produced little effect. Captains Logan, and Harrod, and others mounted some pack horses, and made a charge upon the Indians. This assault somewhat staggered them. Black Fish was killed, and the Indians in their turn took to flight. The men pursued an unmolested march homewards. In this ill managed expedition nine men were killed, and one wounded. The Indian loss was comparatively small. Only two or three were known to be killed.

The land law provided for the appointment of commissioners by the governor, to hear and determine all questions relative to land claims, and to grant certificates of settlement and pre-emption rights, according to the provisions of the act. The country of Kentucky was placed under the jurisdiction of this court, which was composed of four members, three of whom formed a quorum. Every enactment, that rendered the modes of obtaining titles explicit and easy, tended to increase the number of immigrants; and, in 1779, a considerable number of families moved to Kentucky from the interior of Virginia. The first court, under this enactment, was opened at St. Asaph's, the name given to Logan's settlement. To meet the wants of all points of the country, the court held its sessions at the several settlements in rotation. The court having completed the business, for which it was organized,


was dissolved in April, 1780. It had confirmed about 3,000 claims during its session. This furnished a very fair clue, by which to estimate the actual number of settlers. These adjudications excited the rage of land speculation.

The winter of 1779, and '80, was remarkable for its length and severity, and the accumulation of ice and snow. Many families, immigrating to the country, in their transit over the mountains, were arrested by the snows, and suffered exceedingly from cold and hunger. Their cattle perished, and in some cases the owners were compelled, by starvation, to feed upon their bodies. When they arrived in Kentucky, they found, indeed, plenty of animal food; but the grain of the country had been all consumed. They were introduced to the new modes of a backwoods life, by being obliged to subsist upon milk and meat. The arrival of so many new settlers in the spring rendered all the stations so crowded, that it was found necessary to establish many new settlements in the forests. The old stations, in the central parts of the state, were, of course, the safest from Indian attack; and the country had now an interior and a frontier; a safe and an exposed region. Many of the settlers at the close of this year, had a rustic abundance of all, that the country could supply. Some of the immigrants of this year were men distinguished for talents and standing, in the regions, from which they came. Among them we may name colonel Thomas Marshall, who had distinguished himself at the battle of Brandywine. Colonel Slaughter, also, descended the Ohio, to the falls, with 150 Virginia soldiers. This force, added to that of colonel Clark, already stationed there, gave this place the aspect of a regular fortification. The effect, however, was not such as might have been hoped. The people became confident, and careless, in their


imagined security. The Indians derived more advantages than the whites from the protection of the Ohio. They could cross that river, in their canoes, at any point, ravage, plunder, murder, and return, before the people could be sufficiently aroused to pursue them; and when once they had the Ohio in their front, and the interminable forests, north of it, in their rear, it was useless to follow them. Sometimes the soldiers met them, and measured back a severe retaliation.

Meanwhile, the British commandant at Detroit, having recovered from the consternation of the blow struck by colonel Clark, and fearing the effect, it might produce upon his Indian allies, prepared to measure back a severer blow than Kentucky had yet felt. He concerted an expedition with the Indian chiefs. Six hundred Indians and Canadians composed it. They were commanded by colonel Byrd, a British officer. It was appointed with two field pieces, and its first point of destination was Louisville. The summer of 1780, was uncommonly wet; and all the streams were full to overflowing. This circumstance induced the commander to change his original destination, and to ascend the river Licking, which was sufficiently high, to afford a water passage, to his force and artillery by that route, to the very centre of the country. Colonel Byrd landed his men and munitions on the point at the forks of Licking. His force consisted of 1,000 men. He reached Ruddle's station the 22d of June. This was a new stockade station, incapable of any defence against artillery. The excessive rains had driven the wood cutters from their usual business in the woods, to seek shelter under the roofs of the stations. Byrd arrived undiscovered; and the first notice of the people in Ruddle's station of his approach, was announced by the discharge of his cannon. He sent in a flag, demanding an immediate surrender


at discretion. This demand Ruddle refused, except on condition, that the men surrendered should be the prisoners of the British, and not of the Indians. Colonel Byrd consented to these terms, and immediately the gates were opened to him. The Indians rushed into the fort, and each one laid his savage hands upon the first person, that presented. Parents and children, husbands and wives were thus dispersed, and separated in a moment. There are few, who can not imagine the wailing, the consternation and agony of children divided from their parents, and parents torn from their children. Ruddle remonstrated against these cruel enormities, to no purpose. Colonel Byrd had even some semblance of reason in his apology. He declared his utter inability to control savages, so much more numerous than his own troops, and affirmed that he himself was in their power.

After this station was thoroughly plundered, and the possession of the prisoners settled, the savages proposed to march immediately thence to the attack of Martin's station, at the distance of five miles. Colonel Byrd had been so much affected with the barbarity of the savages here, that he peremptorily refused, unless the chiefs would guarantee to him, that the prisoners should be entirely in his possession, and that the plunder only should be theirs. They consented. The station was taken without opposition, and the prisoners and plunder were divided according to the terms of their compact. The ease with which these conquests had been made, only stimulated the Indiian appetite for more. The savages clamored to be led against Bryant's station, and Lexington. Colonel Byrd declined, and assigned as reasons, that success was improbable; that it was impossible to procure a sufficiency of provisions for the prisoners, they already had; that it would be utterly impracticable to convey their artillery to


any point of the Ohio, after the waters should have fallen; and that as there was a prospect of the speedy fall of the waters of Licking, prudence called upon them, to avail themselves of their present advantages, and descend the river immediately.

Moved by these reasons, the British and Indians commenced their return march. They descended to their boats, which they had left at the forks, embarked their artillery and munitions on board and began to descend the river. At the forks, the Indians separated from the British, taking with them the prisoners captured at Ruddle's station.

The escape of Hinkston from his savage captors furnishes an event of interest. He was remarkable for his tact and skill, as a woodsman; and in this escape evinced those powers of reasoning from circumstances, which would have escaped any observation, but one exercised like his; powers, which seem like the mysterious teaching of instinct. The second night of their march, the Indians encamped near the banks of the river. It rained, and the camp fires were not kindled, until after the dusk of evening. Part of the savages guarded the prisoners, and part kindled the fires. While they were so occupied, Hinkston sprang away from them. The alarm was given, and the Indians pursued him in every direction. He ran but a little distance before he laid down behind a great log, in the deep shade of a spreading tree. As soon as he perceived, that the uproar, occasioned by his escape, had subsided, he recommenced his flight, as silently as possible. The night was profoundly dark; and even his experience could discern no marks, by which to stear. After travelling sometime, as he supposed, in the direction of Lexington, he found to his terror, that he had circled back in sight of the camp fires again. There was no mark in the sky.


He could not see the moss on the trees; and could think of no clue to the points of the compass. Here he availed himself of his woodland skill. It occurred to him, that although he could not ascertain the direction of the air by his feelings, he might in another way. He dipped his hand in the water. When he raised it, he knew, that evaporation and coolness would take place on that side of his hand, from which the wind came. He had observed that the wind was in the west at sun set. Guided by this sure indication, he once more resumed his flight. After travelling for sometime, he sat down, exhausted, at the foot of a tree, and fell asleep. Just before day, arose a dense fog, in which a man could not be seen at any distance, This saved him, when the light of dawn appeared. His ear was assailed with the howl of wolves, the bleating of fawns, the gobbling of turkeys, the hooting of owls, and the cries of the wild animals of the wilderness. He was I enough acquainted with savage customs, to be aware, that these cries were savage imitations, to entice the animals within the reach of their rifles. They pointed out to him, also, his own danger. He found himself more than once, within a few yards of the foe. But he escaped all the dangers, and arrived safe at Lexington. He reached there eight days after the capture of Ruddle's station, and brought the first intelligence of that event.

The Indians crossed the Ohio with their plunder and numerous horses, at the mouth of Licking, and there dispersed. The British descended the Licking to the Ohio, and the Ohio to the mouth of the Great Miami, intending to ascend that river, as far as its depth of water would allow the transport of the artillery. The cannon were to be left there, and the forces were to march over land to Detroit

The panic, occasioned by this severe blow, turned all eyes in Kentucky, upon general Clark, whose counsels


were received, as oracular and imperative. He advised a levy of four-fifths of all the men in the country, capable of bearing arms, to be assembled at the mouth of Licking, the 7th of July. Colonels Logan, Slaughter, Lynn, Floyd, and Harrod, were to command under him. He ordered the building of a number of transport boats at Louisville. The command of them was given to colonel Slaughter, and they were ordered up the Ohio to Licking, with provisions and stores. In ascending the Ohio, these boats were compelled to keep near the shore. They were worked up the river in two divisions, one on each shore. It happened, that while one of the boats was near the north shore, a party of Indians descended the bank, fired into the boat, and killed and wounded a number of the people, before the other boats could assemble to their assistance. On the way to the place of rendezvous, one of Logan's men deserted, taking with him a valuable horse. It was supposed, that he had fled with the horse to Carolina. But on the arrival of the detachment at the mouth of Licking, the horse was found there, and it was ascertained, that this traitor had gone over to the Indians, and had given them notice of the approaching expedition.

On the 2d day of August, 1780, general Clark, with his troops, took up the line of march from the place, where Cincinnati now stands, for the Indian towns. The army marched in two divisions, and consisted of 970 men. The force was arranged according to the most rigid precepts of war; and proceeded, without interruption, to the Indian towns, where they arrived the 6th of the month. They found the first town abandoned, and many of the houses burning, having been fired the preceding morning. They cut down several hundred acres of corn. At four, in the evening of the next day, they marched for the Piqua towns, distant twelve miles. They had but


just commenced their march, when they were drenched by a shower, accompanied with thunder and wind. They encamped in a hollow square, in the unpleasant predicament of being in an enemy's country, and knowing that their guns were all wet. With proper precaution, they fired, and reloaded them; and remained on the alert and prepared for action through the night.

At two in the afternoon of the next day, they arrived at Piqua. As they advanced upon the town, they were attacked by the Indians, who concealed themselves among high weeds, that skirted the town. Colonel Logan, with 400 men, was ordered to file off, and march up the river to the east, and so to post himself, as to prevent the escape of the Indians in that direction. Another division, under colonels Lynn, Floyd and Harrod were detached, to cross the river, and encompass the town on the west side; while general Clark, with the troops of colonel Slaughter, and those attached to the artillery, advanced upon the town in front. The prairie, where the Indians, who commenced the attack, were concealed, was about 200 yards over. The division, who were ordered to encompass the town on the west side, found it necessary to traverse the prairie, in order to avoid the fire of the concealed enemy. The Indians were seen to understand the purposes of the intended attack; and evinced great foresight and skill, in arrangements to defeat it. To prevent being surrounded by the advance of the detachment from the west, they made a powerful effort to turn the left wing. To prevent this, Floyd and Lynn extended their force a mile west of the town; and the engagement was warmly contested on both sides, until five o'clock, when the Indians disappeared, unperceived, and a few only remained in the town. The piece of cannon was brought up, and made to bear upon the houses, which soon dislodged the Indians,


that were in them. A most unfortunate occurrence took place at the close of the action. A nephew of colonel Clark, who had been a prisoner among the Indians, escaped from them, at this point of the engagement, and was shot by the troops, as supposed to be an Indian. Though mortally wounded, he survived some hours.

On searching the houses, a Frenchman was discovered, concealed in one of the cabins. By him the troops were informed, that the Indians had been instructed in all their movements; and had more than once determined to attack them silently in the night, with the knife and the tomahawk. They had intended this attack on the evening after the shower, knowing, that the guns were wet, but were prevented by the vigilance of colonel Clark; and by hearing the firing of the guns, were convinced, that the rain had not rendered them useless. The loss was nearly equal on either side, amounting to twenty killed. The Piqua town was built after the manner of the French villages. The houses extended along the margin of the river Miami, more than three miles, and were in many places more than twenty poles apart. Girty, of whom we have spoken above, had been made a chief among the Mingoes, and was in this action. Remarking the desperation, with which colonel Clark's men exposed themselves to the hottest of the fire, he drew off his 300 Mingoes, observing, that it was useless to fight with fools and mad men. It was estimated, that at Chillicothe and Piqua, more than 500 acres of corn were destroyed, and everything, that related to subsistence, upon which the troops could lay their hands. The policy, that required these severe measures, was obvious. Apart from the gratification of those feelings of revenge, naturally enkindled by the exterminating warfare between them and the savages, when these means of subsistence were destroyed, the Indians were obliged to hunt


for food, and of course to suspend their hostilities for a season.

Having completed their work of destruction, the troops commenced their return march. At the mouth of Licking the army dispersed, and each individual selected his own mode and route of return. Seldom have troops been known to encounter the most severe toils and privations more cheerfully. The allowance had been neither more, nor less than six quarts of Indian corn, and a quantity of salt for each man, a day. And this had been their whole subsistence, except the green corn and vegetables, which they found in the Indian villages, and the chance game that offered by the way. But they were fully aware of the emergency of the case, and that if this force was defeated, the Indians would pour in upon the defenceless settlements, and butcher their wives and children in detail. Their purpose, therefore, was to conquer or perish.

In November, 1780, the country of Kentucky was subdivided into three counties, Jefferson, Fayette and Lincoln. Colonel Clark, this autumn, built a fort five miles above the mouth of the Ohio on that river. It was on territory claimed by the Chickasaws. The Chickasaws had hitherto been uniformly friendly to the Kentuckians, and as they loudly complained of this encroachment, it was thought advisable to evacuate it. Colonel Logan was elected a member of the general assembly of Virginia. In the spring of 1781, the Indians resumed hostilities against the Kentuckians. Their custom was to desist from hostilities, and to hunt through the winter; and to commence in the spring a series of operations, to annoy the whites as much as possible, until the winter again arrested their purposes of revenge. They way-laid the traces and paths through Jefferson county, and several persons were murdered.


A severe action was fought at this time by a small party under captain Aquilla White. This party followed on the trail of a marauding band of Indians, who were retreating to the falls of Ohio. White supposed, that the Indians had already crossed the river, and was preparing to cross it in the pursuit. The Indians were still on the south side, and fired upon his rear. Nine of his party, which consisted of but fifteen, were wounded, one of them mortally. The residue returned to the bank, faced the foe, and defeated them.

Soon after this, a station on the present site of Shelbyville was deserted, through fear of the Indians. The inhabitants, while on their way to the settlements on Beargrass, and while encumbered with carrying their effects and baggage, and driving their cattle, were fired upon by a large party of Indians. As their wives and children were equally exposed with themselves, the men felt it their duty, to disperse, and escape individually, if they might. Colonel Floyd learned the predicament of these unfortunate people. He collected twenty-five men, and hastened to their relief. He advanced with great caution, but fell, notwithstanding, into an ambuscade, and was defeated with the loss of half his men. The savages were supposed to have been triple in numbers, and nine, or ten of them were killed. Colonel Floyd was wounded, and would have fallen into their hands, but for the assistance of captain Wells, who dismounted, placed him on his horse, and ran by his side to support him. His conduct was the more generous, as the two had been personal enemies. But from this time, until their death, they were firm friends.

Two men of the name of M'Afee of M'Afee's station, near Harrodsburg, were fired upon. One fell. The other ran for the tort, at the distance of a quarter of a mile. An Indian met him. They presented their rifles, the muzzles


of which almost touched. The gun of the Indian missed fire, and he fell dead. Two men came out from the fort, on hearing the firing. M'Afee warned them not to advance. One of them, not heeding the caution, ran to look at the dead Indian. Concealed Indians intercepted his return. He was now to compete with the Indians in dexterity, and the stake was his life. He sprang from tree to tree, pursued by them. His object was to avoid a shot, and their's was to gain it. He reached a fence, 150 yards from the fort, in safety. As he sprang over the fence, he exposed himself to a shot from one of these staunch hunters. He reached the opposite side of the fence without receiving the shot. His antagonist reached out his head from behind his tree, to take aim, and M'Afee shot him in the mouth. He reached the fort untouched, experiencing a hair breadth escape. The other man was fired upon by five Indians. He took refuge behind a tree, and four or five more shots were fired upon him. He also escaped them all, and reached the fort in safety. The station was immediately attacked by this same body of Indians. The females moulded and melted bullets for the men. After an attack of two hours, the Indians finding, that they produced no effect, killed all the cattle round the station, and withdrew.

Forty men, under the command of major Magery, hastily assembled at the alarm, and reached the station soon after the retreat of the Indians. They pursued, and overtook them. They defeated the Indians, and killed six of them. Of their party one was killed, and one mortally wounded. During the remainder of this season, the attacks of the Indians were in a great measure remitted; and the conviction seemed to be increasing, that something more than these desultory modes of warfare, was necessary to expel invaders, who were no longer strangers, wandering


over the soil, but men fighting for their families and fire sides. A general confederacy of the Indian nations seemed determined, to make one grand effort, to effectuate this purpose, the succeeding year.

The counties began to wear the form of a regular and organized government. Officers, civil and military, were appointed, and the acts which had hitherto been the spontaneous result of individual wills, began to assume the aspect of emanating from the body politic. Among the officers appointed, Daniel Boone received the commission of lieutenant-colonel. The courts of judicature had a qualified jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases. Capital causes of the latter class, were tried in Virginia. Justices of the peace, and monthly courts of sessions settled all the smaller civil cases. But the simplicity of manners and habits, the fellowship of suffering and danger, and a distinct perception of their common exposure produced a state of society, little subjected to the evils of litigation. Colonel Clark, with the tide of general, had received the chief command of all the military force of Kentucky. — His modes of defence were cheap, energetic, and judicious. They consisted in keeping scouts and spies on the frontier, and in causing a row-galley to ply on the Ohio, between the falls and the mouth of Licking, as a floating battery. The Indians are well known to have almost a superstitious dread of cannon. This galley had some four pounders on board; and the savages seldom crossed the river between the points, where it plied. Had a few such been stationed on the Ohio, the Indians of the north-west would have been effectually withheld from crossing. But the militia disliked serving on board of it, and the regular force having melted away, the row-galley was laid up, before the end of the year. Many sales of lands were effected in the surveyor's offices, and the tilled land yielded abundant


crops. The only considerable Indian attack, that we have to record at this period, was one, made upon Montgomery station, situated ten or twelve miles from Logan's station, and settled entirely with the relatives of Mrs. Logan. Her father and brother were killed; her sister, her sister-in-law, and four children were taken prisoners.

This disastrous intelligence soon reached colonel Logan. He collected part of his garrison, and hastened to the spot. He was joined by the survivors of the Montgomery family. They marched in pursuit of the Indians. They overtook, attacked, and routed them. Three were killed, and one wounded. The captives, except one of the children, threw themselves into the thick brush, and the Indians were too hotly pressed, to search for them. The child, that remained with them, they killed, to prevent its escape. The two women and three children were retaken.

Hitherto the numbers of male had greatly exceeded that of female immigrants. The cause of this is too obvious to need explanation. During the autumn of this year, great numbers of respectable families moved to the country, and the people began to marry, and be given in marriage. It is probable, that the first process issued by the clerk of either court was a marriage license. The principal avenue, by which immigration arrived in the country, was through Lincoln county. Of course, it was the first to become populous, and to show improvement.

The year 1781, marks a distinct era in the settlement of this country. In this year, it began to assume the form of a regular government. Marriages had become frequent, and the first difficulties of a commencing establishment in the wilderness seem to have been surmounted. We pause for a moment, to survey the natural and moral aspect of the new settlements. Most of the habitations were as yet log cabins with earth floors. The family utensils we of


wood from the adjacent trees. The inhabitants were clad either in skins won from the chase, or in cloth woven from buffalo wool and the bark of the wild nettle, or in coarse domestic linen. The little circulating medium in the country was paper, which had not depreciated as much in these woods, as at the capital, where it issued. The glorious news of the capture of lord Cornwallis excited even more exultation in these new regions, than in the Atlantic country. The British and their cause were identified, in the minds of the Kentuckians, with that of the savages, and they detested the one as cordially, as the other. They saw in this event, that peace could not be far distant. Winter came, and went, without any annoyance from the savages.

The funding of the continental paper about this time, wrought incalculable mischiefs for Kentucky. The depreciated paper poured in a flood upon the country; and land warrants, purchased with it, were so multiplied, that not unfrequently three or four claims were purchased upon the same spot. This was the origin of that mass of litigation, which has since been such a prolific stock of evils to the country.

In the spring of 1782, the people, who had experienced a season of repose, began to feel the effects of the savage confederacy, of which we have spoken. Two men were killed at Strode's station. The Indians spread over all the country in small bands, and commenced their customary desultory modes of ambush and murder. This circumstance lulled the apprehensions of the people, and caused them to neglect providing the means of defence against combined and powerful attacks. In May, a party of Wyandotts assaulted Estill's station, south of Kentucky river, and after killing one man, and capturing another, and destroying the cattle, withdrew. Captain Estill raised a party, and pursued them. He overtook them on Licking fork,


near Little mountain. The numbers on each side were nearly equal, and the contest was most obstinately maintained. Captain Estill, perceiving, that the only issue, which could be expected from continuing to fight in this way, would be gradually to weaken, and destroy both parties, detached six men under a lieutenant, to fall upon their rear. From some cause, this detachment failed to fulfil the assigned duty. The savages, perceiving the diminution of numbers from the proportionate slackening of the fire, pressed more resolutely upon captain Estill. The party was compelled to retreat. The captain and eight of his men were killed, and four of those, who escaped, were severely wounded. A county, called Estill, commemorates the intrepidity, name, and misfortunes of this man. The result of this action created great excitement and alarm. Separate from feelings of wounded pride, the people remarked, that the Indians had never before been known, to manifest so much military skill, and open, and manful daring, in what might be called a pitched battle. In several other assaults upon different stations, the savages generally had the advantage.

In August, 1782, a grand assemblage of warriors convened at Chillicothe. The Cherokees, Wyandotte, Tawas, Pottowattomies, and various other tribes bordering on the lakes, were represented in it. They were aided by the counsels of Girty and M'Kee, two renegado whites, The hands of these wretches were stained with the innocent blood of women and children; and they added the acquirements of the whites to the instinct and skill of the savages, whose ways they preferred, and whose interests they espoused with even more ferocity, than the savages themselves. Girty is said to have played the orator on this occasion. His speech is reported to have been admirably calculated to arouse the most malignant feelings of vengeance


in the savages. He painted to them the delights of the land of cane, clover, deer, and buffalos, and the charming valleys of Kentucky, for the possession of which, so much blood had been shed. He painted the gradual encroachments of the whites, and the necessity of a determined effort, if they would ever regain possession of that fair domain. He warned them, that if the present order of things continued, the whites would soon leave them no hunting grounds, and no means of procuring rum, with which to warm, and cheer their desolate hearts, or blankets to clothe their naked backs. The speech was received with yells of enthusiastic applause.

At the close of this harangue, the savages took up the line of march for Kentucky. Their first point of destination was Bryant's station. It consisted of forty cabins, built in the form of a parallelogram, and the intervals between the houses were filled up with pickets in the customary manner. The four angles were fortified with block houses. The savage force arrived before the place, on the 15th of the month. The garrison had been weakened by the desertion of most of the immigrants from North Carolina, who had returned to their own country in discouragement, occasioned by the death of William Bryant, who had been killed by the Indians at the mouth of Cane run. Fortunately their loss had been supplied by immigrants from Virginia. Among them was Robert Johnson, Esq., father of the present colonel R. M. Johnson. This station was more open to the savage attacks, than any other in Kentucky. The Miami on the north, and the Licking on the south side of Ohio, were long canals that conducted the savages from their villages directly to this point. There were but two other stations, occupied at this time, north of the Kentucky river. These were M'Gee's and Stroud's.


The savages reached this station by night; and the inhabitants were admonished of their presence in the morning, by being fired upon, as they opened their doors. It was providential that the attack was commenced so early in the morning; for the men of the garrison were preparing to march to the aid of the other two stations, the troops of which were reported to have been attacked by the savages. In a couple of hours they would have been on their way, and the men of the fort would have been reduced to a mere handful. The garrison immediately despatched messengers to Lexington, to announce the assualt. On arriving there, the messengers found, that the male inhabitants had left that place, having marched to the assistance of Holder. The messengers followed on their route, and overtook them at Boone's station. Sixteen mounted men, and thirty on foot were immediately detached to the assistance of Bryant's station.

In conformity to the common modes of Indian warfare, they attempted to gain the place by stratagem. A party of 100 commenced the attack upon the south-east angle, with a view to draw the whole attention of the garrison to that point The great body of the enemy, to the number of 500, lay concealed among the weeds upon the opposite side of the station, and within pistol shot of the spring, from which it was supplied with water. This stratagem was predicated on the belief, that the people would all crowd to the point, where the attack commenced, and leave the opposite one wholly undefended. The garrison, however, comprehended the whole purpose; and instead of returning the fire, instantly commenced repairing the palisades, and putting the station in a condition of defence. Aware, that the Indians were concealed near the spring, they were assured that they would not fire, until they saw the men repairing to that point. The women, in


this confidence, ran to the spring, and drew water for the supply of the garrison, within shooting distance of the concealed Indians. When a sufficiency of water had been drawn, and the station put in such a state of defence, as such a short notice might furnish, thirteen men were sent out in the direction, where the fire commenced. They were fired upon by 100 Indians, and the ambuscade rushed upon the side of the fort, which they deemed, was now without defence. Their disappointment may be imagined, when they found every thing prepared for their reception. A well directed fire from the garrison put the savages to flight. Some of the more desperate and daring approached sufficiently near to fire the houses, some of which were consumed. But an easterly wind providentially arose, and drove the flames from the mass of the buildings, and the garrison was saved. The enemy withdrew and concealed themselves on the bank of the creek near the spring. They had been, in some way, informed of the despatch of the two men to Lexington for aid; and they arranged an ambuscade, to intercept such forces, as might be sent, on their approach to the station. When this reinforcement came in sight, the firing had ceased. No enemy was visible; and they drew near in the confidence, that they had come on a false alarm. They rode forward through a lane, which was ambuscaded for 100 yards on either side by Indians. The mounted men created a dense cloud of dust, as they moved along. The Indians fired upon them close at hand, but the obscuring dust hindered their aim. The sixteen rode through this close fire unharmed, and without having even a horse wounded. The footmen were less fortunate. They were approaching the garrison through a thick corn field, and in a direction to have reached it unobserved by the savages. But hearing the firing on their mounted companions


they rushed to their aid, and were intercepted by masses of the savages, constantly increasing between them and the station. They would all have fallen, but for the thickness of the corn field. These brave men reached the fort, with the loss of two killed, and four wounded. The cattle and sheep, that came in towards the garrison, as usual, in the evening were mostly destroyed.

A little after sunset, the famous Girty covertly approached the garrison, and on a sudden made himself visible on a stump, whence he could be heard by the people within, and demanded a surrender of the place. He managed his proposals with no little art, assigning, as a reason for making them, that they were dictated by his humanity; that, in case of a surrender, he could answer for the security of the prisoners; and that in the event of taking the garrison by storm he could not; that cannon were approaching with a reinforcement, and would arrive that night; in which case they must be sensible, that defence of the place would be wholly unavailing. His imposing manner had the more effect in producing consternation, as the garrison knew, that the same foes had recently used cannon in the attack of Ruddle's and Martin's stations. In the course of his harangue, Girty demanded of the garrison, if they knew who it was, that addressed them? A young man by the name of Reynolds, of whom honorable mention will be made hereafter, observing the depressing effect of this speech, came forward, and answered him to this effect — that they did know him well; and that he was held in such detestation and contempt, that he himself had named a worthless dog, that he owned, Simon Girty; that the garrison, too, expected reinforcements enough, to give an account of the cowardly wretches that followed him; that he, for his part, held them in so much contempt, that he should disdain to discharge fire arms upon them, and


that if they broke into the fort, he had prepared a great number of switches, which he had no doubt, would be Sufficient to drive the naked rascals out of the country.

Girty seemed very little flattered, or edified with such an impolite reply, and affecting to deplore, their obstinacy and infatuation, speedily retired. During the night a small party was left, to keep up occasional firing, and the semblance of siege, but the main body marched hastily away to the lower Blue licks. The Indians and Canadians exceeded 600, and the besieged numbered but forty-two. The Indians must have suffered a considerable loss, but the amount is not known.

As the battle of the ‘Blue licks’ gave this place a melancholy notoriety, it may not be amiss to present the reader a general view of its locality. It is situated forty miles from Lexington, and thirty from Bryant's station. The river Licking at this place, in common stages of the water, is 300 feet wide. The lick is in an elliptical bend of the river, and the lime stone has been laid bare by the innumerable herds of animals, that in the ages past, came here to drink the water, and lick the salt clay. It is intersected by ravines and a ledgy ridge. The summit of the ridge was sterile, and almost naked of timber. But the ravines were timbered, and skirted with thick brush.

Shortly after the decampment of the Indians from Bryant's station, the soldiers of Lexington, Harrodsburg and Boonesborough assembled at Bryant's station, to the number of 160, and determined immediately to pursue the Indians. They were commanded by colonels Todd and Trigg. The odds, in point of numbers, was very great between this force and that of Girty. But they were brave and high spirited men, well mounted, provided, and armed. The veteran Boone was among them, and they burned with a desire, to chastise the insolent and murderous


invaders. Prudence should have induced them to wait for the reinforcement of colonel Logan, who was known to be collecting forces in the other stations, to join them. They rashly chose to march unaided and by themselves. On their route, they soon came upon the Indian trail. The experienced eye of Boone, collected, and intuitively comprehended circumstances, which convinced him at once, that the savages wished to be pursued, and to conceal their numbers. The first he inferred from the circumstance, that they had taken no pains to conceal their trail; the second from the fact, that they marched in single file, treading the one in the steps of the other, so that it was impossible to decypher their numbers, from counting their footsteps.

This gallant force arrived at the lower Blue licks, without having seen a single Indian. On reaching the river at this place, they discovered a few Indians, leisurely retiring over the bald ridge, that crowned the upper extremity of the valley. The party halted, and the commanders consulted colonel Boone, as a man skilled in Indian warfare, and of deep experience in their modes of assault and deception, and as capable of drawing inferences, as to their numbers and purposes, and as also acquainted with the ground. Colonel Boone gave it, as his opinion, that the enemy were more than double their number, and were in the ravines in ambush; that if the troops advanced upon them, the Indians had the advantage of position still more, than numbers. He advised, therefore, that their force should be divided into equal parts; that the one part should march up the river, and cross it at Elk creek above the upper ravine, while the other part should take a position, to be able to co-operate with them in another quarter; that in this way the advantage of position would be taken from the Indians, and transferred to them; but above all, he cautioned them against crossing the river at


all, until they should have sent out spies, thoroughly to recoanoitre the position and force of the savages. The officers were disposed to listen to this salutary counsel of wisdom and experience. But major Hugh M'Gary, remarkable for his impetuosity, exclaimed against the cowardice of delay. ‘Let all,’ cried he, ‘who are not cowards, follow me, and I will show them the enemy.’ Saying this, he spurred his horse into the river. As might be expected, the party caught the contagious rashness. The officers were borne along by the mass, as it crowded tumultuously into the river. After the crossing, there was neither order, nor arrangement; but every man rushed forward, at his own choice, over the bare rocks towards the sheltered ravines, and the wooded ground, where the Indians were concealed in close ambush.

Majors M'Gary and Harland, and captain M'Bride led the advance. Girty, at the head of a select band of savages rushed upon them with their customary yells. The contest was instantly fierce and sanguinary. The Indians had every advantage both of numbers and position. The disorderly front of the assailants gave them still further superiority. The right wing was soon turned; and a retreat was inevitable, and that too, under the murderous edge of the tomahawk. Colonels Todd and Trigg, and major Harland fell early in the action. The survivors pressed their retreat for the ford, on foot and on horseback. But the Indians interposed between them, and intercepted their approach to the ford; thus forcing them to take to the river, where it could only be crossed by swimming. Of course the greatest carnage took place near the ford; and many were tomahawked in the river. A man, whose personal courage had been the subject of doubt and question, here nobly proved those doubts unfounded. He halted on the opposite bank, and animated others to follow his example.


They faced, and commenced a fire upon the pursuers, and checked them for a moment; thereby enabling some exhausted and wounded fugitives to evade the tomahawk, already uplifted to destroy them. The brave and benevolent Reynolds, whose reply to Girty has been reported, relinquished his own horse to colonel Robert Patterson, who was infirm from former wounds, and was retreating on foot. He thus enabled that veteran to escape. While thus signalizing his disinterested intrepidity, he fell himself into the hands of the Indians. The party that took him, consisted of three. Two whites passed on their retreat. Two of the Indians pursued, leaving him under the guard of the third. His captor stooped to tie his moccasin, and he sprang away from him, and escaped. It is supposed, that one-fourth of the men, engaged in this action, were commissioned officers. The whole number engaged was 176. Of these sixty-one were slain, and eight made prisoners. Among the most distinguished names of those, who fell, were those of colonels Todd and Trigg, majors Harland and Bulger, captains Gordon and M'Bride, and a son of Daniel Boone. The loss of the savages has never been ascertained. It could not have equalled that of the assailants, though some supposed it greater. This sanguinary affair took place, August 19th, 1782.

Colonel Logan, on arriving at Bryant's station, with a force of 300 men, found the troops had already marched He made a rapid advance in hopes to join them, before they should have met with the Indians. He came up with the survivors, on their retreat from their ill-fated contest, not far from Bryant's station. He determined to pursue his march to the battle ground, to bury the dead, if he could not avenge their fall. He was joined by many friends of the killed and missing, from Lexington and Bryant's station. They reached the battle ground on the 25th.


It presented a heart-rending spectacle. Where so lately had arisen the shout of the robust and intrepid woodsmen, and the sharp yell of the savages, as they closed in the murderous contest, the silence of the wide forest was now unbroken, except by birds of prey, as they screamed, and sailed over the carnage. The heat was so excessive, and the bodies were so changed by it, and by the hideous gashes and mangling of the Indian tomahawk and knife, that friends could no longer recognize their dearest relatives. They performed the solemn rites of sepulture, as they might, upon the rocky ground.

The Indian forces, that had fought at Blue licks, in the exultation of victory and revenge, returned homewards with their scalps. Those from the north, and they constituted the greater numbers, returned quietly. The western bands took their route through Jefferson county, in hopes to add more scalps to the number of their trophies. Colonel Floyd led out a force to protect the country. They marched through the region on Salt river, and saw no traces of Indians. They dispersed on their return. The greater number of them reached their station, and laid down fatigued, and exhausted, without any precaution against a foe. The Indians came upon them in this predicament in the night, and killed several women and children. A few escaped under the cover of the darkness. A woman, taken prisoner that night, escaped from her savage captors, by throwing herself into the bushes, while they passed on. She wandered about the woods eighteen days, subsisting only on wild fruits, and was then found, carried to Lynn's station, and survived the state of extreme exhaustion in which she was found. Another woman, taken with four children, at the same time, was carried to Detroit.


The terrible blow, which the savages had struck at Blue lick, excited a general and immediate purpose of retaliation through Kentucky. General Clark was appointed commander in chief, and colonel Logan next under him in command of the expedition, to be raised for that purpose. The forces were to rendezvous at Licking. The last of September, 1782, general Clark, with 1,000 men, marched from the present site of Cincinnati, for the Indian towns on the Miami. They fell in their route upon the camp of Simon Girty, who would have been completely surprised with his Indians, had not a straggling savage espied the advance, and reported it to them, just in season, to enable them to scatter in every direction. They soon spread the intelligence, that an army from Kentucky was marching upon their towns.

As the army approached the towns, on their route, they found that the inhabitants had evacuated them, and had fled into the woods. All the cabins at Chillicothe, Piqua, and Willis', were burnt. Some skirmishing took place, however, in which five Indians were killed, and seven made prisoners, without any loss to the Kentuckians, save the wounding of one man, which afterwards proved mortal. One distinguished savage surrendered himself, and was afterwards inhumanly murdered by one of the troops, to the deep regret and mortification of general Clark.

A female achievement of heroism, is worthy of record in this place. A party of Indians, in October, of this year, approached a house near the Crab orchard. A woman with three children and a negro servant were the occupants. One of the Indians rushed into the house, and made towards the negro. A little girl instantly shut the door between him and the entering Indians. The negro grappled with the Indian, and threw him down. The woman seized an axe, and killed him with a well directed


blow on the head. The Indians on the outside, hearing the mortal affray, attempted to cut down the door with their tomahawks. A body of armed men happened to be passing that way, and came to the relief of the family, upon which the Indians fled.

From these gloomy and wearying chronicles of Indian wars and murders, we return a moment to the civil aspect of the country. Two additional land offices were opened, in November, 1782; one at Lexington, and the other at Coxe's station. The tide of immigration to the country was still increasing. Many illiterate persons, ignorant of the forms of law, and the necessity of precision in the specification of the limit of their titles, but exceedingly greedy of the possession of lands, were purchasers. As a specimen of the vagueness of the butts and bounds of their claims, and as accounting for the flood of litigation, that ensued, we give the following copy of an entry. It may serve substantially, as a sample of multitudes. — ‘George Smith enters 500 acres of land, on a treasury warrant, lying on the north side of Kentucky river, a mile below a creek, beginning about twenty poles below a lick, and running down the river, westwardly and north-westwardly, for quantity.’ Surveyors, while keeping within their respective limits, were surprised to find, that they crossed each others lines in every direction. In this way, twice the existing area of vacant lands were sold.

The winter of 1782, and '83, passed off with little disturbance from the Indians. The people looked forward to the expected treaty of peace, between the United States and Great Britain, as a season of respite from Indian warfare. They entertained a confidence, that these ruthless beings would desist from their expeditions, when they should be obliged to sustain them single handed. In these remote forests, the glad tidings were circulated, in the


spring of 1783, that a provisional treaty of peace had been signed at Paris, in 1782. The part of the treaty, which most intimately interested the Kentuckians, was that, which concerned the definitive boundaries between the United States and Great Britain. Nothing was more directly vital to her interests, than that the posts, which the British possessed, near her frontier, should be in the possession of the United States. So long, as they were in the keeping of the former power, the savages could issue from them, supplied with aid, counsel, provisions, and munitions, to annoy the new settlements at their pleasure.

In March, 1783, an improvement in the judiciary arrangements of the country was made. The three counties were constituted by law, the ‘District of Kentucky.’ A new court was established, with chancery and common law jurisdiction. It was also constituted a court of oyer and terminer, in criminal cases. The first session was held at Harrodsburg. The two judges were commissioned by the governor of Virginia. The governor also nominated an attorney general for the district. A jury was empannelled, and much judicial business transacted with all the forms of law. No room was found sufficiently large for the session at Harrodsburg, and the court adjourned to a Dutch church, at five miles distance. The clerk and attorney general were appointed by the court, a committee, to select some safe place, near Crow's station, and there to erect a log court house. They gave, at the same time, a commission to build a log prison. These were the first buildings of the kind in Kentucky. Around the spot, selected for these buildings, grew up the town of Danville, This court continued to hold its sessions, here, until, by the separation of the state from Virginia, it was abolished.

The summer of 1783, was one of repose and respite from Indian war. Immigrants continued to pour into the


country. The rough and unwrought furniture from the woods gave place to cabinet furniture. Considerable money circulated, and labor was well rewarded. Cattle and flocks multiplied; and that rank growth of corn was seen in the fields, which was the presage of the abundance of this state in that article ever since. Wheat began to be raised, at first as an experiment. Reading and writing schools were commenced. The pernicious article, whiskey, began to be manufactured. Merchandize was wagoned from Philadelphia to Fort Pitt, now Pittsburg, and was thence conveyed, in flat boats, to Louisville, where a retail store was opened.

An amusing incident in the administration of the laws, occurred at this time, which may serve, also, to give a general idea of the state of things in the country. Thomas Paine had published a book, the substance of which was to prove, that Virginia had no right to the Kentucky lands; but that they belonged of right to congress. Two Pennsylvanians, who had become converts to this doctrine, descended to Kentucky to proselyte the people there. One went to Louisville, but gained no converts. The other succeeded better at Lexington. He persuaded some people to commence clearing in their neighbors' lands, in the hope, that when these were declared congress lands, they might claim by pre-emption. The occupants of these lands were alarmed, and applied to a justice, to arrest this disciple of Paine's doctrines, as a disturber of the peace. It was necessary to find a law for the purpose; and one was discovered in the Virginia code, which made it penal for any one to be the bearer of false intelligence; and the person convicted was to pay a mulct of tobacco, at the discretion of the court. On this statute the man was arrested, and brought up for examination. At the second trial, the man was convicted, as he had not even had the


precaution to bring the book with him; and perhaps had a plagiarizing purpose, to pass as the author and inventer of the doctrine. A great concourse of people attended the trial. He was sentenced to pay 1,000 pounds of tobacco, or go to prison. There was not that amount of tobacco in the country. While he was sadly ruminating with himself upon the moral turpitude and guilt of circulating false intelligence, preparatory to his imprisonment, it was intimated to him, that if he left the country, it would answer the laws as well as if he went to prison. The man made his election and disappeared.

The winter of 1783, and '84, was uncommonly severe. The accumulation of snow and ice did not quite reach that of the hard winter, mentioned before. Companies of speculators in Kentucky lands, were formed in Philadelphia, and a mercantile establishment, of which general Wilkinson was at the head. The general came out to Lexington in February, 1784. His appearance, standing, rank, and supposed wealth, procured for him such a reception, as might naturally be expected, in such circumstances of the country. The time, within which the British posts, on the frontiers, should have been evacuated, elapsed without that desirable event taking place. The country north of Licking had been, as yet, unoccupied by the whites, through fear of the northern savages. Surveyors were sent into this country, to survey it, in March, 1784. They discovered that Indians were among them in the country, and consulted their own safety by returning.

Many of the more thinking and intelligent people in the country, wished to put an end to this long series of murders and retaliations, by inviting the Indians into the settlements, and treating them with kindness, and by inspiring them with confidence, creating in them pacific sentiments


There were others, who in remembrance of murdered friends, had sworn irreconcilable enmity. By a man of such feelings, an Indian was enticed into the woods and murdered. An attempt was made to discover and punish the assassin; but this was found impracticable. The clouds of another Indian war were gathering. It had been suspended for a while. This was one among many circumstances, that caused it to burst anew.

In 1784, Simon Kenton re-occupied the settlement, near Washington, which he had commenced, in 1775. Associated with a number of people, he erected a block house, and made a station here. This became an important point of covering and defence for the interior country. Immigrants felt more confidence, in landing at Limestone. To render this confidence more complete, Kenton and his associates built a block house at Limestone. Two men of the name of Tanner, had made a small settlement, the year preceding, at Blue lick, and were now making salt there. The route from Limestone to Lexington became one of the most general travel for immigrants, and many stations sprang up upon it. Travellers to the country had hitherto been compelled to sleep under the open canopy, exposed to the rains and dews of the night. But cabins were now so common, that they might generally repose under a roof, that sheltered them from the weather; and find a bright fire, plenty of food, and with the rustic fare a most cheerful and cordial welcome. The people of these new regions were hospitable from native inclination. They were hospitable from circumstances. None but those, who dwell in a wilderness, where the savages roam, and the wolves howl, can understand all the pleasant associations, connected with the sight of a stranger of the same race. The entertainer felt himself stronger from the presence of his guest. His offered food and fare


were the spoils of the chase. He heard news from the old settlements, and the great world, and he saw in the accession of every stranger, a new guarantee of the security, wealth, and improvement, of the infant country, where he had chosen his resting place.

In 1784, there were only three counties in Kentucky. Lincoln county was comprised in the country south of Kentucky river. Colonel Logan held the highest military command in it, with the name of ‘County lieutenant.’ The first thoughts of a future separation from Virginia, and an erection of the new country into an independent state, seem to have originated with him. His views were directed to this point by a case, which taught him most palpably, the difficulties of defending the country by any combined system. An alarm was propagated in Kentucky, by intelligence received from the Cherokees, that some of the southern tribes of savages were about to invade the settlements. Colonel Logan immediately attempted general and systematic measures of defence. The difficulty of acting as a government became apparent. The people were widely distant from the parent country. Before intelligence could be conveyed to the capital, and measures adopted, and answers obtained, danger might come, and pass away. If the people acted from their own movement and responsibility, they might raise troops and enter upon an unauthorized expedition, and not only remain unpaid, but even expose themselves to be called to account. The invasion at this time, did not, indeed, take place; but the difficulties of providing for the supposed emergency first directed the minds of the people to those measures, which eventuated in the erection of Kentucky into an independent state.

A meeting of the people, collected at Danville, recommended to choose one representative from each militia


company in the district, to meet December 27th, 1784, as a convention, to devise some means to provide for the common defence, and to preserve the settlements from the apparent impending destruction. The delegates met at the time and place appointed, and resolved, that the great and substantial evils, to which they were subjected, arose from causes beyond the control of the parent state, to wit: their remoteness from the capital of that state, and that from their distant and detached position, their difficulties could never be obviated, until they had a government of their own. The constitution of Virginia had made provision for the erection of one or more governments, in the western territory whenever occasion might require. In pursuance of the above resolution, they recommended the election of members in every county, to meet in another convention, to be held in the same place, May 23d, 1785. The object of this convention was, ‘to discuss the propriety of making application to the legislature of Virginia for permission to become an independent state.’

