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Pictures and Illustrations.

Map of the Western States. Engraved to Accompany Appletons' Traveller's Guide.

Map of the Ohio River from Pittsburg to Cincinnati.

Map of the Ohio River from Cincinnati to Cairo.

Map of the Missouri River from Ft. Leavenworth to its Mouth.

Plan of Cincinnati and Vicinity.

Cincinnati's Commercial Steamboats.

Wabash River.

Map of the Mississippi R. from St. Louis to Memphis.

Map of the Mississippi R. from Falls of St. Anthony to St. Louis.

St. Louis, Mo.

Map of the Mississippi Riv. From Princeton to the Gulf of Mexico.

Map of the Mississippi R. from Memphis to Princeton.

Mammoth Cave in Ky.

Map of the North-Western States including Minnesota and the Copper Region of Lake Superior. Engraved to Accompany Appletons' Traveller's Guide.

City of Chicago.

Map of the Southern and South-Western States.

Ginger-Cake Rocks.

Plan of Charleston, S. C.

City of Charleston.


Plan of New Orleans.

Commerce in New Orleans on the Mississipi River.


Remarks and Directions to Travellers on the Western Waters.

If the traveller, when at Pittsburg, wishes to embark for any place on the Western waters, he should avail himself of one of the regular packets. We do not advise this in detraction of the opposition boats, some of which are very good, but as a general thing he will meet with less delay by taking the former, and find, probably, a greater share of comfort and security. It is customary to charge a stated price for cabin passage, in which meals and state-room are included. (A capital regulation, and worthy of imitation on the Eastern waters.) It is advisable that he purchase his ticket as soon after going on board as convenient, in order to secure a berth, for if the boat is crowded the traveller may find himself minus of one, or otherwise be obliged to lie upon a mattress spread in the open cabin; which, take our word for it, will be found any thing but agreeable, especially should he have a long trip before him. If the boat, from the circumstance of low water, get aground, the respectable captain will return a proportionate amount of money paid, but in no instance will he agree to pay passage on board other boats.

The season of low water is usually from about the 15th of July till the middle of September, when the water in the channel of the Ohio, for some distance below Pittsburg, does not exceed 18 inches in depth. At this period the large boats are laid up, and small, and usually uncomfortable ones, take their place. At this time the traveller not only meets with sad delays, but is liable to great imposition; many, therefore, prefer taking


the stage-route across the country, even from Pittsburg and Wheeling to St. Louis, a distance of about 600 miles, which takes about seven days, through, performed at an expense of about $24.50, meals not included; these are usually charged at the rate of fifty cents each, which we consider a great imposition upon the travelling community, as they are generally of an inferior quality. At St. Louis, boats of the first class may always be found "up" for New Orleans, the depth of water in the Mississippi between these places being always sufficient to admit of its navigation by the largest boats.

A sad evil exists upon these waters, and one which should be speedily remedied; we allude to the great, and unnecessary delays in starting. You select a boat, advertised to leave at a given hour: if the traveller be from the eastward, he will naturally be on board at the time appointed, believing that the same excellent regulation exists here that he has been accustomed to at home, viz.: punctuality in starting. But what is his mortification on finding that the boat which he intends leaving in is not only detained two or three hours, but sometimes for as many days — some captains being opposed to starting until their boats are crowded with both passengers and freight. For our part, we cannot believe that such procrastinations are attended with even the remotest benefit in the end. We have usually found, however, that the packet-boats come nearer the time than any others; therefore we cordially recommend them to the notice of the travelling public.

On these boats it is an invariable rule for the lady passengers, with their protectors, at meal-time to be seated at the table; while gentlemen who have no ladies under their care (if they are fortunate enough to secure a seat at the first table) remain standing behind their chairs until the steward rings the bell, when they all fall in; thus at all times securing a seat for the ladies, no matter how great the crowd.

A feature in travel here, and one that will strike a stranger, is the entire absence of wharves, their places being supplied by wharf-boats. These are nothing more than old steamboats rendered unfit for service, from which the machinery and paddles have been removed, and which are laid close to the shore. They


thus serve as a kind of floating wharf, which rises with the great rise and fall of the river.

What are termed Levees, are inclined planes sloping from the street to the river, substantially paved to low-water mark, rendered necessary by its rise and fall, which at times are very great. The best specimens of the kind that we have seen are those at Pittsburg and Cincinnati.

On these waters, travelling long distances is much cheaper in proportion than short ones. Thus, for example — a passage might be secured in Pittsburg for New Orleans for about $18.00; whereas at Louisville, which is more than 600 miles nearer, it would be about $15.00. The large boats on the Mississippi usually charge $10.00 for making a landing, and this sum is required even if the person should have travelled but a few miles. This is the amount of fare from Memphis to New Orleans. The usual fare by packet-boat from Pittsburg to Wheeling is $1.50; from Pittsburg to Cincinnati about $5.00; from Pittsburg to Louisville $6.50; from Pittsburg to St. Louis about $15.00; from Pittsburg to New Orleans about $18.00. It should be borne in mind that the up-stream fares are usually higher than the down-stream ones, owing, of course, to the extra time in making the trip. The fare on the long distances sometimes varies, owing to the amount of competition on the river.

Description of the Ohio River.

This river is formed by the junction of the Alleghany and Monongahela, the former being navigable for keel-boats as far as Olean, in the state of New York, a distance of about 250 miles, the latter is navigable for steamboats to Brownsville, 60 miles: and by keel-boats upwards of 175 miles. At Pittsburg commences the Ohio, and after running a course of about a thousand miles, unites its waters with those of the Mississippi. No other river of the same length has such a uniform, smooth, and placid current. Its average width is about 2,400 feet, and the descent, in its whole course, is about 400 feet. At Pittsburg it is elevated about 1,150 feet above the ocean. It has no fall, except a rocky rapid of 22˝ feet descent at Louisville, around which is a


canal 2˝ miles long, with locks sufficiently capacious to admit large steamboats, though not of the largest class. During half the year this river has a depth of water allowing of navigation by steamboats of the first class through its whole course. It is, however, subject to extreme elevations and depressions. The average range between high and low water is probably 50 feet. Its lowest stage is in September, and its highest in March. It has been known to rise 12 feet in a night. Various estimates have been made of the rapidity of its current, but owing to its continually varying, it would be difficult to assign any very exact estimate. It has been found, however, according to the different stages of the water, to vary between one and three miles: in its lowest, however, which is in the autumn, a floating substance would probably not advance a mile an hour.

Between Pittsburg and its mouth it is diversified by many considerable islands, some of which are of exquisite beauty; besides a number of tow-heads and sand-bars, which in low stages of the water greatly impede the navigation. The passages between some of the islands and the sand-bars at their head, are among the difficulties of the navigation of the Ohio.

In the infancy of the country every species of water craft was employed in navigating this river, some of which were of the most whimsical and amusing description. The barge, the keel-boat, the Kentucky-flat or family-boat, the pirogue, ferryboats, gondolas, skiffs, dug-outs, and many others, formerly floated in great numbers down the currents of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers to their points of destination, at distances sometimes of three thousand miles.

"Whoever has descended this noble river in the spring, when its banks are full, and the beautiful red-bud and Cornus Florida deck the declivities of the bluffs, which sometimes rise 300 feet in height, impend over the river, and cast their grand shadows into the transparent waters, and are seen at intervals in its luxuriant bottoms, while the towering sycamore throws its venerable and majestic arms, decked with rich foliage, over the other trees, — will readily acknowledge the appropriateness of the French name, ‘La Belle Riviere.’"


The following is a complete table of the names of places, with their intermediate and general distances from Pittsburg to the mouth of the Ohio river, carefully drawn from authentic sources.

Distances from Pittsburg to Cincinnati.
To Middletown, Pa. 11  
Economy, Pa. 8 19
Freedom, Pa. 6 25
Beaver, Pa. 5 30
Georgetown, Pa. 14 44
Liverpool, Ohio 4 48
Wellsville, Ohio 4 52
Steubenville, Ohio 19 71
Wellsburg, Va. 7 78
Warreuton, Ohio 7 85
Martinsville, Ohio 8 93
WHEELING, Va. 1 94
Bridgeport, Ohio
Klizabethtown, Va. 13 107
Big Grave Creek, Va.
New Martinsville, Va. 10 117
Sisterville, Va. 29 146
Newport, Ohio 12 158
MARIETTA and Pt. Harmer, O. 18 176
Vienna, Va. 6 182
Parkersburg, Va. Belpre, Ohio 6 188
Blennerhasset's Is. 2 190
Hockingsport, Ohio 11 201
Bellville, Va. 4 205
Murraysville, Va. 5 210
Shade River, Ohio 1 211
Ravenswood, Va. 11 222
Lelartsville, Ohio 22 244
Pomeroy 14 258
Coalport, Ohio 1 259
Sheffield, Ohio
Point Pleasant, Va. 12 271
Gt. Kanawha River, Va.
To Gallipolis, O. 4 275
Millersport, O. 24 299
Guyandotte, Va. 13 312
Proctorsville, O.
Burlington, O 8 320
Big Sandy River, Va. 4 324
Cattlettsburg, Va.
Hanging Rock, O. 13 337
Greenupsburg, Ky. 6 343
Wheelersburg, O. 8 351
Scioto River, O.
Rockville, O. 16 379
Vanceburg, Ky. 3 382
Rome, O. 7 389
Concord, Ky. 6 395
Manchester, O. 7 402
MAYSVILLE, Ky. Aberdeen, O. 12 414
Charleston, Ky. 7 421
Ripley, O. 2 423
Higginspori, O. 7 430
Augusta, Ky. 4 434
Mechanicsburg, Ky. 7 441
Neville, O. 3 444
Moscow. 4 448
Pt. Pleasant, O. 4 452
Belmont, Ky.
New Richmond 5 457
Lit. Miami River, O. 14 471
Columbia Jamestown, Ky. 1 472
Newport & Covington, Ky.
Distances from Cincinnati to the mouth of the Ohio.
To North Bend, O. 16  
Great Miami River, O. 4 20
Lawrenceburg, Ia. 2 22
Petersburg, Ky. 3 25
Aurora, Ia. 2 27
Belleview, Ky. 6 33
Rising Sun, la. 3 36
Big Bone Lick Creek, 12 48
Hamilton, Ky.
Patriot, Ia. 2 50
Warsaw, Ky. 10 60
To Vevay, Ia. 10 70
Kentucky River 10 80
MADISON, Ia. 12 92
Hanover Landing, Ia. 6 98
New London, Ia. 4 102
Westport, Ky. 6 108
Utica, Ia. 15 123
Jeffersonville, Ky. 9 132
and from Pittsburg 610
Shippingsport, Ky. 2 135


To Portland, Ky. 1 136
New Albany, Ia.
Salt River and West Point, Ky. 18 154
Brandenburg, Ky. 18 172
Mockport, Ia. 3 175
Northampton, Ia. 7 182
Amsterdam, Ia. 3 185
Leavensworlh, Ia. 8 193
Fredonia, Ia. 5 198
Alton, Ia. 13 211
Concordia, Ky. 10 221
Rome, Ia., and 11 232
Stevensport, Ky.
Cloversport, Ky. 10 242
Carmelton, Ia. 13 255
Troy, Ia. 6 261
Lewisport, Ky. 6 267
Rockport, Ia. 12 279
Owensburg, Ky. 9 288
Bon Harbor, Ky. 3 291
Enterprise, Ia. 3 294
Newburg, Ia. 15 309
Green River, Ky. 6 315
To Evansville, Ia. 9 324
Hendersonville, Ky. 12 336
Mount Vernon, Ia. 26 362
Uniontown, Ky. 15 377
Wabash River 5 382
Raleigh, Ky. 6 388
Shawneetown, Ill. 5 393
Caseyville, Ky. 9 402
CAVE IN ROCK, Ill. 14 416
Elizabeth, Ill. 6 422
Golconda, Ill. 23 445
Cumberland River 17 462
Smithland, Ky.
Tennessee River 12 474
Paducah, Ky.
Belgrade, Ill. 8 482
Fort Massac, Ill. 2 484
Caledonia, Ill. 25 509
America, Ill. 3 512
Trinity, III. 5 517
CAIRO, III, and 5 522
and from Pittsburg 999

(For distances on the Mississippi River see pages 37, 38.)

Distances from Pittsburg and Cincinnati.
  From Cincinnati. From Pittsburg.
To St. Louis, Mo. 697 1174
Falls of St. Anthony 1489 1966
Memphis, Tenn. 767 1244
Vicksburg 1153 1630
Natchez 1269 1746
New Orleans 1548 2025

Description of the Principal Places on the Ohio River.

For routes from Pittsburg, see page 54.

Economy, Pa., was founded by a number of Germans, under the famous George Rapp. They originally settled in Butler Co., Pa., but afterwards removed in a body, consisting of 800 souls, to Indiana, and settled upon the Wabash, where they built the village of New Harmony. Having disposed of this to the famous Robert Owen, they returned to Pennsylvania, and established


themselves in the settlement of Economy, where they soon erected extensive cotton and woollen mills. They are noted for their industry and sobriety, and hold their property in common. Pop. about 1,500.

Beaver, Pa., is a thriving town on the north side of the Ohio, and at the mouth of Beaver river. It derives advantages from the water-power created by the falls at this place. It is here where the Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal enters the Ohio river. In 1848 the population was about 8,000.

Steubenville, the seat of justice of Jefferson county, Ohio, is in the centre of a rich and populous country, and is now one of the most flourishing towns on the banks of the Ohio. Here is an excellent female seminary for about 150 pupils. Pop. 7,000. (For routes from Steubenville see page 56.)

Wellsburg is the county-seat of Brooke Co., Va.; it is beautifully situated on an elevated bank of the river, and is surrounded by rich coal-mines. It has several mills and a flint-glass manufactory. Pop. in 1849, 2,500.

WHEELING, Va., the county-town of Ohio Co., is situated on a high and gravelly, but alluvial bank, on the E. side of the Ohio river, and on Wheeling creek. The town is surrounded by bold and precipitous hills, which are generally covered with a fine verdure, and contain inexhaustible quantities of coal. These hills come so near the river as to leave rather a small area for the town; it therefore extends itself along the bank of the river north and south, and is about two miles in length. It is the most important place, in regard to commerce, manufactures, and population, in Western Virginia. The National Road passes through it, making it a great thoroughfare for persons travelling to the East or West. It contains several handsome public and private buildings, churches, &c. Pop. in 1849, 14,000.

In January, 1849, it had 2 Methodist churches, 1 Union Methodist, 2 Presbyterian, 2 Catholic, (the Cathedral is a new and splendid edifice,) 1 Episcopal, 1 Baptist, and 1 Lutheran.

At the same period it had 4 glass-works, 2 rolling-mills, 2 cotton-factories, 1 cotton-mill, 1 steel and spring factory, 1 steam-engine factory, and 1 silk-factory. During the year 1848 $180,000 was expended in steamboat building. The Virginia


Iron Works, located here, turn out about 1,200 kegs of very superior nails per week.

The wire for the new Suspension Bridge across the Ohio, from Wheeling to Zanes, or Wheeling Island, was manufactured by D. Richards & Co. The span (the greatest in the world) will be 1,010 feet from centre to centre of the stone supporting towers, and elevated 97 feet above low-water mark. It will have a carriage-way of 17 feet, and two foot-walks, each of which will be 3˝ feet in width. The height of the towers on the Wheeling side will be 153˝feet above low-water mark, 60 feet above the abutment on which it stands, and 21ž feet higher than the opposite tower. The entire bridge will be supported by 12 wire cables 1,380 feet in length and 4 inches in diameter, having 550 strands in each, which are laid in pairs, and three pairs on each side of the flooring. The entire cost is estimated at $210,000. (For routes from Wheeling see page 56.)

MARIETTA is situated on the Ohio, and at the mouth of the Muskingum river; it is the county-seat of Washington county, Ohio, and was one of the first settled towns in the state. It was formerly considered the most important and flourishing place in the commonwealth, but owing to the inundations of the river, and other causes, it has been outstripped by many others. It is, however, a beautiful place, and the inhabitants are noted for their morality and intelligence. The town contains several churches, academies, a college capable of accommodating 150 pupils, libraries, &c. The falls at the mouth of the Muskingum afford considerable water-power, and upon which are flouring and saw mills. The cemetery, which is very pretty, is a square plot of ground on the outskirts of the town, from the centre of which rises an Indian mound of about 80 feet.

The name of Marietta was given to it in honor of the unfortunate queen of Louis XVI., Maria Antoinette, Archduchess of Austria. Pop. about 3,000. (For routes from Marietta see page 58.)

Blennerhasset's Island, about 14 miles down the river from


main. This gentleman possessed great wealth, and expended a vast sum of money in decorating his residence, and in laying out his pleasure-grounds, with great taste and elegance. His lady was a very accomplished woman, and his house was the resort of the most literary and polished society. When Aaron Burr was projecting his famous expedition he called upon Blennerhassett, and induced him to join in the conspiracy, and to embark with all his wealth in his schemes. They were detected, arrested, and tried for treason. Blennerhassett, though not convicted, was ruined; his splendid mansion was deserted and went to decay, his pleasure-grounds were overrun with brush and weeds, and the place now presents nothing but a mass of ruins.

Pomeroy, the county-seat of Meigs Co., Ohio, is situated on a narrow strip of land, running some distance along the river. In its rear are hills of a rough and forbidding aspect, filled with coal of an excellent quality, and an extensive business in this article is consequently carried on. Pomeroy contains a courthouse, about 7 churches, 16 stores, 2 foundries, a printing-office, with saw-mills, machine-shops, ropewalk, tanneries, &c. Pop. about 2,500.

Coalport, a little below Pomeroy, is the place where the principal mining operations are carried on.

Ft. Pleasant is situated at the mouth of the Great Kanawha river, and is the county-seat of Mason Co., Va. It is a small place, containing about 500 inhabitants.

The Great Kanawha river, which enters the Ohio at this place, takes its rise in the Alleghany mountains. It is about 400 yards wide at its mouth, and has been rendered navigable for steamboats of light draft a distance of about sixty miles, to the Kanawha Salines, the greatest salt-springs in this part of the country: between three and four millions of bushels of salt are annually manufactured here.

Gallipolis is the county-seat of Gallia Co., O., and is pleasantly situated on an elevated bank some feet above the highest water in the river. For some time it was in a languishing condition, but is now improving, from its becoming a forwarding point for large quantities of produce. Pop. about 2,000.

Guyandotte, Va., is a small settlement at the mouth of a river


bearing its own name. It is a place of debarkation for travellers from the west intending to visit the Virginia Springs. During the season, stage conveyance will be found here for that purpose. Pop. about 1,000.

Hanging Rock, O., 26 miles above Portsmouth, derives its name from a cliff about 400 feet high, projecting over the back part of the village.

PORTSMOUTH is situated on a high bank on the upper side of the mouth of the Scioto river, and at the terminus of the Ohio Canal. It is about 90 miles from Columbus, the capital of the state. The canal unites the waters of the Ohio with Lake Erie, and by means of the Lake and the Erie Canal, a water communication is opened with the city of New York, and also with the northwest. Portsmouth is in a very flourishing condition. Its location and natural advantages are such as will always command a large and increasing trade. There are in its immediate vicinity about thirty iron furnaces in full blast, each of which gives employment to more than two hundred men. Each furnace, on an average, turns out about 12 tons of pig-iron daily. Portsmouth has five churches, a courthouse, several stores, mills of different kinds, &c. (For routes from Portsmouth see page 58.)

MAYSVILLE, Ky., is a thriving and active place, and the county-seat of Mason Co. It is situated on a narrow bottom, between the high hills which rise just behind it and the Ohio. It is the depot of the goods and merchandise intended to supply the northeastern part of the state of Kentucky, which are imported from the eastern cities. It is a well-built, handsome city, and contains a fine city hall, several churches, a bank, two printing-offices, seminaries, public schools, cotton-factories, &c. &c. Pop. between 5,000 and 6,000. (For routes from Maysville see page 79.)

CINCINNATI, denominated "The Queen City of the West," is the most populous place in the Western states; it is situated on the N. bank of the Ohio river, opposite to the mouth of Licking creek. It is in N. Lat. 39° 06' 30", and W. Long. 7° 24' 25". The population in 1800 was 750; in 1810, 2,540; in 1820, 9,602; in 1830, 24,830; in 1840, 46,383; and in January, 1849, 107,000;


and including its suburbs, Covington and Newport, 120,000. The city is near the eastern extremity of a valley about 12 miles in circumference, surrounded by beautiful hills, which rise to the height of about 300 feet by gentle and varying slopes, and which are mostly covered with trees. It is built on two elevations of table-land, the one from 40 to 50 feet above the other. The city is laid out with great regularity, somewhat resembling Philadelphia. Some of the streets are 60 feet wide, intersecting others at right angles. Many of them are well paved, and extensively shaded with trees, while some of the houses have an elegant appearance, being ornamented with shrubbery. In consequence of the descending angle of the streets all the stagnant water is carried off; the streets are washed by the rains, and are rendered dry, clean, and healthy. The city is supplied with water raised from the Ohio by a steam-engine, and forced into reservoirs on a hill 700 feet distant.

In its commercial character, Cincinnati exhibits great activity and enterprise. Besides numerous steamboats (many of which


are owned here) arriving and departing continually during the I day, she is connected with Lake Erie, at Sandusky, by a railroad, and at Toledo by a canal, a branch from which extends to Lafayette, Indiana. Railroads are in progress from Cincinnati to Columbus, Cleveland, Dayton, Pittsburg, St. Louis, and other important points, which, when completed, will add vastly to her wealth and influence. The White Water Canal extends to Cambridge in Indiana. There are several excellent turnpike roads, leading not only to various parts of her own state, but to those of Indiana and Kentucky.

Her citizens are characterized for their great enterprise and public spirit. They have, at a great expense, constructed one of the finest river landings in the world, being substantially paved with stone from low-water mark to the top of the first bank, being upwards of a thousand feet in length. This is termed the levee, and is the place where all the steamboats land and receive their passengers. It is supplied with floating wharves called wharf-boats, which are adapted to the great rise and fall of the river, thereby rendering the landing and shipping of goods at all times convenient. The wholesale stores, which are already numerous, supply the merchants of the interior at a small advance upon the eastern prices. There is abundant ground for the opinion, that at no distant day, Cincinnati will become the great emporium of the West. She already imports largely from foreign countries by way of New Orleans and the Mississippi river. Her imports, domestic and foreign, during the year ending Sept., 1848, amounted to about $50,000,000, and her exports to about $56,000,000; making a total of $106,000,000. The amount of capital invested in commerce is estimated at about $20,000,000.

Next to Pittsburg, this city is the most extensively engaged in manufacturing of any place in the West. Besides the various trades, which are actively carried on, there were here in operation, in 1848, several large manufacturing establishments, in which were used upwards of two hundred steam-engines. These manufactories comprise flour-mills, planing and saw mills, rolling-mills, machine-shops, type-foundries, cotton-factories, &c., &c. At the same time, there were published here 11 daily and 25


weekly papers, and 6 monthly publications. In January, 1849, there were at least 46 distinct publications in Cincinnati, 7 of which were published in the German language. Of the daily press, 8 were political and commercial, and 3 were neutral and miscellaneous. Of the weeklies, 11 were religious, 7 were political and general, 5 were miscellaneous, 1 was devoted to temperance, and 1 was a price-current. Besides the foregoing, the people of this city are liberal in their patronage of eastern and foreign newspapers and magazines. The book business is growing rapidly in Cincinnati, and bids fair to be a very important branch of trade. We could not but remark the extreme beauty and costliness of many of the stores engaged in this business, during a recent sojourn in that city. They certainly are not surpassed by similar ones in the eastern section of the Union. Hog-slaughtering and pork-packing has become an important item of trade in Cincinnati, and is, perhaps, more extensively carried on here than in any other place in the world. In January, 1849, there were in this city and its immediate vicinity 20 slaughter-houses, which on an average could dispose of 1,000 hogs per day each; making the aggregate capacity for slaughtering and dressing 120,000 per week, of six days; and in the period of 12 weeks, the average length of the season, 1,440,000 head. This calculation is based upon the supposition that the weather is always favorable, a thing which is never realized. From this statement, it will be seen that the facilities for carrying on this business are very great, exceeding, by far, any thing of the kind that has ever been done. The greatest number of hogs ever cut up here, including all that were brought in dead from more distant points, was during the season ending in 1848, when it amounted to about 400,000. The slaughtering and packing of beef is also very extensively carried on in this city and its vicinity.

PUBLIC BUILDINGS, &c. — The Cincinnati Observatory has a beautiful situation, on an eminence in the eastern part of the city. It commands an extensive view of Cincinnati, the Ohio river, and surrounding country. It can be distinctly seen by the traveller from the steamboat, in passing up or down the river. Its site comprises four acres of land, given to it by N. Longworth,


Esq., (the Astor of Cincinnati.) It was built by the voluntary contributions of the citizens, who gave $25 each, towards the erection of the building and the purchase of appropriate instruments. Much, however, is due to the energy and perseverance of Professor Mitchel, to whose unceasing labors they are principally indebted for the result. The corner-stone was laid on the 9th November, 1843, by the late John Quincy Adams, who called it a "lighthouse of the skies." The telescope is of unsurpassed finish, accuracy, and power, made by Mentz & Mahler, of Munich, artists of the highest reputation, and cost $10,000.

The Masonic Hall stands on the N. E. corner of Walnut and Third streets; it was erected at an expense of $30,000. A portion of the ground-floor is occupied by the Post-Office.

The Merchants' Exchange, or Cincinnati College, a beautiful new building, is situated in Walnut-st., between 4th and 5th sts. It is of the Grecian Doric order, three stories high, exclusive of an attic, and 140 feet front, 100 feet deep, and 60 in height. The Exchange and Reading-room is 59 feet by 45, and one of the finest in the United States.

The Mercantile Library Association is in the same building as the Exchange, and on the same floor; it has about 1,250 members, and 6,500 volumes, besides a very large supply of American and foreign newspapers, periodicals, &c.

The Odd Fellows' Hall, a fine new building, is on the N. W. corner of Walnut and Third sts. The public hall occupies the whole of the second story, is 62 feet by 46, and is not inferior to any other similar room in the country; it is well lighted with gas, and is used for concerts, lectures, &c.

The Ohio Medical College is in South Sixth st., between Vine and Race; it contains a large lecture-room, library, &c., the latter having upwards of 2,500 well-selected standard works, purchased by the state. The cabinet belonging to the Anatomical Department, is supplied with all the materials necessary for acquiring a minute and thorough knowledge of the human frame.

St. Peters Cathedral is, perhaps, the finest building of its kind in the West; it is situated on Plum-st., corner of Eighth, and is devoted to the services of the Roman Catholic Church. The building is 200 feet long by 80 broad, and 60 feet high. The


roof is principally supported upon 18 free-stone pillars, formed of a fluted shaft, with Corinthian tops 31/2 feet in diameter and 35 feet in height. The ceiling is of stucco-work, of a rich and expensive character, executed by a Cincinnati artist of great merit. The roof is composed of iron plates, whose seams are coated with a composition of coal, tar, and sand, which renders it impervious to rain. The building cost $90,000, and the ground $24,000. At the west end of the church is an altar of the purest Carrara marble, made by Chiappri, of Genoa; it is embellished with a centre-piece, encircled with rays, around which wreaths and flowers are beautifully carved. An immense organ occupies its opposite end, having 2,700 pipes and 44 stops. One of the pipes is 33 feet long, and weighs 400 pounds. The cost was $5,500. Several fine paintings occupy the walls, among which is one of St. Peter, by Murillo, presented to Bishop Fenwick by Cardinal Fesch, uncle to Napoleon.

The other churches in Cincinnati are located as follows:
CATHOLIC. — Holy Trinity, 5th-st., near Smith. St. John the Baptist, Green-st, near Race. St. Joseph's, corner of Linn and Laurel sts. St. Marys, 13th-st, near Main. St. Javier's, Sycamore-st, between 6th and 7th sts.

METHODIST EPISCOPAL. — Wesley Chapel, 5th-st, near Broadway. Asbury Chapel, Webster-st., near Main. New Street Church, near Broadway. Hamline Church, cor. Park and Longworth sts.

METHODIST PROTESTANT. — Protestant Methodist Church, 6th-st., between Race and Vine. Protestant Methodist Church, Elm-st., near 15th-st.

METHODIST EPISCOPAL, (German.) — First Church, Race-st., between 13th and 14th. Second Church, Park-st, near Linn. Third Church, Vine-st., between 14th and 15th. Welsh Calvinistic Church, College-st., near 7th.

METHODIST WESLEYAN. — First Church, Harrison-st, near Broadway. Second Church, Kemble-st., near John.

BAPTIST. — First Church, Catharine-st., near Mound. Walnut Street Church, Apollo Hall. Fifth Street Church, at the foot of 5th-st. High Street Church, High-st, head of Parsons. Welsh Baptist Church, Harrison-st.


EPISCOPAL. — Christ Church, 4th-st., between Sycamore and Broadway. St. Paul's, 4th-st., between Main and Walnut. Trinity Church, Pendleton and Liberty sts. Mission Church, corner of Court and Plum sts.

PRESBYTERIAN, (New School.)Second Church, 4th-st., between Race and Vine. Third Church, 4th and John sts. Tabernacle Church, corner of John and Clark sts. Eighth Church, 7th-st. near Linn.

PRESBYTERIAN, (Old School.) — First Church, Main-st., between 4th and 5th. Fourth Church, High-st. Fifth Church, 7th and Elm sts. Central Church, 5th-st., near Plum.

REFORMED PRESBYTERIAN. — Church of the Covenanters, Kemble-st., between John and Mound. Reformed Church, Vine-st., between 12th and 13th. Associate Reformed Church, 6th-st., between Race and Elm.

CONGREGATIONAL. — First Church, 7th-st., near John. Vine Street Church, Vine-st., between 8th and 9th. Welsh Church, Lawrence-st.

CHRISTIAN DISCIPLES. — Christian Church, corner of 8th and Walnut sts. First Church, corner of 4th and Stone sts. United Brethren in Christ, corner of Fulton and Richmond sts.

GERMAN REFORMED, First Church, Betts-st., between John and Cutter. Reformed Church, Webster-st., between Sycamore and Main.

LUTHERAN. — English Evangelical Church, 9th-st., between Main and Walnut. German Church, Columbia-st,, between Walnut and Vine. German Protestant Evangelical Church, 13th and Walnut sts. German Lutheran, Walnut-st., between 8th and 9th. German Church, 6th-st, between Walnut and Vine. Zion Church, Bremen-st., between Walnut and Vine. United Evangelical Church, Elm-st., between 12th and 14th.

UNIVERSALIST. — First Church, Walnut-st, between 3d and 4th, Second Church, corner of 6th and Mound sts.

UNITARIAN. — First Church, corner of 4th and Race sts.

SWEDENBORGIAN. — New Jerusalem Temple, Center-st., between Race and Elm.

HEBREW SYNAGOGUES, in Broadway, between Harrison and 6th sts.; and in Lodge-st., between Walnut and Vine.


HOTELS. — A large and beautiful hotel is being erected in Cincinnati, to be called the Burnet House, at a cost of $150,000 The Broadway Hotel is in Broadway, corner of 2d-st. The Pearl Street House, in Walnut-st., corner of Pearl. Dennison House, in 5th-st., near Main. City Hotel, 4th and Main sts. Mansion House, Main-st., between Court and Canal.

A short distance from the city, in its north part, are two beautiful villages — Mt. Auburn and Walnut Hills — occupied chiefly as country-seats, by persons whose business is in the city. The latter place is the seat of Lane Seminary, a Presbyterian theological institution.

Spring Grove Cemetery is situated in the valley of Mill Creek, about four miles northwest of the city. It has a beautiful location, and contains about 168 acres.

(For routes from Cincinnati see page 59.)

Newport, Ky., is opposite Cincinnati, on the upper side of the Licking river. It contains a U. S. garrison, several churches, a seminary, private schools, a rolling-mill, cotton-factory, &c. Pop. about 3,500. A steam-ferry connects it with Cincinnati, the boats plying every few minutes during the day.

Covington, Ky., is on the lower side of the Licking river, built on a fine plain mostly above the highest floods of the Ohio. A steam-ferry unites it with Cincinnati, and a suspension-bridge is about to be built across the Licking connecting it with Newport. The streets are laid out so as to appear, from high ground, like a continuation of the city of Cincinnati on the opposite bank of the river. It contains a fine city-hall, several churches, printing-offices, a Baptist theological college, a cotton and silk factory, tobacco-factories, ropewalks, &c. Pop. about 12,000.

Latonian Springs, a pleasant and fashionable place of resort during the summer season, is situated about four miles back from Covington. Linden Grove Cemetery, a fine place of the kind, is about a mile distant.

North Bend, Ohio, 16 miles below Cincinnati, is now noted as being the place of residence of the late Gen. Harrison, President of the U. S., and also of his grave. The house in which he formerly lived is in full view from the river.

Lawrenceburg, Ia., is the seat of justice of Dearborn county


and near the mouth of the Great Miami river. The Whitewater Canal enters the Ohio here, and, in consequence, is making this place a great depot for the productions of the rich valleys of the Miami and Whitewater. It is not unfrequently the case that the waters of the Ohio rise four or five feet above the foundations of the houses and stores, causing the inhabitants to remove their Wares into the upper stories. Pop. about 4,000.

Vevay is the seat of justice of Switzerland county, and is situated on the Indiana shore, 45 miles below Cincinnati. This place was settled in 1804, by thirty Swiss families, to whom the U. S. made a grant, under particular and favorable stipulations, of a large tract of land, to patronize the cultivation of the vine. This colony soon received a considerable addition to their numbers from the mountains of Switzerland; and in remembrance of their native country, they called the town by its present name. Pop. about 1,800.

KENTUCKY RIVER is a beautiful stream which rises in the Cumberland mountains, and after flowing a course of about 200 miles, mingles its waters with those of the Ohio. It is navigated by flat-boats for 150 miles, and by steamboats in good stages of water, as high as Frankfort, the capital of the state. It has a rapid current, and very high banks. For the greater part of its course it flows in a deep channel, cut out of perpendicular banks of limestone. "Nothing can be more singular than the sensation arising from floating down this stream, and looking up this high parapet at the sun and the sky from the dark chasm, down which the waters float the boat."

Madison, Ia., is about equidistant between Cincinnati and Louisville. It is the seat of justice of Jefferson county, and is one of the most flourishing places on the river. It is united with the capital of the state (Indianapolis) by a railroad, a distance of 95 miles. Steamboats, also, connect it with Cincinnati and other places on the river. (For routes, see page 67.)

Jeffersonville, Ia., is situated just above the Falls of the Ohio, and nearly opposite to Louisville, Ky., and in front runs the broad and rapid Ohio. The state penitentiary is located here. Pop. about 2,500.

LOUISVILLE, Ky., is at the Falls of the Ohio, and in a commercial


point of view, is the most important town in the state. It is the seat of justice of Jefferson county, and is situated on an extensive sloping plain, about a quarter of a mile above the principal declivity of the falls, and seventy feet above the river at low-water mark, and near the mouth of Beargrass creek. The pop. since 1830 has increased as follows: in 1830, 10,090; in 1840, 24,000; in 1843, 28,000; in 1845, 32,000; and in 1850, it was 42,000. The main street is upwards of a mile in length. The principal ones run parallel with the river, and command fine views of the country on the opposite shores. The mouth of Beargrass creek affords a good harbor for steamboats. Louisville was formerly considered unhealthy, owing to the stagnant waters hi its vicinity, and was in consequence, at seasons, subject to the epidemic diseases of the country. These, however, have been drained, thus making it one of the most healthy towns upon the river. It contains a court-house and city-hall, of fine dimensions and great beauty, a university, two hospitals and a medical school, an asylum for the blind, two orphan asylums, about thirty churches, several religious, benevolent, and literary institutions, and a number of good schools. It has also rolling and flouring mills, foundries, factories, &c. There are published here several daily and weekly newspapers, and a monthly and quarterly periodical. During the last season, there were upwards of 98,000 hogs packed in this place.

The falls, which exhibit a romantic appearance, may be seen from the town. In high stages of the water they almost entirely disappear, and steamboats pass over them; but when the water is low, the whole width of the river, which is here nearly a mile wide, has the appearance of a great many broken rivers of foam, making their way over the falls. The river is divided by a fine island, which adds to the beauty of the scene. To obviate the obstruction to the navigation caused by the falls, a canal two and a half miles in length has been cut round them to a place called Shippingsport. It was a work of immense labor, being, for the greater part of its course, cut through the solid rock. The principal hotels in Louisville are: the Galt House, corner of Main and Lionel sts.; Louisville Hotel, Main-st., between Sixth and Seventh; Exchange Hotel, corner of Sixth and Main sts.


(For routes from Louisville, see page 78, and for places on the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, see pages 13, 37.)

Portland, three miles below Louisville, on the Kentucky side, presents somewhat of a business aspect. It is connected with New Albany, on the opposite side of the river, by a steam-ferry, and by a line of omnibuses with Louisville.

New Albany is one of the most important places in the state of Indiana, and is the seat of justice of Floyd county. It is well built, and presents a fine appearance from the river. A branch of the state bank is located here. Many steamboats are built and repaired at this place. A railroad of about thirty miles in length is contemplated, to connect New Albany, at Salem, with the railroad from Cincinnati to St.Louis: this latter road has been surveyed and partly commenced. Pop. about 6,250.

Salt river, famous in a political point of view, is in Kentucky, about 20 miles below New Albany. It receives its name from the numerous salt-licks on its banks.

Green river, about 186 miles below Louisville, rises in Kentucky; it has a gentle current, and is navigable for about 150 miles, although, for a portion of the year, steamboats of light draft can ascend it some miles farther. The celebrated Mammoth Cave is situated on this river (for a description of which, see page 357.)

Evansville, Ia., is the seat of justice of Vanderberg county. It is a place of some importance, deriving an extensive trade from the interior country. It is a well-built town, finely situated on an elevated bank of the river, and contains several churches, a branch of the state bank of Indiana, mills, factories, a number of stores, &c., and about 5,000 inhabitants. A canal unites it in part with Terre Haute on the Wabash river; when completed, it will open a navigation with the lakes. The Pigeon Spring, a place of resort during the summer season, is about a mile and a half distant.

Henderson, Ky., is a flourishing place, and pleasantly situated, and is the county town of Henderson. It is a great port for the shipping of produce brought from the interior country, particularly that of tobacco. Pop. about 1,700.

WABASH RIVER is a beautiful stream, taking its rise in the


northwestern part of Ohio, and forming the boundary between the states of Indiana and Illinois. It is navigable for small boats a distance of about 400 miles, and at seasons, by steamboats as far as Terre Haute, about 200 miles. Its most important tributary is White river, which, with its branches running east to west through the state of Indiana, waters a great extent of fertile and well-settled country.

By the Wabash and Erie Canal, extending from La Fayette, a communication is opened with Toledo on the lake, and by the Canal a junction with Cincinnati on the Ohio.

Shawneetown, III., is situated on the Ohio river, nine miles below the mouth of the Wabash, and is the seat of justice of Gallatin county. It derives its name from the Shawnee tribe of Indians, who formerly occupied the village. Although its situation, when viewed from the water, is rather pleasant, it is usually considered unhealthy, from the occasional overflow of the river. It is a place of much trade, owing to the large shipments of produce. Pop. 1,250. (For routes, see page 71.)

CAVE IN ROCK, or House of Nature, 24 miles below Shawneetown, is pointed out to passengers on the Ohio as a great curiosity.