In consequence of this resolve, members were elected for this purpose, who met at Danville at the time appointed. They resolved, to present a petition to the Virginia legislature, to be allowed to become a separate state; and that the states when so separated, ought to be admitted into the union of the states, upon a footing with the rest; and that the people should elect another convention, to meet in the following August, at the same place, to take into consideration the circumstances of the district, and to adjourn from time to time, until April, 1786.

The progress of strength and population is distinctly marked by the erection of new courts and counties. In January, 1785, the new county of Nelson was created. The interior of the country was now so populous, and the settlements so strong, and compact, that the people no longer


feared Indian invasion. But the recent remembrance of the bitter sufferings, from which they had escaped, led them to think of their suffering brethren on the frontiers, who were still in the endurance of the same evils. In the ensuing March, 1786, the Indians dispersed a small settlement, that had been made at the mouth of Kentucky river. The appointed convention met, August 8th, 1785. They recommended to the militia, to concert certain plans for the defence of the country; and they drafted a memorial to the legislature of Virginia on the state of the country, and another to the people of Kentucky. The memorial was written in a style of calm and dispassionate reasoning, and set forth their reasons for wishing a separation from the parent state, and their claims by the provision for such separation in the acts of that legislature. The memorial to the people recapitulated the horrors of Indian invasions and murders at all the stations, particularly at Bryant's and Kincheloe's, and addressed an animated appeal to their humanity and patriotism, to prevent the recurrence of such terrible evils. It dwelt upon the rumours of savage confederacies, forming to renew these scenes, and pointed out how easily, without some general and organized means of defence, the savages might react their horrid tragedies in the country; and it closed by recommending the people to call on the county-lieutenants, to carry into strict and prompt execution the law for regulating, and disciplining the militia. As there was no printing press as yet in the country, the convention found no inconsiderable difficulty in causing a sufficient promulgation of their resolutions and doings. Many written copies were circulated, and means taken, not unlike the duties of the heralds in ancient Greece, to recite these acts at general meetings, and gatherings of the people.


In October, 1785, Mr. M'Clure and family, in company with a number of families, was attacked, and defeated on Skegg's creek. Six were killed, and Mrs. M'Clure, her child, and a number of others made prisoners. The attack was made in the night. The circumstances of the capture of Mrs. M'Clure furnishes an affecting incident, illustrating the invincible force of maternal affection. She had secreted herself, with her four children, among thick brush, which, together with the darkness, screened her from observation. Had she chosen to have left her infant at a distance, she might have escaped. But she held it to her bosom, aware that its shrieks would make known her covert. The Indians, directed by its cries, killed the three larger children, and took her and her infant captives. This unfortunate woman was obliged to accompany their march on an untamed and unbroken horse. Intelligence of this massacre circulated rapidly. Captain Whitley immediately collected twenty-one men from the adjoining stations, overtook, and killed two of them, and retook Mrs. M'Clure, her babe, a negro woman, and the scalps of the six persons, whom the Indians had killed. Ten days afterwards, another party of immigrants, led by Mr. Moore, were attacked, and nine of their number killed. Captain Whitley pursued the perpetrators of this bloody act with thirty men. On the sixth day of pursuit, he came up with twenty mounted Indians, clad in the dresses of those, whom they had slain. They dismounted, and fled. Three of them were killed. The pursuers recovered eight scalps, and all the ponder, which the Indians had collected at the late massacre.

In consequence of the recommendation to the county lieutenants, an expedition was got up against the Wabash Indians. The command was given to general Clark. It consisted of nearly 1,000 men, and marched for the Indian


towns from Louisville. The provisions and munitions proceeded for the Wabash in boats. The men arrived near the towns, before their provisions. They became discontented, and mutinous in consequence. General Clark called a council of his officers, and finding it impossible to appease the discontents of the soldiers, marched them back, without striking a blow.

Colonel Logan at the same time raised a force to march against the Shawnee Indians, who dwelt on the Scioto. He rightly deemed, that the Indians there would have their thoughts turned towards general Clark's expedition, so as to leave their own towns unprotected. It was some time, before he was able to collect a sufficient force. He reached, and surprized an Indian town, killed a number of the warriors, and took most of the women and children prisoners.

In October, 1785, the national government convoked a general meeting of the Indian tribes north of the Ohio, at the mouth of the Great Miami. The commissioners to meet them were general Butler from Pennsylvania, general Clark from Kentucky, and general Parsons from New England. No tribe met them, except the Shawnees, and no beneficial effects resulted from the meeting with then From the representation of a majority of the commissioners, congress seems to have entertained an impression that at least a part of the cause of these continued hostilities lay at the door of the Kentuckians, and that in many instances, they had been the aggressors.

In 1786, the legislature of Virginia, having received the memorial of Kentucky, touching a separation, passed an act, specifying the conditions, upon which they would consent to a separation, and would use their influence to procure the admission of Kentucky into the union of the states. They enacted, at the same time, that in the ensuing


August, 1786, the voters of Kentucky should elect representatives, to meet at Danville, on the fourth Monday of September, in the same year, as a convention to determine by a majority of votes, if it was the will of the whole people, that the separation should take place, upon the conditions specified. Each county was to furnish five members. If the convention determined in favor of the separation, they were to fix a day, subsequent to September 1st, 1787, on which the authority of Virginia, saving the mentioned exception, was forever to cease, and determine, and the forementioned articles were to be considered a binding compact between the two parties. An appendage to the exception was, that prior to June 1st, 1787, congress should assent to the erection of the said district into an independent state, and should admit it into the Union, thereby releasing Virginia from all its Federal obligations, arising from the former possession of the said district. Precautionary provisions were also made, to prevent the evils of anarchy, during the interregnum. As soon as the Kentucky convention should pass an act of separation, predicated on these conditions, it was resolved, that it should be transmitted to the Virginia delegation in congress, and they were instructed to use their influence, to procure the admission of Kentucky into the Union. At the same time acts were passed, creating three new counties in Kentucky, to wit, Bourbon, Mercer, and Madison.

In recurring to the chronicle of Indian assaults, while these civil transactions were in train, we ought to record the death of colonel Christian, who was killed by the Indians, on Beargrass, in April, 1785. He was a native of Virginia, and married a sister of Patrick Henry. He had served honorably in Braddock's war, under lord Dunmore, and during the war of the revolution. He had led an army of 1,200 men from Virginia with success, against


the Cherokees. In 1785, he removed with his family to Kentucky. Colonel Floyd had also recently deceased, in this settlement, from the effect of a wound inflicted by the Indians. The fall of colonel Christian, of distinguished name and influence among the people, increased the dismay occasioned by that event.

The interval of time between the enactments of Virginia, touching the separation of Kentucky, and the meeting of the convention in Kentucky, to act upon them, was one of strong political excitement. Party spirit ran high. Some thought, that Virginia was not sincere in her professions upon the subject; and were for taking the matter of the separation entirely into their own hands. Others were for waiting for the separation, in the order prescribed by Virginia. The convention met at the time and place appointed. There were not members enough present, to constitute a quorum, owing to the absence of many of them upon the contemporaneous expeditions of general Clark, and colonel Logan, which we have mentioned. The members present, however, under the name of a committee, prepared a memorial to the legislature of Virginia, assigning the reasons why the convention was not fully attended, and requesting some amendments in the act of separation. This memorial was laid before the general assembly of Virginia.

In consequence of the invasions of Clark and Logan the Indians commenced their usual measures of revenge. In the autumn of 1786, a party of immigrants were attacked, and twenty-one killed. The commencements of this year witnessed treaties with all the neighboring tribes; and the close of it was marked with the breaking out of a general war. The convention to deliberate about the separation from Virginia, was kept alive by adjournment, until January, 1787; when a sufficient number of


members assembled to constitute a quorum. The question, whether it was expedient to assent to the proposed terms of separation, was decided in the affirmative. Meanwhile they received from the legislature of Virginia, an act predicated upon the memorial, sent from the committee of that body, before a quorum had assembled. That act recommended the calling another convention. This convention immediately dissolved itself.

The election of the new convention was to take place, August, 1787; and to meet in the succeeding September. It was to remain in session a year. Two-thirds of the whole number of members were to concur in the act of separation, to render it valid. The 4th of July, 1787, was the time designated for the acting of congress upon the question of the admittance of the state into the Union. The same provisions against anarchy in the interregnum were made, as before. As yet, there was no post office in the country, and the difficulty of promulgating the acts of congress, or any other information, may be easily imagined.

At this time commenced in Kentucky, the agitating debates, touching the navigation of the Mississippi, to which we have already alluded, more than once. An association in the western parts of Pennsylvania, calling themselves a ‘committee of correspondence,’ addressed a communication to the inhabitants of Kentucky, informing them that the American secretary for foreign affairs was making propositions to the Spanish minister, to cede to that power the exclusive right to the navigation of the Mississippi, for twenty-five or thirty years. This announcement created a great sensation. It was always felt in the West, that this was one of the most vital and essential interests of the western country. Circular letters written by intelligent and respectable men, calling the attention of the people to


this subject, and recommending prompt and decided measures, were sent in all directions. But before any decisive measures could be taken, the people were informed, that Virginia had instructed her representatives in congress, to make strong representations against the impolicy of relinquishing such right to the navigation of the Mississippi to Spain.

About this time the Indians killed a man in Lincoln county. Colonel Logan, with a party, pursued and overtook them, and killed some of their number. The tribe, to which these Indians belonged, remonstrated to the government, alleging, that they were included in the late treaty, and that the whites were the aggressors in the affray, that caused the murder. They demanded reparation. The attorney general of Kentucky was instructed to prosecute in such cases. He replied, that it would be out of his power to do it officially; and that it would render him odious, to do it in his private capacity. In the summer of this year, general Wilkinson went to New Orleans with a cargo, chiefly of tobacco, by the way of the Mississippi. Strong representations were made to the governor of Virginia, touching the continued hostility of the western Indians. These representations were laid before congress. It was at the same time recommended, to assemble the officers of the district, and under their advice to form a system of defence, which should carefully avoid offensive operations. In consequence of this representation, the secretary of war ordered detachments of the troops of the United States to be so stationed, as to be able to protect the frontiers. At the same time the militia of Kentucky was directed, to hold itself in readiness to co-operate with any expeditions, which they might make into the Indian country. The commanders of the militia were also interdicted from any voluntary and unconnected


expeditions, or to march in any case against the Indians, until they should be so ordered by the executive of the nation.

The first newspaper printed in Kentucky, was issued August 28th, 1787. It was published on a demi sheet in Lexington, by Mr. John Bradford, and entitled the ‘Kentucky Gazette.’ No other paper was printed nearer than 500 miles. The political slander and heart-burnings, that had been hitherto transmitted by oral channels, were now concentrated in this gazette. The convention appointed by the legislature of Virginia, met at Danville, and voted that the separation between Virginia and Kentucky should take place, upon the proposed terms of the Virginia act. An address to congress was prepared, requesting the admission of the state into the Union, by the name of Kentucky. The authority of Virginia was to terminate, the last day of December, 1788. At the same time they provided for the meeting of another convention to frame a constitution of government for the state. They also requested, that one of the Virginia representatives to congress might be chosen from Kentucky. Virginia consented, and in December, Mr. Brown was chosen. This gentleman had acted a very conspicuous part in the affairs of this country for some time past. It was estimated, that Kentucky had doubled her population within the last three years.

In February, 1788, general Wilkinson returned from New Orleans. He encouraged the culture of tobacco, by raising, and purchasing it, and this may be considered, as the era of the origin of that cultivation in this country. In giving these important details of the civil interests of the country, we have a little preceded the order of Indian assaults. For some time past, many individual massacres had occurred. April 11th, 1787, a party of fourteen Indians attacked a family, living on Coope's run, in Bourbon


county. As this attack may serve, as a general sample of the undescribed detail of horrors in most cases of similar assault, and as the circumstances possess a peculiar and intrinsic interest, we will give them in detail. The family consisted of the mother, two sons of mature age, a widowed daughter with an infant in her arms, two grown daughters, and a daughter of ten years. They occupied a double cabin. In one division were the two grown daughters and the smaller girl. In the other, the remainder of the family. At evening twilight, a knocking was heard at the door of the latter, asking in good English, and the customary phrase of the country, ‘who keeps house?’ As the sons were opening the door, the mother forbade, affirming, that there were Indians there. The young men sprang to their guns. The Indians, being refused admittance, made an effort at the opposite door. They beat open the door of that room with a rail. They endeavored to take the three girls prisoners. The little girl escaped, and might have evaded danger in the darkness and the woods. But the forlorn child ran towards the other door, and cried for help. The brothers wished to fly to her relief, but the mother forbade her door to be opened. The merciless tomahawk soon hushed the cries of the distracted girl by murdering her. While a part of the Indians were murdering this child, and confining the other girl, that was made prisoner, the third defended herself with a knife, which she was using at her loom, at the moment of attack. The heroism of this girl was unavailing. She killed one Indian, and was herself killed by another. The Indians in possession of one half the house, fired it. The persons, confined in the other part of the cabin, had now to choose between exposure to the flames, spreading towards them, or the tomahawks of the savages. The latter stationed themselves in the dark angles of the fence, while


the bright glare of the flames would expose, as a clear mark, every person, who should escape. One son took charge of his aged and infirm mother; and the other of his widowed sister and her infant. The brothers separated with their charge, endeavoring to spring over the fence at different points. The mother was shot dead in attempting to cross. The other brother was killed, gallantly defending his sister. The widowed sister, her infant and one of the brothers escaped the massacre. These persons alarmed the settlement. Thirty men, commanded by colonel John Edwards, arrived next day to witness the horrid spectacle, presented by this scene of murder and ruin. Considerable snow had fallen, and it was easy to pursue the Indians by their trail. In the evening of that day, they came upon the expiring body of the young woman, apparently murdered but a few moments before their arrival. The Indians had been premonished of their pursuit, by the barking of a dog, that followed them. They overtook and killed two of the Indians, who had apparently staid behind as victims to secure the escape of the rest.

The brevity of our limits compels us to pretermit many interesting narratives of Indian assaults and Kentuckian retaliations. The Indians had manned a scow, in which they rowed out into the Ohio, and attacked passing boats. Many immigrants were slain in this way. The Federal Constitution was now in deliberation for the adoption of the several states. A full measure of the general excitement upon this subject was felt in Kentucky. In the first vote, taken upon the subject in Kentucky, the majority was overwhelming against it. July 28th, 1788, the convention, elected to frame a constitution for Kentucky, convened at Danville. While this convention was in session, it was informed, that the general congress had referred the question of the admission of Kentucky into the Union to the


congress, that was to sit under the new confederation. The warmth of political excitement was increased by this measure; and there were not a few, who advocated taking the matter of separation into their own hands. The series of conventions seemed to be interminable, and they will so seem to the reader. Another was appointed to assemble, in November of this year, for the purpose of providing for the present emergencies. The Kentucky gazette teemed with essays, for, and against the different measures proposed; and it could not be objected to them, that the style and manner was too lukewarm and tame.

The famous Spanish plot, of which we have spoken, both in the history of Tennessee and Louisiana, was beginning to develop in Kentucky. At the appointed convention, the interests of this party made a decided element in its formation. General Wilkinson was at the head of it, and was for declaring Kentucky independent. He insinuated in the convention, that she could easier obtain the inestimable privilege of navigating the Mississippi, by a separate treaty with Spain, than through the intervention of congress. But, notwithstanding the various and sustained efforts of this party to forestal public opinion, a clear preponderance was manifest in the convention for a legal separation from Virginia. The Spanish party retained influence from the circumstance, that the leading members held important offices in the country. Public opinion compelled them to act with silence and caution. The new county of Mason was established at this time. In January, 1789, a treaty was made between the United States and most of the northern tribes of Indians.

In July, 1789, a new convention met. The terms of separation proposed by Virginia at this time, were something different from the former ones, and not equally acceptable to the members. It began to be rumored in Kentucky,


that attempts were making to create a British party there. In the course of the summer, the southern Indians committed several murders. The county lieutenants were informed by the governor of Virginia, that it was unnecessary, that they should take any separate measures of defence, as the general government had stationed a force on the Ohio for that purpose. The members of the convention ordered the country to be districted into precincts, and a census of the inhabitants to be taken. A resolution was passed against the importation and use of foreign goods, especially those of a finer quality. The county lieutenants were commanded, now that the general government had assumed the defence of the country, to discharge their scouts and rangers. A committee of the convention, also drew up a letter, and transmitted it to the governor of Virginia, remonstrating against the terms of defence, prescribed by the general government. It started, that they were thus interdicted from the necessary means of resistance against the Indians, who were continually in the habit of committing murders, that they were denied the means of punishing.

The legislature of Virginia had expunged the objectionable terms from the act of separation, and adopted the act as it was originally. Another convention assembled, July, 1790, to deliberate upon the acceptance of that act. Annexed to this act was a proviso by Virginia, that congress should release them, previous to the November of that year, from her federal obligations. The county of Woodford was erected in the same session. The sixth part of the fees of the surveyors' throughout the district, which had formerly been a perquisite of the college of William and Mary in Virginia, was now transferred to Transylvania university, which had been established, soon after the settlement of Lexington. Its first endowment was 8,000


acres of land. In addition to the grant of surveyors' fees, it was now invested with the privilege of examining, and qualifying surveyors, which qualification was declared necessary to the validity of their office. The first and greatest benefactor of this institution, was colonel Todd, who fell at the bloody affair of the Blue licks.

In the opening of the spring, 1790, a number of murders were committed by the Indians on the Ohio, and along the frontier. The people in the interior aroused, as usual, and marched a considerable force to the Scioto. But the Indian towns were found deserted. The general government, through its organ, requested the county lieutenants to call out the scouts and rangers, more effectually to protect the frontiers. In May, as a number of people were returning from Divine service, on Beargrass, the Indians fired upon them, killed a man, and took a woman prisoner. They were closely pursued, and murdered their prisoner, and escaped the pursuit. The convention, in its session, acceded to the terms of separation, proposed by Virginia, and declared that after June 1st, 1792, Kentucky was an independent state. A memorial was drawn by colonel Marshall, to congress, requesting the admission of Kentucky into the Union of the states. Another convention was appointed to meet, in April, 1792.

We have related, in another place, the unfortunate and bloody campaign of general Harmar. It is only necessary to add here, that Kentucky furnished more than 1,000 volunteers to this expedition, under the command of colonel Hardin. Kentucky suffered a severe loss of her brave citizens, and manifested great dissatisfaction with the conduct of the campaign. General Harmar and colonel Hardin were tried by a court martial, and honorably acquitted. The last boat, bringing immigrants to the country that was known to be attacked by the Indians, on the Ohio


was in the spring of 1791. On board of it was captain William Hubbell, from Vermont. The whole number of persons on board, including women and children, amounted to twenty. The people in the boat had observed traces of Indian hostility, and were sufficiently forewarned of their danger. They passed other boats, and endeavored ineffectually to engage them to defence; and to make a common cause. They descended the river alone, and were first ineffectually enticed by Indian artifice, to go on shore; and by the voice of a person, who requested the boat to lie to, that he might come on board. Finding this stratagem unavailing, the Indians attacked the boat in three canoes filled with Indians. Never was a contest of this sort maintained with more desperate bravery. The enemy attempted to board them. All sorts of weapons were used in the defence. Captain Hubbell, having lost the cock of his gun, by an Indian fire, and being severely wounded in two places, discharged his mutilated gun by firing it with a brand. After a long and desperate conflict, in which all capable of defence, but four, were wounded, the Indians paddled off their canoes, to attack one of the boats left behind. They were more successful in this attack. The people yielded it without opposition, and the captain and a boy of that boat were killed. The women on board were made prisoners, and with them, as a screen, the canoes rowed back, to renew the attack upon Hubbell's boat. It was a hard necessity, in firing upon the savages, to be obliged to fire upon women of their own people. But captain Hubbell remarked, that if these women escaped their fire, it was, probably, only to suffer and more horrid death. He therefore determined, to keep up the fire even on this painful condition. The savages were beaten off a second time. In the course of the action, the boat had drifted near shore, where four or five hundred


savages were collected. All the party could do was to avoid exposure, as much as possible, and wait until the boat should float past the Indian fire. One of the people seeing, as the boat drifted by, a fine shot at an Indian, could not refrain from his chance. He raised his head to take aim. He was instantly shot dead. When the boat had drifted beyond the reach of the Indians, two only of the nine fighting men on board, were found unhurt. Two were killed, and one mortally wounded. A small boy then requested the people, to take out a ball, that had lodged in the skin of his forehead. When this ball was extracted, the boy requested them to take out a piece of bone, that had been fractured from his elbow by another shot. — When asked by his mother, why he had uttered no complaint, during the action, he coolly replied, ‘the captain ordered us to make no noise.’

The defeat of general Harmar put the people of Kentucky upon new measures of defence. They established seventeen posts of defence at the most exposed points on the frontier. The highest number of men, placed in any of them, was twenty, and the lowest five. The 4th of February, 1792, the vote passed in congress, to admit Kentucky into the Union. The people were so exasperated with the issue of Harmar's campaign, and the continued Indian hostilities, that they were intently looking for the means of retaliation within themselves. General Scott, a distinguished citizen and officer, consented to head a body of volunteers for that purpose. We have related the issue of his campaign in another place. The number of volunteers was between eight and nine hundred. They penetrated the Indian country, and destroyed two towns. They killed some of the savages, and made some prisoners. They returned without any loss.


In July of this year, general Wilkinson announced, that if he could obtain 500 volunteers, he was ready to head an expedition into the country of the northern Indians. The number was soon obtained. They marched, destroyed the village of Aguille, and returned. It had come to be a received opinion, that mounted riflemen constituted the most efficient force for an Indian campaign. Not discouraged by the defeat of general Harmar, the general government was determined to renew measures, to quell the rising hostility of the northern Indians, and ordered the assembling of an army under general St. Clair. Of his troops, Kentucky was to furnish 1,000 men, commanded by colonel Oldham. We have related the issue of this disastrous campaign in another place. In the spring of 1792, a paper mill was established near Georgetown. Many individual murders were committed about this time by the Indians.

In April, 1792, the convention assembled to frame a constitution for the new state. Isaac Shelby was declared the first governor, and all the officers, required by the constitution, were duly elected, and installed. Commissioners, designated for the purpose, selected Frankfort, as the permanent seat of government. Three new counties, to wit: Washington, Scott and Shelby were created. The compensation, which this assembly voted themselves, and the preceding convention, will serve to convey some idea of the simplicity of the times. The president of the convention was allowed twenty dollars for the session; each member twelve; the clerk 50; the door keeper and the sergeant at arms twelve; and the members of the assembly one dollar a day.

Improvements were steadily advancing in the new state; but the savages did not in consequence, intermit their aggressions. Colonel Hardin had been sent on a mission, to


make peace with the Indians north-west of the Ohio. — While on this embassy, it was ascertained, that he was murdered by them. His is a distinguished name in the history of Kentucky. He commenced his career in Virginia under lord Dunmore, and afterwards in the war of the revolution, and in the constant wars of the savages, he was almost continually in service. His death was deeply regretted by those, who contemplated him, either in his public or private character. The government, in commemoration of his services, ordered his orphan children to be educated at the public expense. Causes of excitement began to thicken, touching the land claims. Two other counties, Hardin and Green were created, in 1793. The interior of the country exhibited the spectacle of a populous, peaceful and improving settlement; but the frontiers were constantly harrassed by the savages. That the savages sometimes have freaks of good nature, is manifest from the anecdote related of their capturing, and carrying off a boy. After they had carried him as far as the Ohio, they set him at liberty unhurt, and gave him a knife, tomahawk and pipe, that he might find his own subsistence, and solace; no trifling donations these, for Indians to make.

The commissioners, appointed to make peace with the Indians, announced, that they refused to make peace. It was determined to strike a blow, that should quell this fierce and hostile spirit, and make them understand the value of being on terms of peace with us. Another call was made for militia from Kentucky by the general government. A thousand mounted volunteers were raised, and the command given to general Scott, With this force he joined general Wayne, then stationed at Legion hill, of whose fortunate campaign we have spoken in another place:

It is out of our plan, to enter into the details of feuds and party spirit, which about this time began to spring up and


thicken in this new state. It is well known, that party spirit at this time ran high in every part of the United States. The people of the new region were full fed, as free as the winds, and could not be expected, not to have something of the same asperity of party feeling, along with the rest. It is well remembered, that at this time Genet, the French minister, attempted to get up an armament among the people of Kentucky, to invade the Spanish settlements on the Mississippi. The president, having been informed of it, transmitted to the governor of Kentucky, orders to watch, and check the progress of this armament. Meanwhile, inflammatory addresses were spread among the people of Kentucky, to fan the excitement; and to form an armament to descend the Mississippi against New Orleans.

In November, governor Shelby received another letter from the secretary of state, making renewed enquiries, touching the existence and progress of the intrigues of Genet. This letter stated, that it was known, that a number of Frenchmen had left Philadelphia for the western country, it was supposed, to aid in carrying the plans of Genet into effect. Authority was given to the governor, to apprehend the designated Frenchmen, if he should deem it necessary. At the same time he received assurances from the officers, commanding posts on the frontiers, that they were ready to yield him all the requisite aid to effect this purpose. Two thousand soldiers in Kentucky, under the command of general Clark, were already pledged to this expedition. The soldiers were seduced to join themselves to the incipient project by the prospect of sharing conquered lands, in addition to their pay.

The governor, in his reply to the secretary of state, admitted, that there existed the project of such an expedition, that the Frenchmen in question openly avowed their purpose;


but as they had not overtly acted upon it, he was doubtful, if he had a legal right to apprehend them, on account of arming themselves with a view to leave the country; that as a citizen, and as a man, he should feel unpleasantly at the thought of punishing his fellow citizens on suppositions; and merely to quiet the apprehensions of the Spanish minister of that king, who was withholding from the western country an important right expressly stipulated to them; but that when the general government should point out to him explicitly, what he was to perform as governor, he should scrupulously fulfil it.

In March, 1794, president Washington issued his proclamation to the western people, warning them not to participate in this intrigue. The authority of such a state paper operated powerfully to check the rising spirit. General Wayne at this time was ordered to establish a military post at Massac, on the Ohio. In the progress of the French revolution, Genet was recalled, and an end was thus put to this intrigue. The whiskey insurrection was at this time in operation in the western counties of Pennsylvania. Notwithstanding, that the tax had a strong bearing upon the feelings of the ardent people in this region, the expressions of hostility to the tax were limited to the ordinary waggery of disfiguring the horse, ridden by the collector.

In the autumn of 1794, after the severe defeat, which they experienced from general Wayne, the Indians began to manifest dispositions of a sincere desire for peace. In the annals of Kentucky at this time, among the conspicuous partizan names, we find that of colonel Whitley, a man in many respects, the counter-part of colonel Boone. He headed many volunteer expeditions against the Indians, and was distinguished in them for coolness, judgment, intrepidity and humanity. Such was his popularity, that he


was elected colonel by a body of soldiers, whose acting colonel voluntarily resigned, to give place to him. He commanded an expedition of 600 mounted men against the Cherokees. In this expedition, it is reported, that he carried a mounted swivel before him on horseback; giving the first and probably the last example of artillery thus mounted. On this expedition the Indians were severely defeated, with the loss of fifty men.

An amusing anecdote is related of a meeting, which he had with some of those Indians afterwards, to recover negroes, which they had taken from him. They refused to give them up, alleging that he must bring witnesses according to the laws of his country, to prove his property. The colonel replied, that if he brought any witnesses, he should bring a thousand men, each with his gun to swear by! The Indian negotiator uttered the usual Indian interjection, exclaiming, too many! too many!! After menacing his life, the Indians finally gave up his negroes.

In April, 1795, the president of the United States proclaimed, that a treaty had been ratified with the northern Indians. But Kentucky continued to suffer severely from the southern Indians, who still kept up their hostilities. We have already adverted to the influence, and the alternate prevalence of French and Spanish parties in this region, in the history of Tennessee. Spanish gold found its way also to Kentucky. The erection of three new counties, Green, Franklin and Campbell, may be mentioned in this place.

This year, 1795, the state line between Virginia and Kentucky was run. The legislature, also, passed laws, disposing of the unappropriated lands in the state. The system of laws, afterwards so famous, under the name of relief laws, began thus early to be applied in relation to land claims. The revenue and expenditure of the state


had hitherto balanced, on an average. In 1796, James Garrard, Esq., was chosen governor of the state. Six new counties were erected. A great number of legislative acts were passed, most of them purporting to be emendations of existing acts. In a country so new, and growing, and where so many roads, bridges, and ferries were called for, many of the acts of course were of a local nature.

We have mentioned in the history of Tennessee, the final extinction of that source of discord to the West, the question of the right to the navigation of the Mississippi, and the adjustment of the Spanish lines, by the definitive settlement between our government and that of Spain, in the arrangement made by Andrew Ellicott. The amendment of the penal laws of Kentucky at this period, marks the increasing light and humanity of the age. No crimes were punished with death, except murder in the first degree. The forms, requisite to the solemnization of marriage, had hitherto been lax. More solemnity and strictness were now required. Bethel academy was instituted, and a donation of 6,000 acres of land was voted to each of the following institutions: the academies of Kentucky, Franklin, Salem, and Bethel, and the same amount to the Lexington and Jefferson seminaries. In 1799, eleven new counties were created. The Kentucky and Lexington literary institutions were united, and the united institution was called Transylvania university, of which Lexington was made the permanent seat. The increasing desire for literature is strongly manifested by the creation of twenty other academies at this time, to each of which 6,000 acres of land were given.

A convention had been convoked to revise the constitution. It met, in 1799, at Frankfort. The revised constitution differed, in many respects from the former one. In


most of its provisions, it has served, as a model to the constitutions of the other western states, which have been subsequently formed. New counties were continually forming.

Among the important incidents of the year 1800, in this state, we may mention a meeting of the people in Bourbon county, to devise means of causing money to circulate in the country. The purport of the resolves agreed upon was to encourage home manufactures, the raising of sheep, the cultivation of hemp, flax and cotton, and to abstain from the use of foreign manufactures. The census of 1800, gives the state 220,959 souls. James Garrard, Esq., was re-elected first governor under the new constitution. The first library company, incorporated in this state, was at Lancaster, in the year 1804. Much debate took place at this period with regard to the banking system. One plan was proposed, and laid aside, only to make room for another, which shared the same fate. The matter was finally settled by the establishment of the state bank with a capital of 3,000,000 dollars. In the year 1806, judge Sebastian of this state was legally tried, and found guilty of having received, while in the exercise of his office, under the government of the United States, an annual pension of 2,000 dollars from the Spanish government. In the course of this examination, much warmth of feeling was naturally created. The political writings of the day, evinced strong talent as well as zeal. The annals of Kentucky record, also, as one of the acts of this year, the well known trial of Aaron Burr. In 1808, general Scott was chosen governor. The census of 1810, gives the number of inhabitants at 407,057.

The order of events that immediately preceded the late war has already been given, in our brief general abstract of that portion of the history of the West. The history of


Kentucky, subsequent to that war, approaches too nearly to our own times to find a place in these annals. It is only necessary to glance at its more prominent facts. It has been a period of profound peace. All danger of the renewal of Indian hostilities has forever passed away, and the state has been left to pursue its own domestic policy without any interruption. It experienced its full share of the mercantile and pecuniary embarrassments of the western country, in consequence of the disappearance of specie, at the same time that lands sunk in value, spurious bank paper failed in the hands of the holders, and the country was deluged with foreign goods. Such a state of things succeeded the late war. The expedients of relief laws, and curing the evils of spurious paper by the emission of more of the same kind, were experienced in Kentucky, where we should least have expected to see them, after ample trial had tested their inutility, in most of the other western states. Warm and bitter party altercations have disfigured the annals of Kentucky from the beginning. A variety of local causes of feuds and clanship have always existed here. The ‘old and new court parties’ have pursued their animosities with the ancient bitterness of the factions of the ‘white and red roses.’ This state has always been prolific in the finest mental and physical developement of the human character. It has always had an ample share of intelligent young men of genius and talent. It has given birth to one of the most distinguished statesmen of our country, or of any country. It can not but eventually feel the obligations imposed upon it, to manifest its possession of such men and such talents, by desisting from the petty struggles and broils of party and faction, and acting with a moderation, calmness, and dignity befitting its character.



LENGTH, 210 miles. Mean breadth, 200 miles, containing 40,000 square miles, and 25,000,000 acres. Between 38° 30' and 41° 19' N. latitude; and between 3° 31' and 7° 41' West from Washington. Bounded on the North by the territory of Michigan, and lake Erie; East by Pennsylvania, South-east by Virginia, from which it is separated by the Ohio; South by the Ohio, which separates it from Virginia and Kentucky; and West by Indiana.

Face of the country. There is, probably, nowhere in the world a body of land, of the same extent, with this state of which a greater proportion is susceptible of cultivation. Though its southern line is situated not very far from the Alleghany mountains, it may be considered a great body of table land, sloping in one direction towards the Ohio, and in the other towards lake Erie. The northern belt of the state has great tracts of wet and marshy land. They are, however, of an excellent soil, and in positions, that render them easy to be drained. They are heavily covered with forests, and when cleared, and drained, will not make the least valuable parts of the state. There are extensive bodies of lands heavily timbered in a state of nature, which are as level as prairies. Perhaps the most fertile part of the state is between the two Miamies. On the upper courses of the Miamies, Muskingum and Scioto, are rich and extensive prairies, divided, as elsewhere, into wet and dry prairies, of which the latter only


are at present susceptible of cultivation. The forest trees are the same in this state, as in Kentucky and Indiana, except, that the peccan tree, which is common on the waters of the Wabash, is not often found here. The forests are heavily timbered, but in the richest soils, the trees are rather distinguishable for their straightness, than for their size. A considerable part of the eastern and south-eastern parts of the state are hilly; in some places rising into fine cultivable swells; and in other places into hills, too broken and precipitous to admit of cultivation. The most marshy parts of the state are found on the table lands, that are the highest lands in the state. But nine-tenths of the surface are susceptible of high cultivation, and are already, or are rapidly becoming a thickly settled country of moderate sized freeholds. — One remark may convey a general idea of the forest. It is, as in Indiana and Illinois, composed almost entirely of deciduous trees, with few evergreens, or terebinthine trees, if we except some few cypress trees. On its whole wide surface, there is scarcely any land so hilly, sterile, or marshy, as, with moderate labor, may not be subdued, drained, and cultivated. The whole region seems to have invited a hardy and numerous body of freeholders to select themselves moderate, and nearly equal sized farms, and to dot, and intersperse them over its surface. And in respect to the smallness of the farms, the number and equality of them, and the compactness of its population not confined, as is the case farther west, to the water courses, but diffused over the whole state, it compares very accurately with New England.

To an eye, however, that could contemplate the whole region, from an elevated point, it would even yet exhibit a great proportion of unbroken forest, only here and there chequered with farms. Yet in the county towns, and better settled districts, any spectacle, that collects the multitude,


a training, an ordination, an election, or the commencement of any great public work, causes a rush from the woods and the forests, which, like the tenanted trees of the poets in the olden time, seem to have given birth to crowds of men, women and children, pouring towards the point of attraction. There are vast tracts of country in this state, that are actually alluvial, and in fact the greater part of the country has an alluvial aspect, as though it was not long, since it had emerged from waters.

It has been asserted, and commonly believed, that springs dry up, and fail, as the country becomes settled. But a very intelligent gentleman, quoted by Mr. Kilbourn in his gazetteer, asserts the contrary. We quote his remarks; and the year referred to, is 1818.

‘One circumstance has attracted the attention of the first settlers of this county; that is, our streams improve considerably, as the country is settled: One fact I will here state. Having been one of the first settlers myself, I have seen Todd's fork several times, so dry that it did not run one drop, where I live. This was from ten to fifteen years ago. This season, one of the driest since the country was settled, a mill built upon it, has had water enough to grind, considerably, every day, through the whole season. The appearance of springs in small drains, &c, where none could be seen at first settling, is also remarkable. As to the face of the country, it is generally level and rich. The portion that is so broken as to injure the cultivation, is so small as not to be worth mentioning. The south-west quarter is the poorest land in the country, and has the most marshy ground. The east end comes in next, for flat lands; although it has but a small proportion that is too wet for ploughing, and that is excellent meadow land. This county has


but little prairie on it. There are two prairies on Anderson's fork, containing, perhaps, 1,200 or 1,500 acres, altogether. This seems to be all the prairie worth mentioning. This country is generally very heavily timbered; among which timber are various kinds, such as white, black, red, and burr oak; white, blue, and black ash; poplar, yellow and white; black and white walnut; hickory; red and white elm; hackberry; buck-eye, &c. On the wet grounds, there is, also, maple. Nearly the whole county is supplied with sugar tree. The undergrowth is spicebush, dogwood, ironwood, hornbeam, black haw, pawpaw, thorn bushes, and some wild plumbs, &c. Unimproved land rates from two to eight dollars per acre, according to situation and quality; improved land, from five to twenty dollars, according to the improvement, situation, quality, &c.’

Agricultural productions. Every production common to the climate is raised here in great abundance. Without having the appearance of being as rich, as the lands in some parts of Illinois and Missouri, the soil, in this part of the Mississippi valley, is found by experiment to be remarkably productive. To be able to judge of the extent and power of vegetation here, one must reside in the state through the summer, and observe with what luxuriance and rapidity the vegetable creation is pushed on, how rapidly the vines, the grain and the fruits grow, and what a depth of verdure the forest assumes. Indian corn is here, as elsewhere in the West, the staple of the grains; and it is nowhere raised more easily, or in greater abundance. On rich alluvial soils 110 bushels, it is affirmed, have been produced from an acre; though fifty may be considered an average crop. The state generally has a fine soil for wheat. Rye, barley, oats, spelts, buckwheat, and all the grains are raised in great abundance and perfection. Melons, squashes, pumpkins, the pulses, garden vegetables,


roots both bulbous and tap rooted, as potatoes, onions, beets, carrots, parsnips, and generally garden and culinary vegetables are raised in great perfection. The soil being more stiff and clayey, and more calculated to retain moisture, than the soils farther to the west, this state has the best garden soil of any in the western country. We have no where seen in this region, very fine asparagus, but in the markets of this state. Fruits of all kinds are raised in the greatest profusion; and apples are as plenty in the cultivated parts of the state, as in any part of the Atlantic country. Cincinnati market is amply supplied with pears, peaches, plumbs, cherries, gooseberries, strawberries, and cultivated grapes. In a few years this state will take place of any in the Union, in the abundance and excellence of its fruits of all kinds. From the fullness and richness of the clusters of cultivated grapes, it is clear, that this ought to be a country of vineyards. The Germans have already made one or two establishments of that kind, it is affirmed, with entire success. Apricots, nectarines, and quinces, succeed; and this state is the appropriate empire of Pomona. Recently, tobacco has been added to the articles cultivated here. The quality and flavor are such as to warrant the expectation, that it will shortly be a principal article of export. Yellow tobacco, which bears a price so much higher, than any other kind, has been found to prosper remarkably. Hemp is an article of cultivation in some parts of the state. Agricultural improvement, however, proceeds with a very slow pace. The people, generally, are not at all given to experiment; and continue to farm in the old and beaten routine. No part of the western country calls more imperiously for agricultural improvement; for this state begins to be thickly settled, and naturally to invite efforts to improve the cultivation. Intelligent and patriotic men are making great exertions


to introduce the cultivation of the vine, and of the mulberry; that wine and silk may be added to the articles of production. These states that are so far from market, and whose bulky articles are so expensive in transportation to market, ought to use every exertion, to introduce a cultivation, that would have more value in a smaller compass of its product. Besides trees and shrubs and vines, this state produces a great abundance of indiginous productions, that are useful in medicine. We may mention actea racemosa, squaw root, Virginia snake root, Indian turnip, ginseng, which is dug in considerable quantities, as an article of commerce, colombo, lobelia, valerian, blood root, or sanguinaria canadensis, and various other herbaceous medicinal plants.

Rivers. Under this head we shall describe the noble and beautiful river, that gives name to the state. If the Mississippi has more grandeur, the Ohio has clearly more beauty. If the Mississippi rolls along its angry and sweeping waters with more majesty, the Ohio far exceeds it in its calm, unbroken course, which seldom endangers the boats on its bosom, except by mismanagement, or by storms. No river, in the world rolls, for the same distance, such an uniform, smooth and peaceful current. Its bluffs and bottoms have a singular configuration of amenity, or grandeur. Sometimes lofty bluffs, 300 feet in height, impend the river and cast their grand shadows into the transparent waters. On the other side are fine bottoms, generally above the overflow, and covered with beautiful forest trees, among which rises the venerable sycamore, the king of the forests; and throws its white arms over the other trees. Whoever has descended this noble river in spring, when its banks are full, and the beautiful red bud, and cornus Florida, deck the declivities of the bluffs, and are seen at intervals in the bottoms; or in the autumn, when


the leaves are all turning yellow, will readily allow the appropriateness of the French name ‘la belle riviere.’ This river is formed by the junction of the Alleghany and Monongahela at Pittsburg. The highest sources of the Alleghany river, are in Potter county, Pennsylvania, twelve miles to the eastward of Coudersport, where they interlock with the head waters of Genesee river, and with the east and west branches of the Susquehannah. From Coudersport, this river holds a north-westwardly course for about twenty miles, during which it is augmented by several streams, and then enters the state of New York. About three miles above the New York line, it receives Orway creek, a considerable stream from the east, and five miles farther it receives Oil creek from the north; and then passes the settlement of Hamilton. It now holds a west course for fifteen miles, and then receives the Tunuanguanta creek from the south. Here the river bends to the north, about seven miles, and receives the Great-valley creek from the north. It then bends to the southwest, and after a course of twenty-five miles, passes again into the state of Pennsylvania, and after a winding southwest course, receives the Connewongo, from the north, at the town of Warren. The river now holds a west course for seven miles, and receives the waters of Brokenstraw creek, from the west. It then bends south-west for thirty miles, and receives the Teonista, from the east. — Twenty miles farther west, it receives Oil creek from the north, and seven miles farther it receives the waters of French creek, from the north-west. By this stream it has a communication with lake Erie. The river now assumes a south-east course, and thirty miles farther receives the waters of Toby's creek, an important stream, which extends 100 miles into the interior of Pennsylvania. Retaining the same course, at thirty miles distance, it receives


Red bank and Mahoning creeks. Passing Kittanning and Crooked creek, twenty-four miles farther, it receives the waters of the Kiskiminitas.

This river is formed by the junction of the Conemaugh and Loyalhanna rivers, which rise near the Alleghany mountains, 100 miles distant. Below this point, the Allegheny continues a south-west course, about thirty-five miles, and reaches Pittsburg, where it unites with the Monongahela. The former river, though it has not a volume apparently wider than the other, is by far the most important tributary of the Ohio. It has a very swift, sweeping and rapid current; and often a rocky bottom, whence huge rocks rise to the surface of the water. — When it is full in the spring, flat and keel boats descend it rapidly, and without danger. It has been navigated by steam boats; but is one of the most difficult currents to stem, which that kind of boats has yet attempted to vanquish.

Monongahela river, the other important branch of the Ohio, rises in Virginia, seventy miles north-west of Morgantown. Twelve miles north of Morgantown, it passes into Pennsylvania; and a few miles farther receives the waters of Cheat river from the east. Seventy miles farther it receives the waters of the Youghiogeny river, or as it is commonly called the Yough, the most important branch of the Monongahela, rising near the upper waters of the Potomac, separated only by a spur of the mountains. From the western declivity of these mountains, both this and the main river receive a great accession of mountain streams. The united stream has now become broad and majestic. It flows in a north-west course to Pittsburg, and where it unites with the Alleghany, is more than 400 yards wide. The Ohio at the junction is something more than 600 yards wide, and immediately assumes that broad, placid


and beautiful character, which it maintains to its junction with the Mississippi. The Monongahela traverses a rich and well settled country, noted for its whiskey, flour, iron and manufactures. The banks are often bold and high bluffs, and in some places the country is hilly. In good stages of the water, it is boatable by large boats 100 miles from its mouth. There are few more rural, picturesque, and delightful tracts of country in the United States, than that on this river.