On its front are carved the names of many visiters. Above and below it are high perpendicular limestone bluffs, surmounted with cedars. The entrance to the cave is just above high-water mark; it is about 20 feet high, and leads into a spacious apartment with an arched roof, about 30 feet high, extending back 125 feet. This cave has occasionally afforded a temporary winter asylum to families descending the river. About the year 1800, it was the rendezvous of a noted outlaw and pirate, by the name of Mason, who, with his band, subsisted by plundering flat-boats on their way down the river, or by waylaying the unfortunate boatmen on their return, and robbing and murdering them. The leader of this notorious band of outlaws was finally shot by one of his own comrades, in order to gain a reward of $500, offered by the governor of Mississippi for his head.

CUMBERLAND RIVER, one of the largest in Kentucky, empties into the Ohio about 44 miles below the "Cave in Rock." It takes its rise from the Cumberland mountains, and flows through the state, westwardly, more than 200 miles; it then enters the state of Tennessee, and after a meandering course of 120 miles, reaches Nashville, the capital; it then flows in a northwest direction 120 miles, where it joins the Ohio. It is navigable for steamboats as high as Nashville, and for flat-boats, to a much greater distance.

Smithland, Ky., is a small place of about a thousand inhabitants, on the lower side of the above river. It has some trade with the interior of the state.

TENNESSEE RIVER, about 12 miles below the Cumberland, is the largest tributary-stream of the Ohio. It rises in the southwestern part of Virginia, and traverses the whole width of East Tennessee. From its source to the Ohio, it is longer than that river from Pittsburg to its mouth, being, by its meanders, nearly 1,200 miles. It has been questioned whether it does not discharge as much water at its entrance into the Ohio, as that river


above its entrance. It is adapted to boat navigation for at least thousand miles, and steamboats ascend it as high as Florence, situated on the north bank, at the foot of the Muscle shoals, in the state of Alabama.

Paducah, on the west side of the Tennessee river, at its mouth, is a place fast growing in importance. It is the depot for the trade of that river. Pop. about 2,000.

CAIRO is situated at the mouth of the Ohio, and at the junction of that stream with the Mississippi river. This is a place much sought after by travellers on the river, more so from the celebrity of what it was to be, than what it is at the present time. Great disappointment will therefore be felt on taking the first view of Cairo, and learning that its population is less than 200 souls. The levee, or bank of earth in front of the town, is artificial, and is said to have cost a million of dollars. The Rothschilds, the celebrated bankers, were deeply interested in the success of this place. There is no question but that it is a most admirable site for a large and wealthy city, being in the centre of the great Mississippi valley, about a thousand miles from Pittsburg, at the head of the Ohio, and the same distance from New Orleans and the Falls of St. Anthony. The great obstacles, however, that hinder the growth of Cairo, are the extreme lowness of the ground, and consequent unhealthiness of the place. It is greatly in danger of being overflowed; the Ohio, it is stated, having been known to rise as much as 60 feet.

Description of the Mississippi River.

This important river, with its numerous tributaries, belongs wholly to the United States. It was first discovered by a Jesuit in 1672, yet its true source was not fully determined until its exploration by Schoolcraft, who, in 1832, found that it took its rise in the small lake called Itasca, situated in 47° 10' N. lat., and 94° 54' w. long, from Greenwich. This lake, called by the French Lac la Biche, is a beautiful sheet of water, of an irregular shape, about eight miles in length, situated among hills covered with pine-forests, and fed chiefly by springs. It is elevated about


1,500 feet above the ocean, and is at a distance of more than 3,000 miles from the Gulf of Mexico.

This river drains an extent of territory, which for fertility and vastness, is unequalled upon the globe. This territory, termed the "Mississippi valley," extends from the sources of the Mississippi in the north, to the Gulf of Mexico in the south, and from the Allegany mountains on the east, to the Rocky mountains on the west. Or, to give its outline more definitely, we will take a position on the Gulf of Mexico, where it empties its accumulated waters, and run a line northwestward to the Rocky mountains, from whence issue the sources of the Arkansas, Platte, and other smaller streams; from this point, along the Rocky mountains, to the sources of the Yellowstone and Missouri rivers; around the northern sources of the latter river to the head-waters of Red river, a branch of the Assiniboin; around the sources of the Mississippi proper, to the head-waters of the Wisconsin and Illinois rivers; between the confluents of the lakes, and those of the Ohio, to the extreme source of the Allegany river; along the dividing-line between the sources of streams flowing into the Ohio river, and those flowing towards the Atlantic; between the confluents of the Tennessee, and those streams emptying into Mobile bay; between the sources discharged into the Mississippi, and those into the Tombigby and Pearl rivers; to the mouth of the Mississippi, and from its mouth, to the outlet of the Atchafalaya. The whole presenting an outline of more than 6,000 miles, or an area of about 1,210,000 square miles, divided as follows:—

  Sq. m.
Valley of the Missouri 500,000
Valley of the Lower Mississippi 330,000
Valley of the Ohio 200,000
Valley of the Upper Mississippi 180,000
Total, 1,210,000

The population of these vast territories was in 1800 but 482,777, having increased about one and a half per cent, per annum since 1790. In 1810 it amounted to 1,090,158, having


doubled in 10 years; in 1820, 2,217,464, having again doubled; in 1830, 3,672,569, or about 7 to the square mile; in 1840, 5, 302, 918, or 10 to the square mile. If we include the western portions of New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, then the population of the great central basin, for 1840, may be placed at 7,948,789, or 14 to the square mile. According to a computation prepared for government in 1847, the population was 8,925,696, or about 18 to the square mile.

The Mississippi river is navigable for steamboats, with but partial interruption, as far n. as the Falls of St. Anthony, a distance of 2,037 miles; its course, however, is extremely crooked, and not unfrequently a bend occurs from 20 to 30 miles round, where the distance across is not more than a mile or two. In some instances, however, these distances have been shortened, by what is termed "cut-offs," which are made by opening a narrow channel across the neck of a bend, when, on admitting the water, the current, running with such velocity, soon forces a channel both wide and deep enough for the largest steamboats to go through. The navigation is frequently rendered dangerous, owing to the mighty volume of water washing away from some projecting point large masses of earth, with its huge trees, which are carried down the stream. Others, again, are often imbedded in the mud, with their tops rising above the water, and not unusually causing the destruction of many a fine craft. These are called, in the phrase of the country, "snags" and "sawyers." The whirls, or eddies, caused by the striking peculiarities of the river in the uniformity of its meanders, are termed "points" and "bends," which have the precision, in many instances, as though they had been struck by the sweep of a compass. These are so regular, that the flat-boatmen frequently calculate distances by them: instead of the number of miles, they estimate their progress by the number of bends they have passed.

A short distance from its source, the Mississippi becomes a tolerable sized stream: below the Falls of St. Anthony it is half a mile wide, and below the Des Moines rapids it assumes a medial width and character to the mouth of the Missouri. About 15 miles below the mouth of the St. Croix river, the Mississippi expands into a beautiful sheet of water, called Lake Pepin,


which is 24 miles long, and from two to four miles broad. The islands, which are numerous, and many of them large, have, during the summer season, an aspect of great beauty, possessing a grandeur of vegetation which contributes much to the magnificence of the river. The numerous sand-bars are the resort, during the season, of innumerable swans, geese, and water-fowl. The Upper Mississippi is a beautiful river, more so than the Ohio: its current is more gentle, its water clearer, and it is a third wider. In general it is a mile wide, yet for some distance before commingling its waters with the Missouri it has a much greater width. At the junction of the two streams it is a mile and a half wide. The united stream, flowing from thence to the mouth of the Ohio, has an average width of little more than three quarters of a mile. On its uniting with the Missouri it loses its distinctive character: it is no longer the gentle, placid stream, with smooth shores and clean sand-bars, but has a furious and boiling current, a turbid and dangerous mass of waters, with jagged and dilapidated shores. Its character of calm magnificence, that so delighted the eye above, is seen no more.

A little below 39°, on the west side, comes in the mighty Missouri, which, being longer, and carrying a greater body of water than the Mississippi, and imparting its own character to the united stream below, some have thought, ought to have given its name to the river from the junction. Between 36° and 37°, on the east side, comes in the magnificent Ohio, called by the French, on its first discovery, La Belle Riviere; for a hundred miles above the junction it is as wide as the parent stream.

"No person who descends the Mississippi river for the first time, receives clear and adequate ideas of its grandeur, and the amount of water it carries. If it be in the spring of the year, when the river, below the mouth of the Ohio, is generally over its banks, although the sheet of water that is making its way to| the gulf is, perhaps, 30 miles wide, yet, finding its way through deep forests and swamps, that conceal all from the eye, no expanse of water is seen but the width that is curved out between the outline of woods on either bank, and it seldom exceeds, and oftener falls short of a mile. But when he sees, in descending from the Falls of St. Anthony, that it swallows up one river


after another, with mouths as wide as itself, without affecting its width at all; when he sees it receiving, in succession, the mighty Missouri, the broad Ohio, St. Francis, White, Arkansas, and Red rivers, all of them of great depth, length, and volume of water; when he sees this mighty river absorbing them all, and retaining a volume apparently unchanged, he begins to estimate rightly the increasing depths of current that must roll on in its deep channel to the sea. Carried out of the Balize, and sailing with a good breeze for hours, he sees nothing on any side but the white and turbid waters of the Mississippi, long after he is out of sight of land."

Commerce of the Mississippi River and its Tributary Streams.

These streams, the great highways of a vast country, furnish facilities for internal steamboat navigation to the extent of nearly 17,000 miles; thus affording great natural opportunities for the development of its unlimited resources. They flow through a country of unequalled richness, favored with a climate adapted, in different sections, to every variety of production.

According to the report of the Commissioner of Patents, showing some of the staple productions of the states bordering on the Mississippi and its branches, there were in 1845, not less than 39,000,000 bushels of wheat raised in that section of the Union; nearly 66,000,000 bushels of oats, 234,000,000 bushels of corn, 139,000,000 pounds of tobacco, 500,000,000 pounds of cotton, and 185,000,000 pounds of sugar; and all this produced by about 6,000,000 inhabitants only.

The annual exports from the lower part of the Mississippi Valley, for the year 1802, amounted to about $2,160,000, and the imports to about $2,500,000. During the year 1846 the receipts from the upper country, at New Orleans, amounted to $77,193,464. The number of steamboat arrivals during the same period was 2,730, and their tonnage was estimated to have been 681,500 tons. The whole number of steamboats engaged on the western rivers in 1847 was 1,200, valued at $16,000,000; to which are to be added 4,000 keel and flat boats, the whole estimated


at 3,250,000 tons. The annual cost of transportation is computed at $41,000,000, and the number of men employed is about 40,000. It was stated in the Chicago Convention, by one of its delegates, that the expense of running a steamboat of 250 tons from St. Louis to New Orleans, in wood, wages, stores, &c., is $2,565, or $142.50 per day; of one of 886 tons, $355 per day; another of 120 tons, to the Upper Mississippi, 73 days, $7,892, or $108 per day; another, on the Illinois river, 132 tons, $70 per day.

The total value of the domestic products afloat upon the waters of the valley, was stated in the same Convention to be $262,825,600, and the value of the whole commerce afloat, at $43,000,000, being double the amount of the whole foreign commerce of the United States.

In 1817, when steam was first introduced upon the Mississippi, the whole commerce from New Orleans to the upper country was transported in about 20 barges, of an average of 100 tons each, and making one trip in a year. The number of keel-boats on the Ohio was about 160, carrying 30 tons each. The whole tonnage at that time was estimated at between 6,000 and 7,000 tons. In 1836, the number of steamboats on the Mississippi and branches was 230, and their tonnage 36,000.

The following is the estimated extent, in miles, of steam navigation on the rivers of the Mississippi valley, by Colonel Long, of the Topographical Engineers.

MISSISSIPPI AND BRANCHES, AS FOLLOWS: — Mississippi proper, 2,000. St. Croix, 80. St. Peter's, 120. Chippeway, 70. Black, 60. Wisconsin, 180. Rock, 250. Iowa, 110. Cedar, 60. Des Moines, 250. Illinois, 245. Maramec, 60. Kaskaskia, 150. Big Muddy, 5. Obion, 60. Forked Deer, 195. Big Hatchee, 75. St. Francis, 300. White, 500. Big Black, 60. Spring, 50. Arkansas, at high water, 850, at other seasons, 600. Canadian, 60. Neosho, 60. Yazoo, 300. Tallahatchee, 300. Yalabusha, 130. Big Sunflower, 80. Little Sunflower, 70. Big Black, 150. Bayou de Glaze, 90. Bayou Care, 140. Bayou Rouge, 40. Bayou la Fourche, 60. Bayou Plaquemine, 12. Bayou Teche, 96. Grand river, 12. Bayou Sorrele, 12. Bayou Chien, 5. Total, 7,097 miles.


OHIO AND BRANCHES. — Ohio proper, 1,000 miles. Allegany, 200. Monongahela, 60. Muskingum, 70. Kanawha, 65. Big Sandy, 50. Sciota, 50. Kentucky, 62. Salt river, 35. Green, 150. Barren, 30. Wabash, 400. Cumberland, 400. Tennessee, 720. Total, 3,292 miles.

MISSOURI AND BRANCHES. — Missouri proper, 1800. Yellow-stone 300. Platte, 40. Kansas, 150. Osage, 275. Grand, 90, Total, 2,655 miles.

RED RIVER AND BRANCHES, BAYOUS, &c. — Red river proper, 1,500 miles. Washita, 375. Saline, 100. Little Missouri, 50, Bayou D'Arbonne, 60. Bayou Bartholomew, 150. Bayou Boeuf, 150. Bayou Macon, 175. Bayou Louis, 30. Tensas river, 150. Lake Bistenaw, 60. Lake Caddo, 75. Sulphur Fork, 100. Little river, 65. Kiamichi, 40. Boggy, 40. Bayou Pierre, 150. Atchafalaya, 360. Total, 3,630 miles.

The following is a table of the places on the Mississippi river, with their intermediate and general distances.

Distances from the Falls of St. Anthony to St. Louis.
To Fort Snelling, Min. 7   To Bloomington, Iowa 31 471
St. Peter's River,   New Boston, III 26 497
St. Paul 5 12 Iowa River 1 498
Lake Pepin, 60 72 Oquawke, III 20 518
and Maiden's Rock, BURLINGTON, Io. 15 533
Chippewa River 25 97 Skunk River, Io. 7 540
La Crosse 89 186 Madison, Io. 16 556
Root River 5 191 Montrose, Io., and NAUVOO, III., 10 566
Bad Axe River 20 211
Upper Iowa River 9 220 Keokuck 12 578
Prairie du Chien 56 276 Des Moines River, and Warsaw, Illinois, 4 582
Fort Crawford 2 278
Wisconsin River 2 280 Tully, Mo. 18 600
Prairie la Port 20 300 La Grange, Mo 8 008
Cassville 10 310 Quincy, Ill. 12 620
Peru 20 330 Marion City, Mo. 8 628
DUBUQUE 8 338 Hannibal, Mo. 11 639
Fever River 17 355 Louisiana Mo. 27 666
GALENA, ILL., 7 miles up Fever River,     Clarksville, Mo. 13 679
Hamburg, Ill. 13 692
Belleview, Iowa 7 362 Westport, Mo. 14 706
Savannah, Ill. 19 381 Gilead, III 15 721
Charleston, Iowa 2 383 Bailey's Landing, Mo. 13 734
Lyons, Iowa 15 398 Illinois River, Ill. 15 749
New York, Iowa 5 403 Grafton, Ill. 2 751
Camanche, Iowa 7 410 Alton, Ill. 18 769
Albany, Ill. 8 418 Missouri River, Mo. 5 774
Parkhurst, Iowa 19 437 St. Louis, Mo. 18 792
Davenport, Iowa, and Rock Island, 13 440      


Distances from St. Louis, Mo., to Cairo, and Mouth of Ohio River.
ToCahokia, Ill. 3   To Lacoarse's Island 14 90
Carondalet, or Vide Pouche, Mo. 4 7 Devil's Bake-oven, and Grand Tower, 15 105
Jefferson Barracks, Mo. 2 9 Bainbridge, Mo. 17 122
Harrison, Ill. 20 29 Devil's Island 8 130
Herculaneura, Mo. 2 31 Cape Girardieu, Mo. 6 13B
Selma 4 35 Commerce 12 148
Fort Chartres Island 15 50 Dog-tooth Island 11 159
St. Genevieve, Mo. 11 61 Elk Island 8 167
Kaskaskia River, Ill. 14 75 CAIRO, ILL., AND MOUTH OF OHIO RIVER, 8 175
Chester, Ill. 1 76      
Distances from the Mouth of the Ohio River to New Orleans.
To Island No. 1 6   To Bundle's Bend and Cut-off 10 551
Columbus, Ky. 12 18 Lake Providence, La. 19 570
Wolf's Island, or No. 5 1 19 Tompkinsville, La. 15 585
Hickman, Ky. 18 37 Campbellsville, La. 16 601
New Madrid, Mo. 42 79 Millikinsville, La. 10 611
Point Pleasant, Mo. 7 86 Yazoo River, Miss., and Sparta, La. 8 619
Little Prairie, Mo. 27 113      
Needham's Isl. and Cut-off 25 138 Walnut Hills, Miss. 10 629
Bearfleld Landing, Ark. 3 141 VlCKSBURG, Miss. 2 631
Ashport, Tenn. 5 146 Warrenton, Miss. 10 641
Osceola, Ark. 12 158 Palmyra Sett., Miss. 15 656
Plum Point 3 161 Carthage Landing, La. 4 660
1st Chickasaw Bluff 5 166 Point Pleasant, La. 10 670
Fulton, Tenn. 2 168 Big Black River 14 684
Randolph, Tenn., and 2d Chickasaw Bluff, 10 178 Grand Gulf, Miss. 2 686
3d Chickasaw Bluff 17 195 St. Joseph's, La., and Bruinsburg, Miss. 10 696
Greenock, Ark. 30 225 Rodney, Miss. 10 706
Wolf River, Tenn. 20 245 NATCHEZ, Miss. 41 747
MEMPHIS, Tenn.     Ellis Cliffs, Miss. 18 765
Norfolk, Miss. 10 255 Homochitto River, Miss. 26 791
Commerce, Miss. 17 272 Fort Adams 10 801
Peyton, Miss. 31 303 Red River Island, and Cut-off, 11 812
St. Francis River, and Sterling, Ark. 13 316      
      Raccourci Cut-off and Bend 10 822
Helena, Ark 10 326 Bayou Sara, St. Francisville, and Pt. Coupee, La. 30 852
Yazoo Pass, or Bayou, and Delta, Miss. 10 336      
Horse-shoe Bend 8 344 Waterloo, La. 6 858
Montgomery's Pt., Ark. 58 402 Pt. Hudson, La. 5 863
Victoria, Miss.     BATON ROUGE, La. 25 888
White River, Ark. 4 406 Plaquemine, La. 23 911
Arkansas River, 16 422 Bayou la Fourche and Donaldsonville, La. 34 945
Napoleon, Ark.          
Bolivar Landing 13 435 Jefferson College 16 961
Columbia, Ark. 53 488 Bonnet Quarre Ch. 24 985
Point Chicot 4 492 Red Church, La. 16 1001
Greenville, Miss. 4 496 Carrollton, La. 19 1020
Grand Lake Landing, Ark. 40 536 Lafayette, La. 4 1024
Princeton, Miss. 5 541 NEW ORLEANS, LA 2 1026


Distances from New Orleans to the Gulf of Mexico
To Battle Ground 6   To s. w. Pass 20 82
English Turn 12 18 Pass a la Outre, or Outer Pass, 3 85
Poverty Point 20 38      
Wilkinson's 7 45 Balize 5 90
Johnson's 7 52 Bar at s. Pass and Gulf of Mexico, 4 94
Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip, 10 62      

Description of Important Places on the Mississippi River.