The Ohio, from its commencement, affords most delightful prospects. Rivers of romantic and beautiful character come in almost at equal distances, as lateral canals. Its bottoms are of extraordinary depth and fertility; generally high and dry, and for the most part healthy; while the configuration of the country on the banks has all that grandeur, or softness, or variety, still changing, and recurring in such combinations, as to destroy a monotonous effect. For thirty miles below Pittsburg, its course is north-west. It then slowly turns to the west south-west, and pursues that general direction 500 miles. Thence south-west 170 miles. Thence westward 280 miles. Thence south-west 170 miles, through that low and swampy country, in which it finds the Mississippi. Between Pittsburg and the mouth, the river is diversified with 100 considerable islands, besides a greater number of tow-heads, and sand bars, which in low stages of the water, greatly impede the navigation. Some of these islands are of exquisite beauty, and afford the most lovely situations for retired farms, that can be imagined. The passages between them, and the sand bars at their head are among the difficulties of the navigation of this river. The order of the entrance of the creeks and rivers, as we descend, is as follows; Chartier's creek, four miles below Pittsburg, from the south. Big beaver, thirty miles below, from the north. Little beaver


falls in, forty-two miles below, from the north. Mill creek forty-three from the south. Big yellow creek fifty-four miles from the north. Crookton's run sixty-two from the north. King's creek sixty-six from the south. Will's creek seventy-one from the north. Harman's creek seventy-two from the south. One mile below this creek is the large and flourishing town of Steubenville. Indian cross-creek seventy-five miles, north. Virginia cross-creek seventy-six miles south. Indian short creek eighty-seven miles. Virginia short-creek, opposite on the south. — Wheeling creek ninety-six miles, south. Just above this creek is the commercial and important town of Wheeling. M'Mahon's creek, south 100. Little grave creek, south 108. Big grave creek, north. Fish creek, south 123. Fishing creek, south 137. Stony creek, north 162. Little Muskingum, north 179. Muskingum, north 183. At the mouth of this river is the considerable town of Marietta. Little Kenhawa, south 197. Little Hockhocking, north 204. Big Hockhocking, north 210. Shade river, north 221. Little Sandy, south 227. Big Sandy, south 231. Great Kenhawa, south 283. On this large and important stream are the most extensive salt works in the western country. Little Guyandot, south 307. Big Guyandot, south 327. Great Sandy, south 341. Little Sandy, south 364. Little Scioto, north 380. Big Scioto, north 390. This is a very important river of Ohio. On its banks are extremely rich lands. The political metropolis, Columbus, is situated on it. A little above its mouth is the considerable village of Portsmouth. The great Erie canal is to enter the Ohio, near the mouth of this river. The former capital of Ohio, Chillicothe, is also on its banks. Turkey creek, north 395. Coneconeque, south 404. — Stout's run, north 418. Brush creek, south 421. Sycamore creek, south 424. Crooked creek, south 444. Limestone


creek, south 452. Just below this creek is the large and important town of Maysville, one of the oldest and most accustomed landings on the Ohio. Eagle creek, north 462. Straight creek, north 468. Bracken creek, south 472. Bullskin creek, north 479. Bear creek, north 488. Big Indian creek, north 492. Muddy creek, north 503. Little Miami river, north 516. Crawfish creek, north 519. Deer creek, north 523. Licking river, south 524. This is an important river of Kentucky, entering the Ohio, between Newport and Covington, and opposite Cincinnati. Mill creek, north 526. Great Miami, north 551. Laughery's creek, north 562. Gun powder creek, south 575. Big bone lick creek, south 583. Kentucky river, south 627. Six miles above this, on the opposite shore, is Vevay, and the beautiful Swiss vineyards. Little Kentucky river, south 628. Beargrass creek, south 706. Just below this creek is the important and commercial town of Louisville, and the only considerable impediment in the navigation of the Ohio from its commencement to its mouth. This impediment is a ledge of rocks, extending across the Ohio, constituting a considerable extent of rapids, called the ’falls of Ohio.‘ A canal round these falls, on the Kentucky side of the river, a work of immense magnitude and utility, is now nearly completed. Salt river, south 730. Falling spring, south 751. Indian or Wyandott creek, north 775. Big Blue river, north 792. Hardin's creek, south 818. Anderson's river, north 851. — Blackford creek, south 864. Green river, south 925. This is an important river of Kentucky. Pigeon creek, north 935. Highland creek, south 993. Wabash, north 1,003. This is a large, beautiful, and important river of Indiana. Saline river, north 1,021. Not far above this creek, is Shawneetown, a considerable village of Illinois. Great quantities of salt are manufactured on this creek. Grand


Pierre creek, north 1,049. Cumberland river, south 1,071. This is a very important river of Tennessee and Kentucky. Tennessee, south 1,084. This is by far the largest, and most important tributary of the Ohio. It waters considerable extents of Alabama, Tennessee and Kentucky. Cash river, north 1,126. Mouth of the Ohio 1,132.

It should be observed, that the distances, as noted by the present steam boat navigators, make the whole distance from Pittsburg to the mouth, fall something short of 1,000 miles. It is true, the distances have seemed much shorter, since they have been measured by the rapid course of the steam boats. But, we apprehend, when measured by the convex side of the bends of the river, the former measurement will be found nearer the exact truth than the latter. We may add, too, that we have not included in the above enumeration more than half the number of breaks through the banks of the Ohio, by the entrance of creeks. We have mentioned, however, the greater number of those, that preserve running water through the summer. Of the above, the following are important rivers, and all navigable, in moderate or high stages of water, by steam boats for considerable distances, viz: Muskingum, Great Kenhawa, Big Sandy, Scioto, Great Miami, Kentucky, Green, Wabash, Cumberland and Tennessee. The three last are important in the order of their standing. The Ohio at Pittsburg is 600 yards wide. At Cincinnati, which may be considered its mean width, it is not much more. Below the Cumberland, its average width is 1,000 yards. Its valley is deep, and heavily timbered, and has no where the slightest indication of prairie. It varies from two to ten miles in width. It is bounded in its whole course by bluffs, sometimes towering sublimely from the shores of the river, and sometimes receding two or three miles. Beyond


the immediate verge of the bottom is a singular line of hills, more or less precipitous, stretching from five to ten miles from the banks. They are known on the Ohio by the familiar appellation of the ‘Ohio hills.’ Different estimates have been made of the rapidity of its current. This rapidity being continually varying, it would be difficult to assign any very exact calculation. It is found, according to the different stages of the water, to vary between one and three miles. In the lowest stages of water in the autumn, a floating substance that went on incessantly, would, probably, not advance a mile an hour. It is subject to extreme elevations and depressions. The average range between high and low water, may be considered about fifty feet. Its lowest stage is in September; and its highest in March. But it is subject to sudden and very considerable rises through the year. It has been known to rise twelve feet in a night When these sudden elevations of the river take place, at the breaking up of the ice, a sweeping scene of desolation sometimes occurs; and boats, and every thing in its course are carried away by the accumulated power of the ice and the water. We remember to have seen nearly all the boats in the harbor of Cincinnati carried off in the breaking up of the ice, in the winter of 1815. Its average descent, in a mile, is not far from six inches. At Cincinnati, the surface of the river, at low water, is supposed to be 130 feet below the level of lake Erie; and 430 above that of the tide water of the Atlantic. Between Pittsburg and the mouth, it makes three and a half degrees of southing in latitude. The average time of the suspension of its navigation, by ice, is, perhaps, five weeks. One half of the remainder of the year, viz: between twenty-four and twenty-five weeks, on an average, it is navigable, by large steam boats, in its whole course. The other half it can be navigated easily,


only by steam boats of a small draft of water; and these can not pass over the falls of the river at Louisville. When the canal, round those falls, shall have been completed, steam boats, of a small draft of water, can descend, at all times, from Pittsburg to the Mississippi. Such are now constructing; and this, together with the completion of the canal, will remove one of the obstructions to an inland passage from the south to the north; the difficulty of getting a passage down the Ohio in the autumn. Flat and keel boats descend the river at all seasons; but in periods of low water with frequent groundings on the sand bars, and the necessity of often unloading to get the boat off. It would be difficult to decide, when the Ohio has the most beautiful appearance, in the spring, when it rolls along between full banks, or in the autumn, when between the ripples it is calm and still, with broad and clean sand bars; or in the ripples, where its transparent waters glide rapidly over the pebbly bottom, showing every thing there, as through the transparency of air. The Ohio, and all its tributaries, can not have less than 5,000 miles of boatable waters; and when we take all the circumstances of the river into consideration, few rivers in the world can vie with it either in utility, or beauty.

The great Miami is, perhaps, the next largest and most interesting river of this state. It rises between 40° and 41°, N. latitude, and interlocks with the Massissiniway of the Wabash, and the St. Mary's and Au Glaise, branches of the Miami of the lakes and the Scioto. It flows in a strong, but generally smooth and unbroken current. It has a valley of uncommon width and fertility, though sometimes subject to inundation. From the west, it receives Loramie's creek, which enters it, 100 miles above its mouth; and Stillwater, which enters it fifty miles below;


and Whitewater, which enters it seven miles above its junction with the Ohio. Its principal eastern branch is Mad river, which rises in the northern part of Logan county, traversing that county, and Clark, and the northwestern corner of Green county. Its general direction is south-west; and the country through which it runs, is singularly fertile and beautiful. The length of its course is something more than fifty miles; and it enters the Miami just above the town of Dayton. It receives its name from its furious and broken current. The chief branches of Mad river are East fork, and King's creek.

Little Miami rises in the south-west corner of Madison county, and in a south-west direction traverses Clark, Green, Warren and Hamilton counties; and joins the Ohio seven miles above Cincinnati. It is not of much importance as a navigable stream; but from the fertility of the lands on its borders, and from its numerous mill seats, it is a river of great utility. There are nearly fifty mills on it; some of them paper mills, and other mills of importance. Its principal branches are East branch, Shawnee, Obannon, Turtle, Todd's fork, Caesar's and Massie's creeks on the eastern side; and Goose and Beaver creek on the west. An hundred miles from its mouth, it has singular rapids, where the river in no great distance falls 200 feet. The stream is here compressed, in some instances, to ten yards in width. The country between the Great and Little Miami is generally finely watered, healthy, pleasant and fertile; and may be considered the garden of the state. Its commercial intercourse is with Cincinnati.

In advancing towards the east from the Little Miami, we cross Big Indian creek, White Oak, Straight, Eagle, Bullskin, Brush, and Turkey creeks. The Scioto is a very considerable river of the Ohio; and has its whole


course in this state. It rises in a morass, north of Logan county. Its general direction is south-east. Its whole course is little short of 200 miles. It enters the Ohio by a mouth 150 yards wide. It is navigable, in good stages of the water, 130 miles. Its principal branches are Whetstone, Big Walnut, Lower Walnut, and Salt creeks, from the east, and Paint, Deer, Darby, Mill and Baker's creeks, from the west. Not far above Columbus, on the bank, is an inexhaustible quarry of free stone, or marble of a beautiful grayish color. There are rich and beautiful prairies on this river; and its valley is uncommonly wide and fertile. When it was first settled, it proved extremely sickly. In the progress of cultivation, that character has passed away; and the Scioto country, as it is familiarly called, is now among the most fertile, eligible, and pleasant parts of the state. Columbus, the political capital of the state, and Chillicothe, which was until recently so, are on this river; and there are many pleasant villages, and much well settled country on it and its waters.

The country between the Scioto and the Muskingum is watered by the great Hockhocking and its waters. It enters the Ohio, 150 miles above the mouth of the Scioto. It is navigable for boats to Athens, forty miles from its mouth. It has a deep and still, but narrow channel. — Near its source, seven miles north of Lancaster, it has a romantic cascade of forty feet perpendicular. It has a number of mills erected on it. Its chief tributaries are Rush, Sunday, Monday, Margaret's and Federal creeks.

The Muskingum rises near the sources of the Cuyahoga, of lake Erie, in the southern part of Connecticut Reserve. Its course is remarkably sinuous; but its general direction is southwardly. It traverses Stark, Tuscarawas, Coshocton, Muskingum, Morgan, and Washington counties.


It enters the Ohio at Marietta, by a mouth 250 yards wide. It is boatable, in good stages of the water, to Coshocton, 100 miles by the course of the river. Small crafts ascend it to a portage of one mile to the boatable waters of Cuyahoga of lake Erie. There are considerable falls in the river at Zanesville, which afford sites for many mill seats. It has been proposed to canal these falls. Some parts of the course of the Muskingum are through a hilly country. The principal branches are Licking, White woman's, Willis', Wolf, Coal, Olive Green, Meigs, Salt, Jonathan, Wakatomka, Stillwater, Sugar, Coneter, Nimishillen and Indian creeks. Above Coshocton, the river itself is generally called Tuscarawas. In the intervals of the precipitous country along this river, the lands are fine; and the country is remarkable for being healthy.

Several considerable creeks enter the Ohio, between the Muskingum and the Pennsylvania line, such as Pawpaw, Little Muskingum, Indian, Wheeling, Captina, Stony and Sunfish creeks. These are the principal rivers, that enter the Ohio and its waters. But the table lands of this state have a general inclination either to the Ohio, or to lake Erie; and a number of considerable rivers run from the northern belt of this table land, and enter lake Erie. The principal of these is the Maumee, or as it has been called the Maurice, or Miami of the lakes.

The Maumee rises in the north-eastern angle of the state of Indiana; and flows in a north-east direction, across the north-western borders of the state of Ohio into the western extremity of lake Erie. It is navigable thirty-three miles from its mouth; and the navigation is there obstructed by shoals and rapids. It is a broad, deep stream, with an average width from 150 to 200 yards. It is formed by the confluence of the St. Joseph's, St. Mary's, and the Great and Little Au Glaize. This important river has


a course of more than 100 miles. Fort Meigs, a fortification of so much note in the late war, is on this river. It has a valuable fishery, and its banks, in the season of vegetation, are remarkable for the luxuriance of their verdure. The St. Joseph's of this river heads in Indiana, is a considerable stream, and is boatable fifty miles. The St. Mary's, another of its branches, has a long course of boat navigation. The Au Glaize is also a considerable stream, that passes through the Indian country, and falls into the Maumee at fort Winchester, fifty miles below fort Wayne. Touisaint river enters the lake, twenty miles east of the Maumee. It may rather be considered an arm of the lake, than a river. It rises in the prairie, has no perceptible current, and is choaked with wild rice, aquatic plants and grass. In summer it abounds with wild fowls, and otters, and muskrats are trapped in great numbers by the Indians on it. Portage is an inconsiderable river, heading not far from Urbana. Like most of the rivers, that rise in these level lands, and fall into the lake, it has very little current. It is 150 yards wide at its mouth.

The Sandusky rises in the western limits of Richland county. It runs in a general north-west direction, ninety or 100 miles, to the lake. It is more rapid, than the other lake streams; but yet affords good navigation. Its chief branches are Tyemochtee, Honey, and Wolf creeks. Between this river and the Scioto, there is a portage of only four miles. It has been proposed to canal this portage. There are fine bodies of land on the banks of this stream. Huron falls into the lake by a mouth fifty yards wide. Its comparative course is about thirty miles. Rocky river is a stream of considerable importance. The lands on its banks are fine, and it has a rich and thriving settlement on it.


Cuyahoga rises in the central parts of Geauga county. It passes through Portage and Cuyahoga counties; and enters the lake at Cleaveland. Its whole course is sixty miles, for the greater part of which distance it is boatable. Above where it is boatable, it has valuable mill seats. Cleaveland, which bids fair to become a place of importance, is at its mouth.

Chagrin, Grand, Ashtabula, and Coneaught are considerable streams, that rise near the lake, and run northwardly and fall into it. Ohio is the country of hills and vales, delightfully irrigated with springs, brooks, and rivers of every class and size. There are more than an hundred streams in this state, not here enumerated, which, for seven months in the year, carry a considerable mass of waters. A remark, which applies to the whole western country, applies, also, here, that a great number of considerable streams, during the winter months, disappear before the evaporating ardors of the summer's sun.

Minerals and Mineral Springs. In the eastern and north-eastern divisions of this state, on the Muskingum, Hockhocking and Scioto, mineral coal abounds. It is in the greatest abundance, and of the best quality. It so happens, that in the same regions are found the greatest bodies of iron ore. Nature seems thus to have furnished the industrious people of this state with every possible facility for the most important manufactures. Lime stone, marble, and free stone, in strata easy to quarry, near the surface, and admirably adapted to building, and public works, abound. The useful earths and fossils are in abundance. Specimens of gypsum are said to be procured from Sandusky bay. Salt springs are common. In some, the water contains almost as much salt, as that of the sea. The most important manufactures of this article are in Muskingum, Morgan, Jackson, and Gallia counties. Nearly


a half a million bushels are manufactured in the state. Those springs, whose waters are drunk, as medicinal, are most of them more or less impregnated with muriate of soda. The Yellow springs, near the falls of the Little Miami, are considerably frequented by invalids. The country, in which they are situated, is healthy and charmingly romantic; and, probably, contributes as much as the waters, to the restoration of the sick.

Climate. A remark, that has already been made of this valley in general, applies to this state with equal truth. Climate here remarkably corresponds to latitude. If there be other elements, that operate upon the result, they are elevation, and proximity to rivers and waters, or distance from them. The climate, for instance, along the immediate valley of the Ohio is more equable and temperate, than in the middle and table lands of the state; and the difference is greater, than can be attributed merely to the difference of latitude. The central parts of the state are in the same latitude with Philadelphia. The mean temperature of the year at Philadelphia was found to be 53°. In the same year the mean temperature of Ohio was 55°. As we recede from the Ohio, the temperature diminishes, as we remarked, in a greater ratio, than that of the latitude. The prevalent and warm winds are those, that blow from the gulf, and up the valley of the Mississippi. The cold breezes come charged with the cold of Canada and the lakes. In that part of the state, that slopes to the south, the snow neither falls deep, nor lies long. But in Connecticut Reserve, and in the parts of the state, that slope towards the lakes, they have deep and durable snows; and sleighing and sledding are pursued for a considerable length of time. It is a great inconvenience in this climate, that during the winter months the transitions, alternately from warm to cold, and the reverse,


are frequent, and violent. Thaws and frosts are the result; and the soil, being deep and clayey, the travelling is very muddy and uncomfortable. The winters are sometimes considerably severe, and the Ohio has been crossed at Cincinnati for eight or nine weeks. Oftentimes the winters are mild, and can scarcely be said to be more than a prolongation of autumn and spring. The winter seldom commences in severity, until Christmas; its severity is generally mitigated early in February. Vegetation, which is after all the most certain and accurate thermometer, indicates a temperature of greater mildness and forwardness in the season, than in the corresponding latitudes, in the Atlantic. The heat of the summer, in the Ohio valley, is uniformly oppressive; but it does not commence early, nor continue late in the season. It is believed, that the heat of the summer abates as early here, in the autumn, as in the more northern latitudes in the Atlantic country. The autumns are almost uniformly temperate, dry, and beautiful; and nothing can exceed them for health and pleasantness. Nowhere in the world, is the grand autumnal painting of the forests, in the decay of vegetation, seen in more beauty, than in the beech forests of Ohio. The richness of the fading colors, and the effect of the mingling hues, baffles all description. On the whole, a great farming community like that of Ohio, could scarcely desire a better climate for themselves, their cattle and stock of all kinds; or one, in which a man can work abroad, with comfort, a greater number of days in the year.

Antiquities. We have space to add but little, to what we have said upon this subject, in our general remarks upon the valley of the Mississippi. The most remarkable mounds in this state are at Worthington, Granville, Athens, Marietta, Galliopolis, Paint creek, Circleville, and on the


Little Miami. The domestic utensils, the pottery, vases and trinkets of the inhabitants, who, probably, reared them, are found in and about the mounds. The instruments of their warfare are discovered, too; and give clear indications, that they, also, possessed the horrid art of shedding human blood. Most of the human bones, which are dug in great quantities from the mounds, moulder on exposure to the air. The skulls, in most instances remain, and great numbers are shown in the museums; and they evidence a surprising variety in the retreat of the facial angle of the skulls. It is affirmed, that marks of iron tools are found upon the wood, that is dug up from considerable depths below the surface of the prairies. A sword is preserved, as a curiosity, which is said to have been enclosed in the wood of the roots of a tree, which could not have been less than 500 years old. We have not seen this sword; but we have seen a diminutive iron horse shoe, which was dug up at a depth of twenty-five feet below the surface, in graduating the street near the mansion of judge Burnet of Cincinnati. It was smaller than the kind of shoe, required for the smallest kind of asses. A number of the nails were in it; and the erosion by rust was such, as might be expected to result from the oxidation of 500 years. Many of the mounds are composed of a different earth, from that which is found in their vicinity. It is the most inexplicable of all the mysterious circumstances, connected with these mounds, that the material of these immense structures, some of which would require the labor of a thousand men for some time in the erection, should have been brought from a distance. There is no conceivable motive to us, why the earth, on which the mounds rest, should not have subserved all purposes, that we can imagine the builders to have had in view, as well as that from a distance. We know with what scrupulous care the Jews


throw a little of the earth of the holy land into the graves of their friends. Possibly this transfer of earth for the mounds, from a distance, may have reference to affecting remembrances, like those of the Jews. We have elsewhere described the most remarkable mound in Ohio, which is at Circleville. Engravings of its form may be seen in many books, that treat professedly upon such subjects.

Population. In our historical view of the state, we shall have occasion to speak of the origin and wonderful progress of this state. In 1790, the population was estimated at 3,000. In 1800, it was 45,365. In 1810, it was 230,760. In 1820, it was 581,434. In 1830, there is no doubt, but it will exceed a million. The population, in regard to its distribution, is exhibited in the following table:

Civil Divisions.
Counties. Whites. Free blacks. All others. Total.
Adams 10,350 56 0 10,406
Ashtabula 7,371 4 7 7,382
Athens 6,312 26 0 6,338
Belmont 20,102 227 0 20,329
Brown 13,018 338 0 13,356
Butler 21,588 158 0 21,746
Champaign 8,330 149 0 8,479
Clark 9,491 42 0 9,533
Clermont 15,791 29 0 15,820
Clinton 8,039 46 0 8,085
Columbiana 21,873 160 0 22,033
Coshocton 7,067 19 0 7,086
Cuvahoga 6,274 54 0 6,328
Darke 3,699 18 0 3,717
Delaware 7,602 37 0 7,639
Fairfield 16,611 22 0 16,633
Fayette 6,291 25 0 6,316
Franklin 10,040 132 120 10,292
Gallia 6,957 141 0 7,098


Counties. Whites. Free blacks. All others. Total.
Geuga 7,785 6 0 7,791
Greene 10,468 53 8 10,529
Guernsey 9,240 52 0 9,292
Hamilton 21,922 200 0 22,122
City of Cincinnati, in Hamilton co. 9,209 433 0 9,642
Harrison 14,317 28 0 14,345
Highland 12,137 171 0 12,308
Hocking 2,130 0 0 2,130
Huron 6,668 7 0 6,675
Jackson 3,710 36 0 3,746
Jefferson 18,314 217 0 18,531
Knox 8,306 20 0 8,326
Lawrence 3,476 23 0 3,499
Licking 11,823 38 0 11,861
Logan 3,103 78 0 3,181
Madison 4,777 22 0 4,799
Medina 3,068 14 0 3,082
Meigs 4,477 3 0 4,480
Miami 8,791 60 0 8,851
Monroe 4,634 11 0 4,645
Montgomery 15,926 73 0 15,999
Morgan 5,282 15 0 5,297
Muskingum 17,631 193 0 17,824
Perry 8,411 18 0 8,429
Pickaway 13,011 138 0 13, 149
Pike 4,131 122 0 4,253
Portage 10,073 22 0 10,095
Preble 10,205 32 0 10,237
Richland 9,139 30 0 9,169
Ross 20,117 502 0 20,619
Sandusky 849 3 0 852
Scioto 5,714 36 0 5,750
Shelby 2,097 9 0 2,106
Starke 12,380 26 0 12,406
Trumbull 15,492 50 4 15,546
Tuscarawas 8,324 4 0 8,323
Union 1,988 8 0 1,996
Warren 17,650 187 0 17,837
Washington 10,326 99 0 10,425
Counties. Whites. Free blacks. All others. Total.
Wayne 11,933 0 0 11,933
Wood 732 1 0 733
Total 576,572 4,723 139 581,434


By this census it appears, that there were 130,460 men, over eighteen years, capable of bearing arms. At the same time 110,991 persons were engaged in agriculture; 18,956 in manufactures, and 1,459 in commerce, or merchandize. There were at that time 3,495 foreigners in the state, not naturalized. No colony in history has ever shown a greater natural increase in population. No country can show a greater number of young children, in proportion to the whole number of the inhabitants. Among the obvious causes of this great increase, may be mentioned the circumstance of their being no slavery allowed in Ohio. The climate is, unquestionably, healthy. The state is divided into moderately sized freeholds. Most of the people are engaged in the healthy and vigorous pursuits of agriculture. The soil yields, in the greatest profusion, all that is necessary for healthy and comfortable subsistence. Whatever be the cause, the multitudes of children, that are seen about the farm houses, in the country, and that fill the streets of the villages and towns, do not fail to be the remark of every passing traveller.

Religion. In our table of religious denominations, see appendix, we have given general views of the comparative numbers of the different religious denominations. There are numbers of all the known existing sects. But the presbyterians and the methodists are the prevalent denominations. The shakers and tunkers have establishments in this state. German Lutherans exist in considerable numbers. Most people are desirous of being thought to belong


to some religious denomination. It is affirmed by a gentleman, well known for his researches into the antiquities of this state, that there are a greater number of professors of religion, in proportion to the whole numbers of the people, than in any state in the Union. There are a vast number of religious societies; but there are not a great number, that have regularly established pastors. The custom of itinerating preaching, as a supply, is very prevalent in the whole state. The people are generally a quiet, orderly, peaceable, moral and industrious race. Suicide, excesses, murders in affray, and instances of deliberate and atrocious cruelty, are rare; and the general moral character of the people is highly respectable.

In a country so fresh, much taste for embellishment or improvement in the fine arts, can not be reasonably expected. From New England and New Jersey this state inherits a passion for sacred music; and societies for the promotion of this delightful science are common over all the state. A vast number of New England music masters here find annual employment in their vocation. There appears, also, to be a general taste for instrumental music; as is manifested in seeing in great numbers of the farm houses and cabins, rude harps and other home manufactured instruments of music. In passing the detached mansions of the Ohio farmers, in the winter evenings, we generally find the interior cheered with the sound of some kind of music. A taste for ornament, and those arts which embellish society and existence, is evidently increasing. On anniversaries, the people are much addicted to show, parade and splendor. There is a great fondness for a large and stately house. Gardening is studied in many places; and Cincinnati shows a number of gardens, that will vie with almost any in the United States.


Literature. Five chartered colleges exist in this state. The Ohio university at Athens, the Miami university at Oxford, the Cincinnati university, the Cincinnati college, the Worthington college; and we may add, the medical college of Ohio, established at Cincinnati, and the Kenyon Episcopal college recently established with ample funds and endowments in a remote part of the state. Some of these institutions are in respectable operation. Some of them possess libraries, and philosophical, and chemical apparatus, to a considerable extent. But it is questionable, if they are not all injured in public estimation, by the imposing names, which they take. There are a great number of incorporated academies, the number of which, as new ones are incorporated at every new session of the legislature, can not be exactly ascertained. Those, that are known at present, exist at Burton, New Lisbon, Steubenville, Cadiz, Union, Marietta, Galliopolis, Chillicothe and Dayton. It may naturally be inferred, that a people in a great measure patterned after the New England fashion, could not be destitute of a strong purpose to give their children a good common school education. There are a great number of schools kept up in different parts of the state. But the system of supporting primary schools, has hitherto been desultory and fluctuating. In its small freeholds, in its frequent villages, in the fondness of the people for municipal arrangements, in the general spirit of independence and equality, that prevails throughout this state, in the honest pride of wishing to have their children educated, the people are supposed much to resemble those of New England. Great efforts have been made to introduce her glorious institutions for the support of free schools. The people have hitherto failed to adopt this noble system, through alarm at the face of compulsion, that it wears. They seem to dread being compelled even to seek their


own good, and that of their children. The friends of this benificent and noble system are still alert, and striving to diffuse its inestimable benefits to Ohio. A half mill on every dollar of the state taxes, is appropriated for the support of common schools.

Trade and Manufactures. This state, as we have already remarked, more populous, than any other in the West, and possessing in many respects manufacturing capabilities, has taken the lead of all the rest in manufactures. Cotton yarns and cloth and woollen goods, are, already manufactured to a considerable extent. Cincinnati contains a great mass of intelligent and enterprising manufacturers. Steubenville, Zanesville, Chillicothe, and many other of the young and rising towns are commencing manufactures with great spirit. In 1810, the manufactures of the state amounted to nearly two million of dollars. They must have more than doubled since that time. Some of the items were then as follow. Woollen, cotton, and linen cloth, 1,000,000. Leather, and articles of leather, 154,000. Iron, nails, and machinery, 224,000. Maple sugar, 302,000. At present, glass, paper, iron, and cabinet furniture are among the principal articles manufactured. Of trade, horses, cattle, swine, whiskey and flour, compose the principal domestic articles, sent abroad in exchange for foreign commodities. In 1810, 40,000 head of swine were driven from this state to Philadelphia, Baltimore, and the eastern markets. During the war, this state furnished ample supplies to the armies on the northern frontier. The northern and eastern counties send great quantities of produce to Montreal and New York, by the way of lake Erie. When the great Erie canal shall be completed, it is believed, that the greater part of the produce of the state will find its way to the Atlantic markets. Very considerable amounts of produce have


heretofore been sent to Missouri. The result of the enterprise of the industry of the mechanics finds its way over all the western country. But hitherto three-quarters of the produce of the state has been carried to the New Orleans market. Vast numbers of horses and cattle are driven over the mountains. The net amount of horses, thus sold, was estimated, in 1826, at 400,000 dollars. The principal manufactures, at present, are flour, distilled spirits, cotton and woollen goods, linseed, castor, and medicinal oils, salt, castings, iron, steam engines, cabinet furniture, &c. The whole amount of taxable property in the state, in 1825, was valued at 59,527,336 dollars.

Chief Towns. This is an article, so copious in the description of this state, that it will be difficult to do it justice, without going into an extent, which is foreign to the plan of this work.

Cincinnati is the chief town of this state, the emporium of the western country; and far larger than any other town in the Mississippi valley, except New Orleans. The next town to it, in point of numbers, is Pittsburg. Pittsburg and Louisville, in commercial importance, rank next to this place; but each with a considerable interval. It has not hitherto been considered abroad, as being peculiarly picturesque and beautiful, in its situation. But we have considered it as such. It is situated on a fine plateau, consisting of a first and second bottom. The eye easily traces all the extent of the bottom, in the centre of which this town is placed. A bold line of ‘Ohio hills,’ sweeps round the whole extent; being separated at the upper and lower extremity only by the river Ohio. These hills have a fine soil; and are wooded to their summits. Their outline of indentation, of swell, and retreat, give them, especially in the season of verdure, great beauty of form. Nothing can exceed the softness and richness of this verdure; and


from the summit of one of these hills, the town is seen in all its beauty. The eye, from that point, traces the regularity and conformation of its streets with entire precision. All, that is yet rough and unformed, resulting from the freshness of the city, and its yet embryo improvements, disappears, and the city, its numerous buildings, its neat gardens, its manufactories, throwing up black columns of steam, its boat yard, its passing mass of life, the Ohio winding between it and the handsome villages of Newport and Covington, on the opposite shore, the fine seats, that on that shore show themselves to so much advantage, the lofty meandering sweep of hills, that bounds the prospect, present a panorama of picturesque scenery, that we have not often seen surpassed.

The circumference of the plateau, in the centre of which this town stands, is said to be twelve miles in extent. On the west, it is bounded by the hills of Mill creek; on the north by the river hills; east by the hills of Deer creek. To the eye this valley is divided into equal sections by the Ohio. The section on the Kentucky side is subdivided by the river Licking, which separates between Newport and Covington. On the Kentucky side, the hills have much the same sweep and configuration, as on the Ohio side. Cincinnati shows to the best advantage from the summit of the Kentucky hills; and seen at certain times and under favorable aspects from this point of view, can not fail to fill the eye of the beholder with delight.

The Lexington newspaper is still seen, as a curiosity, in which the town lots of Cincinnati are advertised for sale. It was in the first paper printed in Kentucky. Judge Symmes was the original patentee. Robert Patterson, John Filson, it is believed the same, who was author of the history of Kentucky, and Matthias Denman, afterwards became sharers with him in the original plat of the


town. The first laying out of the town was in 1789. In 1808, the land around fort Washington, which belonged to the government, was sold in lots.

The town is built partly on the bottom, and partly on the hill. The ascent from the bottom to the hill was originally rough and precipitous. But wherever the plan of the corporation has been carried into effect, this ascent has been smoothed, and graduated, so as to be easy and pleasant, with a gentle angle of ascent. The upper part of the city is elevated from fifty to sixty feet above the lower part. Seven of the streets are sixty-six feet wide, and 396 feet apart. The cross streets, of the same width and distance, intersect them at right angles. The lots reserved for public buildings, are a fraction of a square between Main and Broad way streets, and an entire square between Fourth and Fifth streets. The buildings stretch over an irregular extent of ground, occupying a very large space, that is not yet filled up; though numerous buildings are rising upon it, in every direction. The central part of the town is very compact; and Main street would not discredit any town in the United States. Its public buildings are a court house, fifty-six by sixty feet, and 120 in height to the top of the dome; a public jail near the court house; three market houses, the one 300 feet in length, the other 200, and the third 150; the United States' bank, which has a front, including the wings, of sixty feet, two stories high, built of free stone in front, and presenting a very respectable appearance; the Medical college, fifty-four feet by thirty-six, and two stories high above the pediment Besides its windows it has an octagonal sky light. The Hospital, or Lunatic Asylum is fifty-three feet in front, by forty-three in depth; three stories in height. It stands in a fine roomy lot, containing four acres. The Cincinnati college, formerly the Lancastrian seminary, has two projecting


wings, and is eighty-eight feet in depth. The first presbyterian church is sixty-eight by eighty-five feet, surmounted with two cupolas. The Roman catholic cathedral, is a very handsome church, 110 feet by fifty. The episcopal church is a respectable brick building. Besides these, there is the second presbyterian church, the methodist stone church, the Wesleyan methodist church, the first baptist church, the Enon baptist church, the German Lutheran church, the New Jerusalem church, the Friends' church, the African church; and two or three other religious denominations occupy buildings, temporarily, as churches. The Cincinnati theatre is an indifferent looking building externally. It is 100 by forty feet; and has an Ionic portico. Beside these there are a number of splendid private mansions in this city.

This city is amply supplied with water from the Ohio by steam power. A chartered company has the management of this water; and they convey it to every family that chooses to have it, for a stipulated sum. The greater part of the families in the compact part of the city are already supplied with it.

There are four substantial fire engines, and as many fire companies under fine order and discipline. Five large brick cisterns are required to be kept constantly full of water. In cases of fire, these companies manoeuvre with great promptitude, skill and decision.

Each day in the week is a market day. The meats, fowls, vegetables, flour, meal, and fruits are admirable, both for quality and abundance. Lines of market wagons a half a mile in length are seen in the streets. The fruits and vegetables are improving every year. It seems to be the general impression of strangers, that for abundance, cheapness and excellence of the articles supplied, no town of the size in the United States is superior to Cincinnati.


The following are among the prominent charitable societies of the city. The humane society for recovering drowned persons. It has a fine apparatus and consists of 300 members. The Miami bible society. The female auxiliary society. The female charitable missionary society. The female association for the benefit of Africans. The western navigation bible and tract society. The Union Sabbath school society. The colonization society. Three masonic lodges. The commercial hospital and lunatic asylum. The state has made liberal appropriations for this institution; and it is already an efficient charity for those objects of wretchedness, for whose comfort it was provided. The Kidd fund appropriated 100 dollars a year forever for the education of the poor children and youth of Cincinnati. At present the possession of the ground, from which this fund was raised, is in litigation. The Woodward free grammar school of Cincinnati is a munificent charity; and promises to be an efficient one. It is hoped, that in 1828, the avails of this fund will be sufficient for the gratuitous education of sixty of the poor children of the city.

The medical college received a charter in 1820. In 1825, the number of medical students was eighty-two. The Cincinnati college was chartered in 1819. The Lancastrian school in the same building, which was suspended for some years, is now resumed under its former instructor. The Cincinnati female academy, under the care of Dr. Locke, is a school of the first class of its kind. The Cincinnati female school under the care of Messrs. Pickets, has also a high reputation. The classical academy, under the care of Rev. C. B. M'Kee, and Dr. Slack's school, have extensive reputation. There are a great number of respectable boarding and town schools, in which a number of children, far beyond the ordinary proportion


for such a population are instructed. The Cincinnati reading room, is a respectable establishment of the kind. The Western museum is a noble institution, when the age of the city is taken into consideration. It is rich in the organic remains of the western country; in birds, fishes, reptiles and insects; in fossils and minerals; in botanical specimens, medals, coins, and tokens, in foreign and American antiquities; in panoramic views, wax figures and micellaneous curiosities. The whole number of curiosities exceeds 10,000. Letton's museum is, also respectable, containing articles similar to the former, and is managed with great industry and enterprize by the proprietor, Mr. Letton. The number of curiosities is between two and three thousand. The Cincinnati library contains 1,300 volumes, and is becoming of great utility to the general literature of the city. The apprentices library contains 1,200 volumes, and is intended for the benefit of apprentices and mechanics; and is one of the most beneficent and noble institutions in the city. There are twelve newspapers and periodical works published in the city. Efforts are now making to establish an academy of the fine arts, under the care of Mr. Eckstein. It is to be hoped, the citizens of the city will patronize this honorable enterprize.

The government of the city is vested in a mayor and aldermen; and its municipal judicature is in the city court The city tax, in 1826, was nearly 30,000 dollars. The appropriations in the same year were 20,000; and the net revenue of the city 23,000. Much of the expenditure has been for the construction of quays, and wharfs, paving, and graduating the streets, paving gutters, and setting up curbstones. These works of public utility are pursued with great energy, economy and skill. It is believed, that no place in the United States carries into effect, works of


this sort with more spirit and success. Cincinnati began to be settled in 1788. It began to be a village, in 1805. In 1810, the population was 2,300. In 1813, 4,000. In 1819, 10,283. In 1824, 12,016. In 1826, 16,230. Among these, there are twenty-eight clergymen, thirty-four attorneys, thirty-five physicians, 800 persons employed in mercantile pursuits, 500 in navigation, and 3,000 in manufactures. There are between thirty and forty considerable manufacturing establishments. Among which, the most important are the Cincinnati steam mill, the mill for sawing stone, which also contains four or five other manufacturing establishments under the same roof, and moved by the same power; the Phoenix foundry, the Franklin foundry, the Eagle foundry, Tift's steam engine establishment, Greene's steam engine establishment, Shield's engine finishing establishment, Goodloe's and Harkness' establishment, which is a cotton factory; the Aetna foundry, Kirk's steam engine and finishing establishment, Allen & Co's. chemical laboratory, powder mill, Phoenix paper mill, the Cincinnati steam paper mill, the woolen factory, the sugar refinery, the white lead factory, Wells' type foundry, and printer's warehouse, three large boat yards for building steam boats, extensive hat manufactories, and cabinet furniture manufactories, ten printing establishments, from which issued, in 1826, nearly 200,000 books and pamphlets, besides newspapers and periodicals. The whole value of the manufactures, in all the departments of industry in this city, is estimated at 1,850,000 dollars.

Cincinnati is a place of extensive importation, for the supply of the extensive country, that depends upon it There are a number of respectable mercantile firms, two of which import directly from Europe. It is expected, that it will soon become a port of entry. At present its commerce is as extensive, as the courses of steam and keel


boats; and it is increasing every year. Sixty steam boats have already been built here; burthen 11,225 tons. Some of the largest and most beautiful boats, that have appeared on the western waters, have recently been built here. Between the 5th and 12th of February, 1827, arrived in this port and departed from it, twenty-one steam boats, tonnage 4,117.

The imports of the city exceed the exports, from the circumstance, that no inconsiderable amount of the imports is brought here for re-exportation. Of course, the amount of imports, compared with the exports, does not go to show the balance of trade. The imports, in 1826, were 2,528,590 dollars. The exports in the same year were 1,063,560 dollars. Flour and pork are the principal items among the exports. The avails of the post office in 1826, were 8,162 dollars. In that year, 3,750 free letters were mailed in it, and twenty mails were received and sent off weekly. The public offices are, the United States' land office, United States' branch bank, Ohio insurance company, with a capital of 500,000 dollars, Cincinnati equitable insurance company; and the Protection insurance office, established in Hartford, Connecticut, with an agency, or branch in this city. Three other insurance companies, one in Connecticut and the other two in New York, have agencies here.

Cincinnati is in latitude 39° 6' 30" north, and in longitude 7° 24' 45" west from Washington; by the course of the river, 455 miles from Pittsburg and 504 from the Mississippi, 110 from Columbus, 200 from Sandusky, 120 from Indianapolis, 85 from Frankfort, 680 from Natchez, 270 from Nashville, 860 from New Orleans, 350 from St. Louis, 105 from Louisville, 518 from Baltimore, 850 from New York, by the way of the Erie and New York canal.


Columbus is the political metropolis of the state, and is very nearly the geographical centre of it. It is situated on the east bank of the Scioto river, in the centre of Franklin county. It occupies a beautiful slope, just below the confluence of Whetstone river, with the Scioto. It was a compact forest in 1812. It now contains nearly 1,500 inhabitants. It has a number of respectable schools and a classical seminary. There are the customary number of stores, a bank, three printing offices, a commodious brick market house, a state house, a building for the public offices, and a penitentiary. The state house is seventy-five by fifty feet. The top of the cupola is 106 feet high. Around it are railed walks, from which the whole town is visible, as on a map. It commands a delightful landscape, over a country charmingly variegated, as extensive as the eye can reach. The village of Franklinton, a mile to the west, and the winding Scioto, are comprehended in this view. The building that contains the public offices, is 100 by twenty-five feet. In a line with it and the state house is the handsome court house for the Federal court. These buildings are all on the public square, an area of ten acres, reserved for public use in the centre of the town. The penitentiary is in the south-west angle of the town, and is enclosed with a high stone wall. It is in N. latitude 39° 57' and 6° W. longitude, distant fifty-eight miles from Zanesville; 114 from Marietta; twenty-eight from Lancaster; forty-five from Chillicothe; ninety from the mouth of the Scioto; and 101 north-eastwardly from Cincinnati. The circumstance of its being the political capital, attracts to it a great number of respectable people; and the society is distinguished and polite. It is a memorable sample of a town, that has grown up from the woods, like the prophet's gourd, in a night. A stranger, in a polished circle in this town, enjoying all the luxuries and


comforts of a city, can hardly figure to himself, that the ground, on which he stands, was so recently covered with a thick forest.

Steubenville, the seat of justice for Jefferson county, is situated on the west bank of the Ohio. It was laid out with great regularity, in 1798. It is in the centre of a rich and populous country. The town was incorporated, in 1805, with city privileges. It contains three churches, a handsome market house, a woollen factory, a steam paper mill, a flour mill, and a cotton factory. A manufacturing spirit is increasing in this flourishing town, and new establishments are in progress and in contemplation. It has a printing office; two banks; twenty-seven mercantile stores; sixteen public inns; an air foundry, and other mechanical establishments. This town has had an uncommonly rapid growth, and is, probably, the next place in point of importance, to Cincinnati. In 1820, it contained 2,479 inhabitants, and now probably contains 3,000. It is distant thirty-eight miles south-west from Pittsburg; twenty-five north-east from St. Clairsville; 150 north-east from Columbus; N. latitude 40° 25', W. longitude 3° 40'. Zanesville is the seat of justice for Muskingum county, and is situated on the east bank of the Muskingum river, just below the falls of the river. On these falls are a number of manufacturing mills driven by water power, among which are several flouring and saw mills, an oil mill, a rolling mill, a nail machine, and wool factory. Two handsome bridges across the Muskingum connect the town with West Zanesville and Putnam, so as to identify them with the town. Taken altogether, the inhabitants, in 1820, were 3,000. They have much increased since. It contains a handsome court house, twenty-one mercantile stores, two glass factories, two printing offices, a presbyterian, baptist, catholic, and a methodist church


and 317 dwelling houses, some of which make a show of splendor. Zanesville is beginning to manufacture largely in iron, and promises to become one of the largest manufactoring towns in Ohio. It is situated in N. latitude 40° W, longitude 5° 2', eighty miles westerly from Wheeling in Virginia; sixty-one north-westerly from Marietta; seventy north-east from Chillicothe; and fifty-eight east from Columbus.

Chillicothe is the county town of Ross county, and is handsomely situated on a level alluvial plain on the west bank of the Scioto river, forty-five miles in a right line from its entrance into the Ohio. The town is bounded on the north by the Scioto, and on the south, at the distance of three-quarters of a mile, by Paint creek. The principal streets run parallel with the course of the Scioto. It is laid out with great regularity, the principal streets crossing each other at right angles. It was laid off in 1796, and now contains nearly 3,000 inhabitants. It contains two printing offices, a bank, thirty mercantile stores, and two medical stores. It has also, four cotton spinning factories, a rope walk, an oil mill, a fulling mill, several saw mills, a paper mill, and a number of flouring mills, including one of steam power, either in the town, or in the immediate vicinity.