THE FALLS OF ST. ANTHONY are situated on the Mississippi river, about 300 miles from its source, 792 from St. Louis, and 2,087 from the Gulf of Mexico. They are described as being more beautiful than the Falls of Niagara, but not so terrific and sublime. The fall is about 17 feet. At the Falls of St. Anthony a village has sprung up in a few months. There are now four saws, one shingle, and one lathe machine established here already. The rapids above and below the Falls add much to the beauty of the scene, and give to the spot a charm of no ordinary character. "As the traveller listens to the solemn roar of the Falls, as it sinks into feeble echoes in the forests, a thrilling story is told him of the love and despair of a young Dacota Indian woman, who, goaded by jealousy towards her husband, who had taken another wife, placed her young children in a canoe, and chanting the remembrances of love and broken vows, precipitated herself and her infants down the Falls. Indian traditions say, that those ill-fated beings, together with their canoe, so perished that no trace of them was seen. But they suppose that her spirit still wanders near the spot, and that she is seen on sunny mornings, carrying her babes in the accustomed manner, bound to her bosom, and still mourning the inconstancy of her husband."

In 1805 the United States purchased of the Sioux tribe of Indians a tract of land nine miles square, including the Falls of St. Anthony, for a military post, for the sum of $2,000. During the season of navigation steamboats run between St. Louis and the Falls of St. Anthony, charging $20 for the trip to and fro.


They remain at the Falls for two or three days, sufficiently long for the tourist to see every thing worthy of inspection.

On this territory is Fort Snelling, 7 miles below the Falls, where the Indians congregate by thousands every June, to receive their annuities, granted by the U. S. government. Here St. Peter's river, coming in from the west, unites its waters with the Mississippi.

ST. PAUL is now the capital of the young, but rapidly growing territory of Minesota. It is situated on the eastern bank of the Mississippi, five miles below St. Peter's, or Fort Snelling, and is, excepting the town of Stillwater, the largest place in the territory, and already contains a thousand inhabitants. Besides its public and other buildings, it has two good hotels, built with a view to the entertainment of parties visiting the Falls of St. Anthony. Regular packets are now running between Galena, Stillwater, St. Paul, St. Peter's, and the Falls; also a daily boat from St. Louis. These boats are of the first class, and the fare low.

Stillwater is situated at the head of Lake St. Croix, about 20 miles N. E. from the Falls of St. Anthony. It is a large and flourishing town, with a number of fine cottages, churches, stores, saw-mills, &c. It has two good hotels, where travellers and tourists will meet with fine accommodations. Near this place there is plenty of fine hunting and trout-fishing; and to crown all, the scenery is romantically beautiful. Its population is about 1,200.

Lake Pepin, 100 miles below the Falls, is an expansion of the Mississippi, which is here about 4 miles wide; the lake being 24 miles in length, with no perceptible current. On the east bank are the rocks of the Maiden's Leap, 500 feet perpendicular.

Dubuque, Iowa, is celebrated for its extensive lead-mines. It was originally settled by a French half-breed of that name, who purchased his title from the Indians. Population about, 4,000.

GALENA, Ill., the county-seat of Joe Daviess, is situated on Fever river, 7 miles from the Mississippi. Fever river, which has the resemblance of a canal, is about 100 feet wide; there is


barely room enough in it for small boats to turn round. Galena is celebrated as being in the heart of the lead region, and derives great importance from this business, which is here extensively carried on. In 1826 it was merely an outpost in the wilderness, and now it has a population of about 6,000. From Galena a railroad is being constructed to Chicago, 180 miles.

Rock Island is in the Mississippi river, about 94 miles below Galena; it is three miles long and one and a half wide. Fort Armstrong stands in the centre of it; the foundation of which rests upon perpendicular rocks rising 20 feet out of the river. Here was the residence of Col. Davenport, who was murdered on the 4th of July, 1845, for his money, by a lawless party, who crossed over from Davenport with that design.

Davenport, Iowa, is the seat of justice of Scott county. It is finely situated on an elevated plain, and surrounded by a rich interior country. It has for its size a large trade, which is yearly increasing. In 1847 its population was 1,300.

Rockport, Ill., is situated on the Mississippi, a little above the mouth of Rock river. It has a population of about 2,000, and is rising rapidly in importance.

Bloomington, Iowa, is one of the most thriving places in the state. Its population is about 2,000.

Burlington, the former capital of the state of Iowa, is now a flourishing town, being finely situated, and enjoying much trade. It was laid out in 1834, and was once the residence of Black Hawk. His bones are deposited here. The seat of government was removed to Iowa city in the year 1839.

Nauvoo is situated on the Illinois side of the river, at the second and last rapids below the Falls of St. Anthony, which extends up the river about 12 miles. It is the site of the celebrated Mormon city, which was founded in 1840, by "Joe Smith" and his followers, and once contained a population of 18,000. It is located on a bluff, but is distinguished from every thing on the river bearing that name by an easy, graceful slope, of very great extent, rising to an unusual height, and containing a smooth, regular surface, which, with the plain at its summit, is sufficient for the erection of an immense city, Nauvoo was laid


out on a very extensive plan, and many of the houses were handsome structures. The great Mormon Temple, an object of attraction, and seen very distinctly from the river, was 128 feet long, 88 feet wide, and 65 feet high to the top of the cornice, and 163 feet to the top of the cupola. It could accommodate an assemblage of 3,000 persons. It was built of compact, polished limestone, obtained on the spot, resembling marble. The architecture, although of a mixed order, in its main features resembled Doric. In the basement of the temple was a large stone basin, supported by twelve oxen of colossal size; it was about 15 feet high altogether, all of white stone, and well carved. In this fort the Mormons were baptized. This building, without an equal in the West, and worth half a million of dollars, was fired by an incendiary on the 9th of October, 1848, and reduced to a heap of ruins. Joe Smith and a number of his followers were arrested and confined in the county prison, where, in June, 1844, they were put to death by a mob, who, in disguise, and armed, went there for that purpose.

Quincy, Ill., the county-seat of Adams Co., is situated on an elevation 125 feet above the river, commanding a fine view of it and the surrounding country. It is a place of extensive trade, and contains a population of about 6,000.

The ILLINOIS RIVER, enters the Mississippi about 25 miles above the mouth of the Missouri; it is a fine, deep, and navigable stream, whose waters are united with those of Lake Michigan at Chicago, by the Illinois and Michigan Canal, An immense business is now done upon this river.

Alton, Ill, is finely laid out in wide and beautiful streets; it contains a number of fine stores, and several churches. The surrounding country is rich in fine timber, limestone, and bituminous, coal. Pop. about 3,000.

THE MISSOURI RIVER. — This, by far the greatest tributary of the Mississippi, rises in the Rocky Mountains, a short distance from the head-waters of the Columbia, and nearly in the same parallel of latitude as the Mississippi river. It is formed by three streams, which unite not far from the base of the principal range of the mountains; these are denominated Jefferson, Madison, and Gallatin, and are in 45° 10' N. Lat., and 110° W. Lon.


After this union the river continues a considerable distance to be till a foaming mountain-torrent; it then spreads into a broad, comparatively gentle stream, with numerous islands. The river becomes almost a continued cataract for about 17 miles, during which its perpendicular descent is about 362 feet. Its course continues rapid for some distance farther.

The Yellow Stone, one of the principal tributaries of the Missouri rises in the same range of mountains with the main stream. It enters from the south by a mouth 850 yards wide, and is a broad and deep river, having a course of about 1,600 miles. The flatte, another of its great tributaries, rises in the same range of mountains with the parent stream, and, measured by its meanders, is supposed to have a course of about 2,000 miles before it joins that river. At its mouth it is nearly a mile wide, but is very shallow, and is not boatable except at its highest floods. The Kansas is a very large tributary, having a course of about 1,200 miles, and is boatable for most of the distance. The Osage is a large and important branch of the Missouri; it is boatable for 660 miles, and interlocks with the waters of the Arkansas. The Gasconade, boatable for 66 miles, is important from having on its banks extensive pine forests, from which the great supply of plank and timber of that kind is brought to St. Louis.

Above the river Platte, the open and prairie character of the country begins to develope, extending quite into the banks of the river, and stretching from it indefinitely, in naked grass plains, where the traveller may wander for days without seeing either wood or water. Beyond the "Council Bluffs," which are situated about 600 miles up the Missouri, commences a country of great interest and grandeur, denominated the Upper Missouri. It is composed of vast, and almost boundless grass plains, through which runs the Platte, the Yellow Stone, and the other rivers of this ocean of grass. Buffaloes, elk, antelopes, and mountain-sheep abound. Lewis and Clark, and other respectable travellers, relate having found here large and singular petrifactions, both animal and vegetable. On the top of a hill they found the petrified skeleton of a huge fish, 45 feet in length. The herds of the gregarious animals, particularly the buffalo, are


innumerable. Such is the general character of the country until we approach the spurs of the Rocky Mountains.

ST. LOUIS, Mo., is one of the most important, wealthy, and populous places in the western country. It is situated on the w. bank of the Mississippi river, 18 miles below the mouth of the Missouri, 175 miles above the mouth of the Ohio river, 1,201 above New Orleans, and 792 below the Falls of St. Anthony. Its population, according to the census of December, 1848, was 56,952 souls. The location of St. Louis for commerce, is not surpassed by that of any other place in the west or southwest, excepting New Orleans, — having the Mississippi and Illinois rivers on the N., the Missouri on the W., and the Ohio and its tributaries on the S. E.; whilst the "Father of Waters" furnishes an outlet to the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic ocean for its valuable productions. In 1848 it owned 23,800 tons of steamboat tonnage, worth $1,547,000. During the same year, there arrived at that port, exclusive of 815 flat-boats, steamboats with a tonnage of 469,735 tons. The total annual commerce of St. Louis, imports and exports included, although yet in its infancy, ia estimated


at over $75,000,000, — equalling nearly one-third of the whole foreign commerce of the United States.

The city is built on a kind of second bottom, that rises gently from the water to a second bank. The ascent to this is not at all precipitous: having surmounted it, an extensive plain opens to view. There are, perhaps, but few places in the world that have a more mixed or varied population than is found here. Among the original inhabitants there is no inconsiderable mixture of Indian blood.

The American population now predominates over the French, by whom it was formerly settled. Emigrants are to be found here, not only from most of the states of the Union, but from various parts of Europe. By referring to its position on the map, we find its situation second only to that of New Orleans. Placed in the centre of the Mississippi Valley, commanding the trade of the Missouri, the Upper Mississippi, and the Illinois; the capital of a very extensive fur-trade, and the depot for the rich lead-mines of this region, it has, of necessity, become a large and thriving city. Its present advantages are superior to those places on the Ohio, inasmuch as steamboats can always pass between St. Louis and New Orleans, even at the lowest stages of the water. It is not uncommon for persons taking the west ern route to New Orleans, in the fall of the year, to avail themselves of the land route from Wheeling or Cincinnati to St. Louis, go that they may obtain a passage direct to New Orleans. In the low stages of water in the Ohio, which occur in the early autumnal months, it is a very precarious matter to get a passage from Pittsburg, Wheeling, or Cincinnati, to any place on the Mississippi; there being so little water in the channel, that boats in which we usually find such excellent accommodations are obliged to lay up; only the smaller boats, and of inferior accommodations, being able to run, and charging a very exorbitant price. A great number of keel-boats, and river craft of all descriptions, bound to all points of the boatable waters of the Mississippi, are seen in the harbor of St. Louis. Miners, trappers, hunters, adventurers, emigrants, and people of all characters and languages, and with all kinds of views and objects, meet here, and in pursuit of their various objects, scatter hence to the remotest


points of the valley. (For routes from St. Louis see page 74.)

Jefferson Barracks is one of the most extensive military establishments in the West. It has a beautiful situation, being at the commencement of a range of rocky bluffs.

Above Herculaneum are the Plateen Rocks, commencing at Little Plateen Creek, and extending eight or ten miles along the right bank of the river, of various heights, and from two to three hundred feet perpendicular; sometimes in long, level strata, and at others, forming shapes not unlike towers, castles, and turrets. They have a majestic appearance.

Cornice Island and Rocks, are so named from their projecting over each other in the manner of a cornice.

St. Genevieve, Mo., the county-seat of St. Genevieve Co., is situated at the upper extremity of a beautiful alluvial prairie, about a mile W. from the Mississippi. It is built on the Gabourie, a small creek, which is at times boatable. Large quantities of lead are brought from the interior to this place for exportation. Pop. about 2,000.

About 30 miles below the mouth of the Kaskaskia river is a singular rock, near the right shore, called the Grand Tower, which is 100 feet in circumference, and 150 feet in height. About half a mile above the Grand Tower, on the left bank, is a high rock, with a singular excavation, about 100 feet from the surface of the water, called the Devil's Bake-Oven.

Cape Girardeau is situated on a fine bluff, on the W. bank of the Mississippi. It has a fine harbor for boats, and commands a noble view of the river above and below. Here terminates the rocky bluffs; the few between this place and the Gulf of Mexico are all of clay.

Ohio City is on the W. bank of the Mississippi, opposite Cairo. Being on more elevated ground than the latter place, it bids fair to become a town of importance.

We now approach the MOUTH OF THE OHIO, where may be seen three states at one time. To the right is the state of Kentucky; in the centre, between the two rivers, the state of Illinois; and to the left is the state of Missouri. If the traveller's destination is up that noble stream, he will find a description of the


places thereon by reversing the route down the Ohio, at pages 14 and 31, inclusive.

Below the mouth of the Ohio the islands in the Mississippi have all been numbered; but at present the numbers are very irregular, owing to the circumstance of many being washed away by the force of the moving waters, and new ones continually forming.

This "growing up" of the islands of the Mississippi, is one of the most striking characteristics of this mighty river, and one that would not present itself to the eye of a voyager passing along the stream, unless the islands that were growing up were pointed out, and the philosophy of the phenomenon explained to him, which is as follows:— "Where the current strikes diagonally off from a point above the head of an island, the eddying waters produce a sand-bar under the point at the mouth of the ‘chute,’ or channel round the island. Upon this bar collects the alluvial soil of the river, from which spring the young cottonwoods, which being of very rapid growth, soon shoot up into tall trees, and completely shut out the channel from the view of the river. The ‘chutes’ behind the islands then form lakes. Upon the waters of these lakes congregate all kinds of aquatic fowl, —swans, geese, ducks, pelicans, and the like."

New Madrid, Mo., was formerly a noted place, but, owing to the dreadful earthquakes it experienced in 1811 and 1812, it has sunk into comparative insignificance; its population now scarcely exceeds 500. It is situated on a great curve or bend of the river, the land being extremely low, and the trees along the bank presenting a great uniformity of appearance. The view is most monotonous, — a feature, indeed, that is characteristic of three-fourths of the scenery of the Lower Mississippi. On this side there is scarcely a dozen feet elevation for the distance of 100 miles. By the earthquake thousands of acres were sunk, and multitudes of lakes and ponds were created. "The church-yard of this village, with its sleeping tenants, was precipitated into the river. The earth burst in what were called sand-blows. Earth, sand, and water, were thrown up to great heights in the air. The river was dammed up, and flowed backwards. Birds descended from the air, and took shelter in the bosoms of people


that were passing. The whole country was inundated. A great number of boats passing on the river were sunk. One or two that were fastened to islands, were sunk with the islands. The country was but sparsely peopled, and most of the buildings were cabins, or of logs; and it was from these circumstances that but few people perished."

Plumb Point, a little above the 1st Chickasaw bluff, is one of the most difficult places to boatmen on the Mississippi, from the frequency of the change of channel, the "snags," "bars," and "sawyers." A large number of boats have been lost here. Not far from this place was the rendezvous of the notorious pirate and robber Murrell.

The 2d Chickasaw bluff, is 178 miles below the mouth of the Ohio. Large quantities of cotton are shipped from this place every season.

MEMPHIS, Tenn., is finely situated at the mouth of Wolf river, and on the 4th Chickasaw bluff, one of the noblest on the Mississippi, and presenting a fine appearance from the river. It is in the S. W. corner of the state, and occupies the site of Fort; Pickering. It is laid off in regular streets, but unfortunately is not paved, or was not when we visited it, in the early part of 1849; the mud at that time being extremely deep, and rendering the thoroughfares literally impassable. This obstacle will undoubtedly be remedied in the course of a short time, as the city is increasing rapidly, and is becoming a very important place of business, especially for the shipment of cotton, large quantities of which are annually brought from the interior, and sent off to various destinations. Its commerce at the present time exceeds $5,000,000 annually, and its population, which ten years ago was not more than 2,000, is at this time upwards of 12,000 souls. Here is located a United States Naval Depot; attached to which is a ropewalk, of recent construction, 1,400 feet in length, the longest now in the country. The river here is deep enough to float down the largest war vessel to the Gulf. The channel at high water is 118 feet deep, and the rise and fall, from actual survey, is 34 feet. (For routes from Memphis see pages 83, 119.)

Helena is on the Arkansas side. Here the traveller will observe


a fine range of hills, the only elevation on this bank for miles.

ARKANSAS RIVER enters the Mississippi on its W. side, after flowing a course of about 2,000 miles, and is one of the largest tributaries of that mighty stream. It rises in the Rocky Mountains, from which it pours a broad and deep stream upon the arid and sandy plains below. The sand and the dry surrounding atmosphere absorb the water to such a degree, that, in any season, it may be forded many hundreds of miles below the mountains. Some of its tributaries are so impregnated with salt, as to render even the waters of the main stream unpotable. The alluvial earth along the banks contains so much salt, that cattle are said sometimes to be killed by eating it. To the distance of about 400 miles from its mouth it has many lakes and bayous. In the spring floods steamboats can ascend it nearly to the mountains.

At the mouth of the Arkansas is the flourishing village of Napoleon. It is becoming a place of importance, from its being a depot and place of landing for the produce brought from the interior country, or down the Arkansas; and also the place from whence goods are forwarded into the back country.

At Columbia, Ark., on the W. bank of the Mississippi, and 66 miles below the Arkansas river, the intelligent traveller will notice the difference in the agricultural productions in the vicinity of the river, for about this latitude commences the growing of that great staple product — cotton. He will observe that the banks of the river present a series of fine plantations, with negro huts interspersed, giving the whole a picturesque appearance.

About the region of Lake Providence, a few miles south of the line dividing the states of Arkansas and Louisiana, may be seen the first view of the Spanish Moss growing. It hangs in gloomy grandeur from the boughs of the cypress-trees. Here also is the Palmetto, with its broad, fan-like leaf, the lofty cotton-wood, the sea-grass, the impenetrable cane-brake, and all the concomitants of a southern forest. Alligators are also not unfrequently seen, reposing upon a log, and basking in the noonday sun, in descending the Mississippi from about this latitude.


The YAZOO RIVER falls into the Mississippi on its east side, 10 miles above the Walnut Hills; it is at its mouth about 100 yards wide.

The Walnut Hills, a little above Vicksburg, extend along the E. bank of the river about two miles. They rise boldly, though gradually, with alternate swells and gullies, to the height of nearly 500 feet, and form one of the most beautiful prospects to be met with on the Lower Mississippi.

VICKSBURG, Miss., was settled in 1824, by Neivitt Vick, Esq. It is near the site of the old Spanish Fort, and is situated just below the Walnut Hills, about 200 feet above the river, and on the E. bank of the Mississippi, about 12 miles below the mouth of the Yazoo. It has four churches, (two of which, the Catholic and Methodist, are fine structures,) six saw-mills, five large brick-yards, one shingle-factory, five private schools, and a public school, supported by a special tax, which educates 500 scholars. There are annually shipped from Vicksburg to New Orleans about 90,000 bales of cotton. Pop. about 4,500.

From the bluffs in this neighborhood the scenery is very fine, equal, perhaps, to any on the river; and the houses, which are scattered in groups, or terraces, along the shelving declivities of the hills, present a striking view to the passing traveller.

A railroad extends from Vicksburg to Jackson, the capital of the state.

NATCHEZ, Miss., is romantically situated, on the E. bank of the Mississippi, on a high bluff, 279 miles above New Orleans. The river business is transacted at the division of the town which is called "Natchez-under-the-Hill," a repulsive place, but too often the resort of the dissolute from the upper and lower country. Great numbers of boats are always lying here, and the place is filled with boatmen, mulattoes, and bad characters of every description. There are, however, some respectable merchants resident in "Natchez-under-the-Hill." The upper town, or "Natchez-on-the-Hill," is situated on the summit of a bluff, 300 feet above the common level of the river, from which there is a prospect of the cultivated margin of the Mississippi, in Concordia, on the opposite shore, and the eye traverses the boundless and level surfaces of the cypress swamps beyond. On


the eastern side the country is rich and beautiful; the eminences presenting open woods covered with grape-vines, and here and there neat country-houses. The town itself is quiet; the streets broad; some of the public buildings handsome; and the whole had formerly the appearance of comfort and opulence. But of late years, a variety of circumstances have contributed to change the general characteristics of the place; the low price of cotton, the emigration to Texas, and the hurricane of 1836, which destroyed a vast amount of property, and the breaking of the banks, which followed the latter in quick succession, have had a most disastrous effect upon the prosperity of this once prosperous place. The population, formerly over 7,000, is now reduced to less than 5,000. It was once the principal town in this region for the shipment of cotton, with bales of which, at the proper season of the year, the streets were almost barricaded. Some opulent planters resided here, and there was a respectable and polished society. The people are noted for their hospitality. From the heights in this city you see the site of Fort Rosalie, the scene of the wild, but splendid and affecting romance of Attala. Steamboats are constantly arriving and departing from here, and the arriving and departing gun is heard at all hours of the day and night. The steamers, as they are seen sweeping along the majestic river, add greatly to the grandeur and interest of the scenery of the town.

RED RIVER AND CUT-OFF. — This river is one of the largest western tributaries of the Mississippi. It takes its rise in New Mexico, near Santa Fé, and flows a course of about 1,500 miles, during which it receives a number of other streams, that water an extensive region of country. Much of the land is of great fertility; and cotton, the sugar-cane, com, tobacco, and many other useful productions can be raised upon it. Perhaps the greatest drawback to the early settlement of this noble river, is the existence of a vast obstruction to the navigation, called the Raft, which extends a distance of about 70 miles along the river. It consists of an immense mass of timber and fallen trees, brought down from the upper sources of the river, and which found a lodgment here. It causes a great expansion of the river, to the width of about 25


miles, which spreads at the raft into a number of narrow channels. Weeds and small trees have taken root upon the surface of this timber, and grow above the waters. Above the raft the river is broad and deep, and is navigable by steamboats, at seasons, for a thousand miles; keel-boats, however, can usually pass over it. The government has made immense efforts to remove this obstruction, but as yet all endeavors have proved fruitless.

On Red river are situated several settlements; the two principal ones we shall briefly describe.

Alexandria, on Red river, is 150 miles by the course of the river, and 70 miles by land from the Mississippi, and 320 from New Orleans. It is in the centre of a rich cotton-growing region, and the site of the town is a beautiful plain. The village is surrounded by fine ornamental trees. It has about 600 or 700 inhabitants.

Natchitoches, also on Red river, is 80 miles by the course off the river, and 60 by land, above Alexandria, 90 below the raft, and about 420 miles from New Orleans by water. It is beautifully situated on the shore of the river, extending back to pine bluffs, in the rear, where there are some fine buildings. It is at the head of steamboat navigation, and is the last town of any size approaching to the southern frontier of the United States. It is about 50 miles east of the Sabine, to which a fine road is opened.

Red River Cut-Off was made by Capt. Shreve, of the U. S. Engineers, by cutting a trench across the neck of land forming the bend. The stream, on being admitted, worked a channel through it, in about 24 hours, sufficient for a steamboat to pass through. It is now a full mile wide, and cannot be distinguished from any other portion of the river. It is the crossing place of all who go up Red river to Texas, and droves of cattle and horses are frequently swum across.

Raccourci Gut-Off is a short distance below, and was made by order of the state, in the spring of 1848. The distance, about 30 miles, in the old channel, a common running steamboat would be three hours in going round, and now one can run through the cut-off in ten minutes up, and in two or three minutes down, thus saving two hours and fifty minutes. The largest class boats


pass through, up and down, without difficulty. It is about 400 yards wide, and the banks constantly caving. The largest trees in the forest will go down root foremost, and the tops of them will disappear.

Bayou Sara, La., is a pretty town, and from which large quantities of cotton are shipped. A railroad extends to Woodville, Miss., 25 miles, over which a great amount of the above staple is brought.

St. Francisville is a short distance below, much of which is built on a fine hill, about a mile back from the river. It contains about 1,800 inhabitants.

BATON ROUGE is now the capital of Louisiana. In French it signifies red stick, named from an Indian massacre in its early settlement. It is on the E. side of the Mississippi, 138 miles above New Orleans. It is pleasantly situated, on the last bluff that is seen on descending the river. The site is 30 or 40 feet above the highest overflow of the river. This bluff rises from the water by a gentle and gradual swell. From the esplanade the prospect is delightful, including a great extent of the coast, with its handsome houses and rich cultivation below, and commanding an extensive view over the back country at the east. The state penitentiary is located here. The U. S. Barracks here are built in a fine style, and are supposed to be among the handsomest and most commodious of that kind of works.

"From Baton Rouge the river below, to New Orleans, is lined with splendid sugar plantations, and is what is generally termed the ‘coast,’ — a strip of land on either side of the river, extending back to the cypress swamps, about two miles. It is the richest soil in the world, and will raise nearly all the tropical fruits, — oranges, figs, olives, and the like. This coast is protected from inundations by an embankment of earth of six or eight feet in height, called a levee. Behind the levee we see extensive sugar-fields, noble mansions, beautiful gardens, large sugar-houses, groups of negro quarters, lofty churches, splendid villas, presenting, in all, one of the finest views of country to be met with in the United States."

Red Church is 25 miles, and Carrolton 6 miles above New Orleans; the latter is a thriving and rapidly improving place. A


railroad extends from this point to the centre of New Orleans. It has become a place of residence for many who do business in that city. The conveniences for reaching it are very great, and excellent cars run over the road every few minutes during the day and evening. The Carrolton Gardens, which are situated here, are the resort of great numbers from New Orleans. The City of Lafayette is but a continuation of New Orleans, though it has a mayor of its own. It is the place of landing for the flat-boats that descend the river.

For description of New Orleans, see page 132.


Routes From Pittsburg, PA.

Route from Pittsburg to Philadelphia, (Monongahela Route.) — From Pittsburg, by steamboat on Monongahela river, to Brownsville, Pa., 60 miles. From the latter place by stage, crossing the Alleghanies to Cumberland, via Uniontown, 12 miles; Smithfield, 33; Little Crossing, 50; Frostburg, 63; CUMBERLAND, Md., 74; total from Pittsburg, 134 miles. Thence by Baltimore and Ohio Railroad from Cumberland to Pawpaw Tunnel, 25 miles; Doe Gully Tunnel, 37; Hancock, 55; Martinsburg, 78; Harper's Ferry, 96; Frederick, Md., 116; Ellicott's Mills, 163; Baltimore, 178; total from Pittsburg, 312 miles; and to Philadelphia, 409 miles. Fare from Pittsburg to Baltimore $10.00. Time 32 hours. Fare from Pittsburg to Philadelphia $12.00. Time 40 hours.

Route from Pittsburg to Philadelphia, via Chambersburg, Pa. — From Pittsburg, by stage, to E. Liberty, 5 miles; Stewartsville, 17; Adamsburg, 23; Greensburg, 29; Youngstown, 40; Laughlintown, 52; Laurel Hill, 58; Stoystown, 66; Shellsburg, 86; Bedford, 94; Juniata Crossings, 102; McConnellstown, 128; CHAMBERSBURG, 150. By railroad from the latter place to Shippensburg, 11 miles; to Newville, 22; Carlisle, 34; Mechanicsburg, 44; Harrisburg, 56; total, 206. From Harrisburg to Lancaster, 37; Philadelphia, 107; total from Pittsburg, 313. Fare through $13.00. Time about 56 hours.


Route from Pittsburg, Pa., to Philadelphia, via the Pennsylvania Canal. — From Pittsburg, by canal, to Freeport, 32 miles; Leechburg, 38; Warren, 47; Salzburg, 59; Blairsville, 75; Chesnut Ridge, 83; Lockport, 88; Laurel Hill Gap, 98; Johnstown, 104. This is termed the Western division of the Pennsylvania Canal, from its being on the W. side of the mountains. We cross the mountains, by railroad, to Holhdaysburg, 39 miles, at which place it connects with the Eastern division of the above canal. From Holhdaysburg to Alexandria, 26; Petersburg, 33; Huntingdon, 42; Waynesburg, 71; Lewistown, 85; Mifflin, 99; Millerstown, 115; Duncan's Is., 134; Harrisburg, 148. By railroad to Philadelphia, 107; total distance from Pittsburg, 399 miles. Usual time, if by packet-boat on the canal, 4˝days; and if by line-boat, about a week. Fare, usually, $ 13.00; by the latter $2.75 less.

From Pittsburg to Cumberland, Md., via Glade's Road, Pa. — By stage to Jacksonville, 20 miles; Madison, 29; Mt. Pleasant, 38; Donegal, 46 1/2; Somerset, 66; Berlin, 77; CUMBERLAND, 103. Fare $6.00. Time 30 hours.

From Pittsburg to Erie, Pa., (Stage Routes.) — To Bakerstown, 16 miles; Glade Mills, 21; Butler, 31; Stone House, 42; Centreville, 48; N. Liberty, 50; Mercer, 60; Georgetown, 79; Meadville, 96; Cambridge, 110; Waterford, 122; Erie, 130. Through fare $5.00. Time about 30 hours.

From Pittsburg to Mercer, Pa. — To Zealianople, 23 miles; Harmony, 25; Portersville, 38; Harlinsburg, 42; Leasburg, 47; Mercer, 56. Fare through $2.50. Time about 12 hours.

From Pittsburg to Cleveland, O., via Cuyahoga Falls. — To Sewickly, 14; Economy, 18; Beaver, 28; Darlington, 40; Petersburg, 50; Poland, 60; Canfield, 68; Palmyra, 84; Edinburg, 89; Ravenna, 96; Franklin, 103; Stoe Corners, 107; Cuyahoga Falls, 112; Akron, 116; Hudson, 120; Bedford, 130; Cleveland, 140. Fare $5.00. Time 30 hours.


From Pittsburg to Cleveland O., via Warren. — To Poland, O., 60 miles; Youngstown, 68; Warren, 80; Chaguin Falls, 110; Cleveland, 130. Fare $5.00. Time 30 hours.

From Pittsburg to Wooster, O. — To Beaver, 28 miles; Smith's Ferry, 40; Calcutta, 45; New Lisbon, 60; New Garden, 70; Paris, 78; Franklin, 80; Canton, 96; Massillon, 106; Dalton, 118; Wooster, 126. Fare $5.00. Time 30 hours.

From Pittsburg to Wheeling, Va., via Washington, Pa. — To Harriotsville, 12 miles; Cannonsburg, 18; Washington, 25; Claysville, 35; Wheeling, 57. Fare $3.00. Time 12 hours.

From Pittsburg to Wheeling Va., via Steubenville, O. — To Fayette, 12 miles; Florence, 24; Steubenville, 36; Wellsburg, 44; Wheeling, 60. Fare $3.00. Time 12 hours.

Routes in Ohio.

From Steubenville, O., to Canton, Massillon, and Wooster, Ohio. — To Richmond, 11 miles; Springfield, 16; Carrolton, 33; Waynesburg, 46; Canton, 60. Fare $2.50. Massillon, 68. Fare $3.00. Wooster, 90. Fare $4.00. Time about 18 hours.

From Steubenville to Cleveland, O. — To Canton, (as above,) 60 miles; Cleveland, 120. Fare $5.00. Time 24 hours. From Steubenville to places on the Ohio, see page 13.

From Wheeling to Baltimore, via National Road. — To Washington, Pa., 30 miles; Brownsville, 56. (For the rest of the route see the same from Pittsburg, page 54.)

From Wheeling to Zanesville, O. — To Bridgeport, 1 mile; St.


Clairsville, 11; Loydsville, 13; Morristown, 20; Henrysburg, 27; Fairview, 30; Middletown, 36; Washington, 42; Cambridge 50; New Concord, 60; Norwich, 62; Zanesville, 74. Fare $4.00. Time 12 hours.

From Zanesville to Columbus, O. — To Mt. Sterling, 8 miles; Gratiot, 11; Jacktown, 22; Hebron, 26; Kirkersville, 32; Reynoldsburg, 43; Columbus, 54. From Wheeling 128 miles. Fare $6.00. Through in 20 hours.

From Columbus to Cincinnati, O. — To Xenia, (by stage,) 60 miles; and from thence by Little Miami Railroad to Cincinnati, 65; total 125 miles. From Wheeling to Cincinnati, 253 miles. Through fare $10.50. Time about 40 hours.

From Wheeling to Cincinnati, O., via Circleville, O. — To Zanesville, 74 miles; Circleville, 132; Cincinnati, 235.

From Wheeling, Va., to Wooster, O. — To Martinsville, 2 miles; Mt Pleasant, 12; Harrisville, 18; Georgetown, 21; Cadiz, 27; Deersville, 39; Wicksville, 51; New Philadelphia, 63; Strasburg, 74; Mt. Eaton, 84; Edinburg, 91; Wooster, 97. Fare $4.50. Time 29 hours.

From Wheeling, Va., to Mansfield, O. — To Wooster, (see last route,) 97 miles; Ashland, 118; Mansfield, O., 132. Fare $6.00. Time 37 hours.

From Wheeling to Cleveland, O., via Wooster, O. — To Wooster, 97 miles; Jackson, 108; Seville, 123; Medina, 147; Brunswick, 179; Strongsville, 217; Cleveland, 269. Fare from Wooster $2.50; and from Wheeling $6.50. Time 39 hours.

From Wheeling to Maysville, Ky., by stage. — To Zanesville, O., 74 miles; Somerset, 96; Rushville, 104; Lancaster, 114; Tarlton, 129; Kingston, 137; Chilicothe, 147; Bambridge, 165;


Sinking Spring, 180; West Union, 203; Maysville, 221. Fare about $10.00. Time 44 hours.

From Marietta, O., to Zanesville, O. — To Lowell, 12 miles; Waterford, 20; McConnellsville, 40; Blue Rock, 52; Zanesville 64. Fare $3.00; and to Wheeling, Va., $7.00.

From Gallipolis, O., to Columbus, O. — To Rocky Hill, 22 miles; Jackson, 33; Chilicothe, 64; Circleville, 83; Columbus, 109.

Places and Distances on the Ohio Canal from Portsmouth to Cleveland.
To Jasper   26 To Newport 1 192
Waverly 6 32 Evansburg 10 202
Sharonville 4 36 New Comer's Town 4 206
CHILICOTHE 16 52 Salesbury 6 212
Deer Creek 9 61 Babelard 4 216
Circleville 14 75 Trenton 5 221
Broomfleld 8 83 New Castle, (coal bed) 4 225
COLUMBUS 7 90 N. Philadelphia 2 227
Lockburn, (junction of Columbus Feeder) 11 101 Dover 4 231
Columbus and Lancaster road crossing 7 108 Jennings' Bridge 2 233
      Zoar 8 241
      Bolivar 3 244
Waterloo 5 113 Bethlehem 9 253
Carroll 5 113 MASSILLON 6 259
Havensport 2 120 Fulton 9 268
Baltimore 6 126 Clinton 4 272
Millersport, (deep cut) 5 131 New Portage 8 280
Hebron 6 137 AKRON 6 286
NEWARK 9 146 Newberry 3 289
Licking 6 152 Old Portage 3 292
Nasport 9 161 Peninsula 8 300
Frazeesburg 6 167 Boston 3 303
Dresden, (on side cut) 6 173 Tinker's Creek 8 311
Webbsport 2 175 Mill Creek Acq. 4 315
Stillwell's Locks 4 179 CLEVELAND 9 324
Roscoe 10 189      
Hocking Canal, (Branch of the Ohio Canal)
From Portsmouth to the junction of the Hocking Canal at Carroll   105 To Logan 19 133
      Nelsonville 14 147
      Athens 15 162
To Lancaster 9 114      

From Portsmouth, O., to Columbus, by stage — To Lucasville,


12 miles; Piketon, 26; Waverly, 30; Chilicothe, 45; Circleville, 64; S. Bloomfield, 73; Columbus, 90. Fare about $3.50.

Routes From Cincinnati.

(For distances on the Ohio and Mississippi rivers see pages 13, 37.)

From Cincinnati to Frankfort, Ky., by steamboat. — To mouth of Kentucky river, 75 miles; Eagle Creek, 86; Six Mile Creek, 105; Elkhorn, 126; Frankfort, 140. Fare $3.50.

Prom Cincinnati to Nashville, Tenn. — To mouth of Cumberland river, 474 miles; Eddyville, Ky., 524; Canton, 544; Tobacco Port, Tenn., 557; Dover, 575; Palmyra, 605; Clarksville, 620; Nashville, 675. Usual fare $10.00. Time 4 days.

Prom Cincinnati to Pittsburg, 484 miles. Fare about $6.00. Time nearly two days. To Wheeling the fare is $1.00 less.

From Cincinnati to Louisville, Ky., 133 miles. Fare, by regular packet, $2.50. They leave Cincinnati about 10˝o'clock, A. M., and reach Louisville the next morning.

From Cincinnati to Memphis, Tenn., 767 miles. Fare $8.00. Time 3˝ days.

From Cincinnati to St. Louis, Mo., 697 miles. Fare $8.00. Time 3˝days.

From Cincinnati to New Orleans, 1,548 miles. Fare from $12.00 to $15.00. Time about 8 days.

From Cincinnati to Baltimore, 698 miles. Fare $15.00. Time 72 hours.


From Cincinnati to New York, via Lake Erie, 938 miles. Fare about $20.00. Time 60 hours.

From Cincinnati to Boston, via Lake Erie, 993 miles. Fare $24.75. Time 67 hours.

From Cincinnati To Toledo, O., and Lake Erie.
By Miami Canal. To Deep Cut 13 145
To Hamilton 29 Junction 36 181
Middletown 13 42 By Wakash and Earie Canal.
Franklin 6 48 Defiance 9 190
Miamisburg 6 54 Florida 9 109
Dayton 12 66 Napoleon 8 207
By Miami Extension. Damascus 8 207
Troy 21 87 Providence 6 221
Piqua 8 95 Waterville 11 232
Newport 17 112 Maumee 6 238
Minster 9 121 TOLEDO 9 247
St. Mary's 11 132      

Fare, including board, $6.50; without board, $5.00. Time 60 hours. Fare from Cincinnati, by water, to Detroit, Mich., $7.50; to Buffalo, $10.00; to Chicago, $13.00.

From Cincinnati to Fort Wayne and La Fayette, La., by canal.
To Junction, (as in previousroute) 181 To Manhattan 6 264
State Line 18 199 Peru 15 279
Frankfort, Ia. 7 206 Lewisburg 9 288
New Haven 6 212 Logansport 9 297
FORT WAYNE 7 219 Georgetown 9 306
Vermelyas 10 229 Lockport 6 312
Lewis 10 239 Carrollton 5 317
Huntington 5 244 Delphi 5 322
Lagroville 14 258 LAFAYETTE 18 340

Fare $10.00. Time 80 hours.

From Cincinnati to Springfield, by Little Miami Railroad.
To Columbia   4 To Corwin 6 51
Plainville 5 9 Spring Valley 7 58
Milford 5 14 Xenia 7 65
Loveland's 9 23 Yellow Springs 9 74
Deerfield 9 32 SPRINGFIELD 10 84
Freeport 13 45      


From Springfield to Sandusky by Mad River
and Lake Erie Railroad
To Urbana   14 To Tiffin 16 96
West Liberty 10 24 Republic 9 105
Bellefontaine   32 Bellevue 14 119
Kenton 24 56 SANDUSKY CITY 15 134
Cary 24 80 Total from Cincinnati   218

Fare from Cincinnati to Xenia, $1.90; to Springfield, $2.50; to Sandusky City, $6.50; to Buffalo, N. Y., $10.00.