The presbyterians, methodists, and seeders, have each a church here. It has also, an academy, a court house, a jail and a stone market house. From the summit of a hill, rising abruptly on the south-west side of the town, is a most delightful view of the town and circumjacent country, interspersed alternately with woods and verdant lawns, through which the Scioto pursues his winding course to the Ohio. This town is in the centre of the beautiful and fertile Scioto country. The situation is favorable, and every way delightful; but yet it does net flourish, like other towns, apparently


less favorably situated. In the midst of this town, formerly stood one of the most interesting mounds of the the cone shaped form. In levelling it for the purpose of building upon it, great quantities of human bones were found in it. Chillicothe is forty-five miles south of Columbus; seventy-five north-east from Maysville, in Kentucky; and ninety-three north-east from Cincinnati. — N. latitude 89° 20' W. longitude 5° 53'.

Marietta is the seat of justice for Washington county. It is beautifully situated, a little above the mouth of Muskingum river. It contains two churches, an academy, the public county buildings, two printing offices, a bank, twenty stores, about 100 houses, and the whole township exceeds 2,000 inhabitants. The people are noted for their industry and sobriety; and for the politeness and urbanity of their manners.

Ships were formerly built here; but from some cause, the business has been discontinued. The soil is exceedingly fertile around the town; and it has many advantages of position. But it has not flourished, like some other towns. One cause of this may be, that it has experienced, more than once, inundations of the river, in some of which the water has risen in the principal streets eight or ten feet Great numbers of buildings, barns and cattle, were swept away. It has also experienced severe sickness. But all these disadvantages notwithstanding, its extraordinary fertility, and its natural advantages, will cause it to become a large and populous town. It was one of the first settled towns in the state. It was originally laid out by the Ohio company, in 1787. And in the following spring, it was settled by eight families. The first settlers were from New England. Among the founders of this establishment, was general Putnam, whose name and character are recorded in the history of this state. It is distant 315


miles from Washington, and ninety-three from Chillicothe; 186 from Cincinnati, and 109 south-eastwardly, from Columbus. N. latitude 39° 25', W. longitude 4° 28'.

Lancaster is the seat of justice for Fairfield county, situated nearly in the centre of it, and is entirely an inland place. It is near the source of Hockhocking river, on the road from Zanesville to Chillicothe. It is intended to connect this town with the great Erie canal, by a lateral canal. It is a large, handsome, and well built village. A considerable number of its inhabitants are Germans. It contains more than 200 houses, and about 1,200 inhabitants. It has a number of public buildings, twelve stores, a church, a bank, and two printing offices, from each of which are issued two weekly papers, in the English and German languages. It is a place of great mechanical enterprize and industry; and when it shall be connected with the great canal, will undoubtedly become a place of considerable importance. It is central to a large and populous country. It is situated twenty-eight miles south of Columbus, and thirty-six south-westerly from Zanesville.

New Lisbon, the seat of justice for Columbiana, is situated on a branch of the Little Beaver, fourteen miles from the Ohio. It contains a court house, a jail, a bank, two churches of brick, six public houses, nine stores, and in the township of which it is the centre, 2,200 inhabitants. It has four merchant, and four saw mills; a paper mill, two woollen factories, a fulling mill and carding machine. It is situated fifty-six miles north-westerly from Pittsburg; and 160 north-easterly from Columbus. N. latitude 40° 49', W. longitude 3° 52'.

Galliopolis is the chief town of Gallia county. It has a court house, jail and an academy. It has eighty houses, and eight stores. It was originally settled by French immigrants. They had been deceived by speculators; and suffered


severely by bilious fevers, in becoming acclimated. Some left in discouragement, many died; and the number of the original French settlers is small.

St. Clairsville is an inland town, and is situated on elevated ground, surrounded by hilly, but fertile lands. It has a court house, jail, market house, a printing office, a bank, fifteen stores, and 800 inhabitants. It is on the great road from Wheeling to Cincinnati; and is distant eleven miles west from the former place.

Portsmouth is the chief town of Scioto county. It is situated on the eastern bank of the Scioto, just above its junction with the Ohio. A great amount of commission business for the Scioto country is done here; and the position, for internal commerce with the state, is exceedingly advantageous. There is a bank, court house, jail, printing office, and the usual number of public buildings, mechanic shops, and stores, for a town of the size of this. By the last census, it contained 527 inhabitants. It has increased since that time. The great Ohio canal, it is expected, will here communicate with the Ohio, which must at once render this town a place of great consequence. It is forty-five miles south of Chillicothe, and ninety in the same direction from Columbus. N. latitude, 38° 48', W. longitude 5° 53'.

Circleville, on the east bank of the Scioto, is the county town of Pickaway county. In the limits of the town are two Indian mounds, the one square, the other circular. The town derives its name from being chiefly built in the limits of the circular mound. These mounds are among the most interesting in the western country, and are described elsewhere. The town contains a handsome court house, a printing office, market house, ten stores, various mechanic shops, and about seven hundred inhabitants. — The rich Pickaway plains or prairies, are near this place.


The adjacent wooded lands of lower Walnut creek are equally rich; and this town, central to such extents of fertile soil, must become of considerable importance. The Ohio canal is also expected to pass through this village. — It is situated twenty-six miles south of Columbus, nineteen north of Chillicothe, and twenty miles west of Lancaster. N. latitude 39° 26', W. longitude 5° 53'.

Urbana is the county town of Champaigne county, near Mad river. It contains a court house, a jail, a printing office, a methodist and a presbyterian church, a market house, nine stores, 120 houses and 700 inhabitants. It is distant forty-three miles north-west from Columbus. N. latitude 40° 3', W. longitude 6° 4'.

Xenia, the county town of Green county, is situated on Shawnee creek, and contains a court house, jail, two churches, two printing offices, ten stores, and 600 inhabitants. It is distant forty-four miles north by west from Columbus. Dayton, the chief town of Montgomery county, is charmingly situated on the eastern bank of the Great Miami, just below the confluence of Mad river, and near where the Miami canal connects with the Miami. The waters of Mad river are artificially conducted from that river to the Miami, so as to afford a great number of mill seats. It contains the usual public buildings, two churches, two printing offices, a bank, fifteen stores, and more than 100 dwelling houses. Fine lands surround this town. It has many natural advantages; and when the canal shall connect it with Cincinnati, and, probably, hereafter, when another canal shall connect it with lake Erie; it can not fail to become one of the most considerable towns in this state.

Lebanon is the county town for Warren county. It is between two small branches of Turtle creek. It has the usual public buildings, two churches of brick, and a jail of stone; two market houses, a bank, a printing office, and a


respectable social library. The surrounding country has fine land. It contained in 1820, 1,079 inhabitants. It is distant eighty miles south-westerly from Columbus; and thirty north-easterly from Cincinnati. N. latitude 39° 25', W. longitude 7° 5'.

Athens is the county town of Athens county. It is situated on an elevated bluff, in a bend of the Hockhocking, in a position equally beautiful and healthy. In this village is located the Ohio university. There is already erected for the accommodation of this institution, a handsome edifice, four stories high. The funds, the library, and philosophical apparatus are respectable; and it promises to be an institution of great utility to the interests of the literature of the state. The town contains between forty and fifty houses, a number of stores, a court house, a jail, &c, and has several mills on the river, in its vicinity. It is seventy-three miles south-east from Columbus, forty-one westerly from Marietta, and fifty-two east from Chillicothe. N. latitude 39° 23', W. longitude 5° 5'.

Cleaveland is situated on the southern shore of lake Erie, and is the county town of Cuyahoga county. Its position is at the mouth of Cuyahoga river. During the late war, it was a depot of provisions; and a place where many boats, and lake crafts were built; and it is a noted point of embarkation on the lake. It is a growing place; and the present number of inhabitants far exceeds the last census, which gave 606. It has a number of public buildings, a bank, and a printing office. It is distant 131 miles north-west from Pittsburg; and 150 north-eastwardly from Columbus. N. latitude 41° 31', W. longitude 4° 44'. The great Ohio Canal here connects with the lake; and passes through the central parts of Ohio: preserving for some distance a course parallel to the Scioto; and finally connecting with the Ohio near the mouth of


that river. When this canal shall be completed, this place, intermediate as it is between the New York canal, and Cincinnati, will become of course a large and important place.

Sandusky, now denominated Sandusky city, and sometimes called Portland, has been but recently laid out. But it is a very growing place, it is a harbor for the lake steam boats. It will become one of the most important ports on the lake. Very considerable amounts of produce have already been shipped from this place for Canada, and New York. Lots at this village, and also at Cleaveland are held at high prices. When the great advantages, that these places will derive from the completion of the great Ohio canal, are contemplated; when it is considered, what immense extents of country are brought in water communication by that canal, with Canada, New York, the immense country on the lakes, and watered by their rivers, the whole fertile regions of Ohio, and the valley of the Ohio and Mississippi, and that these towns are central to the northern and southern extremities of that communication, it will be difficult for imagination to assign the limits of the future importance of these towns.

Croghanville, a town laid out in 1817, is the county town of Sandusky county. It is at the lower rapids of the river Sandusky, and opposite fort Stephenson. It is distant ninety-eight miles north from Columbus; and ten miles, in a right line, from the lake, at the mouth of the river.

Ashtabula is a post town of Ash tabula county, situated at the outlet of Ashtabula river into the lake. It contains over 200 inhabitants. The names of the towns, that follow are, for the most part, those of county towns, and of considerable villages, some of them containing more inhabitants, than many of the villages here described. Perrysburg, Cadiz, Canton, Warren, New Philadelphia, Wooster,


Mansfield, Mount Vernon, Coshocton, Newark, Somerset, Delaware, Worthington, Franklinton, Hillsborough, Piketon, Springfield, Pickaway, Troy, Eaton, Hamilton, &c. In fact, there are at least fifty considerable villages in this state, of a size to surprise the traveller, when he first comes upon them, that their names have scarcely reached him. Particular descriptions have been here given, not always in view of the comparative importance of the villages, but from relative circumstances, as their being county towns, or towns of an older date. Many of the villages above named are flourishing, and outgrowing their older rivals. In short, every thing in this state, as we have remarked of the towns and settlements in the other western states, is so rapidly shifting under the inspection of the observer, that the description of towns, which may be just and accurate this year, may be wholly unjust the next. One of the particular disadvantages of this state is, that it has grown so rapidly, that towns have become of importance and have received names in one part of it, without hearing, that in other parts the same name has been selected for a new town. Of course, there is the unfortunate confusion of a number of towns possessing the same name. It is believed, that the same name has been appropriated in this state three or four times. It is already a fruitful source of error and misdirection in the sending of letters; and all those circumstances of transmission, that require perfect clearness and precision in the name and direction. This evil clearly ought to be remedied by the legislature.

The names of the following military positions are continually recurring in the history of this state, and of the late war. Fort Defiance is situated at the junction of the Au Glaize and Maumee rivers, fifty miles south-west from fort Meigs. Fort Loramie is on the head waters of the Great Miami, and one of the boundary points referred to,


in the Greenville treaty. Fort Meigs was erected in 1813, on the south-eastern bank of the Maumee, a few miles from the mouth, at the lower rapids of the river; distant southerly from Detroit, seventy miles. It is noted for the siege, which it sustained from the British and Indians in April and May, 1813. Fort Recovery was a fort established by general Wayne. The disastrous defeat of our troops commanded by general St. Clair, by the Indians, occurred here, in 1795. It is situated twenty-three miles northwardly of fort Loramie. Fort Greenville is one of the most noted points, in the history of Ohio; and was one of the first fortifications erected in the country. It is in the present limits of Darke county, and a few miles east of the western limits of the state. Here, in 1795, was concluded the celebrated treaty of general Wayne with the savages, after his memorable victory over them. From this treaty, the country began to populate. Before it, apprehension and terror were so universally prevalent among the settlers, that they either remained in forts, or cultivated their fields with arms in their hands. After the treaty, the savages for a considerable time left the settlers undisturbed.

Canals. The subject of canals was first brought officially before the attention of the Ohio legislature, in 1819, by governor Brown. It was subsequently canvassed by the legislature; and public opinion was maturing upon the subject by essays, discussions, and articles both in favor of, and against the measure in the public papers. In 1822, Mr. Williams made a very able report upon the subject. Immediately afterwards, a bill was passed, ordering surveys and appropriating money to defray the expenses. Different routes were surveyed, and great diligence and exertion used by the appointed commissioners. Different reports were brought before the legislature in the successive


years 1823 — '4 and '5,in which last year the legislature authorized the Miami and Ohio canals.

The Ohio canal is located on the Scioto and Muskingum route; its northern termination was subsequently fixed by the Commissioners to be at the mouth of the Cuyahoga. The work was commenced in July, 1825, and is now in successful progress. Its dimensions are the same with those of the Erie canal of New York, excepting the bottom, which is twenty-six feet broad. Its length, including feeders, is about 320 miles. In this distance, there are 1,185 feet of lockage, a large reservoir, several aqueducts, and numerous smaller works essential to the convenience and utility of so extended a chain of artificial navigation. In its course from the lake to the river, it traverses the central, and in many respects, the most productive parts of the state. Commencing at the beautiful village of Cleaveland, it keeps the valley of Cuyahoga to Portage, which gives its name to the summit level between the Cuyahoga and the Tuscarawas; here it passes over to the latter stream and descends with it by the villages of Kendall, Dover, and Coshocton, to the mouth of Wakatomaka creek, where it leaves Zanesville a few miles to the south, and passing the high lands into Licking river, ascends that stream to the summit level; from this point it enters the Scioto valley by Walnut creek, and passing Circleville, Chillicothe and Piketon, joins the Ohio at or near Portsmouth. A navigable feeder of ten miles in length, connects Columbus with the main canal. In addition to this, a company has been incorporated and the stock taken, to connect Lancaster with it by a lateral cut. Improvements of the same nature will, doubtless, be made in relation to many other places, when a little more experience has placed


the utility of these works beyond the cavils of scepticism. It will be seen from the locality of this work, that besides the flourishing districts bordering on the Cuyahoga and Tuscarawas, the whole of the immense and fertile country watered by the Scioto and its tributaries, is, in a measure, dependent on this canal for its connection with the markets of the north and the south. It is from the products of this rich valley, that most deductions have been drawn with regard to the usefulness of the work. It abounds in all those staple commodities, from which a large portion of the western country derives the means of easy subsistence, and substantial wealth.

‘Of this, eighty miles are to be finished on the 1st of July next. Sixty-four miles of continuous navigation from Cleaveland to Massillon, will then be open to public use. In addition to the regular line of canal and its feeders, a large reservoir has been constructed on Licking Summit, to supply in the driest seasons, the deficiency of water. This is a very interesting portion of the work; a natural marsh, flooded during freshets by the neighboring streams, is, by embanking a part of one side, converted into a large lake for the uses of artificial navigation. Its length is between six and seven miles, and its breadth about half a mile. This reservoir is now completed, and also the feeder from the south fork of Licking, and nine-tenths of the labor on the line from Portage to the lake, and that on the Licking Summit. This work has, so far, advanced with greater rapidity, and been less expensive, than was originally anticipated.

On the part of the northern division put under contract, there will be, after deducting a sum deemed sufficient for superintendence and contingencies, a saving of 100,000 dollars from the estimates. On the contracts made on the


middle division, there will be a similar saving of about 60,000 dollars.

The Miami canal connects Cincinnati with the heart of the populous and exuberant region bordering on the two Miamies. It commences at Dayton, near the mouth of Mad river, and descending the valley of the Miami, passes by the villages of Miamisburg, Franklin, Middletown, and Hamilton; at the latter place it leaves the Miami, and follows the course of Mill creek to the upper level of Cincinnati. It is intended to connect this level with the river Ohio, by a series of descending locks, and such additional works as may best serve the purposes of commerce and manufactures.

The length of this canal, as now located, is about sixty-seven miles, and its dimensions the same with those of the Ohio canal. The work was commenced in July, 1825, and has since advanced with uncommon rapidity. That part of the line now under contract, extends from Enoch's mill-dam, above Middletown, to Main street, Cincinnati, and will be ready for navigation in July next, 1827. The entire distance is near forty-four miles, and includes a dam over the Miami, a drain from the pond at the head of Mill creek, five aqueducts, twelve locks, twenty stone culverts, and some heavy embankments. Of this distance, thirty-one miles, together with most of the masonry, are completed, and the remainder in a state of rapid progression. The rest of the line, between Middletown and Dayton, will be put under contract next spring, and completed in the year 1828. Amount of lockage, 800 feet.

The estimated cost of the whole line is 616,837 dollars. The country bordering on the Miami canal is eminently distinguished for the abundance of its natural productions, and the rapid advances of its population. It includes the counties of Hamilton, Warren, Butler, Preble, Montgomery,


Green, Clark, Champaign, Darke and Miami. It is in these counties that the immense quantities of flour, pork, whiskey, &c. annually exported from Cincinnati, are produced. Their contiguity to the canal is such, that most of their products must, of necessity, be conveyed upon it. They are now transported in wagons — a mode of conveyance ever attended with comparative loss and difficulty, in a country where the soil, so abundant and various in its natural gifts, is, however, less favorable to the construction of good roads, than to that of canals.

Besides the ordinary benefits of canal communication, much is anticipated from the water power gained in the descent from the upper plain of Cincinnati to the level of the river. The quantity of water which may safely be admitted, in addition to what is required for the uses of navigation, without creating too strong a current, is estimated by engineers at 3,000 cubic feet per minute. In descending to high water mark (about fifty feet,) this will be sufficient to turn sixty pair of mill stones. Additional water power, equivalent to about one-third of this in value, I may be obtained between high and low water marks. At the locks near Reading, and at other places between that and Dayton, water sufficient for extensive hydraulic works may be furnished. Of the accuracy of these estimates there is no reason to doubt; they were made by persons skilled in their profession, from minute examination of the obstacles to be encountered, and the means of overcoming them.

In estimating the revenue to be derived from the Miami canal, it may be observed, that the quantity of produce raised within such a distance as renders it a convenient means of transportation, is greater than it was originally supposed; and that this quantity is continually increasing with the growth and improvement of the country. The


value of water rents is also much greater than it was originally estimated by the commissioners.

The practicability of extending the Miami canal to the rapids of the Maumee, has been ascertained by experienced engineers, and the line actually located. When the completion of the works already undertaken shall have increased the public confidence and resources, this northern section of the Miami canal will doubtless be commenced. An active and numerous population is rapidly spreading over that quarter of the state through which it will pass, and substituting the energies of civilization, for the dullness of the forest The length of the entire line from Cincinnati to the rapids of the Maumee, including the feeders, is 290 miles, and the estimated cost 2,929,000 dollars.

The funds for the prosecution of these improvements have heretofore been obtained without difficulty, and none is now anticipated. In the year 1825, the sum of 400,000 dollars was borrowed at less than six per cent, per annum. In 1826, 1,000,000 dollars was obtained on terms nearly as favorable. The existing laws authorize a loan of 1,200,000 dollars for each of the years 1827 and 1828, which, with those already made, will amount to 3,800,000 dollars; a sum exceeding the entire estimated cost of both canals. In regard to the time required for the completion of these works, it appears from what has already been stated, that the Miami canal will be completed in 1828. Thirty-one miles being already finished, and thirteen more under contract, to be completed on the 1st day of July next.

More than two-fifths of the entire line of the Ohio canal are now under contract, and if no uncommon obstacles intervene, the whole will be completed in the summer of 1830, or five years from the day on which the ground was first broken.’ — Cincinnati, in 1826.


Roads. The system of making roads is yet very defective in this state. In so great an extent of country, now all marked off into townships, and extensively settling, or settled, the number and the extent of roads are almost inconceivable. The country is, generally, sufficiently level; but almost universally composed of a deep, heavy, and clayey soil. Traversed in every direction by heavily loaded teams, the roads, except during the summer, and the first of autumn, are generally heavy, and bad. The mode of applying the avails of the road tax is not conceived to be either wise, or economical. No roads will stand, or be permanently good, but such as are constructed on the principle of Mr. M'Adam. This great state is required by every principle of sound policy, to devote much attention to its roads; and to make provision for constructing great roads in the principal directions through the state upon the principle of Mr. M'Adam. The three per centum of the avails of the sale of public lands ought to yield efficient aid to this purpose. A turnpike has been completed from the mouth of Ashtabula, on lake Erie, to Warren in Trumbull county. Another is making between Cleaveland, on lake Erie and Wooster; and another from Cleaveland through Ravanna and New Lisbon to the Ohio. The great national road is located through the central parts of the state from east to west, commencing opposite Wheeling and already completed nearly to Zanesville.

Education. The same provisions have been made in this state for the promotion of education, by the general government, as in the other western states; that is to say, the reservation of one section in every thirty-six of the public lands. These reservations are for the encouragement of common schools. Particular donations of three townships have been made to the Miami and Ohio universities. The former is located at Oxford, The latter at Athens.


The former contained, in 1826, 112 students. The latter is not at present in a flourishing condition. In the Western Reserve there is a college at the town of Hudson. Kenyon college and theological seminary is near Mount Vernon. The Cincinnati college and the medical college of Ohio, as we have seen, are in Cincinnati. Common schools, the grand sources of general knowledge, are established in a greater, or less degree of perfection, in every township of any consequence in the state. In some places, where the country is thinly settled, it is found impracticable to provide adequate means of instruction for the children at large. In some few instances, settlements have been found insensible to the value and importance of free and common schools; but the influence and effect of example and public opinion will ultimately be irresistible, and they will be efficiently established in every part of the state.

Militia. Very few persons are exempted by law from military duty. The great body of the militia is composed of hardy agriculturalists, or woodsmen, who have been used to toil and privation; and few bodies of men in the world, of the same size, can be found more capable of severe service. By official returns, in the adjutant general's office, in the year 1826, it appears, that the militia of Ohio amounts to 110,176.

Penitentiary. Under the provisions of criminal law in this state, a penitentiary is established at Columbus. Since 1815, in which criminals were first committed to it, 584 convicts have been imprisoned there. Two hundred and twenty-five of the number have been pardoned. Twenty-five have died. Some have escaped. One hundred and thirty have served out their time of commitment; and fifteen have been committed a second time. A great number


of the prisoners, at present, voluntarily labor on the Ohio canal.

Government. 'The legislative authority is vested in a senate and house of representatives; both of which, collectively, are styled the General Assembly of Ohio. The members of both branches are elected by counties, or by districts composed of counties, according to population. The representatives are chosen for one year; and for eligibility, a man must be at least twenty-five years of age, have resided in the state at least one year, and paid a tax. Their number must never exceed seventy-two, nor be less than thirty-six. The senate is composed of members elected for two years, who must not exceed one-half, nor fall short of one-third of the number in the house of representatives. The present numbers are thirty-three senators, and sixty-nine representatives. A senator must be at least thirty years of age, and have resided two years in the district from which he is chosen. The General Assembly has the sole power of enacting all the state laws; the assent or signature of the governor not being necessary in any case whatever.

‘The judiciary system comprises three several grades of courts, namely: The supreme court, courts of common pleas, and justices' courts. The justices of the peace are chosen triennially by the people themselves, in each township respectively. They are conservators of the peace throughout the county; but have no civil jurisdiction out of their own townships. The state is divided into nine judicial circuits for courts of common pleas, in each of which is a presiding judge, styled president; and in each county of which the district is composed, three associate judges, all elected by the legislature for seven years. These courts are held three times a year in each county. The supreme court consists of four judges, who hold a court


once a year, in each county throughout the state. They are likewise chosen by the legislature for seven years.

The supreme executive authority is vested in a governor, chosen biennially by the people. He must be thirty years of age, and have resided in the state at least four years. He is commander-in-chief of the militia, and commissions all officers in the state, both civil and military. In case of disability, or vacancy in his place, the speaker of the senate acts as governor, until the next succeeding regular election. The qualifications of a freeman are the age of twenty-one, residence in the state, and the payment of a tax.’

History. As this is by far the most populous and important of the western states, before we enter upon the brief sketch of its history, which we propose, it may not be amiss, to pause a moment in surveying the circumstances of the commencing establishments in this, and in all the western states. History has seldom deigned to contemplate the actual origin of these humble establishments. It has preferred fabulous pictures of Romulus and Remus, springing from the gods and nursed by a wolf, to the real drawings of the section of a hollow tree, in which the first infants were cradled in the new settlements of the West. We have nearly four millions of people in a country, whose age of civilized habitancy, does not yet reach a half a century. We have at this moment an hundred thousand log houses in this valley, and as many farms and plantations, on which the original trees are yet standing, like masts of a dismantled ship. Yet not one in a thousand, who reads a work, like this, has a clear and adequate impression of the circumstances, under which a farmer, or planter commences in the woods. To most of the reading people even in the West, strange as the fact may seem, a faithful picture of a log house, and the result of the first blows in the forest, presents an image of things already


gone by, in the towns and villages, where the reading people live. We wish to preface our outline of the annals of Ohio, with a general sketch of the circumstances and modes in which an immigrant commences, de novo, in the forest. Such pictures ought to be preserved. How eagerly will they be contemplated by the generations, that come after us.

With what delight should we now peruse a sketch of the modes, in which the Egyptians commenced in Greece; the Grecians in Asia Minor; the Romans in Spain, Gaul and Africa; and the Spanish and Portuguese in the new world! Even the traces of the beginnings of the French in Louisiana are perishing unrecorded, from memory and tradition. We have but dim and imperfect ideas of the contrivances and modes of getting forward by the English, who cut down the first trees at Plymouth and Jamestown. There are many circumstances of course, in which all these beginnings in the forest must have been similar. But the less palpable these shades of difference in the modes of different ages and nations, the more interest there is in tracing those differences.

We are sure, for example, that in all parts of our country, and in all the periods of its settlement, the first settlers would experience the heart-wearing sensation of home sickness. We know, that every settler had to endure the process of acclimation, in common instances so trying to the constitution. All heard the nocturnal howl of wolves, and the cry of panthers, and the growling of bears, and the war and death song of the savages. They all trembled alike at the forest noises, which imagination had but too much ground to assign to murderous savages, as echo repeated them in the boundless and unexplored woods.

But there is no doubt with us, that the first cabins, with their furniture, appendages and enclosures at Plymouth,


compared with those of the Kentuckians at Boone's lick at the present day, would exhibit striking differences, illustrative of the different character of the settlers, and the different spirit and improvement of the age.

We propose here to exhibit some of the circumstances, under which immigrants to the Mississippi valley strike the first blow, rear their cabins, and begin cultivation in the woods. The natural historian does not contemn a view of the seed, from which the future tree is evolved, and from that tree the seedlings of a forest. Nor does the describer of climate pretermit the notice of those influences of the sun, which dissolve the snows and ices of a continent, because they are noiseless, and only perceptible in their effects. The history of one log house, and one clearing in this valley is, substantially, that of an hundred thousand, and from the total of these humble elements we obtain an account of the grand result of population, which is already seen west of the Alleghany mountains. The immigrants, who have peopled the western country, naturally divide themselves into two classes; those, who moved from the northern and middle states, whose circumstances of immigration are nearly the same; and those, who immigrate from the southern states, whose appendant modes and circumstances of immigration vary in no small degree from those of them, who came from the other divisions of the country. The greater portion of the former are young people, recently married. With the caution, habitual to their education and modes of life, they seldom take so decisive a step, as to remove to so distant a country, until the husband, or some agent, in whose representations and judgment he has entire confidence, has performed the service of previous survey. It is seldom, that immigrants of this class, bring their flocks and herds with them, unless their removal be no farther, than into the parts adjacent


to Pennsylvania and Virginia, west of the mountains. A load of furniture, containing the articles most indispensable to housekeeping, together with a gun, a dog, family memorials, an heirloom bible, and it may be the coarse paintings of some native artist of the family, starts off, followed by the young couple, who brush off the tears of parting, and give scope to their native enterprise and desire to see the world, and take up their line of march for the head waters of the Alleghany, or Monongahela. We may affirm, that three-quarters of the immigrants to Ohio and Indiana are of this description.

This family do not sleep in their wagon on their way; but at a tavern, where they take their supper and breakfast, dining from cold provisions beside a spring. The journey is long and fatiguing; but it calls in play their enterprise and invention; opens before them new aspects of nature, and gives them new views of things. Mental enlargement and shaking off some portion of the prejudices of birth and education are likely to result. But, commencing with limited means, and having the ultimate end, buying lands, and making a farm in view, the master sees with an anxious eye the daily wasting of his means by the expenses of travelling, and avaricious propensities are apt to be generated. Not calculating soon to travel that way again and not yet well aware, how rapidly in these days his character travels after him, he cares little about the report, that his host makes of him. There is no doubt, under these circumstances, that his wits, sharpened by avarice and imagined necessity, sometimes put him on those tricks, of which we hear so much on the great routes of immigration. The host in turn, aware of the character, with whom he has to deal, becomes an extortioner in anticipation and imagined self defence, Hence the reciprocal


jealousies and hatred between landlords and immigrants on all the great roads leading to the western country.

At length the parties arrive at the place of embarkation, or as the phrase is, where they ‘take water.’ The horses are sold, and sometimes the carriage. But more generally the latter is taken apart, and goes down the river with them on the roof of the boat. If the immigrant be a Yankee, he buys plank, seizes his saw, axe and hammer, and builds a flat boat for himself. But the greater portion buy a flat boat ready made; paying for it so much by the foot in length. The builders used to practice great deception in building these boats, making them of unsound and wormeaten timber and planks, and withal, badly caulked. But this danger is now so well understood, that few immigrants purchase, until they have had the inspection of some person qualified to judge. Many of these boats are fitted up comfortably, and are not inconvenient floating houses. Two or three families, perhaps unite in fitting up the boat. The parties purchase an ‘Ohio and Mississippi Navigator,’ a book, which describes these rivers, islands, sandbars, channels, chutes, dangerous places, &c., and contains a great variety of important information. If the Ohio be moderately high, and the weather pleasant, this descent is commonly unattended with difficulty, or danger, and is a trip of pleasure. A southerner will find the autumnal climate of the Ohio cold; but to the northerner it will seem mild and delightful. After the morning fogs of the river have dissipated, the soft azure above, the reddened Indian summer sun, and the south-west breeze give him agreeable anticipations of the temperature of the country.

The trip to Indiana, from the boatable heads of the Ohio, is seven, or eight hundred miles, by the devious course of the river. If the place of ultimate destination be above the mouth of the Ohio, the flat boat floats on to the point of


debarkation, nearest the intended spot of settlement. If to Illinois, or Missouri, or the points above them, the flat boat descends to the mouth of the Ohio, where it is sold, generally for little. The parties there purchase a keel boat, or more generally hire themselves transported to the point, to which they wish to ascend. This outline sketches the ordinary incidents of an immigration from the northern and middle states to the Mississippi valley.

The ordinary circumstances of the immigration of a southerner are materially different. The greater portion of these are middle aged, have families, and often large establishments of flocks, herds, swine and horses, attended by a retinue of slaves. Oftentimes there are carriages, servants in livery, and a pack of hunting dogs. The tinkle of numerous bells from the cattle and horses gives notice of the approach, and the cavalcade fills the road for a great distance. As they have their slaves, their cooking utensils, and their provisions with them, after they have passed the compact settlements, it comports with their tastes to prepare their own meals, and to travel in a great measure independent of taverns. The master and family sleep in tents and the slaves in wagons.

‘Between the second and third years of my residence in the country, the immigration from the western and southern states to this country poured in a flood, the power and strength of which could only be adequately conceived by persons on the spot. We have numbered an hundred persons passing through the village of St. Charles in one day. The number was said to have equalled that for many days together. From the Mamelles, I have looked over the subjacent plain quite to the ferry, where the immigrants crossed the upper Mississippi. I have seen in this extent nine wagons, harnessed with from four to six horses. We may allow an hundred cattle, besides hogs, horses, and


sheep, to each wagon; and from three or four to twenty slaves. The whole appearance of the train, the cattle with their hundred bells; the negroes with delight in their countenances, for their labours are suspended and their imaginations excited; the wagons, often carrying two or three tons, so loaded that the mistress and children are strolling carelessly along, in a gait which enables them to keep up with the slow travelling carriage; — the whole group occupies three quarters of a mile. The slaves generally seem fond of their masters, and quite as much delighted and interested in the immigration, as the master. It is to me a very pleasing and patriarchal scene. It carries me back to the days of other years, and to the pastoral pursuits of those ancient races, whose home was in a tent, wherever their flocks found range.

I question if the rich inhabitants of England, taking their summer excursion to Bath, are happier in their journey, than these people. Just about nightfall, they come to a spring or a branch, where there is water and wood. The pack of dogs sets up a cheerful barking. The cattle lie down and ruminate. The team is unharnessed. The huge wagons are covered, so that the roof completely excludes the rain. The cooking utensils are brought out. The blacks prepare a supper, which the toils of the day render delicious; and they talk over the adventures of the past day, and the prospects of the next. Meantime, they are going where there is nothing but buffalos and deer to limit their range, even to the western sea. Their imaginations are highly excited. Said some of them to me, as they passed over the Mamelle prairie, the richest spot that I have ever seen; ‘If this is so rich, what must Boone's lick be?’

In this calm and contemplative march, they plunge deeper and deeper into the forest, or prairie, until they arrive


at the selected spot, where they are to commence operations.

In making remoter journeys from the town, beside the rivulets, and in the little bottoms, not yet in cultivation, I discerned the smoke rising in the woods, and heard the strokes of the axe, the tinkling of bells, and the baying of dogs, and saw the newly arrived emigrant either rearing his log cabin, or just entered into possession. It has afforded me more pleasing reflections, a happier train of associations, to contemplate these beginnings of social toil in the wide wilderness, than, in our more cultivated regions, to come in view of the most sumptuous mansion. Nothing can be more beautiful than these little bottoms, upon which these emigrants, if I may so say, deposite their household gods. Springs burst forth in the intervals between the high and low grounds. The trees and shrubs are of the most beautiful kind. The brilliant red bird, seen flitting among the shrubs, or perched on a tree, seems welcoming, in her mellow notes, the emigrant, to his abode. Flocks of parroquets are glittering among the trees, and grey squirrels are skipping from branch to branch. In the midst of these primeval scenes, the patient and laborious father fixes his family. In a few weeks they have reared a comfortable cabin, and other out buildings. Pass this place in two years, and you will see extensive fields of corn and wheat; a young and thrifty orchard, fruit trees of all kinds, the guaranty of present abundant subsistence, and of future luxury. Pass it in ten years, and the log-buildings will have disappeared. The shrubs and forest trees will be gone. The Arcadian aspect of humble and retired abundance and comfort, will have given place to a brick house, with accompaniments like those that attend the kind of house, in the older countries. By this time, the occupant, who came there with, perhaps, a small sum


of money and moderate expectations, from humble life, and with no more than a common school education, has been made, in succession, member of the assembly, justice of the peace, and finally, county judge. He has long been in the habit of thinking of a select society, and of founding a family. I admit, that the first residence among the trees affords the most agreeable picture to my mind; and that there is an inexpressible charm in the pastoral simplicity of those years, before pride and self-consequence have banished the repose of their Eden, and when you witness the first struggles of social toil with the barren luxuriance of nature.’

The first business is to clear away the trees from the spot, where the house is to stand. The general construction of a west country cabin is after the following fashion. Straight trees are felled of a size, that a common team can draw, or as the phrase is ‘snake,’ them to the intended spot. The most common form of a larger cabin is that, called a ‘double cabin;’ that is, two square pens with an open space between, connected by a roof above and a floor below, so as to form a parallelogram of nearly triple the length of its depth. In the open space the family take their meals during the pleasant weather; and it serves the triple purpose of kitchen, lumber room, and dining room. The logs, of which it is composed, are notched on to one another, in the form of a square. The roof is covered with thin splits of oak, not unlike staves. Sometimes they are made of ash, and in the lower country of cypress, and they are called clap boards. Instead of being nailed, they are generally confined in their place by heavy timbers, laid at right angles across them. This gives the roof of a log house an unique and shaggy appearance. But if the clap boards have been carefully prepared from good timber they form a roof sufficiently impervious to common rains.


The floors are made from short and thick plank, split from yellow poplar, cotton wood, black walnut, and sometimes oak. They are confined with wooden pins, and are technically called ‘puncheons.’

The southern people, and generally the more wealthy immigrants advance in the first instance to the luxury of having the logs hewed on the inside, and the puncheon floor hewed, and planed; in which case it becomes a very comfortable and neat floor. The next step is to build the chimney, which is constructed after the French, or American fashion. The French mode is a smaller quadrangular chimney, laid up with smaller splits. The American fashion is to make a much larger aperture, laid up with splits of great size and weight. In both forms it tapers upwards, like a pyramid. The interstices are filled with a thick coating of clay, and the outside plastered with clay mortar, prepared with chopped straw, or hay, and in the lower country long moss. The hearth is made with clay mortar, or, where it can be found, sand stones, as the common lime stone does not stand the fire. The interstices of the logs in the room are first ‘chinked;’ that is to say, small blocks and pieces of wood in regular forms are driven in between the intervals, made by laying the logs over each other, so as to form a kind of coarse lathing to hold the mortar.

The doors are made of plank, split in the manner mentioned before, from fresh cut timber; and they are hung after an ingenious fashion on large wooden hinges, and fastened with a substantial wooden latch. The windows are square apertures, cut through the logs, and are closed during the cooler nights and the inclement weather by wooden shutters. The kitchen and the negro quarters, if the establishment have slaves, are separate buildings, prepared after the same fashion; but with less care, except in the


article of the closeness of their roofs. The grange, stable and corn houses are all of similar materials, varied in their construction to answer their appropriate purposes. About ten buildings of this sort make up the ‘fixings’ as the phrase is, of a farmer with three or four free hands, or half a dozen slaves. The whole establishment, seen at a distance, by an inhabitant from the Atlantic cities, would strike him at first unpleasantly. But to us, who say with the ancient bard, ‘per has artes,’ to us, who know, that they afford comfortable shelter to half the inhabitants of the western country, to us, who see in these establishments the germ of a most powerful community, and who know, how much rural plenty, frank, and it may be rough independence, guileless honesty, contentment and blitheness of heart these humble establishments often contain, they bring associations of repose, abstraction from ambition and factitious wants; and the group of cabins, thus showing in the distance, like an assemblage of rude bee hives, is not an unpleasant view. When the wintry wind blows, and the shutters are closed, and the substantial walls of hewed logs show the white lines of plaster, which mark the interstices; and the fire blazes high, and the rustic table smokes with woodland plenty, we have seen no dwelling, which in our view was more compatible with real and homefelt enjoyment.

The field is generally an alluvial area, of which the buildings are the centre, if the inhabitant be a southerner, or in the centre of one side of the square, if he be a northerner. If the soil be not alluvial, a table area of rich upland, marked to be such by its peculiar growth of timber, is selected for the spot. If the person have a sufficient force, the trees are carefully cleared away, for a considerable distance round the dwelling. In the remaining portion of the field, the trees undergo an operation called by the


northern people ‘girdling,’ and by the southern ‘deadening.’ That is, a circle is cut, two or three feet from the ground, quite through the bark of the sappy rind of the tree, so as completely to divide the vessels, which carry on the process of circulation. Some species of trees are so tenacious of life, as to throw out leaves, after having suffered this operation. But they seldom have foliage, after the first year. The smaller trees are all cut down; and the accumulated spoils of vegetable decay are burned together; and the ashes contribute to the great fertility of the virgin soil. If the field contain timber for rails, the object is to cut as much as possible on the clearing; thus advancing the double purpose of clearing away the trees, and preparing the rails, so as to require the least possible distance of removal. An experienced hand will split from an hundred to an hundred and fifty rails in a day. Such is the convenience of finding them on the ground, to be fenced, that Kentucky planters, and the southern people generally prefer timbered land to prairie; notwithstanding the circumstance, so unsightly, and inconvenient to a northern man, of dead trees, stumps, and roots, which, strewed in every direction over his field, even the southern planter finds a great preliminary impediment in the way of cultivation. The northern people prefer to settle on prairie land, where it can be had in convenient positions.

The rails are laid zigzag, one length running nearly at right angles to the other. This in west country phrase, is ‘worm fence,’ and in the northern dialect ‘Virginia fence.’ The rails are large, and heavy, and to turn the wild cattle and horses of the country, require to be laid ten rails, or six feet in height. The smaller roots and the underbrush are cleared from the ground by a sharp hoe, known by the name ‘grubbing hoe.’ This implement, with a cross cut saw, a whip saw, and a hand saw, axes, a broad axe, an


adze, an auger, a hammer, nails, and an iron tool to split clap boards, called a ‘froe,’ constitute therein dispensable apparatus for a back woodsman. The smoke house, spring house, and other common appendages of such an establishment it is unnecessary to describe; for they are universal in the establishments of the farmers in the middle and southern Atlantic states.

A peach orchard is generally the first object in raising fruit; because it is easily made, and begins to bear the second or third year. Apple orchards with all good farmers are early objects of attention. The cultivation of the more delicate garden fruits is generally an object of after attention, if at all. Maize is planted the first year without ploughing. Afterwards the plough becomes necessary. Turnips, sweet potatoes, pumpkins and melons flourish remarkably on the virgin soil. It is a pleasant spectacle, to see with what luxuriance the apple tree advances. South of 33° the fig tree is substituted for the apple tree. If the log buildings were made of good and durable materials, they remain comfortable dwellings seven or eight years. By this time, in the ordinary progress of successful farming, the owner replaces them by a house of stone, brick, or frame work; and the object is to have the second house as large, and showy, as the first one was rustic and rude. A volume of details, touching the progress of such establishments might be added. But as this brief, though faithful outline of commencing establishments in the woods aims to preserve an order of things, that is passing away under our eyes, and which will soon be found only in history, in the great state, whose annals we are now to give, we have deemed it not irrelevant to make these preliminary remarks. They are equally applicable to this and all the western states. We premise, also, that the annals of Ohio will be much more brief, than those of Kentucky and


Tennessee, as from its subsequent settlement, it had a much shorter period of Indian war.

The progress of this great state has no parallel in the history of colonies. No records can be found of equal advancement of population, national wealth, strength and improvement of every sort, by the unforced progress of immigration and natural increase. We stand in the midst of a state, which, but little more than thirty years ago, was all possessed by ruthless savages; and we now see cities and towns, more than an hundred thousand militia, nearly a million inhabitants, two canals, the one nearly seventy, and the other three hundred miles in length, a great number of flourishing villages, handsome farm houses, and every indication of comfort and abundance, and the whole scene has at first view the aspect of fable and enchantment. We see one respectable and rapidly advancing town; and a mass of farmers spread over the greater portion of the surface of the state, not rich in money, but rich in rural abundance, in simplicity of manners, and the materials of genuine independence. The people are as well fed, and clothed, and as contented and happy, perhaps, as the same number of people any where on the globe. — There are schools, colleges, manufactories, national works and improvements, of which any state, or any order of society, howsoever advanced, might be proud. This colony, which has flourished by its own innate principle of vigor, without factitious support from speculation, or any forcing from opulence and power, still sees the original trees standing in its fields.

We should be glad to trace the origin and progress of every town and settlement in the state from Marietta, Cincinnati and Galliopolis, the oldest towns in the country, to the most recent establishment on lake Erie. It would be pleasant, to trace the gradual advance of the settlement


from these central points and the shores of the Ohio along the two Miamies over the heights, which separate the waters of the Ohio from those of lake Erie. The history, also, of the settlement of the Connecticut Reserve, is an interesting one. We there find a large and compact settlement, distinct from the other divisions of the Ohio population, in the equal dispersion of farms over the surface, in the disposition to support schools and public worship, exceedingly like the parent people, from whom they sprung. But they, who achieved these great works, thought little of transmitting the remembrance of their works to posterity. Their minds were pleasantly occupied with other views, and those copious, exact and satisfactory materials, necessary for a detailed history of the progress of Ohio, will, probably, perish with the living depositories of them. Many of the founders of this great state still exist; but they are too intently occupied, in laying up the superstructure of their recent establishments, to think of furnishing such materials. Besides, the details of such a work would fill volumes. Neither our limits, or materials allow any more, than some very abbreviated sketches.

The first effective settlement of Ohio was by purchasers under the ’Ohio company‘ in 1788. The writer of this article distinctly remembers the wagon, that carried out a number of adventurers from the counties of Essex and Middlesex, in Massachusetts, on the second emigration to the woods of Ohio. He remembers the black canvass covering of the wagon; the white and large lettering in capitals ’To Marietta on the Ohio.‘ He remembers the food, which even then the thought of such a distant expedition furnished to his imagination. Some twenty emigrants accompanied this wagon. The Rev. Dr. Manasseh Cutler, he thinks, had the direction of this band of emigrants. General Putnam seems to have been the only one, who


preceded him in claims, to be considered the patriarch of the Marietta settlement Dr. Cutler, at the time of his being engaged in the speculation of the Ohio company's purchase, had a feud, it is not remembered whether literary, political, or religious, with the late learned and eccentric Dr. Bently of Salem, Massachusetts. Dr. Bently was then chief contributor to a paper, which he afterwards edited. The writer still remembers, and can repeat doggrel verses by Dr. Bently upon the departure of Dr. Cutler on his first trip to explore his purchase on the Ohio.

The first travellers to explore Ohio availed themselves of the full extent of the traveller's privilege in regard to the wonders of this new land of promise, and the unparalleled fertility of the soil. These extravagant representations of the grandeur of the vegetation, and the fertility of the land, at first excited a great desire to emigrate to this new and wonderful region. But some returned with different accounts in discouragement; and the hostilities of the savages were painted in the most appalling colors. A reaction took place in the public mind; The wags of the day exercised their wit, in circulating caricatured and exaggerated editions of the stories of the first adventurers, that there were springs of brandy, flax, that bore little pieces of cloth on the stems, enormous pumpkins and melons, and the like. Accounts the most horrible were added of hoop snakes of such deadly malignity, that a sting, which they bore in their tails, when it punctured the bark of a green tree, instantly caused its leaves to become sear, and the tree to die. Stories of Indian massacres and barbarities were related in all their horrors. The country was admitted to be fertile; but was pronounced excessively sickly, and poorly balancing by that advantage all these counterpoises of sickness, Indians, copper headed and hoop snakes, bears, wolves, and panthers.


The tendency of the New England mind to enterprise and emigration, thus early began to develope. For all these horrors, portrayed in all their darkness, and with all the dreadful imaginings connected with the thought of such a remote and boundless wilderness, did not hinder the departure of great numbers of the people, following in the footsteps of general Putnam and Dr. Cutler. They were both men of established character, whose words and opinions wrought confidence. Dr. Cutler was a man of extensive and various learning. He was particularly devoted to the study of natural history; and was among the first, who began scientifically to explore the botany of our country. He had great efficiency, in founding the upper settlement on Ohio; and his descendants are among the most respectable inhabitants of the country at present.

General Rufus Putnam had been a reputable and unblemished officer in the war of the revolution. He emigrated from Leicester, in the county of Worcester, Massachusetts. He was, probably, the member of the Ohio company's purchase, who had the greatest influence, in imparting confidence to emigration from New England to Ohio. When he moved there, it was one compact and boundless forest. He saw that forest fall on all sides under the axe; and in the progress of improvement, comfortable, and then splendid dwellings rise around him. He saw his favorite settlement sustain an inundation of the Ohio, which drowned the cattle, wafted away the dwellings, and in some instances the inhabitants in them. He saw the settlement survive the accumulated horrors of an Indian war. He saw its exhaustless fertility, and its natural advantages triumph over all. He saw Marietta snaking advances towards an union of interest with the gulf of Mexico, by floating down to its bosom a number of sea vessels, built at that place. He saw such a prodigious


increase of navigation on the Ohio, as to number an hundred large boats passing his dwelling in a few hours. He heard the first tumult of steam boats as they began to be borne down between the forests. He had surrounded his republican mansion with orchards bending with fruit. In the midst of rural abundance and endeared friends, who had grown up around him, far from the display of wealth, the bustle of ambition and intrigue, the father of the colony, hospitable and kind without ostentation and without effort, he displayed in these remote regions the grandeur, real and intrinsic of those immortal men, who achieved our revolution. He has passed away. But the memory of really great and good men, like general Putnam, will remain as long as plenty, independence and comfort shall prevail on the shores of the Ohio.

The next settlement in Ohio, in the order of time, and really the most efficient and important of all others, and which may be clearly considered the nucleus of the population, was that between the two Miamies. Of this settlement judge Symmes may fairly be considered the founder. He was a civilian, a lawyer and an inhabitant of New Jersey. He was a member of congress, when he first contemplated the idea of emigrating to the western country. He was the representative and agent of the company, which made the first purchase between the two Miamies. It comprehended a million of acres. He was afterwards a judge under the territorial government. His name is identified with all the subsequent sales, locations, establishments of the sites of towns and similar transactions, until Ohio became a state. Had his speculation been followed with the success, which ought to have resulted from the foresight, with which it was made, and the vigor with which it was carried into effect, it must have secured an immense fortune for his posterity. But the issues of such


great and combined operations are often determined by elements, beyond the reach of human foresight. Clear as his vision was into the future, he little foresaw the future value and consequence of these lands. Purchasers, with a ken still more limited had not the courage, nor forecast to make him sufficient payments to meet the great expenses of his speculations. He was unquestionably fitted in a high degree to become the foster father to a new colony. He possessed a sound understanding, great firmness of purpose, and was a man of industrious habits, and devoted to business; and had not the slightest touch of the hunter and coureur du bois, which so strongly marked the first settlers of Kentucky and Tennessee, in his character. He was a zealous patron of the industrious and enterprising; and all, that was necessary to secure the countenance and support of judge Symmes, was to convince him, that the man was sober, industrious and disposed to exert himself. It was an honorable trait in his character, that he was a real and efficient friend of the poor. Many amiable eccentricities belonged to his character; and among other traits, that might seem most foreign to his industrious, calculating and municipal habits, was, that he was a writer of verses, of which very copious proofs, as well as honorable to his muse, remain. The names of his chief associates in the settlement of the Miami country will naturally be interwoven in these annals. Among them was colonel Israel Ludlow, one of the first settlers, a man of great amiability of character, and whose early decease was considered a deep loss to the country.

Exploring parties had made temporary residences on the north shore of the Ohio, previous to the establishment of any permanent settlement, and boats, ascending and descending the river, had had rencontres with the Indians, in which many of those thrilling and terrible adventures,


which we have already related to repetition, were common. We read of the occurrence of one in the autumn of 1776, as related by Mr. Patterson, who was ascending the Ohio in a boat with six or seven companions, and who was fired upon by the Indians. A part of the company were killed, and the remainder wounded. They were an hundred miles from settlements or relief; lying in their wounds and blood, exposed to the rain and elements. One only was able to travel, and he was wounded. He proceeded up the river to the nearest settlement, procured help, and carried off his wounded companions, who recovered. The narrative of the sufferings of this company is one of harrowing interest. Nothing that human nature can suffer, was wanting to their misery; and their case furnishes an impressive proof, through how much misery and suffering man can survive. We could easily fill up copious annals of these desperate rencontres, and hair breadth escapes and recoveries from wounds, which would be deemed utterly hopeless in the view of the best surgical aid, and all the palliations of the comfort and aid of society. But, however impressive these narratives, the brevity of our plan excludes them, and we commence these annals with the first permanent settlement of Ohio.

This commenced at Marietta, April 7th, 1788, under general Rufus Putnam, as agent for the Ohio company. The company, that came with him, consisted of forty-seven persons, and were from Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. Their first business was to build a stockade fort of sufficient strength to secure them against any desultory attacks of the savages. These were all laborious men, who thought much more of the plough and hoe, than the rifle and game. They were delighted with the appearance of the rich alluvion, and the immense


trees and grape vines, that rose from it; and treated themselves to the jests, which had been circulated in their native regions, respecting pumpkin vines, that ran across the Ohio, and bore pumpkins of a size to furnish space, in which sows might litter. The exuberant grandeur of the wild vegetation might well justify extravagant expectations from the fertility of the soil. They deadened the trees, and planted fifty acres of corn. In the autumn, twenty more families joined them. They were chiefly revolutionary soldiers, who had been used to face danger and hardships of all sorts, and to give and receive blows. Their vigilance and boldness of countenance appear to have awed the Indians, so that they molested them very little. While these prudent and laborious men tilled their grounds, they had always some one of their number stationed upon a high stump, or elevated point of ground, to forewarn them of the approach of the foe. Game of all sorts abounded in the woods, and fish in the rivers. The fields yielded the most ample abundance of return for whatever they had planted; so that abundant subsistence was obtained with the greatest ease.

Six years afterwards, in 1794, the settlements of Bellepre and Newbury, the one fifteen miles, and the other twenty miles below, on the river, were commenced. In each of these places stockade forts, to which the people could retreat in case of alarm from the savages, were built, according to the invariable custom in all the new western settlements. The strongest of these received the appropriate name of the ‘farmer's castle.’

In 1791, Indian hostilities commenced upon these settlements. The Ohio company organized, and kept in constant employment a small company of spies, whose duty it was to perambulate the settlement. When these rangers discovered footsteps, or other indications of the contiguity


of the savages, they were to give verbal notice; or if the emergency of alarm was urgent, to fire signal guns. On receiving these signals, it was the duty of the settlers immediately to retreat to their stockades, and the soldiers to repair to their pests of defence. The unsleeping and untiring vigilance of these settlers did not at all match with Indian notions of attack, who always seize the moments of carelessness and the unguarded point of weakness for the hour of assault. That this settlement suffered so much less, than those, that preceded it, under the same circumstances, in the western country, may be solely attributed to that habitual watchfulness and unremitting posture of defence.

Between 1791, and 1795, major Goodall, a most valuable member of the settlement, and three others were killed. To have right estimates of this comparatively small amount of suffering from Indian warfare, it must be remembered, that this settlement stood alone on the north shore of the Ohio; was a frontier to the most numerous and powerful Indian villages in the western country, and the object of their bitterest enmity and most concentered efforts. In addition to the men, mentioned above, one woman and her two children were slain. Another infant in her arms was tomahawked, but was rescued by the inhabitants, and recovered from its wounds.

In 1790, a settlement was commenced at the forks of Duck creek, twenty miles up the Muskingum, at the site of the present town of Waterford; and another fifteen miles higher on the same river at Big Bottom, and a third at Wolf creek, near the forks. These settlements were on a tract of 100,000 acres of land, laid off into farms of 100 acres each, called ‘donation lots,’ which were gratuitously assigned to actual settlers. At the close of 1790, these settlements contained 447 men, of whom 107 had


families, a striking demonstration of the rapid increase of population even amidst the dangers of an Indian war.

The settlement at Big Bottom was destroyed by the Indians, January 3d, 1791. Fourteen persons were killed, and five taken prisoners. This fatal assault was made by the Indians with their usual guile and treachery. They had kept up a show of frankness and friendship towards these people, which had lulled them to a ruinous security. Unperceived by the people, the Indians watched the settlement from the summit of an adjacent hill. The inhabitants were returning from their labors at evening twilight to their supper. The Indians, preceded by a huge Mohawk, rushed in upon the garrison, and inflicted an unresisted massacre. One woman only contended, and she inflicted a wound upon the Mohawk, before she was killed. A boy was spared, and carried captive to Detroit.

The settlement at Wolf creek was warned of its impending danger by two men of the name of Bullard, who escaped from the massacre of Big Bottom. Next morning the Indians arrived to the assault of that place; but finding the inhabitants apprised of their attack, and in readiness for them, they decamped without any serious attempts upon it. Some murders were committed at Waterford and Little Wolf creek, in 1794, and 1795. Although Marietta, from its vigilance and preparation, was considered by the savages impregnable, the cows of the settlement often came in with arrows sticking in their bodies, as proofs of the good will of the Indians to injure them, were it in their power.

The escape of the late R. J. Meigs, Esq., afterwards governor of Ohio, and Postmaster general, from various circumstances, merits a relation. He was returning at night from the labors of the field, in company with Mr. Symonds and a black boy. The Indians fired upon Symonds,


and wounded him. He escaped them by reaching the river, and swimming. The black boy was scalped. An Indian, armed only with a tomahawk, motioned Mr. Meigs to surrender. Instead of surrendering, he advanced upon the savage with his gun presented; but which happened not to be loaded. As they came in contact, the one struck with his gun and the other with his tomahawk. Mr. Meigs was stunned by the blow; but recovering, he fled from the Indian, who pursued without being able to overtake him. Seeing his victim like to escape him, he fired his tomahawk upon him, which narrowly missed his head. The Indian raised his customary war cry, and gave up the pursuit.

In all this time the people of this settlement were not known to have killed but two Indians. One had mounted on the roof of a cabin in an abandoned settlement at Duck creek. With the customary disposition to pry into the concerns of the whites, he was looking down the large wooden chimney. Some spies happened to have occupied I the cabin for the night. They discovered him, and killed him on his perch. The spies had a shot at another Indian in company, who was amusing himself in turning a large grindstone; but he escaped. The other was killed by one of the spies on the Little Muskingum. At this period the country contiguous to these settlements abounded with game, such as buffalos, deer and wild turkeys. The deer were killed for their hides and tallow, and the turkeys afforded a game too common to be prized as a luxury.

We return from these annals of the first settlement in Ohio, in the order of time, to contemplate the progress of that between the two Miamies, the first in the order of importance. This country was explored by colonel Bowman, in 1779, at the head of ninety men, marching


against the Indian village at Little Pickaway. The town was destroyed; but the returning party suffered severely from the Indians, and lost ten of their number. He gained, however, an accurate knowledge of this fertile and interesting country, and the position and force of the Indian towns contiguous to it.

Between the years 1780, and 1782, general Clark conducted a larger force against the Indians of that region, in which Old and New Pickaway villages were burned. In 1784, our government effected a treaty with them, in which, by certain mutual stipulations, they ceded to the United States the country lying upon the Muskingum, Scioto, and the Little and Great Miami.

The ‘Ohio company’ was organized at Boston, March 1st, 1786. It was composed of revolutionary officers and soldiers, to whom congress assigned a military grant of land north-west of the Ohio. The grant consisted of a million and a half of acres. General Putnam made the settlement, which we have just been contemplating, under this grant; and this was the germ, from which has grown up this great and populous community. In 1788, congress passed an ordinance, establishing a territorial governing over the North-western Territory. Arthur St. Clair was appointed governor. In September, 1788, the first judicial court was holden in the territory. The first political object with the governor was to establish a peace with the various hostile tribes, contiguous to the territory. The chiefs met at fort Harmar, at the mouth of the Muskingum, and agreed upon a former treaty, which had been settled at fort M'Intosh, in 1785, and which was now renewed in 1790.

In the winter of 1788, Mr. Stites of Redstone, now Brownsville on the Monongahela, presented himself before congress, then sitting in New York, with a view to


purchase a tract of country for settlement between the two Miamies. He was introduced to John Cleves Symmes, then a member of congress, whose aid he solicited, in order to enable him to make the purchase in question. Mr. Symmes was so much impressed with the project, as to make a journey to the country, wisely thinking it best, to judge of the country by personal inspection. He journeyed to the Ohio, and descended it to Louisville. He was pleased with the country, and on his return, a purchase of one million of acres lying on the Ohio, and between the two Miamies, was made in his name.

Mr. Symmes soon afterwards sold to Matthias Denman that part of his purchase, which now forms the site of Cincinnati. The first settlers were from New York and New Jersey. Mr. Stites added several families from I Redstone. Mr. Filson, in exploring the country, was killed by the Indians. Lieutenant Kersey and ensign Luse with nearly forty soldiers were ordered to join Mr. Symmes' party, as a corps of defence for the contemplated settlement. Major Stites, with the necessary preparation for commencing a settlement, descended to the mouth of the Little Miami. In November 16th, 1789, they commenced to the number of twenty-six, the erection of a block house on the position, where Columbia is now situated. With the requisite precaution against the Indians, a part stood guard, while the rest labored in the erection of the block house. A square stockade fort was soon after formed by the erection of three other block houses. This was the germ of the second settlement in Ohio, and the first between the two Miamies. Mr. Symmes soon after joined them with a small sergeant's guard of six soldiers, and they erected a small block house below those at the mouth of the Little Miami.


About the commencement of the year 1790, Israel Ludlow, who, after the death of Mr. Filson, became a joint partner with Mr. Denman and Patterson of the site of Cincinnati, left Limestone with a company of nearly twenty persons, to commence the settlement of their purchase. The town was first named Losantiville. As town making became afterwards, in the progress of the western country in population, a regular business, and the invention and coining of names for towns no mean study, it will be amusing to consider the ingenuity of this far fetched name. The town was commenced opposite Licking river in Kentucky. The name of the town took the initial of that river for its first letter. It borrowed os, the mouth, from the Latin; anti, opposite, from the Greek, and ville, a city, from the French. Hence we have Losantiville, a city opposite the mouth of Licking. In a newspaper printed at Lexington in Kentucky, the type, appearance and printing of which smacks strongly of the simplicity and coarseness of the olden time is now to be seen the original advertisement of the sale of the lots in this city then covered with a heavy growth of timber. The newspaper is shown, as a curiosity in Mr. Letton's museum in Cincinnati. Mr. Ludlow on his arrival with his party commenced clearing near the present corner of Front and Main streets. Three or four log cabins were built on what is now Main street, Mr. Ludlow surveyed, and laid out the town, during the winter. The courses of the streets were marked on the trees of the heavy and dense forest. The abundance of game and fish left little difficulty of subsistence, and even the Indians, though hostile, did not annoy them.

Mr. Symmes with the small force at his disposal, in February, 1789, descended the river fifteen miles to North Bend, which he deemed the best situation for a town. But neither that place, nor Columbia, above Cincinnati,


have yet reached the size of even considerable villages; a clear proof, that the wisest human foresight sometimes falls short in such calculations. In the following spring, Indian hostility manifested itself in the customary way of annoyance to the incipient settlements, by stealing horses, killing the cattle and murdering the inhabitants. Several persons of a surveying party, and five or six soldiers were killed.

June 1st, 1789, majar Doughty arrived at Losantiville with one hundred and forty men, who built four block houses opposite the mouth of Licking. On a lot of fifteen acres, sloping from the upper bank to the river, a little east of the present position of Broadway, was erected fort Washington. At the close of 1789, general Harmar arrived with 300 men, and took command of the fort, preparatory to his expedition against the hostile Indians. The population, besides the soldiers, consisted of eleven families, and twenty-four unmarried men. They inhabited twenty small log cabins, chiefly on the lower bank. But a very small part of the present area of the town was cleared; nor were the logs removed for some years afterwards. Darius Orcutt and Miss M'Henry, and Daniel Shoemaker and Miss Alice Ross were the first couples legally married in Losantiville, and the first child born, in I what is now Cincinnati, was John Cummins. Columbia still exceeded this place in population. The inhabitants at that place had the advantage of tilling fields, which had been made by the Indians, and so productive were these fields in maize, that captain Benjamin Davis measured 114 bushels of corn from a single acre.

In January, 1790, governor St. Clair and the judges of the supreme court descended to Losantiville, where the first judicial court was organized in the Miami country. The governor, in honor of the military society of


Cincinnati, changed the name of Losantiville to its present name. In the following spring, Mr. Dunlap and associates laid out the station of Colerain on the Great Miami, seventeen miles north-west of Cincinnati, and Ludlow's, Garrard's, Covalt's, White's and Round Bottom stations were commenced. At each of these points general Harmar stationed a small number of regulars for defence; and whoever rashly ventured beyond this line of defence was exposed to be murdered, or at least to receive a shot from the hostile Indians, who were constantly prowling round.

Forty families were added to Cincinnati this year. As many cabins and the first two frame houses were erected. Seven mechanics were numbered among the Inhabitants. Fifteen or twenty of the new settlers were murdered by the Indians, and Mr. Spencer, at present a distinguished citizen of the place, then a boy, was carried into captivity. On the application of his father, he was ransomed by the governor of Upper Canada, for the sum of 120 dollars. The issue of the unfortunate campaign of general Harmar, which took place about this time, has been related in another place.

Twenty acres were planted with corn in different parts of the town. The grinding was with hand mills. Flour and bacon, now in such abundance, were then imported from the older settlements. The tables were of split planks, and the dishes were of wood. The dress of the men was hunting shirts of domestic fabric. This dress was bound with a belt, or girdle, in which were a knife and a tomahawk. The lower part of this dress was deer skin, and after the Indian fashion; in fact the dress of the backwoods people in Illinois and Missouri at the present day. The women, too, were as yet content with dresses of their own fabric. The old inhabitants at that time, who still survive, look back from the squares and streets, the


opulence, pride, coldness and competition of the present day to those primitive times of log cabins, love, amity and affection, cemented by common wants and dangers, as the golden age of Cincinnati.

January 8th, 1791, a party of four persons, who were exploring the country west of the Great Miami, were attacked by the Indians. One was killed; one taken, and the other two escaped to Colerain station. The station consisted of fourteen inhabitants, and was defended by eighteen soldiers. Two days after the attack upon the exploring party, the Indians came upon this station, to the number of 300. They demanded a surrender, which was met by a prompt refusal. A fire was instantly commenced from the garrison, and returned by the Indians. An express was sent to Cincinnati for a reinforcement; and sixty-three soldiers arrived next morning. But the Indians had decamped, before their arrival. During the attack, lead failed for bullets. The women of the garrison supplied the deficiency, by melting their pewter vessels, and moulding balls. Near the garrison was found the body of a prisoner, whom the Indians had slain in the disappointment of their defeat. He appeared to have been horribly mangled, and to have expired from the consuming fire of a burning brand applied to his bowels.

An instance of the keenness of Indian ingenuity, in the invention of original modes of torture is given at this time. The Indians captured a young man of the name of Moses Hewitt, who lived on the little Hockhocking, and was a member of the Marietta settlement. He was remarkable for the suppleness of his limbs, and the swiftness of his running. The Indians tested him with their champion racers, and, although he could not have run with much spirit, under his depressing circumstances, he easily vanquished them all in swiftness. They affected to be pleased,


but their envy was piqued. They were destitute of provisions, and wished to secure their swift footed prisoner, while they were occupied in their hunt. With this view, and probably to torture him at the same time, they fastened his wrists by crossing them, and binding them firmly with cord. They then tied his arms to a stake, so as partly to raise the upper part of his body. They fastened his legs in the same way, and partly cut off a young sapling, bending it down, so that the weight of the lower part of his body would be a counterpoise to the elastic force of the curved tree. Thus was he partially raised by his hands and feet, in a way most horribly painful; and yet in a position, where death would be slow, in arriving to his release. It was like the torture of killing by dropping water on the head. Fortunately, the young man had remarkably slender wrist bones. When left alone to medicate upon his terrible situation, he contrived, not without disengaging the skin and flesh from his wrists, to disentangle his arms from their manacles and finally his legs. He picked up a little of the scraps of jerked meat, which the Indians had left. To baffle their pursuit and that of their dogs, he ran on the bodies of fallen trees, and meandered his course in every direction. Such was the adroitness of his management, that he put them completely at fault, and escaped them, and came in to the settlement of Marietta, wounded, his flesh torn, and mangled, and emaciated to a skeleton, and a living proof how much man can survive, before he suffers the mortal pang. He had been absent fourteen days.

In the disastrous campaign of general St. Clair, the issue of which has been related in another place, a great number of the inhabitants of Cincinnati were killed. The event of the campaign had a discouraging effect upon the fortunes of the settlement. Several of the inhabitants


removed to Kentucky, for greater security from savage assault. So fresh was the settlement, that the establishment of a horse mill for grinding is recorded, as an era in its history.

But notwithstanding the fury and disastrous character of the Indian war, between forty and fifty immigrants arrived at Cincinnati, in 1792. A presbyterian church was built, not far from the site of the present first presbyterian church. It was occupied by the congregation of the Rev. James Kemper. The first school was opened this year in town, and consisted of thirty scholars. The next year, 1793, was distinguished by the prevalence of small pox, among the soldiers and inhabitants of Cincinnati, which swept off nearly a third of their number. The glorious campaign of general Wayne succeeded, the events of which we have already narrated. The severe chastisement, which the Indians received in this campaign, inspired them with sincere dispositions for peace. An end was put to their unprovoked and sanguinary hostilities, by the treaty of fort Greenville, signed, August 3d, 1795. It may be imagined, with what joy this event was hailed by all the dwellers in the Ohio valley. Now, that they considered the dangers of savage assault or ambush at an end, they issued forth from their straightened and uncomfortable positions, in their forts and block houses, selected the spots of their choice, and the blows of the axe, and the baying dogs of the settlers began to echo through the forest. As soon as the news of peace and security passed the mountains to the Atlantic country, the fame of the western country for fertility revived the natural propensities of the American people to wander. On all the great roads to the western country, flocks of emigrants were seen directing their course to cross the Alleghanies. From the Alleghany and the Monongahela, boats crowded


with adventurers, were continually floating down. Connecticut Reserve was rapidly filled with people, chiefly from Connecticut The settlements broadened and diverged from the Marietta settlement on the one hand, and Cincinnati on the other, gradually advancing from the shores of the Ohio towards the height of land between the waters of the Ohio and the lakes. The extraordinary fertility of the country on the Scioto caused the banks of that river early to be settled with a compact population. The country on the Great Miami from Dayton, along the courses of Mad river, soon became populous. The extent of the immigration could only be imagined by the inn keepers, who lived on the great roads to the western country, or by the agents of the land office, or by the astonishing results of a census. For the rest, the settlers quietly dropped into their forest nests, and the next intelligence of them was by the passing traveller, who spoke of their wheat fields, and commencing improvements. Never was transformation from the silence of the forest to the results of population, towns, villages, farms and all the accompaniments of civilization and municipal life more silent and imperceptible, and at the same time more sudden.

In four years from the treaty of Greenville, to wit, in 1799, the territory passed to what has since been called, the second grade of territorial government. The legislative power, which in the first grade belonged to the governor and judges, was transferred to a house of representatives elected by the people, and a legislative council, appointed by congress. A delegate was chosen to represent the territory in the national legislature. In 1795, Cincinnati contained 500 inhabitants. In 1800, 750. In 1805, 960.


The limits of this territory had hitherto been Pennsylvania on the east, the lakes on the north, the Mississippi on the west, and the Ohio on the south. The extent of country was sufficient to form a large empire. General St. Clair remained governor. The first territorial legislature met at Cincinnati in 1799. Representatives from Detroit and Kaskaskia were present. The two points were distant, by the travelled route, not much short of 800 miles. During this session, a dispute arose between the governor and the two houses, touching the power of the governor to exercise an unqualified negative. The legislature remained in session three months. A sturdy spirit of independence, and disposition to remonstrate against real or supposed grievances, began early to manifest itself in the legislative measures and enactments. The next session was held at Chillicothe, in November, 1800. The differences between the governor and the legislature manifested themselves anew during this session.

Previous to this, however, a separate territorial government had been erected out of the country, which now constitutes Indiana and Illinois. The old territory consisted of the present state of Ohio and Michigan territory. This division threw the Miami country and Cincinnati, the most populous and flourishing village in the country, upon the western verge of what would constitute the new state. Feelings of emulation and jealousy had arisen between different sections, particularly between the Miami and Scioto country, in which were the most considerable settlements in the state. Some of those active and influential men, who naturally precede in projects of this kind, began to talk of a state government. To this the governor and a majority of the legislature were averse. They assigned, as reasons, that the people would derive no real advantage from it. The financial aspect of the government


was not prosperous, although most of the public officers received their salaries from the United States. When erected into a state, the people themselves would have to meet these charges, for which it seemed to be generally admitted, the privileges of a state government at that time afforded no adequate equivalent. There were not wanting those at this time, as may well be supposed, who assigned very different motives to the governor, for wishing to postpone the formation of a state government.

There are no striking data, upon which to seize, in order to evince the exact advance of the country in population and improvement. But a thousand circumstances, taken together, manifest the prodigious rapidity, with which the woods were silently filling with settlers. About this time, that great change in the political administration of the general government, about which so much feeling was excited at the time, took place; and the presidency passed from the hands of Mr. Adams to those of Mr. Jefferson. A new school of politicians of course came into power. The governor and a majority of the legislature belonged to the defeated party. This naturally was added, as a new source of disunion, to the territorial councils.

The third session of the territorial legislature convened, November 23d, 1801. There was little cordiality between the governor and the members, that thought, and acted with him, and the party, who claimed to be the true republicans, and who expressed devoted attachment to the administration of Mr. Jefferson. Early in the session, a proposition was brought forward to propose to congress a new division of the whole territory into states. The western state, it was proposed, should be bounded by the Mississippi, by the Ohio to the western boundary of lands granted to George Rodgers Clark and others; thence to the head of Chicago river; thence by that river to lake Michigan;


thence on a due north line to the dividing line between the United States and Canada; and by that line to the Lake of the Woods, and west to the Mississippi. It was proposed, that the middle state should be bounded west by the western state; south by the Ohio river to the mouth of the Scioto; by that river to the Indian boundary line; thence to the south-west corner of the Connecticut Reserve; thence due north to the Canada line; and west by that line to the first bound. The eastern state would of course remain to be bounded by the middle one, the Ohio river, and the Pennsylvania and Canada lines.

A law, making this proposition to congress, was passed on the 21st of December, 1801. As soon as it was known, it created great excitement in the country. The minority of the legislature protested against it, and arrangements were made to send on an agent to congress, to protest against the passing of this proposition into a law by congress. The agency was entrusted to Thomas Worthington, Esq. one of the minority in the house of representatives. According to his instructions, he proceeded to the seat of the general government, and succeeded in obtaining a law, authorizing the people of the eastern division of the territory, according to the original plan in the ordinance, to form a state government. The boundaries were so changed, however, as to exclude the Detroit country from having a part in framing the new government, reserving a right to attach the territory to the state at a future period, should it be deemed expedient.

This was a party measure. It was by no means certain, whether a majority of the people of the proposed state were, or were not attached to the Jefferson school of politics. A part of the Detroit country was populous, and was supposed to be decidedly hostile to Mr. Jefferson's politics. By excluding that country from all participation,


in forming the constitution, the charges of establishing, and supporting the new state would be rendered more burdensome. This furnished a theme for crimination of their opponents to those, who had reprobated the proposition to change the boundaries of the state. The whole measure was denounced, as an unprincipled political manoeuvre.

The election for members to the convention took place in October. That body met on the first Monday of November, 1802. In the choice of the members, the distinction of Federalist and Republican had been set up, wherever there was sufficient diversity of sentiment to afford the parties the least prospect of success. The result of the election manifested, that a majority of the electors were of what was called the Republican party. Hence a majority of the members returned, were of that character.

Governor St. Clair attended the meeting of the convention, with the view of aiding in their organization. His presence was not acceptable. A proposition, made by him to address the body, was only carried by a vote of nineteen to fourteen. In his address the governor adverted with great severity to the circumstance of excluding Wayne county, including Detroit, from a share in forming the constitution. This was regarded by Mr. Jefferson, as a sufficient departure from propriety, to authorize his immediate dismission from office.

The convention formed the present constitution of the state, which went into operation, in January, 1803. The first legislature under it met at Chillicothe, on the first Tuesday of March, 1803; and the new state was found to be strongly and decidedly ranged upon the side of Mr. Jefferson's administration. Very little political division existed, and the new government entered into its functions with wisdom, prudence and economy. It was a country,


furnishing materials naturally Republican. There were few individuals of great wealth, or preponderating influence, and few of abject poverty. This happy equality, that has prevailed among the people, naturally tended to prevent jealousies, and to inspire them with kindness and tolerance.

One of the first temporary legislative difficulties arose on the question, whether it was constitutional for the legislature to confer on justices of the peace jurisdiction in civil cases, over greater sums than twenty dollars? One of the president judges of the common pleas, and two judges of the supreme court pronounced opinions against the constitutionality of the law. They were impeached, and escaped conviction by a single vote. Out of this contest arose another. Judges are appointed for seven years. At the close of the first period of seven years, one president judge, and all the judges of the supreme court were in office under new appointments. It was made a question, whether a judge, appointed in place of one, who had died, or resigned, could hold the office for an original term of seven years, or only for the remainder of the term of his predecessor. A majority of both houses of the legislature inclined, as has been the general interpretation in such cases, to the weaker construction. The legislature proceeded to a new appointment of all the judges of the supreme court, and all the presidents. By this proceeding two judges of the supreme court, one president-judge, and several associate judges were displaced from office. For a time, this question very warmly agitated the public mind. The community acquiesced in the wrong, if such it was. But the principle has been abandoned in all subsequent legislation.

The selecting a permanent seat of government, as usual in the western country, called up sectional feeling, heats


and collisions. The sixth general assembly met at Chillicothe, December, 1807. One of the early acts of this assembly was, to provide for the promulgation of the legislative acts; and ordering the printing of fifty copies of the auditor's and treasurer's reports with the accompanying documents. Samuel Huntington, Esq. was governor of the state, from 1807 to 1810. There had been a long period of tranquility with the Indians. Alarm was excited about this time by some hostile movements of the Indians on the frontier. But the apprehensions for this time proved to be groundless, and soon passed away. By reports duly authorized, the militia were proved to be badly armed, and organized. Measures were taken by this assembly to remedy this serious evil. Great numbers of local acts, as would be naturally required in a new state, so rapidly passing from the condition of a wilderness, were passed. They were such, as related to the erection of mill dams, the clearing out and repairing roads, and the incorporation of towns. A striking proof of the rapid growth of the state, in improvement and importance, in the years 1807 — '8 and '9 is afforded by a review of the numerous legislative acts of that period. Great and little matters are mixed up in amusing incongruity. Beside enactments for the establishment of universities, libraries and literary societies, the erection of new counties, and the incorporation of charitable institutions and religious societies, are acts encouraging the making of salt, killing of squirrels and wolves, and for the prevention of firing the woods and prairies.

The seat of government having been removed temporarily to Zanesville, the ninth session of the general assembly was held at that place. The finances of the state seem to have been gradually improving. In the Zanesville session of 1810, the auditor of the state, in rendering his accounts, states, that the revenue was improving, and that,


should the present order of things continue, the treasury would soon be able to meet all expenditures. At the opening of this session, Return J. Meigs, Esq. was declared, governor.

In this session the governor presented a map of the falls of Ohio, with accompanying documents explanatory of the manner, in which it was proposed to remove the obstruction of the falls. The governor recommended in his message the consideration of the question, what kind of aid the state of Ohio ought to render, in carrying the proposed improvement into effect? The acts of this session continue to evince the powerful increase of population by the number of new counties created. Ohio was already beginning to become comparatively a populous country. In all cases the intercourse between Ohio and the general government manifested comity and good feeling.

About this time began to be seen the extravagant rage of this state for making new banks. The first state legislature incorporated the ‘Miami exporting company bank’ at Cincinnati. It soon established for itself an extensive and solid reputation. Subsequently, other banks were incorporated as follow: Two in Cincinnati; one in Chillicothe; one at Zanesville; one at Steubenville; and one at Warren, Ohio was a frontier state. The events of the war began to thicken upon the surface of this state, which was in fact one of its most considerable theatres. Great amounts of money were expended here, in consequence of the advance of the armies upon Canada. Ohio furnished supplies, and the plenty of money gave to everything, an artificial and unnatural value. Every community of a dozen members, thought they could institute a bank, and claimed a legal right to do it. Intelligent and provident men foresaw the evils, and the misery, which this order of things must ultimately entail upon the community. But public feeling


had taken them up, and the facility of making money by signing names to a piece of paper became too seductive to be resisted.

We have recorded the most prominent events of the war in another place. Ohio was the theatre of some brilliant exploits, and of more disaster, humiliation, and suffering. Its frontier suffered incalculably. Much of its best and bravest blood flowed. No state in the Union manifested less dejection in defeat, or more prompt and patriotic purposes to fill the ranks anew, and furnish money and supplies. The character of Ohio, through this diversified and bloody struggle is marked with imperishable honor.

In the session of 1813, the growing evil of bank incorporations continued. Many religious societies were incorporated. Acts were passed to suppress gambling; and we ought to remark in passing, that a stern and honorable regard to good morals marks all the legislation of this state from the beginning. This state has been almost alone among her sisters in her enactments against the evils of lotteries. In this session an application was made to congress for an appropriation of lands on the frontiers of Ohio and Indiana, to encourage immigrants to settle in those portions of the country.

At the opening of the session of the legislature in 1814, Thomas Worthington, Esq. was declared governor. The accounts of the auditor prove, that the revenue of the state was fully adequate to its expenditures. A petition was presented to this assembly by the Germans, who are numerous, and have considerable communities in the state, requesting, that a number of the journals of assembly, and laws of the state may be translated into German, and printed in that language. An attempt was made in the legislature to put an end to the increase of banks. The plan proposed was to extend the charters of existing


banks, so as to enlist their interest against new applicants, and to enforce severe penalties upon private banking companies. A singular coincidence occurred to prevent it. The advocates of unlimited banking saw, that this plan would be destructive of their schemes. The enemies of banking establishments of all kinds saw in it a cunning manoeuvre, to secure a monopoly for the existing bank. The plan was consequently defeated. During the session of this assembly, news arrived of the victory of the 8th of January, at New Orleans. The legislature resolved to illuminate the legislative hall, and to offer solemn thanksgivings by religious services.

A law was passed, February, 1815, imposing severe penalties upon unchartered banks. But the public feeling had so strongly identified itself both in interest and opinion with the impression, that banking was a common right, which it was illegal and tyrannical to restrain, that the prohibitory law was but a dead letter. Various new banks sprung up, and everyone could now see the tendency of the evil. In 1816, the plan proposed two years before, which was that of chartering certain banks, and prohibiting all others, was adopted. But in this time the list, which it was necessary to incorporate, had increased from ten to nearly thirty. Charters were refused to a number quite as secure on banking principles, as those, which had obtained them. The downfal, that ensued, was inevitable from the nature of things, and the same results of fraud and escape on the part of the crafty, and misery and ruin on the part of the simple and unsuspecting, was the result. A strong-party existed in this state for adopting relief laws, like those, which under similar pressure had prevailed in the other western states. But the steady exertions of a few correct and practical politicians kept all these desperate remedies in check. Laws enforcing payment were partially


relaxed in favor of the debtor, in 1819. But in a short time they returned to their natural operation.

At the session of the legislature of 1818, Ethan Allen Brown, Esq. was declared governor. In this session and that of 1819, we meet with no striking political landmarks. The natural progress of such a country in improvement of every kind, after the government is firmly established, and things have all found their bearings, is strongly marked by the multiplicity of enactments in regard to internal regulations and local affairs.

In November, 1819, the seat of government, which had been previously located by law at Columbus, was actually removed there. The legislature assembled at that place in December. Thomas Worthington, Esq., the same gentleman, who had acted so efficiently in procuring the admission of Ohio, as a state, into the Union, was declared governor. At that session of the legislature, a foundation was laid for the present state library. The manner of doing it not only reflects honor on the distinguished individual, through whose instrumentality it was procured, but tends to throw light upon the manner, in which literary concernments are obliged to be managed, in order to receive the patronage of the community.

Columbus was a new town, which had just sprung up from the forest. The public functionaries would naturally be exposed to great inconvenience, for want of books and other means of intelligence. To remedy this inconvenience, the governor suggested to some active and influential members of the legislature, that if they would procure the addition of 1,500 dollars to the contingent fund at the disposal of the governor, he would expend it in books, would arrange them in a room in the public offices, before the meeting of the next legislature; and if the measure should prove unacceptable to the legislature, he would


take the books on his own account. The plan was adopted; and thus a foundation was laid for the state library, which is now increased by yearly appropriations.

Among other political movements in Ohio, the controversy with the bank of the United States deserves a passing notice. This institution was created at the time when the bank mania was raging at the height of its violence. In December, 1816, a resolution was offered in the senate of Ohio, requesting the mother bank of the United States to locate certain branches in this state; but the resolution was withdrawn, in consequence of its being ascertained by the mover, that it might, probably, result in an amendment, declaring it unwise to locate branches in the state at all. Branches, however, were instituted in Ohio. The legislature passed a law to tax them, originally contemplating no other tax, than that imposed upon the banks of the state. This latter clause was not adopted. It is not improbable, that had this principle been admitted into the act, the tax might have been paid, and the subsequent unhappy controversy avoided. The state, though very unanimous in its measures, submitted to the decision of the Federal court, without giving any unnecessary vexation in the execution of the sentence.

The great work of internal improvement by canals, which is now in such triumphant progress in this state, was in contemplation here at an early day. At the first session of the state legislature, a law passed, authorizing a lottery to raise money to improve the navigation of the Muskingum and Cuyahoga rivers. But lotteries had never been popular in this state; and it did not succeed. Still the community here never lost sight of the subject. Resolutions, authorizing examinations, with a view to constructing a canal, were introduced into the legislature, in January,


1817, and, after some discussion in the house of representatives, were suffered to sleep on the table.

At the session of 1817, the legislature took up the subject of the New York canal, then in its commencement. They passed a resolution, asserting the importance of the work, and their conviction of its practicability. They directed the governor to correspond with Mr. Clinton upon the subject. At that day, it was the opinion of many superficial politicians, that the magnificent project was a mere chimera, got up by Mr. Clinton for political effect. It was treated with ridicule under the name of ‘Clinton's big ditch.’ The opinion expressed by Ohio was elicited by a letter from Mr. Clinton, then president of the ‘New York canal board,’ to governor Worthington; and this opinion is supposed to have had a favorable bearing upon the measure. It is evidence of the sagacity and intelligence of the public men of the state, as is now amply demonstrated by the success of the work. We add the letter and report, as interesting documents, touching the origin of the greatest national work ever undertaken in the West.

Hon. De Witt Clinton's letter, above alluded to, dated Albany, November 11th, 1816.

SIR — By an act of the legislature of the state of New York, passed at their last session, a board of commissioners was constituted for the purpose of ascertaining the practicability of connecting by a canal, the navigable waters of the Hudson river with lake Erie. As the organ of that board and in compliance with the requisitions of said act, I beg leave, through you, to solicit the attention of the honorable the legislature of the state of Ohio, to this interesting subject.


A careful examination, by competent engineers, of the route of the contemplated canal, fully authorizes the belief that it can be made at an expense, which, although considerable, will be vastly overbalanced by the utility of the object — a facility in the transportation to market of the abundant productions of the West — a rapid and easy interchange of commodities of foreign and domestic growth — an increasing activity in commercial and agricultural pursuits, and a consequent enhancement in the value of lands, are some of the most obvious benefits to be realized from a communication between the great lakes and the Atlantic, by means of a navigable canal.

Nor can it be disputed, that from the local situation of the state of Ohio, the luxuriance of her soil, her growing wealth and increasing population, she will be among the first to enjoy these advantages.

As the citizens of the state of Ohio, in common with those of the state of New York, will enjoy the benefits of this improvement in the means of intercommunication, it seems to be the dictate of justice, that, with them, they should also participate in the expense.

Distinguished for patriotism and liberality, the legislature of that state are therefore respectfully invited to partake, with New York, in the lasting advantages and immortal honor resulting from the accomplishment of an object so important. With sentiments, &c.

President of the Board of Canal Commissioners.
His Excellency the governor of Ohio.

'The joint committee to whom was referred the communication of his excellency, the governor, of the 11th ult. together with the accompanying letter from the Hon. De Witt Clinton, on the subject of the contemplated canal


from lake Erie to the Hudson river, have had the same under consideration and now submit the following report:

‘From a view of the subject submitted to their consideration, your committee are fully impressed with the belief, that the making of a canal from the Hudson river to lake Erie, is an object of the first importance to this state, and the United States in general, both in a commercial and in a political point of view. The facility which it will afford to the exportation of the surplus produce of our luxuriant soil, and the consequent encouragement of agricultural and commercial enterprise are effects too obvious to pass unnoticed, and of too much importance to be neglected, as affording a safe, easy and expeditious mean of mutual interchange of commodities between different sections of our common country; highly advantageous to all, as increasing the commercial connections, friendly intercourse, and ties of interest; and by these means strengthening the bonds of union between remote parts of the nation. The contemplated canal presents advantages vastly superior to those resulting from any work of the kind accomplished by the industry of man in any age or country. From a geographical view of the state of Ohio, extending for a great distance on its northern frontier, along the extensive navigable waters of the St. Lawrence, presenting all the advantages of a northern market, and washed on the eastern and southern boundaries by one of the great branches of the Mississippi, affording an easy access to a southern market, and a facility in obtaining the various productions of the south, connecting the northern with the southern, and the western with the Atlantic states; considering its happy climate and the luxuriant fertility of its soil, intersected by navigable rivers and unbroken by mountains, we are struck with its natural advantages, which, if improved


by an enlightened and liberal policy, will render the situation of Ohio inferior to that of no state in the Union, or country in the world. Among these improvements, the contemplated canal is unquestionably of the first importance. Sensible that a work of such magnitude can not be effected without the united and vigorous exertions of those interested, and fully impressed with the belief, that the greatest advantages will result to the United States generally, and particularly to the state of Ohio, as well as the state of New York, from the completion of the contemplated canal; your committee are clearly of opinion that true policy, as well as justice, require the state of Ohio to lend its aid to the accomplishment of a work of such incalculable utility. We are at the same time sensible, that the funds of this state will not permit us to aid in the undertaking in that proportion, which might be expected from the relative population of the state.

Your committee have had no accurate means of ascertaining the probable expense of the proposed canal. But from the best information, they have been able to obtain, they are induced to believe that the work is not only practicable, but can be accomplished at an expense within the reach of those interested, and from the enterprising spirit and enlightened policy of the state of New York, they feel little hesitation in believing, that it will be undertaken.

Your committee are at present unable to point out, or recommend any particular method of aiding in the proposed work, not being in possession of any information relative to the system or plan which may be adopted by the state of New York for effecting the object.