N.B. — Passengers for Buffalo will save $2.00 by purchasing through tickets at Cincinnati.

Stage Routes.

From Cincinnati to Dayton, O. — To Sharon, 12 miles; Chester, 16; Bethany, 20; Monroe, 24; Franklin, 28; Miamisburg, 32; Alexandria, 38; Dayton, 50. Fare $2.00. Time 7 hours.

From Cincinnati to Columbus, O. — To Xenia, (by railroad,) 65 miles; Columbus, 125. Fare $4.50.

From Cincinnati to Wheeling and Pittsburg, via Columbus and Zanesville, O. — To Columbus, 125; Reynoldsburg, 136; Hebron, 152; Gratiot, 167; Zanesville, 179; Cambridge, 203; Fairview, 222; St. Clairsville, 243; Wheeling, 254; Pittsburg, 310. Through fare to Wheeling $10.50; and to Pittsburg $3.00 more.

From Cincinnati to Cleveland, O., via, Wooster. — Columbus, 125; Blendon, 135; Sunbury, 149; Mt. Vernon, 172; Loudonville, 193; Wooster, 212; Jackson, 224; Medina, 236; Strongville, 247; Cleveland, 259. Fare about $10.50. Time 52 hours.

From Cincinnati to Chilicothe, O. — To Milford, 14; Perrentown, 19; Boston, 25; Cynthean, 33; Payetteville, 37; Allinsburg, 45; Hillsborough, 55; Rainsboro, 65; Bainbridge, 73; Bowensville, 79; Chilicotlie, 87. Fare $3.50. Time 18 hours.


From Cincinnati to Lancaster, Ohio. — To Montgomery, 12; Hopkinsville, 24; Morrow, 30; Rochester, 33; Clarksville, 40; Sligo, 45; Wilmington, 55; Sabina, 65; Markes, 71; Washington, 77; New Holland, 87; Williamsport, 93; Circleville, 105; Amanda, 117; Lancaster, 125. Fare $5.00. Time 24 hours.

From Cincinnati, O., to Richmond, Ia. — To Hamilton, 21; Camden, 33; Eaton, 46; Richmond, 61. Fare $2.00. Time 10 hours.

From Cincinnati to Piqua, Ohio. To Reading, 9; Mason, 15; Lebanon, 29; Ridgeville, 35; Centreville, 45; Dayton, 51; Troy, 65; Piqua, 79. Fare $3.00. Time 14 hours.

From. Cincinnati to Indianapolis, capital of Indiana. — To Cheviot, 7; Miami, 14; Harrison, 21; New Trenton, 27; Brookville, 38; Laurel City, 51; Rushville, 68; Burlington, 76; Morristown, 83; Sugar Creek, 94; Indianapolis, 110. Fare about $4.00. Time 22 hours.

COLUMBUS, the capital of the state of Ohio, is situated on the E. bank of the Scioto river, in the centre of Franklin county. It occupies a beautiful slope, just below the confluence of Whetstone river with the Scioto. In 1812 it was a thickly-wooded forest, but now contains a population of about 12,000. The streets are wide, and regularly laid out, and adorned with many fine buildings. From the cupola of the state-house, which is 106 feet high, is obtained a fine panoramic view of the surrounding country. Besides the state buildings, Columbus contains numerous churches, of various denominations, asylums for the deaf and dumb, the blind, and also for lunatics; two well-conducted academies, a theological seminary, &c. The Ohio Penitentiary is located here. Columbus is situated on the National road, and in consequence has become a great thoroughfare for travellers going east or west. A branch of the Ohio canal connects this place with Portsmouth and the Ohio river. Railroads are also in progress to unite it with Cincinnati and with Lake Erie, at two points, — Cleveland and Sandusky City.


Routes from Columbus.

Columbus to Cincinnati, 125 miles. Fare $4.50.

From Columbus to Portsmouth. — To S. Bloomfield, 17; Circleville, 26; Chilicothe, 46; Piketon, 66; Portsmouth, 90. Fare about 83.50. Time 18 hours.

For the route by canal, between the above places, see page 58.

From Columbus to Sandusky City. — To Blendon, 10; Sunbury, 24; Mt. Vernon, 49; Fredericktown, 56; Mansfield, 66; New Haven, 89; Norwalk, 107; Milan, 111; Sandusky City, 128. Fare $4.50. Time 24 hours.

From Columbus to Wooster and Cleveland. — To Mt. Vernon, 49; Loudonville, 70; Wooster, 90; Cleveland, 140. Fare to Wooster $3.50; and to Cleveland $5.50.

From Columbus to Maysville, Ky. — To Circleville, 26; Chilicothe, 46; Sinking Spring, 62; West Union, 85; Maysville,120. Fare $4.50. Time about 24 hours.

From Columbus to Gallipolis. — To Chilicothe, 46; Richmond, 60; Jackson, 76; Gallipolis, 110. Fare about $4.00.

From Columbus to Lancaster. — To Oregon, 10; Lithopolis, 14; Greencastle, 18; Lancaster, 28.

From Columbus to Beaver, Pa. — To Wooster, 90; Massillon, 112; Canton, 120; Osnaburg, 125; Paris, 131; New Garden, 145; New Lisbon, 154; Beaver, 184.

From Columbus to Zanesville, O., and Wheeling, Va. — To Reynoldsburg, 11; Kirkersville, 11; Hebron, 6; Jacktown, 4; Gratiot, 11; Zanesmlle, 11 = 54; Norwich, 12; Concord, &


Cambridge, 9; Washington, 8; Middletown, 6; Fairview, 7; Morristown, 9; St. Clairsville, 9; Wheeling, 11 = 74; total 128 miles. Fare through $6.00. Time 20 hours.

From Columbus to Indianapolis, Ia. — To Jefferson, 14; La Fayette, 22; Brighton, 33; Springfield, 43; Fairfield, 56; Dayton, 68; Eaton, 92; Richmond, 108; Cambridge, 124; Greenfield, 156; Indianapolis, 176. Fare $7.00.

From Indianapolis to St. Louis. — (See page 68.)

From Columbus, O., to Chicago, Ill. — To Bellefontaine, 54; St. Mary's, 96; Willshire, 120; Fort Wayne, Ia., 148; Chicago, Ill., 506.

Zanesville, O., is situated on the E. bank of the Muskingum, and by the course of that river, about 80 miles from Marietta. It is connected with the town on the opposite bank by two excellent bridges. Its location for manufacturing purposes is very superior, as deriving unlimited advantages of water-power from the falls of the river. About 30 manufactories, of various descriptions, are in active operation here. Stone coal is found in great quantities in the neighborhood, and a peculiar kind of clay, suitable for crucibles and earthenware. The National road from Wheeling passes through it, making it a great thoroughfare. By the Muskingum improvements, an intercourse is opened with the Ohio river in the south, and by the Ohio Canal, with Lake Erie in the north. Pop. about 10,000.

Routes from Zanesville, O.

From Zanesville to Columbus. — To Gratiot, 11; Jacktown, 22; Hebron, 26; Kirkersville, 32; Eeynoldsburg, 43; Columbus, 54. Fare $3.00. Time 9 hours.

From Zanesville to Wheeling, Va. — To Norwich, 12; Concord, 15; Cambridge, 24; Washington, 32; Middletown, 38; Fairview


45; Morristown, 54; St. Clairsville, 63; Wheeling, 74. Fare $4.00. Tune 12 hours.

From Zanesville to Wooster, O. — To Dresden, 16; Roscoe and Coshocton, 30; Millersburg, 46; Wooster, 70. Fare $3.50. Time 15 hours.

From Zanesville to Maysville, Ky. —To Uniontown, 9; Somersett, 18; Eushville, 26; Lancaster, 36; Tarlton, 46; Kingston, 61; Chilicothe, 70; Bainbridge, 86 Hillsborough, 100; Maysville, Ky. 144. Fare $7.00. Time 30 hours.

From Zanesville to Marietta. — To Duncan Falls, 8; McConnellsville, 28; Beverly, 46; Lowell, 56; Marietta, 66. Fare $3.00. Time 12 hours.

Stage Routes from Cleveland, O.

(For description of Cleveland, see page 89.)

From Cleveland to Pittsburg, Pa., via Beaver. — To Newburg, 5; Bedford, 10; Hudson, 22; Ravenna, 38; Canfield, 68; Poland, 76; Petersburg, 85; Griersburg, Pa., 94; Beaver, 106; Economy, 116; Alleghany, 132; Pittsburg, 133. Fare $5.00. Time 30 hours.

From Cleveland to Wheeling. — To Wooster, 50; Strasburg, 75; New Philadelphia, 83; Cadiz, 116; Wheeling, 137. Fare $5.00. Time 27 hours.

From Cleveland to Akron is 34 miles. Fare $1.25.

From Cleveland to Zanesville and Marietta — To Wooster, 50; Zanesville, 70; Marietta, 66; total 186.

From Cleveland to Columbus and Portsmouth. — To Wooster, 50; Loudonville, 69; Mt. Vernon, 90; Sunbury, 115; Columbus, 140; Circleville, 26; Chilicothe, 45; Portsmouth, 90; total 230. Fare to Columbus $5.00.


From Cleveland to Portsmouth, by Ohio Canal. — Reverse route on page 58.

From Cleveland to Erie, Pa., and Buffalo, N. Y., (by land.) — To Euclid, 10; Chagrin, 20; Painesville, 30; Unionville, 45; Ashtabula, 61; Conneaut, 76; Elk Creek, 86; Fairview, 93; Erie, 102; Westfield, 132; Fredonia, 147; Cattaraugus, 160; Hamburg, 176; Buffalo, 188.

From Cleveland to Toledo, O. — To Norwalk, 58; Monroeville 64; Bellevue, 73; Lower Sandusky, 89; Perrysburg, 121; Toledo, 133.

From Cleveland to Massillon, O. — To Twinsburg, 18; Akron, 34; Massillon, 54.

From Massillon to Coshocton, via Naver, Bolivar, Zoar, Dover, New Philadelphia, Trenton, Port Washington, and New Comerstown. Distance about 50 miles.

From Sandusky City to Cincinnati, (reverse railroad route from Cincinnati to Sandusky,) see page 60.

From Sandus City to Mansfield, O., (by railroad.) — To Monroeville, 16; Centreville, 27; New Haven, 33; Paris, 36; Shelby, 45; Mansfield, 56. Fare $1.50. Note.This road is being extended to Newark, and is to be opened in the fall of 1849.

Toledo, O., is situated on the W. bank of the Maumee river, near its entrance into Lake Erie; it is also on the Wabash and Erie Canal, and is the eastern terminus of a railroad running into Michigan. Possessing a location with such advantages for carrying on a large trade, it is naturally a thriving place, and is yearly growing in importance. Its population is about 3,000.

Route from Toledo, O., to La Fayetle, Ia., by Wabash and Erie Canal. — To Maumee, 9; Napoleon, 40; Independence, 53;


Defiance, 57; Junction, 66; State Line, 84; Lewistown, Ia., 94; Fort Wayne, 104; Huntington, 129; Wabash, 149; Peru, 163; Logansport, 178; Delphi, 204; La Fayette, 222. Fare, including board, $6.50.

From Toledo, O., to Adrian, Mich., (by railroad.) — To Sylvania, 11; Blissfield, 23; Adrian, 33. Fare $1.00.

From Toledo, O., to Detroit, Mich., (by land.) — To Erie, Mich., 12; Monroe, 22; Brownstown, 41; Detroit, 66.

Routes in Indiana.

From Madison, Ia., to Indianapolis, (by railroad.) — To Lancaster, 10; Dupont, 14; Vernon, 22; Scipio, 31; Elizabethtown, 38; Columbus, 45; Edinburg, 56; Franklin, 66; Greenwood, 76; Indianapolis, 86. Fare $2.50; and from Madison to Cincinnati (by steamboat) $1.50. Note. — The Madison and Indianapolis Railroad is being extended to Peru, on the Wabash, about 60 miles, where it will unite with the Wabash and Erie Canal.

INDIANAPOLIS, the capital of Indiana, is situated on the E. bank of the West Fork of White river. The State-House is one of the handsomest structures in the West; it is modelled somewhat after the Parthenon at Athens. Besides the various state buildings, it contains several schools, churches, a female seminary, stores, &c., and is rapidly coming into notice as a business place. Its inhabitants, generally, are considered both moral and intelligent. In Jan., 1849, it had a population of about 8,000.

From Indianapolis to Terre Haute, Ia. — To Bridgeport, 9; Plainfield, 15; Belleville, 20; Stilesville, 28; Mt. Meridian, 36; Putnamsville, 42; Manhattan, 45; Van Buren, 60; Terre Haute, 72. Fare $3.50. Tune about 15 hours.

From Indianapolis to Williamsport. — To Clermont, 9; Brownsburg


14; Jamestown, 27; Crawfordsville, 44; Hillsboro', 56; Rob Roy, 70; Williamsport, 74. Fare $3.50. Time 15 hours.

From Indianapolis to La Fayette, Ia., via Thorntown. — To Piketon, 9; Rodman's, 15; Lebanon, 27; Thorntown, 36; Frankfort, 48; Huntersville, 61; Dayton, 66; La Fayette, 14. Fare $3.50. Time 15 hours.

From Indianapolis to La Fayette, Ia., via Crawfordsville. — To Crawfordsville, 44; Weatown, 61; La Fayette, 71.

From, Indianapolis to Logansport, Ia. — To Augusta, 9; Eagle Village, 14; Northfield, 18; Kirklin, 30; Michigantown, 40; Burlington, 51; Logansport, 68. Fare $3.50.

From Logansport to South Bend, Ia. — To Metea, 12; Rochester, 24; Sydney, 36; Plymouth, 44; South Bend, 68. Fare $3.50.

From Indianapolis to Columbus, O. — To Cambridge, 52; Richmond, 68; Eaton, 84; Dayton, 110; Springfield, 135; Columbus, 178. Fare $8.50. Time about 36 hours.

From Indianapolis to St. Louis, Mo. — To Terre Haute, 72; Marshall, 88; Greenup, 116; Ewington, 148; Vandalia, 173; Greenville, 193; Hickory Grove, 202; Troy, 222; Collinsville, 227; St. Louis, 240. Fare $10.00. Time 48 hours.

From Indianapolis to Cincinnati, O., via Lawrenceburg. — To Shelbyville, 26; Greensburg, 46; Napoleon, 58; Manchester, 78; Lawrenceburg, 86; Elizabethtown, 91; Cincinnati, 111. Fare $5.00.

From Indianapolis to Cincinnati, via Brookville, Ia. — To Morristown, 24; Rushville, 38; Somerset, 54; Brookville, 69; Harrison, 87; Cincinnati, 112. Fare $5.00.


From Indianapolis to Fredonia. — To Farwest, 16; Martinsville, 29; Bloomington, 48; Marysville, 67; Bedford, 76; Orleans, 92; Paoli, 100; Milltown, 118; Leavenworth, 128; Fredonia, 132. Fare $6.00.

From Indianapolis to Winchester, Ia. — To Allisonville, 10; Noblesville, 21; Strawtown, 28; Andersontown, 42; Yorktown, 55; Muncietown, 61; Windsor, 67; Winchester, 76.

From Indianapolis to Richmond, Ia. — To Greenfield, 20; Lewisville, 42; Cambridge, 52; Centreville, 62; Richmond, 68.

From Evansville to Terre Haute, via Vincennes, Ia. — To Saundersville, 10; Princeton, 28; Vincennes, 51; West Union, 65; Carlisle, 73; Merom, 84; Terre Haute, 114.

Vincennes, Ia., is, after Kaskaskia, the oldest place in the West. It was settled in 1735, by French emigrants from Canada. They fixed themselves here in a beautiful, rich, and isolated spot, in the midst of the deserts of the new world. For an age they had little intercourse with other people than savages. Their interests, pursuits, and feelings, were identified with them. Their descendants are now reclaimed from their savage propensities; and have the characteristic vivacity, amiableness, and politeness of the French people everywhere. It is distant 150 miles above the mouth of the Wabash, and 54 from the nearest point of the Ohio. It is situated contiguous to a beautiful and extensive prairie, and was for some time the seat of the state government. Its population is about 1,800.

Route from Vincennes to New Albany. — To Washington, 21; Mt. Pleasant, 37; Columbiaville, 45; Paoli, 61; Fredericksburg, 79; Greenville, 95; New Albany, 109. Fare $5.00.

From Vincennes to Evansville, Ia. — To Princeton, 25; Sandersville, 42; Evansville, 52.


From Vincennes to Indianapolis. — To Terre Haute, 63; Van Buren, 75; Mt. Meridian, 100; Belleville, 117; Indianapolis, 137.

From Vincennes to St. Louis, Mo. — To Lawrenceville, 10; Prairietown, 22; Maysville, 45; Salem, 80; Carlisle, 104; Lebanon, 129. St. Louis, 152. Fare $7.50. Time 30 hours.

From Vincennes to Logansport. — To Terre Haute, 63; Clinton, 77; Montezuma, 87; Newport, 95; Perryville, 119; Covington, 126; Portland, 133; Attica, 141; La Fayette, 165; Battle Ground, 173; Delphi, 184; Tiptonsport, 192; Amsterdam, 200; Logansport, 209.

New Harmony, Ia., is 54 miles below Vincennes, and a little more than 100 miles, by water, above the mouth of the Wabash. It is situated on the E. bank of the river, 16 miles from the nearest point of the Ohio, on a wide and rich plateau, or second bottom. It is high, healthy, has a fertile soil, and is in the vicinity of small and rich prairies; and is, on the whole, a pleasant and well-chosen position. It was first settled in 1814, by a religious sect of Germans, denominated Harmonists. They were emigrants from Germany, and settled first on Beaver creek, in Pennsylvania. They moved in a body, consisting of 800 persons, to this place. Their spiritual and temporal leader was George Rapp; and all the lands and possessions were held in his name. In their order, industry, neatness, and perfect subordination, they resembled the Shakers. Their lands were laid off with the most perfect regularity, and were at right angles, and as square as could be made. In a short time they had converted a wilderness into a garden. After living and laboring in common, in profound peace, for some years, their eyes were at length turned from the rich fields and prairies of the Wabash towards Beaver creek, the place of their first settlement. At this time Mr. Robert Owen, of New Lanark, in Scotland, a professed philosopher of a new school, who advocated new principles and took new views of society, which he called "the social system," made his appearance here, and being a man of fortune, was resolved


to make an experiment of his principles, on a grand scale, upon the Wabash. He accordingly purchased the village of New Harmony, including the lands of Geo. Rapp, at an expense of $190,000. In a short time about 800 persons were received into this new establishment. Their amusements were in common: one night in each week was set apart for dancing, and another for music. The Sabbath was occupied in the delivery of philosophical lectures.

This society, for some time, created a great deal of interest and remark in every part of the United States. After remaining at New Harmony about a year Mr. Owen returned to Europe. On the 4th July, 1826, he promulgated his famous declaration of "mental independence." The existence of this society was but of short duration, for it was finally abandoned.

Route from New Harmony to Vincennes. — To Owensville, 22; Princeton, 31; Patoka, 35; Vincennes, 55. Fare $2.00.

From New Harmony to Mt. Vernon is 16 miles. Fare 50 cts.

From New Harmony to Indianapolis. — To Vincennes, 55; Terre Haute, 118; Indianapolis, 190. Fare $7.50.

From Terre Haute to Indianapolis. — Reverse route from Indianapolis to Terre Haute. (See page 69.)

From Terre Haute to Vandalia, III., and to St. Louis, Mo. — (See route from Indianapolis to St. Louis, page 68.)

From La Fayette to Indianapolis. — Reverse route from Indianapolis to La Fayette. (See page 68.)

Routes in Illinois.

Route from Shawneetown, III, to St. Louis, Mo. — To Equality


14; Frankfort, 48; Mt. Hawkins, 78; Nashville, 101; Belleville, 137; St. Louis, 152.