Your committee respectfully submit for consideration, the following resolutions:

Resolved by the general assembly of the state of Ohio, That this state will aid as far, as its resources will


justify, in making the contemplated canal from lake Erie to the Hudson river, in such manner as may be deemed most advisable, when the plan or system which may be adopted by the state of New York, for the accomplishment of that work may be known; and that his excellency the governor be requested to open a correspondence with the Hon. De Witt Clinton, or such other persons as he may think necessary, and take such other means as he may deem advisable, in order to ascertain the practicability and probable expense of making said canal, the probable time when the same will be commenced, the plan which may be adopted to carry it into effect, and such other information as he may deem important or useful, and communicate the same to the general assembly at their next session.

Resolved, That his excellency the governor be requested to transmit a copy of the foregoing report and resolution to the executive of the state of New York, and to the Hon. De Witt Clinton, president of the board of commissioners for the canal from lake Erie to Hudson's river.’

January, 27, 1817.

As incidental proofs of the utility of canals in transportation, it was communicated to the legislature, that gypsum had been found in great quantities along the New York canal, on the shores of the upper lakes, and in the state of Ohio, on the shores of Sandusky bay. In the session of 1820, important acts were passed for the encouragement of domestic manufactures; and an act, providing for the support and regulation of common schools. A generous effort was subsequently made, to introduce the admirable school system of Massachusetts and Connecticut into this state. Though these efforts have not yet prevailed, to the extent that could be wished, there is


reason to hope, that at some future day, they will go into complete effect. Since that time, the march of the state in improvement has been steady and unremitting. We have given in another place statements of the progress of the two great Ohio canals. At the present period, Ohio, in the stamina of true strength and greatness, in the extent of her industry, in the growing amount of her manufactures, in the regular advance of her population, in the numbers and organization of her militia, and in her general spirit, intelligence and improvement, is entitled to rank among the first states in the Union.


West Pennsylvania.

As we have seen, that part of Pennsylvania, that is watered by the Ohio and its branches, is situated west of the great dividing ridge of the Alleghanies, that separates the waters of the Atlantic from those of the Ohio. Among these ridges the principal are Peter's mountain, Tuscarora mountain, Sideling hill, Jack's mountain, and Bald Eagle ridge. West of these is the Great Alleghany ridge, which separates between the eastern and western waters. The base of this ridge is 1,000 feet above the level of the sea, and the elevation of the mountain above the base is from 1,000 to 1,500 feet It is believed, that about one-third of the surface of Pennsylvania is west of these mountains, and watered by the Ohio and its waters. The face of the country generally is hilly, rolling, and in some places mountainous. Except in the regions about lake Erie, very little of West Pennsylvania can be called level. In this part of the state are the following coursties. Westmoreland county, population 30,288; chief town, Greensburg, 771; Fayette county, 26,385; chief town, Union, 1,058; Green, 15,293; Waynesburg, 298; Washington, 39,291; Washington, 1,630; Armstrong, 10,282; Kittanning, 317; Venango, 4,887; Franklin, 252; Crawford, 9,356; Meadville, 649; Warren, 1,975; Warren, 182; Mercer, 11,590; Mercer, 506; Butler, 10,180; Butler, 225; Beaver, 15,234; Beaver, 261. To these we may add Alleghany, 34,226. Pittsburg, contained by the census of 1820, 7,248,


and is now computed to contain 12,000, making a total of 186,000. To these we may add a very considerable intermediate population along the valleys of the mountains, that more properly belong to the Western, than the Atlantic country; so that, probably, at the census of 1820, West Pennsylvania may be supposed to contain considerably more than 200,000 inhabitants.

There is a college at Cannonsburg, in an elevated and pleasant situation. It is an institution of considerable importance, but too near the college at Washington, to allow the supposition that both the institutions can flourish. The college edifice makes a respectable appearance. The college at Washington is situated in that pleasant village, in the centre of a populous and thriving country. It has a collegiate foundation, and considerable funds, and endowments, and has graduated between twenty and thirty students in some years.

The system of common schools in West Pennsylvania does not materially differ from that east of the mountains. There is less inequality of condition among the people, and the modes of conducting schools are more similar to those of New England.

They are generally a hardy, robust, and industrious race of people in their habits, pursuits, and modes of thinking, as well as in their persons, much resembling the people of New England. The climate, though something milder, is not very much unlike that of Connecticut. The people, like those of New England, are generally addicted to habits of religious worship, and to connecting themselves with some religious society. Their trade is with Pittsburg, or Canada, and New York, by the way of lake Erie. Besides the county towns, mentioned above, West Pennsylvania contains the following considerable villages. Connelsville, on the east side of the Youghiogeny, is noted


for the important mills and manufactories in its neighborhood, and contains 600 inhabitants.

Brownsville is situated on the east side of the Monongahela river. The great national road passes through it. It is surrounded with fine orchards, and fields, in a rich, picturesque and romantic country; and has some fine stone buildings in and about it. It contained, in 1820, 771 inhabitants. It probably now contains 1,000. Bridgeport is a village, opposite to Brownsville, and contains 624 inhabitants. Cannonsburg is on the west side of Charter's creek, eight miles north of Washington. It is surrounded by a hilly, but fertile country; and contained in 1820, 630 inhabitants. Erie, beautifully situated on the south side of lake Erie, is a thriving village, containing, in 1820, 632 inhabitants. It is a stopping place for steam boats, that pass upon the lake. It used to be called Presq Isle. It is the seat of justice for Erie county, and is in N. latitude 42° 21', 120 miles north of Pittsburg. A portage from the lake to the navigable waters of the Alleghany river, commences here. The distance is fifteen miles; and the two places are connected by a turnpike. Immense quantities of salt used to be transported over this portage. It was brought from the great Saline in New York; and was sent down the Ohio, for the supply of the country on its waters. But salt is now made so cheaply, and abundantly on the Ohio, and its waters, that this trade is in a great measure suspended. A great deal of trade, however, still passes this way, both that of articles for New York from the western country; and of articles sent from New York to the western country. In the year 1809, 52,000 barrels of salt were sent across this turnpike to Pittsburg.

Waterford is situated on the north bank of French creek, a considerable river of the Alleghany; and is the place where the portage from Erie terminates. It is a village of considerable


business, and has a post office, a number of stores, inns, and commission warehouses; and is fifteen miles south of Erie. Meadville is on the east bank of French creek; and has several stores, inns and public buildings; a post office, and printing office, two churches, and a college, which is a respectable seminary, under the care of the Rev. Mr. Alden. Dr. Bently, late of Salem, Massachusetts, bequeathed a very considerable library to this college; and it is at present in a flourishing condition. Franklin, Kittanning and Freeport, are inconsiderable villages between this place and Pittsburg. We have already remarked, that a considerable tract of country, in the south-west angle of New York, is watered by the head waters of the Alleghany. It is in New York principally, and along the upper courses of the Alleghany, that are found those deep and noble pine forests, whence are carried the boards and lumber, which supply the greater part of the demand for this article in all the western country, and quite to New Orleans. It is supposed, that nearly 30,000,000 feet of plank have this year descended the Alleghany. In return, keel boats carry back whiskey, iron, castings, cider, apples, bacon, and many other domestic articles. The brig Dean, and the Sally Ross, and several other vessels of burden have been launched on the Alleghany, and have descended thence to New Orleans. The Alleghany is 400 yards wide at its mouth. Among the natural curiosities in this region is Oil creek, which enters into the Alleghany. The spring source of this creek yields great quantities of bituminous, or unctuous matter, like petroleum; and probably is that substance. It is taken internally, as a medicine; and the rheumatic find relief, by bathing the joints affected with that complaint, with this oil. Many people at Pittsburgh keep this oil in


bottles, and attach much confidence to it, as containing some mysterious efficacy.

All parts of the western country seem admirably accommodated the one to the other; the one part supplying what the other wanted. The country on the Alleghany is much of it broken, sterile, and not calculated to become a rich farming country. It contains inexhaustible supplies of the finest lumber; and innumerable mill seats. Pittsburg, and the country below it, can amply supply all the wants of this region, as regards produce, manufactures and articles of iron fabric. In return, mills with water power, are very uncommon about Pittsburg; and the adjacent country naturally calls for the lumber of the Alleghany.

In describing the Alleghany and its waters, we have named the principal streams from Pennsylvania and New York, that swell that fine river. There is one creek, that we have not mentioned; a tributary of the Alleghany, that deserves mention were it only for its name, Muhulbuctitum.

Pittsburg, in the extent of her manufactures, is the only rival of Cincinnati in the West. In population, wealth and importance it is next to that city; and the third in the valley of the Mississippi. A more charming spot for the site of a city could scarely be selected. When either the town is viewed from the surrounding hills, or in the verdure of summer those hills are seen from the town, the contrasted picture is delightful. No place is surrounded by more charmingly rounded and romantic hills; and the boundless view of hill and dale, the Alleghany bringing down its northern tribute on the one hand, and the Monongahela its southern offering on the other, the singular bluffs of these rivers, their junction, the broad and beautiful Ohio, calmly commencing its course of 1,000 miles, and winding away among its deep forests, and its


shores shaded by noble sycamores, the town, its surrounding villas, and the whole scene taken together, as seen from the adjoining hills, constitute as fine a landscape, as can well be imagined. The town is built on an alluvial plain, in the Delta of the two rivers, and where they unite to form the Ohio. Over the Alleghany is a high and beautiful plain bounded in the distance by bold and rugged hills. The coal hill, across the Monongahela, rises more than 300 feet; and almost perpendicularly impends a town, between it and the river. On the Monongahela side is a manufacturing village, called Birmingham; and to match it, on the Alleghany side they have built a town called Manchester.

It is well known that the site of this town was selected, at an early period in the French wars, as an important point in the great chain of posts, which was to connect Canada with Louisiana. It had been, for a considerable time, a depot of French goods for the savages; a place of outfits for the trade of the Ohio, and a military post, to defend the country against the occupancy and settlement of the English; and to secure to the inhabitants the monopoly of the trade with the savages, when Braddock was sent to dispossess the French, and capture the post of fort Du Quesne, as it was then called. After the fatal battle, in which he was mortally wounded, and in which Washington gained his first laurels, colonel Grant, with 800 Caledonians, was defeated here on the hill, which still bears his name. Not long after, it came into the possession of the British, and they built a fort at the expense of 60,000 pounds sterling. It was built under the superintendence of lord Stanwin. In 1760, a considerable town arose about the fort. Beautiful gardens and fruit orchards were planted; but on the breaking out of the Indian war, in 1763, the inhabitants again retired into the


fort. The present town of Pittsburg dates back to 1765. Its plan was enlarged, and it was re-surveyed, in 1784. It then belonged to the Penn family, as a part of their hereditary manor. By them it was sold. The Indian wars, and the troubles in the western country prevented its rapid growth, until the year 1793. Since that time, it has increased at the same pace of improvement with the most growing towns of the West. Its public buildings are a large brick court house, a market house, a handsome episcopal church, a large presbyterian church, a German Lutheran church, a seceders' church, a catholic chapel, and one or two smaller places of worship. It is compactly, and some streets are handsomely built; although the use of pit coal, for culinary and manufacturing purposes, has carried such quantities of the fine black matter, driven off in the smoke into the air to be deposited on the walls of the houses, and on every thing, that can be blackened with coal smoke, as have given the town a funereal and gloomy aspect, that is at first view particularly repulsive. The beauty, however, of its situation, its advantages as a manufacturing town, and its acknowledged healthfulness, will continue to render it a place of attraction for builders, manufacturers and capitalists. It has an academy, a number of English schools, a seminary for young ladies, three banks, and a small theatre. For some years back, the progress of the town was slow, and even retrograde; but it has recently started anew; and is now increasing in population, resources and manufactures with great rapidity. The present population is rising of twelve thousand. The following is an enumeration of the manufactories in 1810. One steam flour mill, on a great scale; three carding and spinning mills; one mill for grinding fiat irons; two distilleries; three breweries; four brick yards; two air furnaces, three lead factories; six naileries; three


glass establishments, one for green, and two for white glass; two potteries; two gunsmitheries; three tobacco factories; sixteen looms; six tanneries; seventeen smitheries; four coopers' establishments; eight chair and cabinet makers; a great number of saddlers, and boot and shoemakers; the exact number not given; ten hatters' establishments; four silversmiths' and watchmakers' shops; six copper, brass, and tin factories; three stone cutters; three boat and ship builders' establishments; two wagon makers; three chandlers; one rope walk; one button factory; one stocking weaver; one cutlery; one glass cutting establishment; one wire weaving shop; all these establishments have increased, no doubt, in number and importance, since that time.

At the present time the following articles are manufactured on a great scale. Iron mongery of every description. The amount of this article, in the greater and minuter branches, is prodigious. Steam engines, and enginery, and iron work in general are manufactured on a great scale. Cutlery of all descriptions; glass and paper are important items in the manufactures of this place. Cotton, and woollens, pottery, and chemicals, tin, and copper ware are manufactured, and exported to a great extent. Boat and steam boat building have been pursued here on a greater scale, than in any other town in the western country. In the year 1814, 4,055 wagons of four and six horses, employed, as transport wagons, passed between this place and Philadelphia. Boats of the smaller kinds are continually departing down the river at all seasons, when the waters will admit. In moderate stages of the river, great numbers of steam boats arrive, and depart. Of course, this place transacts a great amount of commission business for all the western country. Great contracts are continually ordered from all the towns on the waters


of the Ohio and Mississippi, for machinery, steam boat castings, and the various manufactories, that this city supplies. The inexhaustible supplies of excellent pit coal, in all directions in the coal hills about the town, furnish great facilities for keeping in operation the great numbers of steam manufactories. The coal costs little more, than the simple expense of digging; and there is no fear, that the supply will either fail, or become difficult to procure. The present amount of the value of manufactures is supposed to be not far from 2,000,000 dollars annually. The market is rich, and abundant; but much higher, than in the towns lower down the Ohio. It is believed, that the expense of articles in the Pittsburg market will compare pretty accurately with those of Philadelphia. It is still a place of great resort for emigrants descending the Ohio. It has the disadvantage of having the river shallower, in low water than at Wheeling. Flat and keel boats can descend the river from the latter place, in stages of water, that would not admit of it from the former place.

Pittsburg is more entirely a manufacturing place, than Cincinnati; and more so than any other place in the West, or perhaps in America. It deserves the name, that has so often been bestowed on it, the Birmingham of America. Its prosperity probably depends less on the fluctuations of the markets, the changes of the times, and the vicissitudes of peace and war, than any other town in our country. Its manufactures are of articles of prime importance, and vital necessity, which must be consumed in all changes of times; and which this city, from its extensive operations, from its long practice and experience, and from the skill and practised talents of its manufacturers, can furnish on as good terms, as any other place.

The inhabitants are a mixture of all nations. Germans and Irish predominate. But there are great numbers of


English, Scotch, French, Swiss, &c.; mechanics and artizans, who come here to bring their mechanical skill and industry, to a better market, than they could find in the old world. The habits of the people of the place are those of persevering industry, calculating carefulness, distrust of strangers, and a fixed purpose to look to their individual interests. They are of all the different denominations of religion, and as moral, as could be expected of a people, so situated. Luxury, splendor and display are not much in fashion here; and the habits of the people are frugal and economical.

Pittsburg is the seat of justice for the county of Alleghany; and is situated in N. latitude 40° 35', W. longitude 4° 40' from Philadelphia; three hundred miles northwest from Philadelphia; 252 from Washington; 335 from Lexington, Ketucky; 1,100 from New Orleans by land; and 2,000 by water.


West Virginia.

WEST VIRGINIA, probably, bears a smaller proportion to the surface of the whole state, than the portion of the above mentioned state west of the Alleghany mountains, does to Pennsylvania. The Alleghany ridge here as in Pennsylvania, separates the waters of the Ohio from those of the Potomac, and the Atlantic. The name of the principal ranges, beyond this continued chain, are Chesnut ridge, and the Gauley mountains. The face of the country is very similar to that, which we have been describing. A considerable portion of it is covered with lofty and precipitous mountains, and valleys embosomed in them. There is, however, much cultivable country. Many of the hills have table summits, and are capable of cultivation. On the whole, it may be called a hilly country, with a salubrious atmosphere; and the people are tall, muscular, laborious and frugal in their habits; having a much greater resemblance, in their general manners, and habits to the people of New England, than to the Virginians east of the mountains. In the dialect of the country, a dialect, however, of universal use in the West, this people, west of the mountains, are called ‘Cohoes,’ and those east of the mountains ‘Tuckahoes.’ Some of the planters have considerable gangs of slaves; but it is far more common, that the labor of the family is performed by the members of it. The people are more in the habit of forming themselves into religious societies, and attending public


worship, than the people of the state east of the mountains. The staple products are wheat and the grains. It is a fine country for orchards; and there is considerable attention paid to the cultivation of fruit. This country comprises the following counties, with the population by the census of 1820, exclusive of the slaves. Wood, 4,998; Mongolia, 10,368; Harrison, 10,300; Randolph, 3,166; Mason, 4,225; Pendleton, 4,454; Bath, 3,965; Green Briar, 5,170; Monroe, 6,009; Kenhawa, 5,297; Tazewell, 3,435; Giles, 4,174; Montgomery, 7,447; Washington, 10,393; Brooke, 6,190; Ohio, 9,182.

There are parts of other counties among the mountains, that properly belong to West Virginia. We think that the whole of the population of this state, that properly belongs to the western country, may be estimated at 100,000 inhabitants. A great many streams rise in the mountains, and fall either into the Monongahela, the Kenhawa, or the Ohio. The Kenhawa is the only river of any great importance. It rises in the Alleghany mountains. One of its principal branches, the Green Briar, almost interlocks with the head waters of James' river, and with those of the Holston of Tennessee. The river is 400 yards wide at its mouth, and in moderate stages of the water, is beatable by large boats to the falls, seventy miles above its mouth. There are the most extensive Salines in the western country. There are a great number of furnaces constantly evaporating the water. The water is found for a considerable distance round the works. To obtain it they bore from 100 to 200 feet deep in the earth. The water is so strongly saline, that from ninety to 130 gallons only are required for a bushel of salt. It is remarkable, that in boring for this water, when the auger had pierced the different strata of earth, and had reached the salt water, it spouted up twenty feet in the air. The quantity, made at


present at these works, is from 200,000 to 300,000 bushels annually. It is, indeed, a kind and a wonderful provision of providence, that such an ample and easy supply of an article, so important and indispensible, should have been thus bountifully supplied by nature, at such remote distances from the sea.

Chief Towns. Wellsburg, formerly called Charlestown, is the county seat of Brooke county. It is handsomely situated on a high bank of the Ohio. It contains 100 houses, a court house, jail, post office, academy, a number of inns, several stores, two or three large ware houses, from which are shipped large quantities of flour for the market at New Orleans. There are a number of valuable merchant mills in this vicinity, that ship their flour from this place. It is a place of considerable embarkation on the Ohio, Some considerable manufactures of earthen, or stone ware are carried on here. It is situated fifty miles southwest from Pittsburg.

Wheeling is the county town for Ohio county. It is situated on a high and gravelly, but alluvial bank of the Ohio, a little above the mouth of the very considerable creek, called Wheeling creek. The town is surrounded by bold and precipitous hills, which are generally covered with a fine verdure, and contain inexhaustible quantities of pit coal. These hills come in so near the river, as to leave rather a small area for the town. The great national road from Baltimore terminates here; or rather is continued on the opposite side of the Ohio. Stages and public roads connect it with Pittsburg. It is the first town on the Ohio, where certain embarkation, in small flats or keels may be calculated upon in low stages of the water. It has a fine surrounding country. There is a great deal of rich land back of it, along Wheeling creek. These circumstances, united to its very favorable position on the Ohio,


impart many advantages to Wheeling. Of course, few towns on the Ohio have grown more rapidly. A number of mail stages arrive and depart here: and its situation in regard to the Ohio, and the national road, cause, that it is a place of great and constant resort for travellers. It has a court house, a jail, a banking house, a presbyterian and a methodist church, a market house, a book store, a printing office, a Lancastrian academy, a library and a number of inns, some of them highly respectable. It has a large number of stores, and commission ware houses; 300 dwelling houses, and about 2,500 inhabitants. It has manufactories of earthen ware, and a number of considerable establishments of mechanics of the common kinds. Flat and keel boats are built here; and recently a number of steam boats of the first class. There are many reasons to suppose, that this place will eventually become one of the most considerable on the Ohio. The other villages, in West Virginia, on the Ohio and its waters are Belleville, Point Pleasant, Greenville, Abingdon, Jeffersonville, Franklin and Jonesville.


Michigan Territory.

LENGTH, 250 miles. Breadth, 135. 33,750 square miles. 21,600,000 acres. Between 41° 31' and 45° 40 N. latitude; and between 5° 12' and 10° W. longitude. Bounded on the North by the straits of Michilimackinack; East by lakes Huron, St. Clair, and Erie, and their waters; South by Ohio and Indiana; West by lake Michigan. It is a large peninsula, something resembling a triangle, with its base resting upon Ohio and Indiana. Three quarters of its extent are surrounded by the great lakes Huron, and Michigan. It is generally a very level country, having no mountains, and not many elevations, that might properly be called hills. The centre of the peninsula is table land, elevated, however, not many feet above the level of the lakes, and sloping in every direction to them. But, though the general surface of this territory is level, there is far less swampy and wet surface, than in the northern belt of Ohio, adjoining the lakes. The country is divided into nearly equal proportions of grass prairies, like those of Indiana and Ohio, divided into wet and dry; and extensive and deep forests of trees of nearly the same classes with those in Ohio; except, that here, there is an intermixture of white and yellow pine. A considerable belt of land, along the southern shore of lake Michigan, is sandy, and sterile; and so swept by the bleak and desolating gale of the lake, as not to promise much in the way of cultivation. But a very considerable proportion of the lands of this territory


are of excellent quality; and it promises one day to become a populous country. The productions are the same as those of New York, Orchards flourish remarkably, and this will undoubtedly become a fine fruit country.

Rivers. This is a country watered by almost innumerable rivers and branches. From the levelness of the country, they are generally boatable, almost to their sources. As a general remark, it may be said, that these rivers abound in the fine fish of the lakes; and the fisheries on them are no inconsiderable source of supply to the new settlers. We can only mention a few of the most important ones.

Grand river is supposed to be the largest river, that enters lake Michigan. It rises in the south-east angle of the territory, and interlocks at its sources, or on its passage, with the waters of Raisin, Black, Mastigon, and Saganum; and enters the lake, twenty miles north of the Raisin. It courses through forests and prairies abounding with game; and its bosom, at the proper seasons, is covered with wild fowls. Small boats reach its source, and by this and Huron rivers, periogues pass from lake Michigan to lake Erie. It has been proposed to connect it by a canal with the Saganum of lake Huron.

The St. Joseph heads in Indiana, and interlocks, as we have seen, with Black river, St. Joseph's of the Miami, Eel river, and Tippicanoe of the Wabash. It has a strong current, and is full of islands; is boatable 150 miles; and is 200 yards wide at its entrance into the lake. There are most abundant fisheries on it. The Raisin derives its name from the great numbers of grapes, that grow on its banks. Black river, Marame, Barbue, White, Rocky, Beauvais, St. Nicholas, Marguerite, Monistic, Aux Sables, Lasiette, Grand Traverse, Thunder river, Sandy, Saganum, St. Clair, Belle, and Huron are considerable streams,


that empty into the lakes. These rivers, like those of the gulf of Mexico, before they enter the lakes, expand into considerable basins, caused, no doubt, by the conflict between the current of the rivers, and the surf of the lakes, meeting in a level and sandy soil. In the proper season, they are covered with the most abundant harvests of wild rice; and with innumerable flocks of wild fowls, that come here to feed upon it.

There are still a great many Indians, that reside in this country. But the tide of white immigration has recently set strong this way; and the banks of the Huron, and the Raisin are rapidly covered with the clearings of the settlers. The strait of St. Clair, connecting that lake with lake Huron, is twenty-six miles long. It runs through a country, partly prairie, and partly forest. Deep groves of beautiful white pine are found along this strait. The strait of Detroit, connecting lake Erie and St. Clair, is twenty-four miles. It is navigable for large vessels, is studded with islands; and is one of the most beautiful sheets of water in the world. Its current is nearly three miles an hour. It receives the rivers Rouge, Ecorce, Magaugua, and Brownstown. Five miles above the mouth of the Rouge, is a ship yard. It has excellent lands on its banks. South of Huron river, the river Aux Cignes, Rocky creek, Aux Sables, and some other small streams enter the lake.

Raisin derives importance from the circumstance, that it is more settled, than any river in the country, except Detroit. It has also obtained a melancholy celebrity from the events of the late war. It has at its mouth extensive prairies, and wide tracts, covered with wild rice. The French settlements on this river are conformable to their customs in Canada, Missouri, and Louisiana; that is to say, they are laid out in long and narrow parallelograms, two or three arpens wide in front, and from forty to 100


arpens deep. In this way they gratify their propensity for society, by having the fronts of their plantations resemble a continued village. There are fine orchards on this river. Its banks are covered with grape vines, and from the abundance of its grapes it receives its name.

Michilimackinack island is situated in the north-west angle of lake Huron in the straits between it and lake Michigan. It is considered among the most impregnable fortresses on the northern frontier. The British gained possession of it, during the late war. It derives its name from an Indian word implying ‘the back of a tortoise,’ which, in its form of rising from the lake, it is said to resemble. The island is nine miles in circumference. The village stands on the south side of it, and on rising grounds back of it, the fort is situated. This is one of the most remote northern settlements in the United States. The fortifications are of great strength. The population of the island and its vicinity is 819. The islands in lake Michigan are as follow: Manitou island, near the eastern coast, is six miles long and four wide. The Castor islands extend from Grand Traverse bay nearly across the lake. Grosse isle is five miles long, and from one to two wide. Bois Blanc is in front of Maiden, and has been possessed by the British; and is one of the points of territory in question between our government and theirs. The bays on the east side of lake Michigan, are Sable, and Grand Traverse. Those on the Huron coast are Thunder and Sagana. The last is forty miles in extent in one direction, and from eight to twelve in the other. Maumee bay resembles a lake; and is situated at the mouth of Maumee river. It is eighteen miles in circumference. In the interior of this territory are great numbers of small lakes and ponds, from which the rivers have their sources. The strait, which connects lake Huron and lake Michigan, is called


Lac des Illinois, is fifteen miles long, of an elliptical figure, and subject to a tide, which has sensible fluxes and refluxes. The Indians, that reside in this territory, are chiefly the following: Ottawas, Miamies, Pottawattomies, Chippeways and Wyandotts. By different treaties they have made cessions of the greater part of the lands in this territory to the United States. They still retain considerable tracts of fine country; and have many reservations and villages, even among the settlements. Some of them have made no inconsiderable advances in cultivation, and the arts of civilized life. Most of the converts to Christianity in this region profess to be Roman catholics. The protestants have recently established missionary stations and schools among them. The savages of this region suffered much during the late war; and their numbers are clearly diminishing.

The climate of this region, in consequence of its being level, and peninsular, and surrounded on all sides, but the south, with such immense bodies of water, is more temperate and mild, than could be expected from its latitude. The southern parts have mild winters, and the spring opens as early, as in any part of the United States, in the same latitude. The position of the northern parts must subject it to a Canadian temperature. The winter commences here early in November; and does not terminate except with the end of March. At Detroit, in 1818, the mean heat of January was 24°, and in 1820, the mean heat of July was 69°, and of December 27°. At Mackinack, the most northern settlement in the United States, the mean heat of October was 45° of November 32° and of December 21°


Civil Divisions.
Counties. Whites. Free blacks. All others. Total.
Brown 951 1 0 952
Crawford 345 16 131 492
Macomb 896 2 0 898
Monroe 1823 8 0 1831
Michilimackinack 814 5 0 819
Oakland 321 9 0 330
Wayne 2086 66 0 2152
City of Detroit 1355 67 0 1422
Total 8591 174 131 8896

Agriculture, Manufactures, Exports, &c. The eastern parts of the territory, from various circumstances, became first settled. Within the three last years a great mass of immigrants have begun to spread themselves over this fine and fertile country. Situated, as it is, between the west, the south, and the east, with greater facilities for extensive inland water communication, than any other country on the globe, with a fertile soil, of which millions of acres are fit for the plough, with a healthful climate, and with a concurrence of circumstances, inviting northern population, there can be no doubt, that it will soon take its place, as a state, and rival its western sister states. Wheat, Indian corn, oats, barley, buck wheat, potatoes, turnips, peas, apples, pears, plums, cherries and peaches are raised easily, and in abundance. It is a country, more favorable to cultivated grasses, than the western country. In short, it is a country, peculiarly fitted for northern farmers. No inland country, according to its age, population, and circumstances, has a greater trade. A number of steam boats and lake vessels are constantly plying in this trade,


which is with Mackinack, Detroit, Chicago, and Ohio. — The amount of foreign exports, in 1821, was 53,290 dollars.

Chief Towns. Detroit is the political metropolis, and the only town of much size in the territory. It is situated on the western bank of the river Detroit, eighteen miles above Malden in Canada, and six miles below the outlet of lake St. Clair. The banks are twenty feet above the highest waters of the river. The plain, on which it is built, is beautiful, and the position altogether delightful and romantic. The streets are wide. The houses are of stone, brick, frame and logs; and some of them make a very showy appearance. Three of the principal streets run parallel with the river, and are crossed at right angles by six principal cross streets. Several wharves project into the river. The United States' wharf is 140 feet long, and a vessel of 400 tons burden can load at its head. The public buildings are a council house, state house, United States' store, presbyterian church, a Roman catholic chapel, and some other public buildings. There are a number of stores; and others are building. Rents and the value of lots are rising; and the town exhibits marks of rapid population and improvement. It was almost entirely consumed by fire, in 1806; and the appearance of the new town is much superior to the old one. It is a place of great and constant resort of the Indians; and here the greatest numbers and the fairest samples of the northern tribes are seen. Though the lake boatmen, the coureurs du bois, and the huntsmen of the northern wilderness are not exactly the Bedowin Arabs, and the frightful scare-crows, that Volney has described, it must be admitted, that living in the woods, being exposed to the heats and colds of the climate, and rowing on the rivers and lakes under the direct rays of the sun, are things not favorable to complexion


and appearance; and Detroit can show many inhabitants sufficiently outré in their costume, and who have nothing in their appearance to recommend them. Respectable schools are now established here. A public journal issues from the press. Libraries are in contemplation. It must continue to increase with the influx of immigrants, and the extension of back settlements. It is the chief depot of the shipping of the lakes. A steam boat plies between it and Buffalo. The operation of the Erie canal has been favorable to the business and importance of this town, and of the whole country. The finishing of the Ohio canal will still farther enhance its business and prosperity. Detroit is evidently destined to become a considerable town. In 1820, the population was given at 1,422. The one half of these are French, the other half Americans; with a considerable sprinkling of foreigners from various countries. The other villages, that have received names are Mount Clement, Brownstown, Monroe, Lawrenceville, Frenchtown, and the New Settlement.

Government. This is upon the common plan of the territorial governments. But it is easy to see, that this territory will not remain long in that condition; but will soon be in a condition to claim admission into the confederacy of the states. Every thing is yet in the commencement. The usual provisions are made for roads; and the country is so level, that it will easily be susceptible of good ones. At present transport and passage are almost entirely by water, for which this country furnishes greater facilities, than any other of the same extent in the United States. Detroit is comparatively an ancient place. The French plantations along Detroit river, exhibit the aspect of a continued village. They are laid out in the usual manner, two or three arpens in front, by forty, or eighty arpens deep. The mansions have that foreign and interesting


aspect, that French buildings and establishments naturally have to the American eye. They are embowered in ancient and beautiful orchards. All have the appearance of comfort; and some of them, of splendor and opulence. There are few landscapes more interesting, few water excursions more delightful, than that from Detroit to the lakes; along this broad, cool, and transparent river, studded with islands, and alive with fishes; in view of this continuous line of French houses and orchards, on either bank of the river. The French here have their customary national manners. They live in ease and abundance in the forests, and take very little thought about education, or intellectual improvement. But every thing has changed, in this region, since it has become subject to the free institutions of the United States. A corporate body, styled the ‘University of Michigan’ has been formed. They have power to institute colleges, academies and public schools. The march of improvement in this and in all respects is rapid.

History. Michigan was originally comprised in the North Western Territory. French missionaries were settled here, as early, as 1648. Detroit was founded by the French in 1670. In 1763, this country, along with other possessions conquered from the French, came under the government of Great Britain. At the close of the revolutionary war, it became part of the territory of the United States. But the British government held possession of the military posts in it, until 1796. In 1805, the country was formed into a distinct territorial government. On the breaking out of the late war, this country became the theatre of part of its operations. Mackinack was captured by the British; and Chicago surrendered to the savages. The disastrous and humiliating affair of the surrender of Detroit, by general Hull, occurred soon after; and the


British held possession of it a year. The signal victory over the British fleet on lake Erie, and the subsequent defeat of the forces under general Proctor, by general Harrison, changed the tide of success; and Michigan again passed into the hands of the United States. It is now one of the principal points of immigration.

Sketches of the lakes and the river Niagara. Although the territory of Michigan, and the lakes may not be considered as belonging to the great valley of the Mississippi, yet we have considered them as the external northeastern limits of that prodigious basin. They evidently mark a part of its grand feature. The lakes every where exhibit marks of having been formerly much higher, than they now are, and vast alluvial tracts, beyond their present limits indicate, that their waters covered a much greater extent of country, than at present. It scarcely admits of a doubt, that by the Illinois and other tributaries of the Mississippi in that direction, the lakes discharged from the western extremity of lake Michigan into the Mississippi. Every person, that has traversed the upper courses of the Illinois, remarks that the water line on the bluffs indicates the floods of the river, to have been twenty feet above its highest present elevation. These vast bodies of fresh water, then, formerly discharged from one extremity into the gulf of Mexico; and from the other, into that of the St. Lawrence. Even now, as we have already remarked, a few feet of excavation would empty them anew into the Illinois. These internal seas of fresh water already belong to the arrangement of the great Mississippi basin; and require a brief description, in order that we may mark the magnificent northern outline of the country, we have been describing.

Whatever theories may be adopted to explain the phenomena of recent submersion, that are seen over all the


western country, little doubt can exist, that these lakes are the pools, that remain, as mementos of the extent of the agents employed in that work. They display a feature in the conformation of our country, that has no other parallel on the globe. They seem to be generally beyond the reach of prairies. Boundless forests encircle them. Their vast extent, the fierce and untamed character of the wandering hordes, that have hunted, fought and fished round them for unknown ages, the terror of the winters, that rule these regions of ice and storms, for so great a part of the year, the precipitous crags of secondary formation, that line their southern shores, and the black masses of primitive granite, that rise to impassable heights on the north, the remoteness of their extent beyond fixed human habitations, and almost beyond the stretch of the imagination, have connected with these lakes associated ideas of loneliness, grandeur and desolation. A line drawn through the centre of all these lakes, beginning with Ontario, and ending with the Lake of the Woods would be not far short of a line, that would measure the Atlantic. Their waters are uniformly deep, cold, pure, and transparent. They repose upon beds of granite. They have the greatest abundance of fine fish. The country north of lake Superior and the Lake of the Woods is one of stupendous cataracts, impassable swamps and morasses, rushing rivers, often confined in precipitous channels of black granite, exhibiting an aspect, which would chill the heart of any one, except a savage hunter, fisherman, or coureur du bois, in the description, much more in traversing it. We have a faithful and interesting account of these dreary regions in the narrative of major Long's second expedition.

This chain commences on the north-east with lake Ontario. Its extent is 180 by forty miles. At its eastern extremity,


is a group of islands, known by the name of the ‘thousand islands.’ From this lake we ascend by a strait, called Niagara river, a mile in average width, very swift and deep, and thirty-six miles long to lake Erie. This is a broad and beautiful sheet of water, equally transparent with the former, but falling short of it in general depth. Its extent is 230 by forty-five miles. In various central positions on this lake, the voyager is out of sight of land, as on mid ocean. It embosoms a number of considerable islands. Ascending still farther west, we find another strait, as the French word Detroit imports. It connects lake Erie with lake St. Clair, and is twenty-seven miles in length. Lake St. Clair is another clear and beautiful basin of water, thirty miles in diameter. The strait between this lake and Huron is thirty-two miles in length, and three-quarters of a mile in breadth, with a deep and rapid current. Lake Huron is the second on the continent in size, being 220 by ninety miles in extent. It has the usual cold, transparent and deep waters, is studded with many islands, and of a depth to be every where navigated by the largest vessels. At its western extremity, by the straits of Michilimackinack, it communicates with the singular lake, Michigan. This lake seems to be a supernumerary, a kind of episode in the great chain, not appearing necessary for the expansion or conveyance of the waters collected above in lake Superior. It is wholly in the limits of the United States, while half of the rest pertains to the dominions of Great Britain. Its extent is 300 by fifty miles. It receives forty considerable rivers, has valuable fisheries of sturgeon and white fish, and embosoms some islands towards its northern extremity.

Returning to lake Huron, we find it connected with lake Superior by a strait twenty-seven miles in length. The current of this river is shallow, rapid, and rendered difficult


of navigation by huge masses of rock. Lake Superior is by far the largest collection of fresh waters on the globe, being 350 by 100 miles in extent, and reputed nearly 1,500 miles in circumference. The water is transparent, and is deeper and colder, than any of the rest. The shores, especially the northern, are walled with frowning and lofty precipices of granite rock. All the lakes abound, and this more than the rest, with fine fish, They consist of different kinds of trout, all of them delicious, sturgeon, pike, pickerel, carp, bass, herrings, &c., and the best kind of all, white fish, which is found in this lake in greater perfection, than in either of the rest. It embosoms some large islands. The principal rivers, that discharge themselves into it, are Michipicoten, St. Louis, Nipegon and Pic. Beyond this lake, and stretching still farther to the north-west, towards the frozen regions of Red river of the north, and the Arctic sea, is the long and narrow Lake of the Woods, apparently the Ultima Thule of our continent.

These lakes, from the circumstance, that their waters possess less specific gravity than that of the ocean, and the comparative shallowness of their beds, and it may be from other causes, when swept by the winds, raise waves, if not so extensive and mountainous, more rough and dangerous, than those of the sea. It has been repeatedly asserted, that they have septennial fluxes and refluxes. From the silence of the recent, and intelligent travellers, that have explored them, touching a fact so very striking, we should be led to doubt it. It has been affirmed, also, that they have perceptible diurnal tides. We doubt this also; for were it even true, that the same causes, which raised tides in the sea, operated perceptibly here, the surface that could be operated upon, is so small, compared with that of the ocean, any general movement of the waters would be so arrested by capes, points, islands, and headlands, that such


a uniform result, as that of a diurnal tide, could hardly be calculated to take place in any sensible degree.

The waters of the lakes, in many instances collected from the same marshes, as exist at the sources of the Mississippi, filtered through oozy swamps, and numberless fields of wild rice, where the shallow and stagnant mass, among this rank and compact vegetation, becomes slimy and unpotable, as soon as they find their level in the deep beds of the lakes, lose their dark red color, and their swampy taste, and become as transparent almost as air. When the lakes sleep, the fishes can be seen sporting at immense depths below. The lower strata of the water never gain the temperature of summer. A bottle sunk an hundred feet in lake Superior, and filled at that depth, feels, when it comes up, as if filled with ice water. Imagination can not but expatiate in traversing the lofty precipices, the pathless morasses, and the dark and inhospitable forests of these remote and lonely oceans of fresh water, where the tempests have raged, and the surges have dashed for countless ages, unwitnessed except here and there at the distance of an hundred leagues by a few red skins, or more recently, Canadian coureurs du bois, scrambling over the precipices to fish, or paddling their periogues in agonies of terror to find shelter in the little bays from the coming storm.

Hundreds of rivers, though none of great length, discharge themselves into these inland seas. Situated as they are in a climate, generally remarkable for the dryness of its atmosphere, they must evaporate inconceivable quantities of water. It has been commonly supposed, that the Niagara, their only visible drain, does not discharge a tenth part of the waters and melted snows, which they receive. They spread such an immense surface, and have so much of the grand leveling power of the ocean, that neither they,


nor their outlet, the St. Lawrence, have anything of that flood and subsidence, that form such a distinguishing feature in the Mississippi and its waters. Hence, too, the Niagara has little of marked alluvial character in common with the Mississippi. It rolls down its prodigious volume of waters, alike uninfluenced by droughts, or rains, by the heat and evaporation of summer, or the accumulated snows and ices of winter.

Will the shores of these vast and remote waters be ever settled, except by a few wandering trappers, fishermen and savages? Shoals of immigrants from the old world are continually landing at Quebec and Montreal. Upper Canada is becoming populous. Wave is propelled beyond wave. Much of the country on the shores of the lakes is of an inhospitable and sterile character, never to be cultivated. There are, also, along their shores and tributary waters, sheltered valleys and large extents of fertile soil, sufficient for numerous and populous settlements. It is an inexplicable part of the composition of human nature, that men love to congregate and form the most populous cities and settlements in northern and inhospitable climes, rather than in the country of the banana and the pine-apple — The astonishing advance of population and improvement, both on the American and British side of the country, has caused, that the bosoms of the remotest lakes have been whitened with the sails of commerce. The smoke of the passing steam boats is seen rising in columns among their green islands. The shores have echoed with the exploding cannon of conflicting fleets. The northern forests of Ohio have already seen the red cross of a hostile squadron giving place to the stars and stripes. Roads are constructing to reach their shores. Canals are excavating to connect the whole extent of this vast chain with the Atlantic and the gulf of Mexico. Is it too sanguine to predict,


that within the compass of a century, their shores will count an hundred populous towns, where senates will debate and poets sing? That every nook of them will be visited by vessels and steam boats, and connected by roads and mail routes, and that the fisheries on them will become as much an object of national importance, as are now those of Newfoundland?

It is out of our plan to describe the rivers, that empty into these lakes. But it will be expected, that we shall notice the St. Lawrence, the next largest river in North America to the Mississippi, and the counterpoise and rival of that mighty stream. Commencing his course for another ocean, and moving off in an opposite direction, he seems proudly determined to resemble his mighty rival in nothing, but in bearing off the tribute of waters from a world. The former is continually swelling, or subsiding, and in his spring floods, moving with a front many leagues in width, he has no resemblance to his autumnal course in a deep channel, and winding by beaches and sandbars. His alluvial forests are wide and dark, with a vegetation of surpassing grandeur. His sides are marly and crumbling, and his bottom is oozy and of slime. His turbid waters, when united with those of the sea, discolor it for fifty miles from his mouth.

The other is perpetually the same, steady, full, clear, and his current always sweeping. His bed is worn in strata of stone. His banks rise at once to the primitive soil. Bluffs of rock impend his course. Forests, in their season beautifully verdant, but bearing the more healthy, stinted and sterile character of the north, the larch, the pine and the white birch, bend over his waters, and before he meets the sea, vision can scarcely reach the opposite shore.


At the point, where this river issues from lake Erie, it assumes the name of Niagara. It is something more than three quarters of a mile in width, and the broad and powerful current embosoms two islands; one of them, Grand Isle, the seat of Mr. Noah's famous Jewish colony, containing, it is said, eleven thousand acres, and the other, Navy island, opposite to the British village of Chippeway. Below this island the river again becomes an unbroken sheet, a mile in width. For a half a mile below, the river seems to be waxing in wrath and power. Were this rapid in any other place, itself would be noted, as one of the sublimest features of river scenery. Along this rapid, the broad and irresistible mass of rolling waters is not entirely whitened, for it is too deep to become so. But it has something of that curling and angry aspect, which the sea exhibits, when swept by the first bursts of a tempest. The momentum may be conceived, when we are instructed, that in half a mile the river has a descent of fifty feet. A column of water, a mile broad, twenty-five feet deep, and propelled onward by the weight of the surplus waters of the whole prodigious basin of the lakes, rolling down this rapid declivity, at length pours over the cataract, as if falling to the central depths of the earth. Instead of sublimity, the first feeling, excited by this stupendous cataract, is amazement. The mind, accustomed only to ordinary phenomena and common exhibitions of power, feels a revulsion and recoil from the new train of thought and feeling, forced in an instant upon it. There is hardly sufficient coolness for distinct impressions; much less for calculations. We witness the white and terrific sheets — for an island, on the very verge of the cataract, divides the fall — descending more than 170 feet into the abyss below. We feel the earth trembling under our feet. The deafening roar fills our ears. The spray, painted with


rainbows, envelopes us. We imagine the fathomless caverns, which such an impetus, continued for ages, has worn. Nature arrays herself before us, in this spectacle, as an angry and irresistible power, that has broken away from the beneficent control of Providence. When we have gazed upon the spectacle, and heard the roar until the mind has recovered from its amazement, we believe, the first obvious thought in most minds is a shrinking comparison of the littleness and helplessness of man, and the insignificance of his pigmy efforts, when measuring strength with nature. Take it all in all, it is one of the most sublime and astonishing spectacles, seen on our globe. The eye distinctly measures the amount of the mass, and we can hardly avoid thinking with the peasant, that the waters of the upper world must shortly be drained down the cataract. But the stream continues to pour down, and this concentered and impressive symbol of the power of Omnipotence proclaims his majesty through the forests from age to age.

An earthquake, the eruption of a volcanic mountain, the conflagration of a city, are all spectacles, in which terror is the first and predominant emotion. The most impressive exertion of human power is only seen in the murderous and sickening horrors of a conflict between two mighty armies. These, too, are transient and contingent exhibitions of sublimity. But after we have stood an hour at the foot of these falls, after the eye has been accustomed to look at them without blenching, after the ear has become familiarized with the deafening and incessant roar, when the mind begins to calculate the grandeur of the scale of operations upon which nature acts, then it is, that the entire and unmingled feeling of sublimity rushes upon it, and this is, probably, the place on the whole globe, where it is felt in its most unmixed simplicity.


It may be, that the beautiful and romantic country between Erie and Ontario receives a richer coloring from the imagination, excited so strongly to action by dwelling on the contiguity of the great lakes, and the deep thunder of the falls, heard in the distance. Remembrances of the bloody field of Bridgewater will be naturally awakened by this view. Be the cause what it may, every one approaches the falls, finding the scenery and accompaniments just what they should be. Every one finds this to be the very place, where the waters of the upper world should pour upon the lower. We have figured to ourselves the bloody struggle at Bridgewater by the uncertain intervals of moonlight, and the feelings, with which the combatants must have listened to the deafening and eternal roar of the cataract, which became audible whenever the crash of the cannon was for a moment suspended. Must it not have sounded as the voice of nature, mocking in her own sublime irony, the feeble and the mad wrath of man, in attempting these murderous and momentary imitations of her thunder and her power!


North West Territory.

NEARLY 500 miles in length, and 400 in breadth. Between 42° 30', and 49° N. latitude, and 10° 31', and 18° 30 W. longitude. Bounded East by lake Michigan; North by lake Superior and the British possessions; West by the Mississippi, and a line drawn from its source to the northern boundary, which separates it from Missouri territory. The most accurate account of this country is to be found in Long's second expedition. It is generally a hilly country, with the exception of extensive level prairies. At the western extremity of lake Superior are the Cabotian mountains; and near the mineral district the Smoky mountains. In some of its features, this country resembles Missouri territory; but has greater proportions covered with wood. The chief rivers, except the Mississippi, are Ouisconsin river, Fox, Chippeway, St. Croix, Rum, St. Francis, and Savanna of the Mississippi; Grand Portage, Ontonagon, Montreal, Mauvaise, Bois brule, St. Louis, and nearly fifty smaller streams are waters of lake Superior. Rivierre la pluie falls into the Lake of the Woods. None of the lake rivers have a course of more than 150 miles, and few more than fifty miles.

The largest river of the Mississippi in this territory, is Ouisconsin, which rises in the northern interior of the country, and interlocks with the Montreal of lake Superior. It has a course of between three and four hundred miles, has a shallow and rapid current, which is, however,


generally boatable in good stages of the water, and is 800 yards wide at its mouth. There is a portage of only half a mile between this and Fox river. It is over a level prairie, across which, from river to river, there is a water communication for periogues in high stages of the water.

Fox river has a course of 260 miles. It runs through Winnebago lake. It has a fine country on its banks, with a salubrious climate. Chippeway is a considerable river of the Mississippi, and enters it, just below lake Pepin. It is half a mile wide at its mouth, and has communications by a short portage with lake Superior.

This is a fine region for hunters. In the upper part of the country, buffalos, elk, bears and deer are common. Beavers, otters, and muskrats are taken for their furs. The trappers and savages roam over immense prairies in pursuit of their objects. In some parts of it the soil is fertile. White and yellow pine, and white birch are common among the forest trees. All the water courses, ponds and marshes are covered with wild rice, which constitutes a considerable part of the nourishment of the inhabitants. The head waters of the Mississippi are estimated to be 1,330 feet above the level of the sea.

It is a country abundant in minerals. In it are found great quantities of the terre verte, or green earth, lead, copper and iron. The lead mine district is in the lower part of the country, between Rock river and the Ouisconsin. Here, on a river, called Fever river, are the chief establishments of the present miners, and the mines are, probably, as rich and as abundant, as any in the world. It has been asserted, for half a century, that great quantities of native copper are found along the northern shore of lake Superior. More recent and intelligent travellers have not realized the expectations, that have been raised, in respect to finding this metal. But lead and iron are found in various


places; and sufficient indications of the existence of mines of copper.

The southern parts of this extensive region possess a climate, comparatively mild, and not much unlike that of the northern belt of Missouri. At the falls of St. Anthony the summers are temperate; and the winters extremely cold. The sources of the Mississippi are in a region severely inclement. At St. Peters, in 1820, the mean temperature of January was zero, a degree of cold, not felt in any part of the United States, that is much settled. The summer was temperate, and the atmosphere beautifully serene. Even at Prairie du Chien, though much more temperate, the winters are very severe. The following table is selected from Mr. Schoolcraft.

Place Date Average temperature Prevailing winds
Air Water
Detroit May 18 to 24 61° 00° N. E.
River St. Clair May 24 - 27 51° 52° N. W.
Lake Huron May 28 to June 6 51° 51° N. W.
Mackinack June 7 to 13 55° 00° S. E.
Mackinack to Lake Superior June 13 - 18 66° 00° S. W.
Lake Superior June 19 - 27 66° 58° N. W.
Ontonagon River June 28 - 30 80° 73° N. W.
Water of Lake Superior June 28 - 30 80° 66° N. W.
Ontonagen River to Fond du Lac July 1 to 5 64° 61° S. W.
Between Fond du Lac and Sandy Lake July 6 to 16 67° 61° N. W.
At Sandy Lake July 17 - 24 73° 61° N. W.

NOTE. — On the 19th July, near the falls of Packagama, the elevation being about 1,200 feet above the level of the sea, "the night was so cold that water froze upon the bottoms of the canoes, and they were incrusted with a scale of ice of the thickness of a knife blade. The thermometer stood at 36° at sun-rise. There had been a heavy dew during the night, which was succeeded by a dense fog in the morning, and the forenoon remained cloudy and chilly."


  Mean temp Prevailing winds
From Sandy Lake to St. Peters July 25 to Aug. 1 69° S. W.
Chicago January 15° N. W. & S. W.
February 32° S. W.
March to 15 29° N. E.

Green bay settlement is situated at the outlet of Fox river, and contains 952 inhabitants. There are two or three other small incipient establishments of hunters and trappers. Prairie du Chien is a considerable village. There are flour mills near it. It is a place of importance, as an outfit from the lower Mississippi to the upper waters. It is situated near a beautiful prairie. The position of the village has been recently inundated. Most of the permanent inhabitants have Indian blood in their veins. At certain seasons of the year, it is a populous, bustling and busy place. Curious modes of justice and of despatching business have been adopted here by prescription. The inhabitants in this village and settlement amount to 492. Frequent voyages are made from St. Louis to this place, in keel boats. The number of miners in the settlement upon Fever river is not known; but they have much increased in the two or three past years. This vast region has hitherto been politically connected with Michigan territory; but as that territory has as distinct geographical limits as any state in the union, and this region is only connected with that by circumstances of a temporary nature, it is evident, that this country ought to be viewed, at least geographically, as a territory by itself.


Missouri Territory.

LENGTH, 900 miles, breadth, 800. Between 36° 30' N. latitude, and 13° 40' and 35° 10' W. longitude. Bounded by the British possessions on the North; East by the North West Territory, Illinois and Missouri; South and South West by the territories of the Mexican republic. West by the Rocky mountains. No writers have given such striking, general views of this country as the gentlemen of Long's first expedition.

The belt of country, partially wooded, extends generally from two to four hundred miles west of the Mississippi and its waters. There commences that ocean of prairies, that constitutes so striking and impressive a feature in the vast country beyond the Mississippi and Missouri. This vast country is for the most part, a plain, more or less covered with grass, in great extents fertile; in other extents almost a moving sand. It is pastured, and trodden by countless numbers of buffalos, elk and other wild animals, that graze upon it. In some places, as on the Missouri, spurs of the mountains are encountered, long before we reach the main range. In other places, as at the outlet of the Arkansas from the mountains, these mountains spring up, as the eternal barriers of the plains, directly from their base. One mountain is distinguishable from all the rest. We have wished, that it might be denominated Mount Pike, from the name of the intrepid and adventurous traveller, who gave us the first account of it.


Its black sides, and hoary summit are a kind of sea mark at immense distances over the plain. It elevates its gigantic head, and frowns upon the sea of verdure, and the boundless range of buffalos below, taking its repose, solitary and detached from the hundred mountains apparently younger members of the family, which shrink with filial awe at a distance from it.

The Rocky mountains commence in the unexplored regions to the northwest of the United States: and, ranging across the sources of the Missouri, the Roche Jaune, Platte, Arkansas and Red river, in the Mexican States of Texas and Coahuila, they diverge, and unite with the ranges of Mexican mountains. They separate the waters of the great tributaries of the Mississippi from those, that fall into the Columbia, or Multnomah, the great lake of Bueneventura, and other waters of the Pacific. They have a far greater extent, than the Alleghany mountains, are a wider range, and for the most part, run like them in parallel ridges, though generally more ragged, detached and broken, and by no means so regular, as the former. They are, also, of a character decidedly more primitive. Their black, precipitous, and frowning appearance has probably given them the name of the Rocky mountains. Their bases have an elevation of between 3 and 4,000 feet above the level of the sea. James', or Pike's mountain has been given, as being 12,000 feet in height. As this vast range of mountains is as yet but very imperfectly known, there is little reason to doubt, that many of the peaks, when more fully explored, and more accurately measured will be found to approach much nearer in height to the highest ranges in Mexico, than has been commonly supposed. Most of the more elevated summits are above the point of perpetual congelation. In one respect they resemble the Alleghanies. In numerous places the waters,


that run into the Pacific, rise near those, that fall into the tributaries of the Mississippi. Thus has nature kindly provided points of easy transit from the eastern to the western side of these frowning and apparently impassable barriers of nature. By communications of unquestionable veracity, from persons engaged in the Missouri fur company, we learn, that, following up the valleys of the sources of the Platte to the opposite valleys of waters, that fall into the great lake of Bueneventura, on the other side, a good road was found, and easily passable by loaded wagons. These are curious and striking facts. This line, when viewed at a distance, every where seems continuous, iron bound, and impassable. The mind recoils from the attempt, as hopeless, to find a way over such frowning and formidable barriers. We have no doubt, that within half a century the waters of the Mississippi will be united with those of the western sea by navigable canals.

What are called the ‘Gates of the Rocky mountains,’ through which the Missouri seems to have torn itself a passage, are commonly described, as among the sublimest spectacles of this range of mountains. For nearly six miles, these mountains rise in black and perpendicular masses 1,200 feet above the surface of the river. The chasm is little more than 150 yards wide; and the deep and foaming waters of the Missouri rush through the passage, as if it were a cataract. The heart of the beholder is chilled, as he contemplates, in these wild and uninhabited regions, this seeming conflict between the river and the mountains. The smooth and black walls of the cleft rise more than twice as high, as the mountains on North river, below West Point. Every passenger up North river has been impressed with the grandeur of that scene in the midst of amenity and life. What then must be the sensations of the passenger through the gates of the Rocky


mountains, who witnesses the proofs of this conflict of nature, in a region three hundred leagues from civilization and habitancy? Vast columns of the rock torn from the mountains, and lying along the river, attest the fact of this forced passage of the river through the mountains. The Black hills, the elevated table lands between the heads of the Missouri and the Mississippi, called Coteau du Prairie, the Ozark mountains, the Masserne mountains, &c. may all be considered as collateral ranges of the Rocky mountains.

The principal tributaries of the Mississippi in this territory are River de Corbeau, St. Peter's, Gannon, Upper Ioway, Lower Ioway and des Moines. An interesting and accurate account of St. Peter's is given in ‘Long's second expedition.’ It is one of the principal upper waters of the Mississippi, and has a course of 250 miles. It enters the Mississippi at the falls of St. Anthony, by a mouth 150 yards wide, and a depth of fifteen feet water.

The principal tributaries of the Missouri are given in the following table:

Rivers. Width at outlet in yards. Supposed length. Side on which they enter.
Milk river 150 200 North
Yellow stone 297 600 South
Little Missouri 134 225 South
White river 150 200 West
Running water 152 300 S. West
Jacques 90 300 North
Sioux 110 270 North
Platte 600 700 West
Kansas 340 550 West
Grand river 90 200 North
Charaton, E. 30 150 North
Charaton, W. 70 180 North
Osage 397 350 South
Gasconade 157 150 South


Red river of the north rises near the sources of St. Peter's; and by a northern and winding course runs nearly 200 miles in our territorial limits; and then passes into the British dominions of Upper Canada, and empties into lake Winnipeek. Its principal branches are Red lake river and Mouse river, which latter stream rises within a mile of fort Mandan on the Missouri. Red river is a broad, deep, and very interesting river, abounding with fish, and the country along its banks with elk and buftalos. It is on the banks of this remote stream, that lord Selkirk's very interesting colony is settled.

The next grand tributary to the Mississippi, after the Missouri, as we have already remarked, is the Arkansas. The head waters of this river were first explored by Pike, and afterwards more thoroughly by Long. This survey reached to Bell's springs, 38° 32' N. latitude, and 28° 45' W. longitude. Indians and hunters describe its sources to be nearly 200 miles north-west from that point From Bell's springs it runs in a direction generally south-east by its windings, two thousand miles, and twelve hundred in a straight direction to the Mississippi. It runs through a country, where the traveller can often see nothing, but a grass plain boundless to his vision. The Negracka and Grand Saline are the principal upper tributaries of the Arkansas. The lower belt of this region is of secondary formation. The middle belt extending from the Council Bluffs to the sources of the Negracka, contains lime stone and pit coal. The upper belt is primitive and granitic. The lead mines below Prairie du Chien have already been described. Blue and green earths, which the Indians use as paints, and the beautiful red pipe stone of the St. Peter's have already been mentioned. The elevations of the south-west part of this region have been given, as follow: Eastern limits of the territory on Osage river 750 feet in


height. Neosho river 1,000. Arkansas at the base of James' peak 2,500, Summit of the peak 11,000.

The surface and soil of this vast extent of country is different from any other of the same dimensions on the globe. The lower courses of all the rivers, that enter the Mississippi from this region, are wooded. In proportion, as we ascend towards the mountains, the wood becomes more scarce, and the upper tributaries of these streams run through open prairies. There is, also, a fertile belt along the banks of all these streams; but in proportion, as we diverge from them, the land becomes more sterile and parched. We sometimes may travel whole days, without seeing water. Great extents of this country may be almost likened to the Sahara of the African deserts. There is, however, in the most sterile parts a thin sward of grass and herbage. Countless droves of buffalos, elk and deer range upon these vast prairies. These will, probably, in some future period of our national existence be replaced by herds of domestic cattle, and flocks of sheep, followed by moving bands of shepherds. Almost the whole courses of the Missouri, Platte and Yellow Stone are through a rich soil. The same may be affirmed of Red river. The upper courses of the Arkansas are through the most sterile region of this ocean of prairies.

Climate. In a country of such immense extent, generally level, naked and open, the climate must of course in a great measure correspond to latitude. The first climate, beyond the state of Missouri, and the territory of Arkansas is mild and temperate. The belt beyond has nearly the climate of New England. Still further towards the mountains, it is Canadian. Pike and other travellers speak of encountering storms of sleet and hail in the summer, near the sources of the Arkansas. When the winds blow from the west over the summits of these mountain


and bring down on these vast plains the temperature of the regions of perpetual frost, we may of course expect such changes of temperature near their bases. We select the following table as compiled by Mellish from the travels of Lewis and Clark as conveying a synoptical view of the climate of this country.

1804. Highest. Lowest. Mean. Prevailing winds.
Sept. 19 to 30, Big Bend to Ricaree, lat. 46° 88° 42° 63° S. E. & S. W.
Oct. Ricaree to Mandan, lat. 47° 30' 62° 32° 47° N. W. & S. E.
Nov. Fort Mandan 62° 12° 34° N. W. & S. E.
Dec. Fort Mandan 38° -45° N. W.
Jan. Fort Mandan 36° -40° -3 1/2° N. W.
Feb. Fort Mandan 38° -18° 11° N. W. & S.
March Fort Mandan 40° -2° 28° N. E. & S. E.
April, Fort Mandan to 24 miles beyond Martha's river, lat. 48° 80° 24° 49° N. W. & S. W.
May, Martha's river to Stone Wall Creek, lat. 47° 15' 82° 28° 52° S. W.
June, Stone Wall Creek to falls of Missouri, lat. 47° 15' 76° 35° 56° S. W.
July, Falls to Philosophy river, lat. 45° 90° 52° 65° S. W.
Aug. Philosophy river to the head waters of Columbia river, lat. 44° 91° 31° 57° S. W.

N. B. — Signifies below Zero

General Remarks.

September 23. The air remarkably dry.

October 5. Slight frost. 18. Hard frost.

October 27. Went into winter quarters at Fort Mandan.


November 9. Strong frost. 13. Much drifting ice. 30. Indians cross the river on the ice.

December 5. Excessive N. W. wind. 7. River closed. 28. Strong wind.

January 3. Snow nine inches deep. 8. Snow ten inches. 19. Ice three feet thick on the most rapid part of the river.

March 2. River partially open. 26. Ice broke up, and descended in immense shoals. 30. Ice floating in great quantities.

April 1. A fine shower of rain, the first since the 15th of September. The air dry and remarkably pure.

April 4. Hard gales; scarcely any timber to shelter the country, and the winds blow with astonishing violence.

April 7. Left Fort Mandan.

April 11. Vegetation appears. 18. A heavy dew, the first since the 15th of September. 21. White frost.

May 2. Violent wind; snow and vegetation intermixed.

May 4. Snow disappeared. 9. Choke cherry in bloom.

May 18. Wild rose in bloom. 23. Strawberries in bloom.

May 26. The air warm, fine, and dry.

June 27. Thunder, lightning, and hail so large that one stone was seven inches in circumference, and weighed three ounces.

July 6. Rain, thunder, and hail; a black bird killed by the latter.

July 7. Near the sources of Missouri. 21. A sudden cold caused a difference of 59° in the thermometer in eight hours.

At Council Bluffs, in the summer of 1820, the greatest heat was 105° and the winter's cold 22° below zero. — Same year at St. Peters, 93° heat; and 30° below zero, cold.

This country is part of the purchase of Louisiana, and has been explored by Lewis and Clark, by Pike, and the gentlemen of Long's expedition. We have gleaned information, also, from hunters and trappers, who have traversed it in all directions, and who have lived long in it. It is inhabited by various tribes of Indians, of whom the Sioux are the most numerous. The whole number is estimated between 140, and 150,000.


Oregon Territory.

THIS Territory has been so named in the congressional discussions, that have taken place in reference to the country. It is a country of vast extent. Its southern limits are clearly defined in our late treaty with Spain, being on the 42d parallel to the Pacific. Our limits to the north west are yet in question with those of Russia, which claims to the 51st parallel. Our limits with great Britain are the 49th parallel. It has, therefore, the British and Russian possessions on the North; the Pacific on the West; the Mexican dominions on the South, and the territories of Arkansas and Missouri on the East; and may be assumed as stretching between 41° and 49° N. latitude, and 34° and 48° W. longitude. The stupendous ridges of the Rocky mountains, which we have already described, bound this country on the east. The waters, that rise on the western declivities of these mountains, flow into the Columbia, the Multnomah, and the lake Bueneventura. Most of the elevated summits of the mountains are above the limits of perpetual congelation. Beyond the mountains, the country descends by regular belts, in the form of immense terraces, or descending plains, disposed regularly, the one below the other. Beyond the first plain, and between the Rocky mountains and the Pacific, is another extensive and high chain of mountains, in which are the great falls of the Columbia. Still west of these, and running parallel with the coast, and at the distance of 150 miles, is the


third and last chain. The peaks of all these chains are covered with perpetual snow. The highest peaks have been named Mount Baker, Mount Regnier, Mount St. Helens, Mount Hood and Mount Jefferson.

The only rivers explored in this region are the Columbia and its branches. This noble river has its head waters near those of the Missouri. It collects its tribute for a wide extent along the western dividing ridges of the Rocky mountains. Immediately upon emerging from these mountains, it has become a broad and deep stream. Having received Clark's and Lewis' rivers, each, large streams from the east, it is already 960 yards wide. It there forms a great southern bend, and breaks through the second chain of mountains. One hundred and thirty-six miles below are the great falls, where the river descends in one rapid 57 feet. Below these falls, it winds first to the north west, and then to the south west, and passes through the third chain of mountains; where it is again compressed to the width of 150 yards. Below this rapid, at 180 miles from the sea, it meets the tide, beyond which it has a broad estuary to the sea. Sixty miles below the rapids, Multnomah, a very large and unexplored tributary falls in from the north east. The mouth of the river is in 46° 24', and the tide there rises 8 1/2 feet. The Columbia and its tributaries abound in the finest salmon, which seem, in fact, to constitute the chief article of food of the savages west of the Rocky mountains. Seals and other aquatic animals are taken in this river in great numbers; and the skins, shipped to China, constitute the chief article of trade from this great river. A number of the head streams of the Missouri interlock with the waters of this river, as Wisdom river, with Clark's of the Columbia; and Jefferson of the Missouri with Lewis' of the Columbia, Clark's river has a course, between 200 and 300


miles in length, before it unites with the Columbia. Lewis' river is a large and long tributary of the Columbia. In its course, it receives North Fork and Kooskooskee, and after winding 600 miles, falls into the Columbia from the east by a mouth 250 yards wide.

The geological character of this country is little known; but the western declivities of these mountains are presumed to be primitive and granitic. The country must have an abrupt slope to the Pacific, descending as much in 600 miles to the west, as it does in 1,500 to the east. The summits of these mountains, of course, are sterile, being ragged rocks, and covered with snow the greater part of the year. But among these mountains, there are sheltered and fertile valleys. The timber in the mountains is pine, spruce, fir, and the other terebinthines. The terrace plains below, generally have a fine soil; but are very deficient in timber. The prairies, like those on the eastern sides of these mountains, are covered with grass, and a profusion of most beautiful flowers. Among the prairie plants are two, or three kinds of edible roots, which furnish vegetable food to the savages, as an aid to the great proportion of salmon, which they devour. Wild sage is, also, an abundant herb. It grows of a size and height to be like a small tree; and on these extensive plains is one of the principal articles of fuel. The sea shore, for a considerable distance to the interior, is skirted with deep and thick forests of evergreens, such as pine and hemlock. On the whole, it is believed, that few countries on the earth have a more fertile soil and agreeable climate, than those of this region west of the Rocky mountains. Baron Langsdorf has given us a very delightful, and apparently just and discriminating account of the countries, belonging to the missions of St. Peter and St. Paul, in the Mexican country, bounding on the southern limits of this country. The mildness


of the climate is surprising. Sheltered on the north by protecting ridges of mountains, and the breezes from the west being softened by coming over immense extents of sea, the climate is as mild, as it is in the country east of these mountains four or five degrees south of that point. Langsdorf describes these countries, extending to our southern limit, as the country of oranges and figs, of verdure, health and fertility. We scarcely remember to have seen more sober pictures of a more desirable country, than those drawn by him of that region. They correspond with the accounts of Lewis and Clark and other travellers, who have explored that country. When these intelligent and intrepid travellers left the country in March, and in the latitude of Montreal, the prairies were in blossom, and the forwardness of the season seems to have corresponded with that of North Carolina at the same time. It is true, the winters are rainy, and some parts of them severe. The following table will serve to convey clear ideas of the temperature of these regions:

Table of the winds, and remarks on the weather between the Rocky mountains and Pacific ocean.
Month PLACE. N. N. W. N. E. E. S. E. S. S. W. W.
Sept. 1806. From Dividing Ridge to Canoe Camp - 4 9 6 2 - 9 -
Oct. Canoe Camp to Tide Water - 2 - 8 4 - 12 -
Nov. Shores of the Pacific - - 4 - 8 1 15 2
Dec. Do. - - 4 2 5 - 20 -
Jan. Do. - 1 6 2 4 2 15 1
Feb. Do. - - 5 - - 3 20 -
March 20. Do. - 1 6 1 8 4 11 -
April. To outlet of Kooskooskee River - 4 4 2 2 - 11 7
May To Quamash Flatts - 5 1 - 11 - 12 1
June To Traveller's Rest - 21 - - 8 - 1 -
To July 8 To Dividing Ridge - 2 - - - - 6 -



September. Fair 19 days, rain 7, snow 4 days.

October. Fair 24 days, rain 5, cloudy 2.

November. Fair 7 days, rain 17, cloudy 6.

December. Fair 3 days, rain 27, cloudy 1.

January. Fair 7 days, rain 19, cloudy 3,snow 2.

January. The loss of the thermometer sincerely regretted. The parties confident that the climate is much warmer than in the same parallel of latitude on the Atlantic ocean. There has been only one slight white frost since the 7th November. "We have seen no ice, and the weather is so warm that we are obliged to cure our meat with smoke and fire, to save it."

12. The wind from any quarter off the land, or along the north west coast, causes the air to become much cooler.

14. Weather perfectly temperate. Never experienced so warm a winter as the present.

25. It is now perceptibly colder than it has been this winter.

28. Pretty keen frost. The coldest night of the season.

February. Fair 6, rain 16, cloudy 5, snow 1 day.

8. The feeling of the air indicated that the rigor of the winter had passed.

24. Quite warm.

March. Fair 8, rain 16, cloudy 7 days.

1. So warm that fire was unnecessary.

13. Plants began to appear above ground.

15. Plants put forth their leaves.

25. Gooseberry bushes in leaf.

26. Humming birds appear.

30. Grass 16 inches high in river bottoms.

April. Fair 20, rain 7, cloudy 3 days.

6. Cotton wood in leaf.

12. Vegetation is rapidly progressing in the bottoms, though the snow reaches within a mile of the base of the mountains, at the Rapids of Columbia.

May. Fair 19, rain 5, cloudy 6, snow 1.

3. An increase of snow in the mountains last evening.

10. Weather cold with a heavy fall of snow.

22. The air remarkably dry and pure.


27. The snow has disappeared on the high plains, and seems to be diminishing fast on the spurs and lower regions of the Rocky mountains.

June. Fair 20, cloudy 5, rain 5.

2. A great rise in the river in consequence of the melting of the snow in the mountains.

3. River at its greatest height.

5. The wild rose in bloom.

6. The vining honey-suckle in bloom.

22. Strawberries ripe at Quasnash Flatts.

July to the 8th. Fair 6, rain 2 days.

5. A dew this morning; the nights cool; the musquitoes troublesome.

6. In the open plain there was a violent wind from the north-west, accompanied by hard rain.

8. A heavy shower, accompanied with rain from the south-west.

This country was first discovered by the Spaniards. In 1791, captain Gray, of the ship Columbia, of Boston, entered the river; and from his ship it received its name. It was occasionally entered by navigators afterwards. In 1805, Lewis and Clark descended this river from the mountains to the Pacific, and spent the winter on its shore. They returned by the same river to the mountains; and most of the exact information, that we have of the country is from them. For some years a settlement of fur traders, called Astoria, has existed here. The chief intercourse of this place is with China. The question of settling this delightful country permanently, has been, more than once, debated in congress. Were such settlements authorized, and rendered secure by the requisite military establishments, there can be no doubt, but it would receive large accessions of immigrants. The number of Indians of the different tribes is estimated at 140,000.



THE countries, which we have been describing, stretch beyond the settled regions of Missouri and Arkansas. The country of Texas, united with Coahuila, making one of the Mexican states, bounds the country of Arkansas on the South, and the state of Louisiana on the West Its proximity to our country, its being already settled to a considerable degree with Americans, and its having been long considered, as included within the ceded limits of Louisiana, give it a claim to a very brief description. Its length is 800 miles, and its breadth 500. It is situated between 29° and 42° N. latitude. Bounded on the East by the Sabine, which separates it from Louisiana; on the South by the gulf of Mexico; on the West by the Rio del Norte. The northern boundary by the last Spanish treaty was as follows; bounded by Red river on the south bank, from the point, where it strikes that river to 100° W. longitude from London; thence due north to the Arkansas; thence up the Arkansas on the south bank to 42° N. latitude; thence due west, on that parallel to the Pacific ocean. It is supposed to contain a surface of 400,000 square miles, and has sufficient extent to form a large government

Face of the country. Along the Arkansas and Red rivers the country is level. On the Rio del Norte it is broken into precipitous, and sterile hills. In the north western extremity there are mountains. It has a general slope, like an immense glacis towards the gulf; and, although


though from St. Antonio, and various other central points of the country, high hills are visible in the distance, it is generally a very level country, partaking, in the extensiveness of its prairies of the character of the countries, we have been describing. For fifty miles beyond the Sabine, the country is timbered, and has little show of prairie. Beyond that, the prairies stretch out on every side indefinitely. The streams, as seen elsewhere, in all this country are skirted with a belt of timber. Within sixty miles of the gulf, the country becomes exceedingly level; the rivers, as in Louisiana, before their entrance into the gulf, form lakes and extensive swamps.

The soil along the Arkansas and Red rivers, as might be expected, is fertile. On the Brasses, and Colorado, there are wide and rich bottoms, differing very little in character from those of Red river. The soil on Iyish Bayou is also fine. Most of the streams have a margin of rich alluvial soil. From these bottoms we rise to high table prairies, for the most part, of an indifferent soil, and some of them sterile, with a stratum of lime stone rock, approaching so near the surface as to cause, that in the dry and hot season of summer, all vegetation upon it becomes parched and sear. Nine tenths of the country is prairie of this character; or extensive swamp; or sterile and precipitous hills. The soil that is rich, is generally of first quality, producing in abundance all the products, that can be raised in Louisiana. The country about the Trinity is well wooded, and abounds in springs.

The principal rivers are the Trinity, which is a considerable stream. This river runs parallel with the Sabine and about 150 miles west of it.

Travelling west, the next important river is the Brassos, a river, which rises in the mountains at the north of the state, and after a course of between 5 and 600 miles, flows


into the gulf, by a mouth 200 yards wide. This river receives a number of considerable tributaries, and has extensive and fertile bottoms, subject, however, to the inconvenience of being occasionally inundated.

Eighty miles west of the Brasses is the Colorado. This river has bottoms, like the Brassos, and a course of 450 miles. Both of them are navigable for schooners sixty, or seventy miles from their mouths; and in time of floods steam boats can ascend them much higher. Between the Brasses and the Colorado is the largest body of good land in the state. Fifty miles farther is the river St. Marks a branch of the Guadaloupe. This river runs through a rich country, but destitute of timber. Sixty miles from this river is the Guadaloupe, of the size of the former river, containing fine lands, and unlike that river, being well timbered along its borders. It has a course of 200 miles; and falls into the bay of St. Bernard. It is a river memorable in the ancient French history of Louisiana, as being that river, at the mouth of which was planted the colony under M. de La Salle, in 1685.

About 200 miles farther west is the Rio del Norte, which, rising not far from the sources of the Arkansas, has a very long course, computed by its windings to be 1,600 miles to the gulf. It is generally a shallow, wide and rapid stream, in the heats of summer fordable in a great many places. The general character of the country on its banks is broken and sterile. Scarcely any river of its size and length is known, so little favorable to navigation. The Iyish Bayou and the Neches, or Snow river, not far from the Sabine are considerable streams.

Towns and Settlements. As we travel west, on the great road from the Sabine to Mexico, the first village of any consequence is Nacogdoches. It is sixty miles from the Sabine. The situation is lonely, but delightful. It is


finely watered by a large and clear spring branch. It is a very salubrious situation. This village was formerly of considerable consequence, possessing a church, and being for a long time a military station. But occupied, as it has been, by the different parties in the various revolutions, which it has experienced, and having been more, or less plundered, and destroyed by each, it is at present little more than a heap of ruins, containing not more than 300 inhabitants, of whom the greater part are wretchedly poor. The famous ‘stone house’ still survives all the revolutions, through which it has passed. This place was occupied, in the winter of 1827, by the Fredonians, who declared the state of Texas to be an independent republic; and who soon after were vanquished, and driven out of the country by a small Mexican force.

St. Antonio is situated on the head waters of the Guadaloupe, in 29° N. latitude. Its position is high and healthy; and, probably, no place in the world has a purer, or more salubrious air. It is said, that the proportion of very aged people is greater here, than in any other place. Such are the purity and dryness of the air, that beef killed in the sultry days of summer is suspended in the air without salt, and in this situation hardens, and preserves. The country, being extremely dry, and rains unfrequent in the summer, the fields and gardens in this place and the vicinity are watered by irrigation; for which the elevation of the stream, that waters the town, and its adaptation to this purpose, admirably qualifies it. These fields, so irrigated have a delightful appearance, in the droughts of summer, in contrast with the sear and parched aspect of the surrounding country. This was formerly an important town, being the capital of Texas, a considerable military station, and the former residence of the governor. It is said formerly, to have contained 3,000 inhabitants. This place,


also, has been possessed by different parties, during the revolutionary struggles of Mexico. Each in turn contributed to help reduce it to ruins. There are one or two squares built of stone; and a church, which makes some pretensions to elegance. It does not, probably, contain at present more than 1,200 inhabitants.

On the upper waters of the Rio del Norte, and very far to the north of St. Antonio, is the village of Santa Fe, a place better known to the people of the United States, than almost any other in Texas, as being the town, with which a very considerable trade is carried on over land by packed mules and horses from St. Louis in Missouri. In consequence of this trade, this village is represented to be in a thriving condition. It was a considerable town, when Pike visited it. The chief settlements in this state, for such is the name, which it now assumes, are that, of which Santa Fe is the centre; the settlements along the Rio del Norte, of which the Passo del Norte is the centre; and that about St. Antonio and Nacogdoches. The eastern part of the state is principally inhabited by Americans from the United States. They have a populous settlement on the Iyish Bayou. Mr. Austin has settled a very considerable colony of Americans, amounting to 300 families, on the Brassos and the Colorado. They suffered much at the commencement. But the circumstances of the colony, are now represented to be comfortable; and that it is rising in its prospects.

This state, from its position, in relation to our south-western frontier, and to the most wild and unsettled part of our country, has been a resort, for a great number of years, for adventurers, and men of desperate fortunes; a point, to which stolen negroes from the American states were carried; and whence African slaves have been smuggled into our country. It has been in a turbulent and revolutionary


condition for a great many years. The passion for wandering, and especially to the south-west, which possesses a great portion of the southern and western people, has caused, that the country of Texas has been a point of desire, as a place of immigration to vast multitudes of adventurers. With some, these longings evaporate in theory, and the distant contemplation of desire. Many hundreds have carried their desires into effect; and have found, when they have at length arrived at the desired haven, nothing but poverty, sickness, disappointment and wretchedness. We could record a long and melancholy catalogue of cases, like these, which we have ourselves seen. But, such is the passion to immigrate to this country, that in autumn, in all the great directions of approach to it, we still see lines of wagons, and moving families, marching away from our good and happy country, to find a paradise, if they can in Texas. Arrived there, all the illusion of imagination operating best at a distance, ceases. The immigrants find themselves in a new climate, under a new government, in a new order of things, in a country remote from markets, beautiful indeed to the eye; but deriving little substantial advantage from its barren beauty; and they became disappointed, discouraged, often sick, and generally poor and destitute, and a scene of wretchedness ensues, that beggars all description.

Climate. The northern parts of Texas about Santa Fe, being nearly in the latitude of the southern division of Missouri, has a climate, not unlike this country. The northern interior of Texas is less subject to rains in the summer, than Missouri; and the country generally suffers in the summer months from drought. The high and central parts of this state, as the country for example about St. Antonio, have a salubrious and delightful climate. From its elevation, the vicinity of mountains, and its being swept by


the regular breezes of the gulf, it never suffers the same exhausting heats, as the low and humid country in the parallel latitudes on the Mississippi. Perhaps no country can boast a finer or more salubrious climate. Cotton and sugar cane grow well in Mr. Austin's colony. Figs, oranges, olives, dates and fruits of that kind might be cultivated. But most of the people are as yet either too poor, or too indolent to think of any thing beyond mere subsistence.

History. La Salle, from Canada, as we have seen, made the first settlement in this country, in 1683. It was at the mouth of the Guadaloupe. We have no certain accounts that the Spanish crossed the Rio del Norte into this country until 1714. The first point which they occupied was Adayes, not far from Natchitoches. The French, as we have seen, occupied the latter place about the same time. A conflicting claim was thus established on the part of the French and Spanish occupants to the extensive country, now called Texas, east of Rio del Norte. The French always claimed to that river, until the peace of 1762, when the whole province of Louisiana was ceded to Spain. The claim was revived, when our government became possessed by purchase of the rights of France to the country. It was occasionally agitated between our government and that of Spain, until it was finally merged in the treaty with Spain, by which we acquired Florida.



IN compiling the foregoing work, the object has been to generalize, as much as possible, to compress facts as nearly as might be into an abstract form, and avoid as many proper names, as might consist with any degree of distinctness of narrative. Whole volumes of narrative carried out into minute detail have been entirely pretermited. Much of this narrative had deep interest from the simplicity and force of the narration, from the freshness of strong feeling infused into it, and the rough energy of the style and manner of those, who described events, which they saw, and in which they personally took a part. But in order to preserve some of these west country documents of history, we have given entire one personal narrative, that of General L. of Cincinnati, a distinguished and respectable citizen of the state of Ohio, who has been in the country from the beginning, and who probably has seen, as much of its progress, as any other man in it. To us, details of this class have great interest from their graphic force and freshness. The following will serve, better than a volume of dissertation, to show the modes of backwoods life, and under exactly what circumstances these great establishments in the western country commenced. Without farther preface, we enter upon the relation of General L.

My father was an emigrant from Cumberland county, Pennsylvania near Carlisle. In the autumn of 1779, he left home, with his family for Kentucky, then a part of


Virginia. He did not reach the Monongahela until the winter was too far advanced to allow his descending the Ohio before spring. In company with two men, who were bound with their families to the same point, he built three large arks, or as they were afterwards called Kentucky boats. The winter proved uncommonly severe, and by suspending the operation of the saw mills in that country, procrastinated their arrangements, until the first of the following April. By advertisements, all the adventurers in that part of the country, who were bound to Kentucky, were requested to assemble at a large island in the Ohio, a few miles below Pittsburg. It was proposed to remain here, until a sufficient force should have assembled to pass with safety amidst the country of savage hostility, which lay between them and Kentucky.

So numerous was the concourse of adventurers to this point, that in two days after his arrival, sixty-three boats were ready to sail in company. A part of these boats were occupied by families; another by young men descending the river, to explore the country; and the remaining portion by the cattle belonging to the emigrants. The number of fighting men on board, probably amounted to nearly a thousand. My father had been a practised soldier in the former wars of the country, and had been stationed, as such, three years at Pittsburg. He was of course versed in the modes, requisites, and stratagems of Indian warfare.

A number of his associates had been trained in the same way. The descending boats were arranged in an order of defence, not, perhaps, entirely according to the technical exactness of a fleet in line of battle. Pilot boats headed the advance. The boats manned by the young men sustained each wing, having the family boats in the centre, and the stock boats immediately in the rear of


them, and the rear guard boats floating still behind them. The boats moved with great circumspection, floating onwards, until they were abreast of a place favorable for furnishing range and grazing for the cattle, when they landed, and turned them loose for this purpose. While their cattle were thus foraging in the joy of a short emancipation from the close prison of the boats, their owners kept a vigilant watch outside of their range to prevent the savages from assaulting them.

We arrived without molestation at Limestone, now Maysville. Captain Hinkston of our company with three or four other families concluded to remain here. They immediately commenced the customary preparations for rearing cabins. We tarried with them but half a day, during which time a company from our number turned out to hunt in the wild woods. The party killed several buffalos, and I now for the first time tasted their flesh. At ten the next morning, April 12th, 1780, the pilot boats gave signals, that the enemy were drawn up in hostile array on the northern, or what was called the Indian shore of the Ohio. The boats immediately landed in a concerted order half a mile above the foe. It was arranged, that half the fighting men should be in readiness to spring on shore, the moment the boats should touch land. They were then to form and march down upon the Indian encampment. The Indians were encamped opposite Licking, where Front street now intersects Broadway in Cincinnati. Their number did not much exceed 150; whereas we numbered nearly 500. Discovering a force, so much superior, moving rapidly upon them, they fled in so much haste and disorder, as to leave part of their movables behind them. Our party pursued them four or five miles, up what is now called Mill Creek. Some of the Indians were on horseback


and they fled faster, than their wearied pursuers could follow them on foot.

We returned to our boats and floated unmolested to Beargrass, at the Falls of Ohio. We arrived the 15th, of April. After surveying the vicinity, my father selected a place five miles back from the river. It was a large body of land of extreme fertility, and in the centre of it was a fine spring. Here he encamped, and commenced clearing. In a short time, he was joined by more than forty families. In a fortnight they had built as many cabins, in four straight lines so arranged, as to form a hollow square. At the angles were block houses. The cabin doors all opened into the hollow square. In the centre of one of the sides, leading to the spring was a large gate way, and one of the same dimensions, to match on the opposite side. The planks of the boats, in which they had descended the river, were wagoned out from the river, to furnish floors and doors for these dwellings. Through the walls were port-holes, from which, in case of attack, they fired upon the foe.

Thus sheltered and defended, the next object was gardens and fields. A small reserve remained in the enclosure, and were stationed on the tops of the houses, to survey the scene of operations, and give notice of approaching danger. The new settlement suffered little annoyance, until June, when Indian hostilities, manifested in the customary way, broke out on every side. In some instances, they were successful in breaking up whole stations, and in others they were severely chastised, as in the expedition undertaken against them by George Rodgers Clark.

This punishment restrained them to a sufficient interval of peace, to enable us to gather in our crops of corn. We witnessed with astonishment the results of a virgin soil


that had never yet been cultivated. The extent of ground cultivated by each individual was necessarily small. — Some of the settlers had the curiosity to measure the amount of corn, gathered from an acre. It ranged from eighty, to one hundred and twenty bushels. Most of the immigrants had moved from a thin and barren soil, which required assiduous cultivation even for the small crops, which it yielded. Here the horn of plenty seemed to be emptied almost spontaneously. They had generally come also from a much severer climate. The inclemency of the former winter had led them to prepare for a winter similar, to that of the country, from which they had emigrated. They made careful and laborious preparations for the severe weather, such as plastering the chasms of their cabins, gathering fuel, &c. But to their agreeable surprise, there were but three days, that might be denominated freezing weather, during the winter. These days were in the middle of January. For the rest, the weather exhibited every variety of aspect, that all the climates of the world could show, among which were frequent showers of thunder and lightning. This, it will be recollected, was the winter of 1780 and '81; and it very much resembled the present winter, 1828, except that we have had more cold days, and not so many thunder showers.

In the spring of 1781, realizing the continual exposure of the family, and the risk of his fine stock of cattle and horses, my father determined to move farther into the interior of Kentucky. Accordingly, he moved an hundred miles into the interior to Kincaid's Station, near where the town of Danville now stands. That part of the country was filling rapidly with settlers from Virginia, through what was then called the ‘Southern wilderness road.’ Although we felt ourselves much more secure here, than in the position, which we had left, the country beginning already


ready to have an interior and frontier, we often experienced annoyance even here. The Indians frequently made inroads, as far as to our present station, killing the cattle stealing the horses, and sometimes murdering the inhabitants.

I pass over the expedition of general Clark against the Indians, in which a number of their towns were destroyed, and the severe retaliation, which they practised along with their allies the British; and also the bloody affair of the Blue Licks, and return to matters personal to my father's family. The gloom created by that disastrous conflict was diffused over all the country. All those, who were not bound to it by the ties of family, made haste to escape from it, and in ten days, scarcely more, than three hundred effective men were left in the country. But this extreme alarm soon passed away. The settlements were consolidated by the joining of the weaker to the stronger. The block houses were more strongly fortified, and the people, attached to their rural abundance, and their peculiar ways of life, determined to remain where they were, and defend themselves to extremities.

In the subsequent autumn, many adventurers joined us from the old settlements. The army of lord Cornwallis soon after surrendered, and the American soldiers and their enterprising officers, disengaged from service by that event, flocked to this fertile wilderness. In the course of the next year, we became more formidable than before.

Although the Indian war still continued, the security inspired by numbers induced many families, that had been painfully cooped up in close stations, to leave their enclosures, and to disperse themselves on detached farms over the country.