From Shawneetown to Vincennes, Ia. — To New Haven, 17; Concord, 24; Carmi, 32; Phillipstown, 41; Graysville, 49; Mt. Carmel, 67; Armstrong, 77; Vincennes, 96. Fare $4.

From Shawneetown to Vandalia and Springfield, Ill. — Reverse route from Springfield to Shawneetown. (See page 73.)

Kaskaskia, Ill., is the seat of justice for the county, and situated on an extensive plain, eleven miles from the mouth of the river, on which it stands, and six miles from the nearest point of the Mississippi. This town was one of the first establishments made by the French in the valley of the Mississippi. Formerly it was a place of great importance. A more beautiful situation for a town can hardly be imagined. It is the centre of a beautiful and gently sloping basin, on a fine navigable stream, and in the midst of a country proverbial for its fertility. Population about 1,500.

Route from Kaskaskia to St. Louis, Mo., and Alton, III. — To Prairie de Rocher, 14; Waterloo, 35; Columbia, 43; Cahokia, 53; St. Louis, 56; Alton, 88.

From Kaskaskia to Vincennes. — To Sparta, 18; Elkhorn, 34; Nashville, 40; Walnut Hill, 60; Salem, 72; Cato, 90; Maysville, 107; Olney, 123; Prairietown, 133; Lawrenceville, 146; Vincennes, 155.

From Vandalia, III., to St. Louis, Mo. — To Greenville, 20; Hickory Grove, 28; Troy, 48; Collinsville, 55; St. Louis, 68. Fare $3.00. Time 17 hours.

From Vandalia to Terre Haute, Ia. — Reverse route from Terre Haute to Vandalia. (See page 71.)


From Vandalia to Springfield, III. — Reverse route from Springfield to Shawneetown, via Vandalia. (See 3d route below.)

SPRINGFIELD, the capital of Illinois, is situated near the centre of the state, and is the seat of justice for Sangamon county. It is a flourishing and beautiful town, lying upon the confines of a rich and cultivated prairie, and is about four miles south of the Sangamon river. It contains a fine state-house, and other public buildings, schools, manufactories, &c, and a population of about 5,000.

Route from Springfield, III., to Quincy, via Jacksonville. — By railroad to Berlin, 12; Jacksonville, 32; Bethel, 44; Naples, 63. By stage to Quincy, 65; total 108.

From Springfield to St. Louis, Mo. — To Auburn, 15; Girard, 25; Carlinville, 37; Lincoln, 56; Edwardsville, 71; St. Louis, 91. Fare $4.50.

From Springfield to Vandalia and Shawneetown, III. — To Zanesville, 27; Hillsboro', 56; Vandalia, 73; Salem, 97; Mt. Vernon, 117; Shawneetown, 182. Fare about $7.00.

From Springfield to Terre Saute, Ia. — To Rochester, 10; Taylorsville, 25; Shelbyville, 56; Paradise, 74; Charleston, 88; Paris, 118; Terre Haute, 144. Fare $7.00.

From Springfield, Ill., to La Fayette, Ia. — To Decatur, 40; Monticello, 64; North Bend, 76; Urbanna, 90; Danville, 123; Covington, Ia., 140; La Fayette, 178.

From Springfield to Peoria, Ill. — To Delevan, 45; Pekin, 63; Peoria, 69.

From Springfield to Rushville, Ill., and to Burlington, Iowa. — To Richland, 10; Lancaster, 24; Virginia, 34; Beardstown, 47; Rushville, 59; Macomb, 84; Burlington, 123.


From Springfield to Chicago. — Reverse route from Chicago to Springfield. (See page 96.)

For description of Chicago, Ill., and routes therefrom, see pages 93, 95.

Route frmn Peoria, Ill., to Knoxville and Oquawka, Ill. — To Charleston, 22; Trenton, 38; Knoxville, 44; Salesburg, 49; Monmouth, 63; Oquawka, 82. Fare from Peoria to Knoxville, $2.00; and from Knoxville to Oquawka, and Burlington, Iowa, $2.00; total $4.00.

From Peoria to Ottawa, via Hennepin. — To Chilicothe, 19; Lacon, 32; Henry, 38; Hennepin, 52; Peru, 67; Ottawa, 81.

From Quincy to Peoria, Ill., via Rushville. — To Columbus, 15; Mt. Sterling, 37; Rushville, 53; Lewiston, 83; Canton, 96; Peoria, 122.

Routes in Missouri.

Routes From St. Louis, Mo., By Land.

(For routes on Mississippi and Ohio rivers see pages 13, 37.)

From St Louis to St. Charles, Hannibal, and St. Francisville, Mo. — To St. Charles, 21 miles; Flint Hall, 45; Troy, 55; Auburn, 65; Bowling Green, 87; Frankfort, 101; Hannibal, 118; Palmyra, 130; La Grange, 148; Monticello, 162; St. Francisvile, 188.

From St. Louis to Jefferson City, Mo., via Mt. Sterling. — To Manchester, 20; Union, 55; Mt. Sterling, 95; Lisle, 118; Jefferson City, 128.

From St. Louis to Jefferson City, via St. Charles and Fulton. — To St. Charles, 21 miles; Hickory Grove, 51; Danville, 85; Fulton, 110; Broomfield, 121; Jefferson City, 132.

From St. Louis to Independence, Mo. — To Jefferson City, (as in


the two previous routes,) 128; Marion, 143; Booneville, 32; La Mine, 153; Arrow Rock, 165; Marshall, 180; Lexington, 225; Wellington, 238; Ft. Osage, 252; Independence, 264.

From St. Louis to Fort Leavenworth. — To St. Charles, 21; Gallatin, 42; Warrenton, 59; Danville, 82; Fulton, 107; Columbia, 131; Fayette, 156; Glasgow, 169; Keytesville, 187; Carrollton, 219; Richmond, 249; Liberty, 278; Fort Leavenworth, 313.

From St. Louis to Potosi and Caledonia. — To Jefferson Barracks, 9; Herculaneum, 30; Hillsboro', 42; Potosi, 66; Caledonia, 78.

From Hannibal to Glasgow, Mo. — To Saline, 18; Florida, 33; Paris, 44; Madison, 56; Huntsville, 75; Glasgow, 98.

From Jefferson City to Warsaw, Mo. — To Versailles, 42; Cole Camp, 66; Warsaw, 82.

Distances and names of places between St. Louis and Fort Leavenworth,
and also the Mouth of the Yellow Stone, by steamboat
To Cabris Island   3 To Arrow Rock 15 219
Chouteau's Island 7 10 Chariton 16 235
Mouth of Wood River 5 15 Mouth of Grand River 26 261
Missouri River 3 18 Lexington 50 311
St. Charles 22 40 Blayton 18 329
New Port 46 86 Fort Osage 13 342
Pinkney 7 93 Liberty 18 360
Mouth of Gasconade R 21 114 Mouth of Kansas River 15 375
Portland 10 124 Mouth of Little Platte R. 12 387
Mouth of Osage River 21 145 Fort Leavenworth 38 425
JEFERSON CITY 9 154 Rialto 3 428
Marion 16 170 Weston 7 435
Nashville 10 180 St. Joseph 15 450
Rocheport 14 194 Fort Pierre 1010 1460
Booneville 10 204 Mouth of Yellow Stone 403 1863
Route from St. Louis, via Fort Leavenworth, to Sutter's Fort, California,
with distances between important points on the route.
To Fort Leavenworth   425 To Big Island 35 709
Blue River 249 674 Forks of River Platte 105 814


To South Fork 77 891 To Soda Springs 63 1491
Ash Hollow 20 911 Fort Hail 70 1561
Fort Laramie 115 1026 Oregon road on Snake R. 43 1604
Waters of the Platte 91 1117 Junction of Old Road and Lake Mary 180 1784
Sweet Water 147 1264
Big Sandy 26 1290 Sink of Mary's River 255 2039
Green River 46 1336 Cannibal Cabins 120 2159
Ham's Fork 30 1365 Johnson's Station 108 2267
Smith's Fork on Bear R. 63 1428 Sutter's 40 2307
Route from St. Louis to Santa Fe.
To Independence, Mo., (by land,) see route page 74, 75.   264 To Cimarrone River 58 714
Cold Spring 85 799
Rabbit-ear Creek 45 844
Narrows 65 329 Rio Colorado 55 899
Council Grove 86 415 Rio Mora 50 949
Cottonwood Creek 42 457 San Miguel 43 992
Arkansas River 77 534 Pecos Village 24 1016
Caches 102 036 SANTA FE 25 1041
Port Arkansas 20 656      
From St. Louis to Oregon, through Pass in the Rocky Mountains.
By Steamboat. To St. Charles   40 To South Pass, (Fremont's) 110 1244
Gasconade River 74 114 Green River 69 1313
Osage River 32 146 Beer Springs 191 1504
Jefferson City 10 156 Fort Hall 50 1554
Booneville 53 209 American Falls 22 1576
Lexington 100 309 Fishing Falls 125 1701
Independence 61 370 Lewis River Crossing 40 1741
Kansas River Landing 12 382 Fort Boisse 130 1871
By Land. Burnt River 70 1941
Kansas River Crossing 75 457 Grand Ronde 68 2009
Platte River 220 677 Fort Wala Wala 90 2099
Forks of River 15 692 Umatillah River 25 2124
Chimney Rock 155 847 John Day's River 70 2194
Scott's Bluff 22 869 Falls River 20 2214
Fort Laramie 60 929 The Dalles 20 2234
Red Butter 155 1084 Cascades 45 2279
Rock Independence 50 1134 Fort Vancouver 55 2334
      Astoria 100 2434
From St. Louis to Council Bluff, on Missouri River, by steamboat.
To Fort Leavenworth, as in previous routes   425 To Little Nemahaw River 12 579
Weston 9 434 Fair Sun Island 16 595
St. Joseph 60 494 Lower Oven Island 12 607
Nodaway River 14 508 Upper Oven Island 4 611
Wolf River 16 524 Five Barrel Island 12 623
Great Nemahaw River 18 542 Platte River 15 638
Nishnebotna River 25 567 Bellevue Trading-house 12 650
      COUNCIL BLUFF 40 690


Routes in Kentucky.

FRANKFORT, the capital of Kentucky, is situated on the E. bank of the Kentucky river, 60 miles above its entrance into the Ohio. The site of the town is a deep valley, surrounded by precipitous hills. The river flows in deep limestone banks; the quarries of which yield a fine stone, or marble, of which many of the houses are built. It contains a statehouse, courthouse, and other official buildings, with many handsome private dwellings, and a population of about 3,000.

From Frankfort to Madison, Ia. — To New Castle, 25; to the Ohio river, and across to Madison, 53. Fare $3.00. To Indianapolis from the latter place, see page 67.

From Frankfort to the Harrodsburg Springs, Ky., and to Nashville, Tenn. — To Lawrenceburg, 12; Harrodsburg and Springs, 30; Perryville, 40; Lebanon, 60; New Market, 66; Greensburg, 80; Monroe, 93; Glasgow, 113; Scottsville, 136; State Line, 145; Gallatin, Tenn., 172; Henderson, 182; Nashville, 196. Fare about $10.00.

From Frankfort to Louisville. — To Shelbyville, 23; Louisville, 54. Fare about $3.00.

From Frankfort to Somerset. — To Harrodsburg, 30; Danville, 41; Stanford, 60; Waynesburg, 75; Somerset, 95.

From Frankfort to Cincinnati. — To Georgetown, 17; and to Cincinnati, see route from Lexington to Cincinnati, page 76.

From Frankfort to Lexington, by railroad. — To Midway, 14; and to Lexington, 28. Fare $1.25.

The Drennon Springs are situated hi Henry Co., Ky., one mile and a half from the Kentucky river, and 20 miles from its mouth. At these springs may be found every variety of sulphur-water


and chalybeate. They can be readily reached from Frankfort, Louisville, and Cincinnati, by steamboats which run to and from the springs daily, during the season.

LEXINGTON, Ky., is situated in the centre of a rich district of country. The scenery in the vicinity is beautiful, and few towns have a more delightful situation. It has an air of neatness, opulence, and repose, which is pleasing to the eye of a stranger. It is watered by a branch of the Elkhorn, which runs through the town. The main street is perhaps a mile and a half in length, with a width of 80 feet; it is handsomely paved, and has on it many splendid buildings. In the centre is a public square, containing a market-house, which is amply supplied from the surrounding country. Pop. about 10,000.

From Lexington to Cincinnati. — To Georgetown, 12; Fishville, 22; Williamstown, 47; Crittenden, 58; Walton, 66; Florence, 74; Covington, 83; Cincinnati, 84. Fare about $5.50.

From Lexington, to Knoxville, Tenn. — To Richmond, 24; Mershom's, 62; London, 70; Barboursville, 96; Cumberland Ford, 112; Cumberland Gap, 126; Tazewell, 138; Rutledge, 159; Knoxville, 192.

From Lexington to Nashville, Tenn. — To Nicholasville, 12; Harrodsburg, 31; Lebanon, 59; Campbellsville, 67; Monroe, 91; Blue Spring Grove, 100; Glasgow, 113; Scottsville, 138; State Line, 147; Gallatin, 168; Nashville, 194.

For description of Louisville, see page 26.

From Louisville, Ky., to Nashville, Tenn. — To West Point, 21; Elizabethtown, 42; Leesville, 65; Munfordsville, 72; Three Forks, 88; Dripping Spring, 97; Bowling Green, 110; Franklin, 130; State Line, 140; Nashville, 175. Fare about $10.00.

From Louisville to Frankfort and Lexington. — To Middletown, 12; Shelbyville, 31; Frankfort, 54; and by railroad to Lexington, 82. Fare 84.25.


From Louisville to Bardstown. — To Mt. Washington, 22; Bardstown, 40. Fare $2.50.

From Maysville, Ky., to Lexington. — To Washington, 4; May's Lick, 12; Ellisburg, 24; Millersburg, 36; Paris, 43; Lexington, 61. Fare $8.50.

From Gatlettsburg, Ky., to Lexington and Frankfort. — To Little Sandy, 24; Olive Hill, 35; Triplett, 53; Owingsville, 77; Jit. Sterling, 90; Winchester, 105; Lexington, 125; Frankfort, 153.

From Henderson, Ky., to Nashville, via Clarksville. — To Carlow, 20; Madisonville, 31; Hopkinsville, 63; Clarksville, 88; Fredonia, 99; Nashville, 134.

From Hopkinsville to Columbus, Ky. — To Cadiz, 20; Canton, 28; Aurora, 38; Wadesboro', 50; Mayfield, 70; Columbus, 100.

Description of the Mammoth Cave in Kentucky.

This cave, one of the most stupendous works of nature, is situated in Edmondson county, Kentucky, about 130 miles from the capital of the state, and about midway between Louisville and Nashville, and in the immediate vicinity of Green river. This cave has already been explored a distance of about 18 miles, and even that is believed to be scarcely a beginning of its vast extent. It is said to contain 226 avenues, 47 domes, numerous rivers, 8 cataracts, and 23 pits, some of which possess so great a degree of grandeur as completely to beggar description. The atmosphere of the cave is extremely serviceable to invalids, particularly those afflicted with pulmonary complaints, to whom it not unfrequently proves beneficial. It has also become a very attractive place for visiters, who here find excellent accommodations in a large and magnificent hotel, near the cave, where guides are furnished, and every necessary direction given to those who are desirous of exploring this great work of nature. On approaching the cave, which is reached by rather a lonely


road, the chilliness of the air, as it issues from it, at first produces quite a sensation. It is entered by descending several steps, when the visiter finds himself fairly within this underground house of nature. All is now darkness and gloom, and the first impulse is to retrace one's steps, and to come once more into the light of day. We now obtain a light, and following our guide reach the rotunda, which is some distance from the mouth of the cave, and lies immediately under the dining-room of the hotel. It covers about half an acre of ground, and is not less than 30 feet high. The church is a spacious hall, large enough to seat 5,000 person. It derives its name from a ledge of rocks close by, resembling a pulpit, and is about three-quarters of a mile from the mouth of the cave. On leaving the church we enter the Gothic Avenue, ascending a flight of steps some 20 feet. A short distance within is a place called the Haunted Chamber, so named from the fact that in 1813 two Indian mummies were found here in a state of great preservation. On proceeding to the Gothic Chapel of the avenue, we shall observe large pillars, as if supporting


the roof, composed of stalactites, and polished as if by human industry. Near by is the Devil's Arm-Chair, which is formed by a natural excavation resembling a seat. At the end of the Gothic Avenue is Ammett's Dome, which is very splendid; it is about two and a half miles from the mouth of the cave.

Goran's Dome is the lowest place in the cave, being 620 feet from the surface to the bottom; it is, when illuminated, a very imposing sight. The Bottomless Pit is a dismal-looking place, about two miles from the entrance of the cave. "There are two ways to descend to the bottom of this pit. One is to be let down by a rope part of the way, and then making a meander to one side, climb down a steep ledge of rocks, nearly perpendicular, the balance of the way. It can be descended into by winding round a narrow, steep passage, without the use of the rope, and thus reach the bottom, where you would land by being let down by the rope. Either way is difficult, but the last-named is the most difficult."

The first appearance of the river, is a hole apparently sunk in at one side of the cave. This is termed the Dead Sea, yet is a part of the river. A short distance from it is a place called the River Styx. Here the water passes across the cave, and the ground over it is called the Natural Bridge. A little beyond is the main river, called Lake Leaf. There is a passage leading a short distance, and entering the river, some 80 yards above the boat-landing in the main cave. About two miles from the river is Martha's Vineyard, so called from its having its tops and sides covered with lime formation, in bunches resembling grapes. This place, when lighted, presents a beautiful appearance. Between the vineyard and the white lime formations, (the walltop and floor of the latter covered with sulphate of lime as white as snow, and almost as brilliant as diamonds,) the visiter passes through and by ravines, halls, &c., the beauties of some of which exceed description. They are the Cleveland Cabinet, Spear Hall, Snowball Ravine, Knox's Monument, Flora's Garden, Angelia's Grotto, Mary's Cabinet, Mary's Bower, etc., &c. The Snowball Ravine is one of the most beautiful places imaginable: the whole is covered with sulphate of lime, resembling flowering balls. One who has seen them says:— "I feel that I would do it great injustice, even to attempt to convey the most


distant idea of the beauty and grandeur of this part of the cave. To say the least of it would be to say, that it appears that the Creator of this terrestrial globe had here done his master-piece of work, in the creation of this part of the cave. Every description of edifice is here described with beauty and grandeur, from the small hut to the city palace."

After leaving the lime formations the visiter will approach the Rocky Mountains. This is a very large apartment, where the rooks have fallen from the top of the avenue, forming in the cave a very large hill or mountain of rocks, some 100 feet or more high, and is very steep and rough. To stand on its top and look down at the hollow beneath, is the most solemn and dismal sight ever beheld. Its name, Dismal Hollow, is very appropriate. After leaving this latter place we approach the end of the cave, to arrive at which we go down a steep and easy descent, to what is called Serena's Harbor, which is filled with large stalactites. There are other places of deep interest, which the beholder will view with admiration and awe: the limits of our work, however, will not permit us to extend our description farther. We would say, in conclusion, that to see merely what we have described, would occupy a space of two or three days.

Routes to the Mammoth Gave, Ky. — This cave can be readily reached from Cincinnati, Louisville, Frankfort, and Lexington, Ky., in the north, and from Nashville, Tenn., in the south. The accommodations will be found, during the travelling season, to be very good from either place, and fares moderate. Steamboats, also, during seasons of high water, ascend Green river a distance of about 165 miles from the Ohio, landing in the vicinity of the cave. It is about 130 miles from Lexington, 98 from the Harrodsburg Springs, and about 90 from Louisville, and the same distance from Nashville, Tenn.

Routes in Tennessee.

NASHVILLE, the capital of the state of Tennessee, and the most important town in the commonwealth, is pleasantly situated on the south side of Cumberland river, and at the head of steamboat


navigation. The site of the town consists of an entire rock, covered in some places by a thin soil, and elevated from 50 to 175 feet above the river. This place, owing to its healthy location, is the resort of numbers from the lower country during the heat of summer. A number of steamboats of the first class are owned here, which ply at regular intervals between Nashville and Cincinnati, and other places. It has a number of handsome buildings, both public and private, and contains a population of about 16,000 souls.