In 1784, my father moved to Lexington, and raised a crop, on what are the out lots of the present town. My


father was entitled to a bounty of 3,000 acres of land, a little above the upper Blue Licks, in consequence of services rendered as a captain, in what was called the French war. It had been surveyed; but he wished to survey it more accurately. Accordingly, he made all the minute preparations requisite in such cases. I prevailed on him to allow me to accompany him. Accordingly, our party well mounted proceeded through the forests for the tract. We took along with us a number of led horses, according to custom in such cases, in order to bring in a sufficiency of buffalo meat to serve the family, during the subsequent winter. Our travel was laborious, for we were obliged to make our way through a thick cane brake. On the evening of our second day's journey, we encamped on what my father supposed to be his tract of land.

Our first business was to retrace the lines of the former survey. Our next was to hunt buffalos and the other wild game of the country, for subsistence. I was then fourteen years old, and my training in the modes of backwoods life, as well as inclination and practise, had given me a dexterity and closeness in the use of the rifle, equal to the expertest Kentuckian of my years. We saw numerous traces of the animals of our search on every side. We performed an operation for our horses, to prevent their escape, technically called in the western country ‘hobbling;’ and with this precaution left them to pasture in the cane brake. We suspended our baggage on the trees, to place it out of the reach of the wolves. We divided into three parties of pairs. My father and myself formed one. We had not advanced more than five miles, from the point of separation, before we discovered a gang of buffalos feeding. My father paused according to the necessary precaution, to observe the direction of the wind, ordering me to get to the leeward of them. My orders were to shoot the blackest


of the herd behind the shoulders. The expected consequence was, that at the report of my gun, the herd would turn and make towards him, when he calculated to be able to bring down another, as they passed, I obeyed my directions to the letter; but in the act of taking aim, scent of me probably reached them. My ball penetrated the body of the animal farther back, than I intended; and he ran some distance, before he fell They did not take the direction, which my father had anticipated, and although he eagerly pursued them for some distance, he failed in obtaining a shot I recharged, pursued, and came up with my father, who had halted, where the buffalo, that I had brought down, laid. The remainder of the herd escaped us. The animal was so wounded, that it would soon die. For convenience, my father determined to move our camp to the buffalo. I had often killed bears, deer and turkeys, but never a buffalo before. It maybe imagined, how much a boy of fourteen would be elated by such an exploit. My father proposed to test my backwoods discipline, by requesting me to lead the way through the forest to the camp, distant six miles. I was in a frame of mind to express confidence in my ability to do it, even were the camp distant forty miles.

I preceded him at a brisk walk, until we were insight of the camp. I saw a smile on my father's countenance, which I interpreted to be one of approbation of my skill. My father here beckoned me to stand, informing me, that it was necessary to take a keen survey of the premises, to ascertain whether savages might not be concealed about the camp awaiting our return. He then preceded me, walking softly, and with great caution inspecting every point in advance, and behind us. Having convinced himself, that there was no ambush on that side, he made a circuit and explored the other side of the camp in the


way. Having convinced ourselves, that no enemy lurked round, we advanced to the fire, spread our blankets on the ground, and threw ourselves on it for repose. He then admonished me of the necessity of untiring vigilance reminding me, that the danger from the wily foe was often greatest at the moment, when the parties felt themselves most secure. He then directed me to keep a keen look out on the north side of the camp, while he would do the same in regard to the south.

A stratagem was practised upon us, on this occasion, which had well nigh proved fatal to the party practising it. We had not been long on our mutual watch, before I discovered a man lurking in advance towards the camp, keeping a tree between him and myself, in order to screen his body from view. We reclined with our feet toward the fire. My rifle was carefully loaded, the muzzle resting on a log at our heads. At first, I supposed it to be one of our own men, and I determined to be farther satisfied, before I alarmed my father. I discovered in a moment, that he was approaching me, with too much caution for that supposition, that he carefully inspected every thing around us, and made his way with a soft and stealthy step. I allowed him to approach near enough to a tree, at which he was aiming, to enable me clearly to discover, that his face was blacked, and that he wore no hat. I had hitherto remained motionless, and I was convinced, that he had not yet seen me. I cocked my rifle. Even this slight noise aroused my father, who lay with his back to mine looking in a contrary direction. He asked me, what I was doing? I informed him, in a low tone of voice, that I was watching an Indian, who was lurking towards us, apparently to fire upon us, and that I was waiting, until he should reach a free, towards which he was stealing, and expose his head so, as that I might give him a fatal shot. He asked me,


if I saw more than one, to which I answered in the negative. He then directed me to be sure of my aim, and not fire, until I should have gained sight of a mark in his eye.

The person had now gained his tree, and had rested his gun in a position to fire upon us. But as we reclined flat on the ground, and as a log in some measure protected our bodies from his fire, it was necessary for him to survey us closely, in order to find any part of our bodies sufficiently exposed to receive his shot. This I comprehended from his movements, and waited my own opportunity. In putting his head from behind the tree, for this close inspection he exposed half of it. I took aim and drew the trigger? but the gun missed fire. The person hearing the noise instantly jerked back his head. ‘I am sorry for that,’ said my father in a low tone of voice, and I replied in vexation, that it was the first time it had failed me. It was two minutes, before the person exposed his head for a second survey of us. He once more showed his face, so as almost to give me a shot at him. He finally presented two thirds of his face, and my gun missed fire a second time. Hearing this more distinctly, than the first snapping, he again jerked back his head, and exclaimed, ‘why I believe, you have been snapping at me!’ I immediately recognized the voice to be that of Crawford, one of our men. He had thrown off his hat and blacked his face, as he informed us, with a view to affrighten me. We were both provoked at this wanton folly; and I assured him, that I still had a good mind to shoot him. My father severely reprimanded him, and I remarked with astonishment upon the circumstance, that my rifle had twice missed fire. To show him the extent of his exposure, I pointed to a white spot on to tree, behind which he had been concealed. I observed to him that it was not larger, than his eye, and that I would demonstrate to him, what his fate would have been in case


my gun had not missed fire. I presented, and my ball carried the bark of the white spot into the tree.

The other men soon after came in. We immediately saddled our horses, mounted, and moved off to the place, where our buffalo laid. We encamped there for the night, and feasted upon the choice pieces of the animal. I found myself ill, during the night; and in the morning my father discovered, that I had the measles, and that they appeared on my face. He proposed in consequence to take me home. It was distant nearly seventy miles, and I was unwilling to interrupt the business, for which he had come out, in this way, and I so informed him, proposing to return alone. He replied, that it would be necessary for me to sleep out at least two nights alone, and that I might become worse on the journey. I answered, that I had no apprehensions of the kind; and that it would not be the first time I had spent nights alone in the woods. In reply, my father renewed his objection, pointing out the additional danger from the Indians, on such a long way. But I overcame all his objections, and was allowed to start off alone. It was a long excursion through a wilderness, which apprehension had too much reason to people with savages. I had the measles, and was but fourteen years old. But such was the training of the youths, of that period in the woods.

I commenced my journey stopping twice the first day, to let my horse feed upon the grass. I took care to select a spot in open woods, where I could survey the country for a great distance around me. I saw abundance of game on my way; but having no use for it, and being charged by my father to make no unnecessary delay, I allowed it to pass unmolested. At night fall I struck a considerable stream. It was easily fordable. Thinking, if any enemy came on my track, it would be easy to baffle him here, I


rode up the middle of the stream half a mite, and ascended a branch, that fell into the stream, two or three hundred yards. I then left the branch, and rode on a mile to a tree top, which afforded plenty of dry wood. I dismounted, hobbled my horse, to feed for the night, kindled me a bright fire, took some of my provisions, and laid myself down to sleep, thinking as little of my measles and lonely situation, as possible.

The next morning, I started at early dawn, expecting to reach home, that night. At ten, I discovered a very large bear near my course. The temptation to give the animal a, shot was irresistible to one of my years and inclinations. I dismounted, and killed the animal. Although I could make no use of the carcass, I determined to carry home the skin, as a trophy. I found it a difficult business in the first place, to arrange the large, heavy and greasy hide, so as that it could be carried on horse back. It so frequently slipped from under me, that I found, I must either leave it, or tarry out another night, I concluded on the latter. I had considerable fever, during this night — and did not sleep much. I set off in the morning with the first twilight, and reached Lexington at noon the next day. I was nearly recovered of the measles. In ten days afterwards, my father and his party returned.

Early in the spring of 1785, my father with my brother and myself went out to his lands, sixteen miles from Lexington, and erected a couple of cabins. He then moved his family there, and commenced clearing the lands. But in a few days, we discovered traces of Indians in our vicinity. As it was an unprotected frontier establishment, my father deemed it necessary to enclose his cabins in a stockade. It was done with three lines of palisades, the cabins making the fourth side. During this year we not much annoyed by the Indians. But the nest


summer, they took from us thirteen fine horses at one time, We raised a party and pursued them. We came in view of them, just as they had completed swimming the horses over to a sand bar on the opposite side of the Ohio. — When they discovered us, they exclaimed from the opposite shore, that, we were too late, and might go home again. We had the comfort of exclaiming back again, that they were thieving rascals, and asking them, if they were not ashamed of what they had been doing? They replied with great coolness, not at all; that a few horses now and then was all the rent they obtained of us, for their Kentucky lands. They outnumbered us three to one; and of course we had no prudent course, but to follow that of their advising, and return home without our horses.

It was in the autumn of this year, that general Clark raised the forces of the Wabash expedition. They constituted a numerous corps. Colonel Logan was detached from the army, at the falls of the Ohio, to raise a considerable force, with which to proceed against the Indian villages on the head waters of Mad river, and the Great Miami. I was then aged sixteen, and too young to come within the legal requisition. But I offered myself as a volunteer, hoping to find and reclaim my father's horses. I need not relate the circumstances, of the failure of general Clark's expedition. Colonel Logan went on his destination, and would have surprised the Indian towns, against which he marched, had not one of his men deserted to the enemy, not long before they reached the towns, who gave notice of their approach. As it was, he burned eight large towns, and destroyed many fields of corn. He took seventy, or eighty prisoners, and killed twenty warriors, and among the rest the head chief of the nation. This last act caused deep regret, humiliation and shame to the commander and his troops.


We came in view of the two first towns, one of which stood on the west bank of Mad river, and the other on the north-east of it. They were separated by a prairie, half a mile in extent. The town on the north-east, was situated on a high and commanding point of land, that projected a small distance into the prairie, at the foot of which eminence broke out several fine springs. This was the residence of the famous chief of the nation. His flag was flying at the time, from the top of a pole sixty feet high. We had advanced in three lines, the commander with some of the horsemen inarching at the head of the centre line, and the footmen in their rear. Colonel Robert Patterson commanded the left, and I think colonel Thomas Kenedy the right. When we came in sight of the towns, the spies with the front guard made a halt, and sent a man back to inform the commander of the situation of the two towns. He ordered colonel Patterson to attack the town on the left bank of Mad river. Colonel Kenedy was also charged to incline a little to the right of the town, on the east side of the prairie. He determined himself to charge with the centre division immediately on the upper town. I heard the commander give his orders, and caution the colonels against allowing their men to kill any among the enemy, that they might suppose to be prisoners. He then ordered them to advance, and as soon as they should discover the enemy, to charge upon them. I had my doubts touching the propriety of some part of the arrangements. I was willing, however, to view the affair with the diffidence of youth and inexperience. At any rate, I determined to be at hand to see all that was going, and to be as near the head of the line, as my colonel would permit. I was extremely solicitous to try myself in battle. The commander at the head of the centre line waved his sword over his head, as a signal for the troops to advance. Colonel Daniel


Boone and major, since general Kenton commanded the advance, and colonel Trotter the rear. As we approached within half a mile of the town on the left, and about three fourths from that on the right, we saw the savages retreating in all directions, making for the thickets, swamps and high prairie grass to screen them from their enemy. I was animated with the energy, with which the commander conducted at the head of his line, as he waved his sword, and in a voice of thunder, exclaimed, ‘charge from right to left.’ The horses appeared as impatient for the onset, as their riders. As we came up with the flying savages, I was disappointed, discovering, that we should have little to do. I heard but one savage, with the exception of the chief, call for quarter. They fought with desperation, as long as they could raise knife, gun, or tomahawk, after they found, that they could not screen them-selves. We despatched all the warriors, that we overtook, and sent the women and children prisoners to the rear.

We pushed ahead, still hoping to overtake a larger body, where we might have something like a general engagement. I was mounted on a very fleet gray horse. Fifty of my companions followed me. I had not advanced more than a mile, before I discovered some of the enemy running along the edge of a thicket of hazle and plum bushes. I made signs to the men in my rear to come on. At the same time, pointing to the flying enemy, I obliqued across the plain, so as to get in advance of them. When I arrived within fifty yards of them, I dismounted, and raised my gun. I discovered at this moment, some men of the right wing corning up on the left. The warrior, I was about to shoot, held up his hand in token of surrender, and I heard him order the other Indians to stop. By this time the men behind had arrived, and were in the act of firing upon the Indians, I called upon them not to fire, for that


the enemy had surrendered. The warrior, that had surrendered to me came walking towards me, calling his women and children to follow him. I advanced to meet him with my hand extended. But, before I could reach him the men of the right wing of our force surrounded him. I rushed in among their horses. While he was giving me his hand, several of our men wished to tomahawk him. I informed them, that they would have to tomahawk me first. We led him back to the place, where his flag had been. We had taken thirteen prisoners. Among them were the chief, his three wives, one of them a young and handsome woman, and another the famous grenadier squaw, upwards of six feet high, and two or three fine young lads. The rest were children. One of these lads was a remarkably interesting youth about my own age and size. He clung closely to me, and appeared keenly to notice every thing, that was going on.

When we arrived at the town, a crowd of our men pressed round us to see the chief I stepped aside to fasten my horse, and my prisoner lad clung close to my side. A young man, of the name of Curner, had been at one of the springs to drink. He discovered the young savage by my side, and came running towards me. The young Indian, probably, supposed he was advancing to kill him. As I turned round, in the twinkling of an eye he let fly an arrow at Curner, for he was armed with a bow. I had just time to catch his arm, as he discharged the arrow. It passed through Currier's dress, and grazed his side. The jerk, I gave his arm, undoubtedly prevented the arrow from killing Curner on the spot. I took away the remainder of his arrows, and sternly reprimanded him. I then led him back to the crowd, which surrounded the prisoners. At the same moment colonel Magery, the same man, who had caused the disaster at the Blue Licks some years before,


came riding up. General Logan had just been giving orders to dispose of the prisoners in one of the houses, and place a guard over them and had reined his horse around, when his eye caught that of Magery. ‘Colonel Magery,’ said he, ‘you must not molest those prisoners.’ ‘I will see to that,’ said Magery in reply. I found my way through the crowd to the chief, with my young charge by the hand. Magery ordered the crowd to open and let him in. He came up to the chief, and the first salutation was in the question, was you at the defeat of the Blue Licks? The Indian not knowing the meaning of the words, or not understanding the purport of the question, answered, yes? Magery instantly seized an axe from the hand of the grenadier squaw, and raised it to make a blow at the chief I threw up my arm to ward off the blow. The handle of the axe struck me across the left wrist, and came near breaking it. The axe sunk into the head of the chief to the eyes, and he fell dead at my feet. Provoked beyond measure, at this wanton barbarity, I drew my knife with the purpose to avenge his cruelty by despatching him. — My arm was arrested by one of our men, which prevented my inflicting the thrust. Magery escaped from the crowd. The officer at that moment came up with his guards, ordering the men to open the crowd, and desiring the prisoners to follow him to the guard house. The lad, that was my prisoner caught my hand, and held fast to me. I walked with them to the guard house, into which they were ordered. A strong guard was placed around the house. Other prisoners were brought in, until the house was nearly filled. A detachment was then ordered off to two other towns, distant six or eight miles. The men and prisoners were ordered to march down to the lower town and encamp. As we marched out of the upper town we fired it.


The narrative of General L. here breaks off. We only observe, that this is the narrative by a gentlemen not only an eye witness, but personally engaged in the expedition against the Piqua towns, related in the History of Kentucky.


In the month of August, 1786, Mr. Francis Downing, then a lad, lived in a fort, where soon afterwards iron-works were erected by Mr. Jacob Myers, which are now known by the State creek works, and owned by colonel Thomas Dye Owings.

One morning, a young man by the name of Yates, together with Mr. Downing, went out in search of a horse, that had strayed away from the fort. After travelling six or eight miles in search of the horse, Downing began to be alarmed at the idea of danger from Indians, and observed to Yates, (who was much older than himself, and to whom he looked up for protection) that he thought he heard a noise like sticks cracking behind them. Yates laughed at him, and told him not to be a coward — that it was only his imagination, and that there was no danger whatever. Downing, however, was not convinced, but embraced the first favorable opportunity afforded him for concealment, to stop in a thick cluster of whortleberry bushes, while Yates went on. In a few minutes an Indian was seen by Downing, running towards him, until he was within an hundred yards, when he suddenly stopped. — Downing, to use his own expression, was as it were, thunderstruck. He resolved, however, as he had a gun to fire, and then run: but unfortunately his gun having a double trigger, before he had raised her to his face, she went off,


and, as he remarks, he instantly went off too! After running some distance, he met Yates, who having heard the report of the gun, had turned to ascertain what was the matter, and learning that they were closely pursued by Indians, they ran together. At length they reached a declivity, and were compelled in following the path, to descend into a valley surrounded with hills. Here they soon saw two Indians, who had taken a shorter course, and were running by another route towards the bottom of the valley. There was no alternative: it was absolutely necessary to keep the path, and to run with the utmost possible rapidity, although from the superior knowledge possessed by the Indians of the different roads, they had gained considerably on the pursued, and seemed likely soon to overtake them. Both parties ran on until they reached a dry gutter in the middle of the valley, about six feet deep and of considerable width. The Indians had, by this time approached very near them, and attempted to leap over the gutter at about the same time with the whites. All got across safe except Mr. Downing, who just reached the edge of the gutter against which, striking his foot, he fell upon his breast, rebounded and fell backward into the gutter. The violence of the fall almost deprived him of breath for a time, but fortunately the Indians were too intent upon the chase to observe his remaining behind, and both happening to direct their attention solely to Mr. Yates, continued to pursue him. Mr. Downing at length recovering from the shock, walked along in the gutter, which grew shallower as he advanced, and soon ceased to serve the purpose of concealing him from the sight of the Indians. At length he discovered one of them returning in search of him — he instantly dropped his gun, left the gutter, and ran back the same way he had come. The injury, he had received from his


fall, affected his speed, and the Indian gained upon him rapidly. After running a considerable distance, considering his case a desperate one, and his being overtaken inevitable, he came to a large poplar tree, which had been blown down by the wind. It so happened, that whilst he ran along one side of the tree, the Indian pursued him on the other. At this critical moment, he felt himself caught by the leg, and was compelled to make a momentary pause, when he perceived that he had been stopped by a small dog, which instantly ran away from him. This pause had given to the Indian a considerable advantage, and he perceived himself likely to be caught at the root of the tree. Most fortunately however, just at that spot a large she bear had taken up her abode with several cubs. Not being pleased with the violence with which the Indian approached her young, she instantly attacked him, when Mr. Downing, taking advantage of the interference of this unexpected coadjutor, suddenly wheeled around, and left the savage engaged in a most violent struggle with his new adversary. What was the result of the rencontre, we are not informed. It had, however, the happy effect of preserving Mr. Downing from almost inevitable destruction; and as no remains of the Indian was ever afterwards found, at or near the place, it is probable he escaped with his life, if not with considerable injury.

Mr. Yates likewise succeeded in getting off unhurt. After running several miles, he concealed himself amidst trees or in a canebrake, and thus eluded the pursuit; and returned home safe.

It was a custom with Mr. Downing, in the summer, about the time referred to above, to go out of the fort every afternoon, to a cluster of hickory trees several hundred yards distant, for the purpose of shooting squirrels, which at that place were very numerous. Near his path, (as he


afterwards discovered) fifteen Indians lay concealed for three days, behind a large log, where they had placed a number of bushes to serve as a blind, there waiting for a favorable opportunity to kill some one or more men, and obtain plunder. The two first days he passed as usual to the hickory grove and back again without molestation, the Indians probably being aware, that little if any thing could be obtained from him, and fearing that an attack upon him would lead to immediate detection and pursuit. On the third day he observed that the bushes around the log were apparently dying, and being unable to conjecture the cause, was attracted by curiosity towards the spot, and he advanced to within about ten feet, for the purpose of ascertaining what was the matter, when his attention was caught by the fluttering of a beautiful bird, entangled in some burs just by him. He instantly turned and caught the bird, which drew off his curiosity about the dying bushes, and he returned to the fort, and spent the remainder of the day in making a cage for the bird. Had he not been interrupted, he would inevitably have been taken by the Indians without the firing of a single gun. So completely were his thoughts occupied with his little bird, that he forgot to mention the circumstance of the dying bushes. The next morning early, a pack-horse driver and his son went out to see after their horses, when the concealed Indians shot them both, scalped and stripped them before the people of the fort, who heard the guns, could get to the place. They having previously stolen and secured a number of horses, they instantly made off.

One Sunday morning, three men, one by the name of Poor, another named Wade, the name of the third not recollected, who had been in the habit of reconnoitering the country in the capacity of spies, proposed to Mr. Downing to go with them to Mud Lick, now the Olympian springs,


seven miles distant from the fort. They accordingly set out together on foot, and travelled unmolested until they came in sight of the Lick. As they ascended a hill, they discovered several hundred buffalos, elk and deer, which they considered an indication, that there were no Indians there; but whilst they were surveying the prospect, and were descending the hill, Poor and Wade, who were some distance in advance of Downing and his companion, suddenly turned round and gave notice, that there were ten or fifteen Indians sitting and endeavoring to conceal themselves in the drain that proceeded from the Lick, and that it was necessary, that they should fly for their lives. They immediately started and ran with all possible speed, but soon heard the Indians behind them. The pursued took one path, and the pursuers another, but after a short distance the two paths came together — the whites however reached the point of junction before the Indians, although the latter had gained by the choice of paths. Young Downing being small, and not like his companions accustomed to running, was unable to keep up with them, and was advised as the only chance of his escape, to embrace the first opportunity when the situation of the road should throw him out of sight of the Indians, to step behind a log and lie concealed, whilst the rest of the party ran on. Reluctant as he felt to be left in the woods surrounded by savages, he considered it the only alternative, and followed the advice. Accordingly, the first opportunity that presented itself, he jumped aside from the path, and lay close behind a log. The Indians soon came along, and eager in the pursuit to overtake those whom they still saw before them, passed by Downing, who lay trembling by the way side. About ten minutes after they passed, he ventured to rise and leave his place of concealment; for some time, however, he was utterly at a loss what course to pursue. To go back


towards the Lick was his first thought, but it was abandoned almost as soon as conceived. In this state of uncertainty, he slowly walked along the path in the direction the Indians had taken. A little reflection, however, convinced him of the danger of this course, as it was very probable they would soon turn and come the same direction back; he therefore left the path, and, after wandering through the woods, reached the fort in safety, several hours after his companions, who outran their pursuers and returned likewise.

On another occasion, Mr. Downing fell in company with Wade and Poor at Stroud's Station, and set out with them to return to the fort. On their way, it was proposed and agreed to go about three miles from the road to a place called Cassidy's Station, (where a settlement had been made and abandoned on account of its exposure to the Indians) in order to get watermelons, which were in great abundance at that place. When they came near the enclosure, Wade and Poor told Downing to sit on his horse, and hold their horses, whilst they went to reconnoitre and ascertain whether they could enter the watermelon patch in safety — charging him on no account to leave the horses, or move from the spot until they returned, unless the Indians should appear, or he should hear a signal agreed on, by a sound made on corn blades, in which last case he should repair immediately to a corner of the fence, and there wait for them. They accordingly went leaving him alone; and having been absent a considerable time, he began to be uneasy, and regardless of the positive injunctions he had received, determined to go and see what was the matter. With this view he dismounted, and tied his horses to the poles which formed the fence of the enclosure, jumped over and began to make his way through the high broom-corn, which concealed the houses from view.


When he had almost reached the extremity of the corn field, he caught a glimpse of the cottages, and saw a man, whom he took to be an Indian, run from one house to another, and at the same instant heard the signal, agreed on, given by his companions. He was now aware of the imprudence of which he had been guilty, and ran with all possible speed towards the fence. Unfortunately, however, the violence with which he jumped over it alarmed the horses, and they ran off, each with a pole hanging to its bridle. Wade and Poor went to the corner of the fence according to agreement, but, not finding Downing or the horses, were exceedingly alarmed, and ran to ascertain the cause, when they saw the horses running off and Downing running after them. With the utmost expedition they caught their horses, cut away the poles, sprang on them and rode several miles in full speed without uttering a single word. At length, having recovered their self-possession, they discovered they were not pursued, and proceeded on deliberately home, censuring Downing in the most pointed language, for his imprudent conduct which had put to hazard the lives of the whole party.


Area of the country watered by the principal rivers and branches in the United States.

  Square Miles.
Missouri Territory, 3/4 698,000
Missouri 60,300
Arkansas Territory 121,000
Louisiana, 3/4 36,000
North West Territory, 1/2 72,000
Illinois, 99/100 58,310
Indiana, 19/20 34,940
Ohio, 4/5 30,800
Pennsylvania, 1/2 14,650
New York, 1/100 460
Maryland, 1/100 110
Virginia, 2/5 25,600
Kentucky, 39,000
North Carolina, 1/50 900
Tennessee, 41,300
South Carolina, 1/150 200
Georgia, 1/150 380
Alabama, 1/7 7,250
Mississippi, 1/2 22,670
Total 1,263,870
Valley of the Missouri 674,000
Valley of the Mississippi above the mouth of Ohio 225,000
Valley of the Ohio and its waters 205,000
Valley of the Mississippi and its waters, below the mouth of Ohio 290,000
Total 1,394,000
Missouri, from its source to its junction with the Yellow Stone 680
Do. to its junction with the Mississippi 1370
Total 2050
Mississippi Proper, from its source to its junction with the Missouri 780
Alleghany River, the highest source of the Ohio, to its junction with the Monongahela 200
Do. to its junction with the Mississippi 680
Total 880


Mississippi, from the junction with the Missouri to its outlet, 910
Greatest length of the Mississippi from its outlet to the highest point of the Missouri, 2960
Do. to the highest point of Mississippi Proper, 1690
Do. to the highest point of the Ohio, 1790
Tributary Streams.
Of the Missouri — Yellow Stone, 580
La Platte, 790
Kansas, 630
Osage, 480
Of Ohio — Monongahela, 120
Cumberland, 400
Tennessee, 470
Of Mississippi, below Missouri —
White River, 470
Arkansas, 1380
Red River, 1080
  Sacket's Harbor. Detroit. Prairie des Chiens. Council Bluffs.
4355N. 42 30 N. 42 36 N. 41 31 N.
100 E. 5 48 W. 14 38 W. 19 45 W.
1820. H L M H L M H L M H L M
Jan. 30 12 23 44 4 24       40 -- 22 9
Feb. 57 0 32 42 2 17       71 -- 8 30
March; 64 9 33 61 0 32       70 0 34
April 74 22 48 62 88 41 88 12 57 94 24 58
May 70 22 52 81 34 53 90 39 61 90 50 69
June 84 50 65 86 51 70 99 50 75 99 55 74
July 87 58 73 92 65 69 90 54 74 97 58 75
Aug. 85 54 71 94 62 75 94 54 72 105 59 75
Sept. 87 44 66 92 47 71 90 32 64 92 42 68
Oct. 76 30 52 74 30 51 70 20 44 80 22 47
Nov. 60 20 41 60 24 40 60 — 6 33 59 — 4 34
Dec. 58 9 26 48 6 27 33 — 14 16 50 — 5 18
Mean of the year 48° 6' 47° 4' incomplete. 49° 2'

Signifies below Zero.


  Pittsburg. Zanesville. Maria. Chillicothe. Cincinnati. Jefiersonville. Gallatin. Huntsville.
1820. 1819. 1819. 1819. 1819. 1819. 1819. 1819.
40 32 N. 39 59 N. 39 30 N. 39 20 N. 39 6 N. 38 12 N. 36 23 N. 34 36 N.
2 46 W. 4 58 W. 4 28 W. 5 45 W. 7 31 W. 8 34 W. 9 38 W. 9 55 W.
  H L M H L M H L M H L M H L M H L M H L M H L M
Jan. 42 10 29 68 10 40 67 16 42 64 18 40 70 20 37 66 20 47 74 20 47 70 27 51
Feb. 62 10 42 64 18 39 62 13 39 66 15 40 64 16 42 64 18 44 72 20 48 70 28 53
March 54 21 42 62 10 39 67 15 40 68 14 41 63 10 40 68 19 44 80 12 46 76 26 50
April 81 30 60 83 24 56 89 28 54 78 30 57 79 30 57 78 28 58 82 28 60 81 32 63
May 82 40 58 88 42 65 80 34 64 86 44 69 86 42 66 88 50 69 90 38 67 87 42 69
June 90 54 71 90 50 74 86 56 73 98 60 77 94 51 74 97 60 80 92 54 75 92 62 81
July 92 64 76 93 51 75 88 62 72 74 62 77 91 58 74 94 60 79 90 53 76 90 66 81
Aug. 89 60 72 96 50 78 93 56 78 72 60 80 92 52 77 99 56 82 90 8 75 87 69 79
Sept. 89 41 64 92 41 69 88 48 69 89 52 70 90 45 69 94 50 70 94 42 71 86 60 76
Oct. 76 40 54 76 25 55 81 30 52 86 32 56 83 29 55 72 34 60       83 38 62
Nov. 62 32 46 71 20 49 72 22 48 72 32 59 76 28 51 68 30 53 80 22 54 79 36 58
Dec. 48 28 37 59 6 30 57 12 35 60 16 39 63 12 38 58 4 37       64 18 42
Mean of the year. 54° 2' 55° 7' 66° 6' 58° 8' 56° 8' 60° 3' incomplete. 63° 7'

The highest, lowest, and mean heat for each month, at different situations, will be shown by the following table:

NOTE. — N. stands for North latitude, E. for East longitude and W. for West longitude, H. for highest, L. for lowest, and M. for mean temperature.


  Fernandina, Fl. 1820. Fort Scott. 1820. N. Orleans. 1820. Baton Rouge. 1820. Camp. Ripley, 1820.
30 45 N. 30 43 N. 30 00 N. 30 36 N. 31 18 N.
4 37 W. 7 23 W. 13 10 W. 15 14 W. 16 50 W.
  H L M H L M H L M H L M H L M
Jan. 79 35 55 74 32 55                  
Feb. 78 50 65 72 31 61       78 51 64      
March 70 50 64 78 38 66       78 32 61      
April 85 45 72 89 44 68 78 58 73 86 42 70 87 55 76
May 86 61 74 88 56 74 87 72 79 90 58 75 88 54 76
June 87 67 78 91 50 78 91 72 86 94 60 81 92 57 78
July 87 71 80 91 60 79 90 80 82 90 70 79 93 72 81
Aug. 88 70 79 92 68 80 92 78 85 92 74 83 94 65 82
Sept. 87 73 80 80 65 75 88 71 81 88 64 77 92 56 77
Oct. 85 50 69 89 60 70 84 45 65 88 40 67 85 48 66
Nov. 76 43 64 78 40 60 75 39 57 84 36 61 84 32 60
Dec. 75 50 61 84 32 59 77 39 60 76 40 60 79 28 53
Mean of the year. 70° 1' 68° 7' Incomplete. Incomplete. Incomplete.
  Average at General Average. Highest, and place of Observation. Lowest, and place of observation. Range.
7 2 9
Jan. 25 33 29 29 79 Fernandina 30 St. Peters 109
March 41 49 44 45 78 Belle Fontaine -- 10 St. Peters 88
April 56 66 60 61 94 Council Bluffs 10 St. Peters 84
June, 70 84 74 76 99 Prairie des Chiens 50 Ditto. 49
Aug. 73 81 75 76 *105 Council Bluffs 30 St. Peters 69
Sept. 67 76 70 71 99 Ditto. 20 Prairie du Chien 68
Oct. 52 60 56 56 88 Baton Rouge    
Nov. 42 50 46 46   -- 7 St. Peters 91
Gen. Mean. 52 62 56 57 105 Sunday,13th of August. 30 Sunday, 30th of January, 135


Places. Winds. Atmosphere.  
N. N. W. N. E. E. S. E. S. S. W. W. Clear. Cloudy. Rain. Snow.
Portsmouth 16 147 40 32 22 35 28 41 208 116 23 18 In the coldest climate.
St. Peters, eleven months 19 74 21 12 71 34 70 53 223 32 57 31
Sacket's Harbor 48 58 47 14 42 25 88 38 186 93 54 37 Middle climate.
Prairie des Chiens, nine months 11 80 9 2 26 8 81 27 138 51 46 9
Council Bluffs 41 62 34 23 113 46 27 16 236 73 48 11
Detroit, six months 21 10 9 13 18 76 17 20 84 86 12 2
Pittsburg 26 54 36 25 58 28 71 42 210 55 45 20 Temperate climate.
Fernandina 15 32 82 25 145 6 41 20 257 68 40 0 Hottest climate.
Baton Rouge, eleven months 15 69 35 23 65 17 103 8 162 76 97 0


Acer rubrum, Red Flowering maple.
Acer nigrum, Black sugar maple.
Acer negundo, Box elder.
Amygdalus persica, Peach.
Andromeda racemosa, Red lead.
Annona triloba, Pawpaw.
Arundo gigantea, Large cane.
Betula lenta, Black birch.
Bignonia catalpa, Catalpa.
Bayou, This word, originally Spanish, signifies the diminutive of bay — but in Louisiana the term is synonomous with our word creek, and consequently becomes the diminutive of river.
Cactus cylindricus, Prickly pear.
Carpinus ostrya, Iron wood.
Carpinus americana, Horn beam.
Castanea pumila, Chincapin.
Celtis crassifolia, Blackberry.
Cerasus caroliniana, Laurier almond.
Cerasus virginiana, Wild cherry.
Chamaerops louisiana, Palmetto, or latania.
Citrus aurantium, Sweet orange.
Cornus florida, Dogwood.
Cornus alba, Swamp dogwood.
Crevasse, From the French verb crever, to burst.
Cupressus disticha, Cypress.
Diospiros virginiana, Persimon.
Fagus sylvestris, Beech.
Fraxinus tomentosa, Red ash.
Fraxmus aquatica, Water ash.
G'editsia monosperma, Water locust.
Gleditsia triacanthos, Honey locust.
Ilex opaca, Holly.


Juglans cathartica, Butternut.
Juglans amara, Bitternut hickory.
Juglans aquatica, Swamp hickory.
Juglans laciniosa, Thick shell bark hickory.
Juglans myriticaeformis, Nutmeg hickory.
Juglans nigra, Black walnut.
Juglans porcina, Pignut hickory.
Juglans squamosa, Shellbark hickory.
Juniperus virginiana, Red cedar.
Laurus sassafras, Sassafras.
Laurus benzoin, Spicewood.
Laurus caroliniensis, Red bay.
Levee, large ridge of earth thrown up along the banks to confine the waters in the bed of the Mississippi,
Liquidambar styraciflua, Sweet gum.
Liriodendrum tulipifera, Poplar.
Magnolia glauca, White bay.
Magnolia grandiflora, Large laurel.
Morus rubra, Mulberry.
Morus scabra, Spanish mulberry.
Muriate of Soda, Common culinary salt.
Nyssa aquatica, Tupeloo.
Nyssa sylvatica, Black gum.
Pavia lutea, Buckeye.
Pinus rigida, Pitch pine.
Pinus taeda, Loblolly pine.
Populus angulata, Cotton wood.
Platanus occidentalis, Sycamore.
Phytolacca decandra, Poke.
Quercus alba, White oak.
Quercus aquatica, Water oak.
Quercus falcata, Spanish oak.
Quercus ferruginea, Black jack oak.
Quercus lyrata, Swamp white oak.
Quercus macrocarpa, Overcup oak.
Quercus obtusiloba, Post oak.


Quercus phellos, Willow oak
Vtuercus rubra, Red oak.
Quercus tinetoria, Black oak
Quercus virens, Live oak.
Rigolet, A water that flows both ways.
Robinia pseud-acacia, Black locust.
Robinia pumila, Dwarf locust.
Robinia bistineau, Bistinean locust.
Rubus villosus (or fruticasus,) Blackberry.
Sambucus rubra, Red-berried elder.
Tilia puhescens, Downy Linden.
Ulmus americana, Mucilaginous elm
Ulmus rubra, Red elm.
Ulmus aquatia, Swamp elm.
Ulmus alata, (winged) Large leaved elm.
Vaccinum stamineum, Large whortleberry.
Vaccinium arbireum, Tree whortleberry.
Vaccinium macrocarpon, Cranberry.
Vitis verrucosa, Muscadine.
Vitis laciniosa, Parsley leaved water grape vine
Vitis riparia, River grape vine.
Genera. Species. Auct. Vulgar Names.
1 AMARANTHUS 1 grćcizans Wild. Amaranth, Pellitory leav
" 2 albus id. White
" 3 hybridus id. Clustered
[variet. 2. vel. 3.]
2 AMARYLLIS 1 atamasco id. Alamasco, lily
[hab. Indian territ.]
3 AMORPHA 1 frutiscosa Lin. Bastard indigo
[hab. Ut fama est. ter. steril. Kentuckiesis]
4 AMYGDALIS 1 persica Lin. Peach, common


Genera. Species. Auct. Vulgar Names.
5 ACER 1 saccarinum Mrs. Maple, sugar
" 2 rubrum Lin. red
" 3 pennsylvanica Mrs. Pennsylvania
" 4 negundo id. Box, Elder
6 ALTHAEA 1 frutex Lin. Althea
7 ASPARAGUS 1 officinalis, c. id. Asparagus
8 ASCLEPIAS 1 amoena id. Swallow-wort, oval leav.
" 2 phytolaccoides id.  
" 3 syriaca id. Virginia silk
" 4 incarnata id. Flesh-colored
" 5 hybrida. MX. Variegated
" 6 decumbens Mg. Pleurisy root
9 ANTHOXANTHUM 1odoratum Lin. Spring grass
10 ACTEA 1 racemosa id. Squaw root
" 2 alba id. Bane berry
11 ARALIA 1 spinosa id. Angelica tree
" 2 racemosa id. Aralia, berry-bearing
" 3 nudicaulis id. naked stemmed
12 ANONA 1 tribola id. Pawpaw tree
13 ASCYRUM 1 hypericoides Wild. Ascyrum
" 2 Crux-Andreć Lin. St. Andrew's cross
" 3 villosum id.  
14 ARABIS 1 lyrata Lin. Wall cress, lyre-leaved
" 2 canadensis id. Canadian
" 3 thaliana Wild. Common
15 ANTIRRHINUM 1 linaria Lin. Toad flax, common.
" 2 canadensis id. Canadian
16 ALISMA 1 plantago Lin. Plantain, water
17 ĆSCULUS 1 lutea MX. Buck-eye, yellow
" 2 flava Lin. Common
18 ANDROMEDA 1 calyculata id. Andromeda
" 2 racemosa id. Red-bud
" 3 mariana id. Moor-wort, broad leav
" 4 coriacea id.  
19 ACORUS 1 calamus id. Flag, sweety calamus-
20 AQUILEGIA 1 canadensis id. Columbine, canadian
21 ARCTIUM 1 lappa id. Burdock, common
22 ATROPA 1 helladona id. Nightshade, deadly


Genera. Species. Auct. Vulgar Names.
23 ALLIUM 1 sativum, c. id. Garlic, common
" 2 Ascalonicum,c. id. shallot
" 3 cepa. c. id. Onion, common
" 4 vineale id. Garlic, field, crow
24 ARUNDO 1 gigantea Mx. Cane, great
" 2 canadensis id. Reed grass
25 AGROSTEMMA 1 githago Lin. Cockle, corn
26 AZALEA 1 nudiflora id. Honeysuckle, wild, red.
" 2 vicosa id. white
27 ARISTOLOCHIA 1 serpentaria id. Snake root, Virginia
" 2 sipho Btr. Dutchman's pipe
28 APOCYNUM 1 androsoemisolium Lin. Dog's-bane, tustan-le'd.
" 2 cannabinum id. hemp
29 AMBROSIA 1 elatior id. Ambrosia, tall
" 2 simplicifolia id. simple-le'd.
" 3 artemisifolia Wild. mugwort
30 ARETHUSA 1 bulbosa Lin. Arethusa, bulbous
" 2 pendula Mg. drooping
31 AGRIMONIA 1 parviflora Wild. Agrimony, small-flow'd.
" 2 sylvatica Raf. wood
" 3 eupatoria, a. b. Lin. A. hairy, smooth
32 ANTHEMIS 1 nobilis, c. id. Chamomile, garden
" 2 cotula id. wild
33 ANDROPOGON 1 virginicum Lin. Beard-grass
" 2 nutans id. nodding
34 AZOLLA 1 americana Nut.  
35 ANEMONE 1 virginiana Lin. Anemone, wild, virgin.
" 2 thalictoides id. meadow
36 AVENA 1 sativa, c. id. Oats, common
37 ANETHUM 1 foesniculum, c. id. Fennel, common
38 APIUM 1 petroselinum, c. id. Parsley, corn. kitchen
" 2 graveolens, c. id. Celery, common
[2 variet.]
39 ALOPECUS 1 pratensis id. Foxtail grass, meadow
40 ANAGALIS 1 arvensis id. Pimpernel, field
41 ATRIPLEX 1 patula Crt. Orach,spreading
42 ANGELICA 1 atropurpurea. Lin. Angelica, purple
" 2 triquenata Mx. common
43 ALETRIS 1 farinosa Lin. Devil's bit. white


Genera. Species. Auct. Vulgar Names.
44 ARTEMISIA 1 vulgaris id. Mugwort, s. w.
" 2 cana Psh. grey
45 ARISTIDA 1 erecta Lin. Aristida, erect
46 ACNIDA 1 cannabina Lin.  
47 ASTER 1 divaricatus Lin. Starwort, divaricat
" 2 solidagineus Mx. solidago-like
" 3 hissopifolius Lin. hyssop-leaved
" 4 ericoides id. heath-leaved
" 5 inarifolius id. toad-flax leav.
" 6 inifolius id. flax leaved
" 7 concolor id. one-colored
" 8 diffusus Ait. red-flowered
" 9 cardifolius Lin. heart-leaved
" 10 lćvis id. smooth
" 11 macrophyllus id. large-leaved
" 12 miser id. small, white
" 13 conyzoides Wild. P. wort-like
" 14 imperialis, N. C. Mtr. imperial
48 ACHILLEA 1 millefolium Lin. Millfoil, common
49 ARUM 1 triphyllum Lin. Turnip, Indian
" 2 virginicum id. A. Virginian
50 ASARUM 1 canadense Wild. Ginger, wild
51 BRASSICA. 1 oleracea,c. Lin. Cabbage
" 2 rapa,c. id. Turnip
52 BETULA 1 nigra Mrs. Birch, black
" 2 serratula Wild. Hazel, elder
53 BETA 1 Vulgaris, c. Lin. Beet, common
54 BIGNONIA 1 catalpa id. Catalpa, tree
BERBERIS 1 radicans Mrs. Trumpet, creeper
55 BERBERTS 1 canadensis Ait. Berberry, canadian
56 BALSAMINA 1 triflora Raf. B. three-flowered
57 BERTOLINIA N. G. 1 scabra id. Bertolinia, rough
58 BIDENS 1 frondosa Lin. Burr Marigold
" 2 cernua id. Do. do. nodding
" 3 coreopsis id. Do. do. large-flowered
" 4 bipinnata id. Do. do. bipinnate
59 BOEHMERIA 1 cylindrica Wild. Boehmeria
60 BRACHYTEMUM 1 linifolius id. Thyme, virginian
" 2 canesens Raf.  


Genera. Species. Auct. Vulgar Names.
61 BRIZA 1 eragrostis Lin. Quaking grass
62 BUCNERA 1 americana id. B. american
63 BARTSIA 1 coccinea id. B. scarlet
64 BLITUM 1 virgatum, c. id. Strawberry blite, slend.
65 CELTIS 1 occidentalis id. Hackberry
[variet. 2, vel. 3.]
66 CERCIS 1 Canadensis id. Red-bud, Judas' tree
67 CIRCĆA 1 Canadensis Id. Nightshade, common
68 CASTANEA 1 Americana Raf. Chesnut, com. americ.
" 2 Pumila Mx. Chincapin, tree
[hab. Terr. Steril. Kentuckiensis.]
69 CARPINUS 1 Americana Mx. Hornbeam, american
70 CAPSICUM 1 annuum, c. Lin. Red Pepper, long
71 CORYLUS 1 Americana Mrs. Hazel Nut
72 CLEMATIS 1 virginiana, Lin. Travellers Joy, virgin.
" 2 striata Raf. striate
73 CORNUS 1 Florida Lin. Dogwood, virginian
" 2 Canadensis Id. Canadian
" 3 stricta Wild. upright
" 4 sericea Lin. Red Rod, am. cornell
74 COMPTONIA 1 Asplenifolia Ait. Comptonia, fern-leaved
75 CHELIDONIUM 1 Majus Mx. Celandin