A railroad is in progress from Nashville to Chattanooga, about 150 miles, being a continuation of the lines extending from the seaboard at two points — Charleston and Savannah — and pervading the states of South Carolina and Georgia; thereby, on its completion, opening to the trade of Nashville the above important seaports.

From Nashville to the Harrodsburg Springs and Frankfort, Ky. — Reverse route from Frankfort. (See page 77.)

From Nashville to Lexington, Ky. — Reverse route from Lexington. (See page 77.)

From Nashville to Louisville, Ky. — Reverse route from Louisville. (See page 76.)

From Nashville to Cincinnati, by water. — Reverse route from Cincinnati. (See page 59.)

From Nashville to Memphis, Tenn., via Columbia. — To Franklin, 18; Columbia, 42; Mt. Pleasant, 53; Catron, 73; Ashland, 85; Carrollsville, 100; Savannah, 118; Purdy, 135; Bolivar, 167; New Castle, 179; Somerville, 190; Oakland, 200; Raleigh, 225; Memphis, 235.

From Nashville to Memphis, via Reynoldsburg and Jackson. — To Chesnut Grove, 18; Charlotte, 40; Waverley, 62; Reynoldsburg, 71; Camden 81; Huntingdon, 101; South Carroll, 117;


Jackson, 137; Bolivar, 165; New Castle, 177; Somerville, 188; Oakland, 198; Kaleigh, 223; Memphis, 233.

For description of Memphis see page 48; and for the route from Memphis to Atlanta, Ga., and Charleston, &c., see page 119.

From Nashville to Knoxville, Term. — To Green Hill, 13; Lebanon, 30; Alexandria, 48; Smithville, 65; Sparta, 87; Crossville, 115; Kingston, 147; Knoxville, 187.

Knoxville is the county-seat of Knox Co., Tennessee; it is situated on the right bank of Holston river, a few miles from where it is joined by the French Broad river. It is at the head of steamboat navigation, and with the exception of the obstruction at the Muscle Shoals, on the Tennessee river, (which is obviated by a railroad from Decatur to Tuscumbia,) has an intercourse by steam with the Ohio and other rivers. By the road extending from Chattanooga, on the Tennessee, about 130 miles below by the course of the river, it has a communication with Charleston and Savannah, both on the Atlantic coast. A railroad is in progression from Knoxville to unite with these thoroughfares at Chattanooga.

The University of Eastern Tennessee is located here. It contains a library of about 4,000 volumes. Population of Knoxville about 2,000, and steadily increasing.

From Knoxville, Tenn., to the Warm Springs and Asheville, N. G. — To Dandridge, 30; Newport, 48; Warm Springs, 74; Asheville, 110.

From Nashville, to Tuscumbia, Ala. — To Franklin, 18; Columbia, 42; Mt. Pleasant, 53; Lawrenceburg, 75; Florence, Ala., 112; Tuscumbia, 117.

From Nashville to Huntsville, Ala. — To Stewartsboro', 20; Murfreesboro', 34; Shelbyville, 60; Lynchburg, 78; Fayetteville, 8G; Huntsville, 116.


From Nashville to Winchester, Tenn. — To Murfreesboro', 34; Manchester, 68; Hillsboro', 76; Winchester, 96. From Murfreesboro' there is another route, via Shelbyville and Davidsonville, 94 miles.

Winchester is the county-seat of Franklin Co., Tennessee, and is a beautiful village, handsomely laid out, and situated on the Boiling Fork, a clear stream, and a branch of Elk river, a tributary of the Tennessee. It contains about 1,200 inhabitants, two churches, Presbyterian and Methodist, and also a flourishing Male and Female Academy.

From Nashville to Lebanon is 30 miles.

Lebanon is a delightful little village, of about 1,800 inhabitants, situated in Wilson county, Tennessee, of which it is the seat of justice. It is six miles S. of the Cumberland river, and surrounded by a fine country, with good roads diverging from it in every direction. Lebanon contains three churches; Cumberland Presbyterian, Methodist, and Baptist. The Sons of Temperance have erected here a new and splendid hall, 78 feet long, 40 wide, and 30 high. The Cumberland University, which was located here in 1842, had, during the session of 1848, 144 students, and is daily on the increase. There is also here a flourishing Male and Female Academy, and a Law and Medical School, which are prosperously conducted. A large manufacturing establishment for cotton, wool, &c., went into operation here in the beginning of the year 1849, having a capital of about $150,000.

From Nashville to McMinnville, Tenn. — To Stewartsboro', 20; Murfreesboro', 34; Woodbury, 54; McMinnville, 75 miles.

Murfreesboro' was formerly the capital of the state: it is centrally situated, and contains a population of about 1,500.

From Jonesboro' to Knoxville, Tenn. — To Greenville, 25; Morristown, 58; Knoxville, 102 miles.

From Jonesboro', Tenn., to Abingdon, Va. — To Blountsville, 19; Abingdon, 42.


From Jonesboro' to the Warm Springs, N. C. — To Greenville, 25; Warm Springs, 50.

Routes in Arkansas.

LITTLE ROCK, the capital of the state of Arkansas, is situated on the s. side of the Arkansas river, on a high bluff rising 150 feet above the river. It contains the usual state buildings, and about 2,000 inhabitants.

Route from Little Rock to Fort Smith and Fort Gibson. — To Lewisburg, 45; Pt. Remove, 52; D wight, 76; Scotia, 82; Clarksville, 98; Horse Head, 109; Ozark, 121; Pleasant Hill, 135; Van Buren, 160; Fort Smith, 165; Fort Gibson, 231 miles.

From Little Rock to Batesville, Ark. — To Oakland Grove, 80; Searcy, 50; Batesville, 95.

From Batesville to Hix's Ferry. — To Sulphur Springs, 10; Smithville, 35; Jackson, 50; Hix's Ferry, 80 miles.

from Little Rock to Helena, Ark. — To Big Prairie, 25; Bock Roe, 38; Lawrenceville, 48; Lick Creek, 76; Helena, 91 miles.

From Little Rock to Napoleon, Ark. — To Pine Bluff, 50; Richland, 72; Arkansas Post, 118; Wellington, 133; Napoleon, 148.

From Little Rock to Columbia, Ark. — To Pine Bluff, 50; Bartholomew, 120; Columbia, 145 miles.

From Little Rock to Memphis, Tenn. — To Clarendon, 65; St. Francis, 115; Marion, 145; Mississippi River, 154; Memphis, 155 miles.

From Little Rock to Fulton, Ark. — To Benton, 24; Rockport,


55; Raymond, 80; Greenville, 93; Washington, 129; "Fulton" and Red River, 144.

The Hot Springs, Arkansas, are situated a few miles N. of the Washita river. This place derives importance from the great virtue of the medicinal waters in this vicinity, and is now becoming every season more popular. Its waters have been found efficacious in chronic diseases, such as scrofula, rheumatism, &c. Visitors will find every accommodation here at Mitchell's hotel, the proprietor having made every arrangement for the accommodation of invalids, both summer and winter. The price of board at this establishment is $25 per month, $8.00 per week, or $1.50 per day.

A line of stages runs between Little Rock and the Springs, 53 miles, twice a week, Monday and Friday mornings. Fare $5.00.

Routes Through the Northwestern States.

THE GREAT LAKES. — We here give the dimensions of what are termed the great lakes, derived from an official source.

Lake Ontario is 180 miles long, its greatest width 52 miles, its average width 40 miles, and greatest depth 550 feet.

Lake Erie is 240 miles long, its greatest width 57 miles, its average width 38 miles, and greatest depth 265 feet.

Lake St. Clair is 18 miles long, its greatest width 25 miles, its average width 12 miles.

Lake Huron is 270 miles long, its greatest width (not including the extensive bay of Georgian, itself 120 miles long, and averaging 45 wide) is 105 miles, its average width 70 miles, and its greatest depth 950 feet.

Lake Michigan is 340 miles long, its greatest width 83 miles, its average width 58 miles, and greatest depth 850 feet.

Lake Superior is 420 miles long, its greatest width 135 miles, its average width 100 miles, and greatest depth 900 feet.

The entire line of lake coast is 5,000 miles, of which 2,000 constitute the coast of a foreign power.

Lake Ontario is connected with Lake Erie by means of the


Welland Canal through Canada, and also by the Oswego and Erie canals through the state of New York. Lake Erie is connected with Lake St. Clair by the deep and navigable strait of Detroit, 25 miles long. Lake St. Clair is connected with Lake Huron by the navigable strait of St. Clair, 32 miles long. Lake Huron is connected with Lake Michigan by the deep and wide strait of Mackinaw, and with Lake Superior by the strait of St. Mary's, 46 miles long.

Routes W. and W. W. From Buffalo, W. Y.

Route from Buffalo to Detroit and Chicago. — Steamboats leave Buffalo for Detroit and other places on Lake Erie, and also for the great Upper Lakes and Chicago, daily, during the season of navigation.

The following is a table of the places on the route, with their intermediate and general distances from Buffalo:—

To Dunkirk, N. Y.   45 To Fort Gratiot 72 402
Erie, Pa. 45 90 Thunder Bay Is. 150 552
Conneaut, O. 30 120 Presque Isle 78 630
Ashtabula, O. 15 135 Mackinaw 64 694
Grand River 30 165 Manitou Is. 103 797
Cleveland 29 194 Milwaukie, Wis. 150 947
Huron 46 240 Racine 25 972
Sandusky City 10 250 Southport 14 986
Toledo     CHICAGO, ILL. 561 1042
Detroit, Mich. 80 330      

Erie, Pa., is situated on a bluff affording a fine prospect of Presque Isle Bay, the peninsula which forms it, and the lake beyond. Its harbor, which is four and a half miles long, by half a mile wide, is one of the best on Lake Erie, and is generally free from ice a month earlier than that of Buffalo. The building and equipment of Perry's victorious fleet, in the war of 1812, took place here. In 70 days from the time when the timber of which it was constructed was standing in the forest, it was ready for action. Pop. about 4,000.


CLEVELAND, O., is one of the most important places on the lake; it has a fine situation for commerce, the lakes giving it a ready access to a wide extent of country. During the year 1848 the lake commerce of Cleveland exceeded in value $10,000,000. Its harbor, which is formed by the mouth of Cuyahoga river, is equal to the best on Lake Erie. The appearance of this city, when approached from the water, is somewhat discouraging; especially to one who had been previously informed of its beautiful aspect: he is therefore impressed at first with a feeling of disappointment. This feeling, however, soon changes, on passing through the lower town to an elevated plain, rising 80 feet above the lake, upon which the best part of the city is built. Here the contrast between the upper and lower town will appear so great, as to cause him to utter an involuntary expression of delight. It commands a beautiful and boundless view of the blue waters of Lake Erie, which bounds it on the north; whilst the Cuyahoga river, with its silvery meanderings, may be seen on the west. The streets of Cleveland are very wide, and run, for the most part, at right angles with each other. Many of the stores are handsome, and present a business-like appearance; many of the private dwellings, which are very pretty, are embowered with luxuriant vines, and shaded with trees. The hotels here are very fine, and as a general thing, the traveller will meet with every attention and comfort. The New England House, however, is among the principal, and is not surpassed by any similar establishment in the country. In 1840 the population of Cleveland was 6,071; in 1847 it had increased to 12,769; and in Oct., 1848, (according to the annual census,) it was 13,959, and including East Liberty, 14,234. The number of colored people was 184. The usual fare from Buffalo is $2.00. Time about 16 hours. (For routes from Cleveland see page 65.)

Sandusky City, O., is situated on the s. side of Sandusky Bay, fronting the opening into Lake Erie, three miles distant, of which it has a delightful view. Except during the winter months, its wharves are thronged with steamboats and other lake vessels, arriving and departing continually. Time from Buffalo about 20 hours. (For the railroad route to Cincinnati see page 60.)


Routes in Michigan.

DETROIT, Mich., has a fine situation for trade, being located oa the W. side of Detroit river, on elevated ground, 30 feet above its surface, 7 miles below the outlet of Lake St. Clair, and 18 miles above the w. extremity of Lake Erie. It has alreadv become a great commercial depot, the navigation of the lake and river being open for two-thirds of the year. The population is about 21,500. There are here several excellent hotels; among which are the National, Mansion House, Exchange, Commercial, &c., &c. Board varies from 75 cents to $1.25 per day.

Route from Detroit to Pontiac and Saginaw, Mich. — By railroad to Royal Oak, 12 miles; Birmingham, 18; Pontiac, 25. By stage, from the latter place to Springfield, 12; Flint, 25; Genesee, 30; Thetford, 36; Bridgewater, 48; Saginaw, 57; total 82 miles.

From Detroit to Monroe, Mich., and Toledo, O. — To Brownstown, 26; Brest, 40; Monroe, 45; Toledo, 67.

From Monroe to Hillsdale, Mich. — By railroad to Petersburg, 17; Palmyra, 27; Adrian, 35; Clayton, 44; Oseo, 61; Hillsdale, 70.

From Hillsdale to Niles, Mich. — By stage to Sylvanus, 10; Coldwater, 24; Prairie River, 40; Pigeon Prairies, 60; Mottville, 68; Niles, 95: and from thence to Chicago by railroad and steamboat.

LANSING, the new capital of Michigan, is situated near the centre of the state, on Grand river, about 55 miles N. N. W. from Jackson, and about 132 miles from Detroit, via the former place. In 1847 the place upon which it stands was a thickly-set wood, and now (1849) there are between three and four hundred buildings, including four large hotels. The state-house is a large and handsome building, in the centre of a spacious enclosure overlooking the town, being upon an eminence of about 50 feet above the surface of Grand river. There are here several


saw and flouring mills, in which both steam and water are used. The best route to it from Detroit is by the Central Railroad to Jackson, 77 miles, and from thence by stage to Lansing.

Routes from Detroit to Chicago.

Two routes now present themselves; either by the way of Lakes Huron and Michigan, or by the Central Railroad across the state to New Buffalo, and from thence by steamboat over Lake Michigan to Chicago. The latter is of course the most expeditious, although both are pleasant and agreeable routes. By the railroad line the traveller will arrive in Chicago about 40 hours in advance of the lake route. We now proceed to describe both routes respectively.

The Railroad Route. — The cars on the Michigan Central Railroad leave Detroit daily for New Buffalo, the termination of the road on Lake Michigan, arriving there in about 12 hours. A steamboat leaves, after the arrival of the cars, conveying passengers to Chicago, a distance of about 65 miles. Fare to Chicago, if paid through from Buffalo, $6.50.

During the present summer, passengers will be enabled to pass between the city of New York and Buffalo in about 24 hours; and from the latter place to Milwaukie and Chicago in about 45 hours; total time from New York 69 hours, and at a less fare. This great reduction in time, over that of former seasons, is owing to the additional facilities afforded by the completion of the Michigan Central Railroad, and its new and powerful steamboats, connecting on each side of the line. And also by the opening of the great New York and Erie Railroad to Owego, from which place a road leads to Ithaca, on the S. end of Cayuga Lake, upon which is a steamboat communication of 40 miles, connecting this route with the one leading from Albany to Buffalo.

From Niles there is a steamboat communication with St. Joseph, a place situated on Lake Michigan, at the mouth of St. Joseph's river. Passengers for Wisconsin and Northern Illinois can take conveyance from this place, or proceed in the cars to New Buffalo, and take it from thence.


Stage Lines also connect with the railroad, between Ypsilanti and Adrian, on the Michigan Southern Railroad, 38 miles; from Jackson to Lansing, (capital of the state;) from Marshall to Gentreville and Northern Indiana; from Battle Creek to Grand Rapids; from Kalamazoo to Three Rivers, 25 miles; and to Attegan, on the Kalamazoo river, 30 miles.

The following are the stations and distances, on the Michigan Central Railroad, from Detroit to New Buffalo :—

To Dearborn   10 To Concord 8 91
Wayne 8 18 Bath Mills 2 93
Ypsilanti 12 30 Newburg Mills 2 95
Geddes Mills 4 34 Albion 2 97
Ann Arbor 4 38 Marengo 7 104
Delhi 6 44 Marshall 5 109
Scio 2 46 Battle Creek 14 123
Dexter 3 49 Augusta 10 133
Davison's 9 58 Galesburg 4 137
Francisco 6 64 Comstock 5 143
Grass Lake 3 67 Kalamazoo 4 146
Leoni 3 70 Paw Paw 18 164
Jackson 7 77 Niles 34 108
Sandstone 6 83 New Buffalo 26 224

Route from Detroit to Chicago, by the Great Lakes Huron and Michigan.

(See Table of Distances, page 88.)

The traveller having already been made acquainted with the route over Lake Erie from Buffalo, we will therefore now conduct him around the peninsula state to Chicago, via Lakes Huron and Michigan, where an opportunity will be presented of viewing its picturesque and highly beautiful scenery. The distance being 912 miles; and from Buffalo to Chicago, 1,042 miles.

On leaving Detroit the boat shapes its course through Detroit river, and in eight miles enters Lake St. Clair, which is the smallest of the great chain of lakes. From thence we pass through St. Clair river into the broad expanse of Lake Huron, and after traversing this fine and transparent body of water 364 miles we reach Mackinaw, an island on the E. side of a strait of the same name. This island forms a separate and entire county; its circumference is about nine miles, and contains nearly 1,200


inhabitants. The village is on the S. E. part of the island, and surrounded by a high cliff: The fort is erected on a rocky eminence, elevated 150 feet above the lake; and in the rear, about half a mile, is another elevation, rising 800 feet above the village, from which an extensive prospect opens of both lakes. Numbers of Indians resort here annually to receive their pay from government.

Sault St. Marie is a village, distant 90 miles N. W. from Mackinaw, situated near the foot of the rapids, and in the centre of the strait uniting the waters of Lakes Huron and Superior. It is at present the head of steamboat navigation of the lakes. A canal is proposed, and one will eventually be made, around the Falls of St. Mary, uniting the navigation between these two immense bodies of water, and forming an outlet for the vast resources of the country surrounding the lake.

Sheboygan, Wis., is on the lake shore at the mouth of the river, which is capacious, and has a deep channel. It is a prosperous place, and has a prospect of attaining great commercial importance.

MILWAUKIE, Wis., is situated on both sides of Milwaukie river, near its entrance into Lake Michigan. Its growth is most remarkable. In 1834 it contained but two log-huts, and according to the census taken in Dec., 1847, the population was 14,071, being an increase, since June, 1846, a space of 18 months, of 4,563. In the same period of time the county of Milwaukie had gained 6,822, increasing from 75,925 in June, 1846, to 82,747 in Dec., 1847. This place is the natural outlet of one of the finest regions for cereal grains in the United States.

CHICAGO is situated on the S. end of Lake Michigan, on both sides of Chicago river. The north and south branches of the river unite three-fourths of a mile from the lake, in the upper part of the city, forming a harbor from 50 to 75 yards wide, and from 15 to 25 feet deep. The city is built on level ground, sufficiently elevated to be secure from the highest floods.

Chicago is growing, both in population and trade, faster than any other place in the western country; owing to the great commercial advantages derived from its situation on the lake, and to its being at the northeastern termination of the Illinois and Michigan


Canal. The city has sprung up with remarkable rapidity having, in 1849, a population of upwards of 22,000. In 1830 it was a mere trading-post, and was the rendezvous of government troops, agents, Indian-traders, &c. In 1831 there was but one store in the place; and as late as the year 1838, Chicago, and a large section of country in its vicinity, was supplied with food and other necessaries of life principally from the western part of Ohio. In 1839 a vessel loaded with wheat cleared from Chicago; and from this small beginning, in three years the ship-meats of that grain increased to 587,207 bushels, and of flour, to 2,920 barrels. In 1847 the agricultural exports from Chicago were:— of wheat, 1,974,304 bushels; flour, 42,538 barrels; beef and pork, 48,958 barrels; wool, 411,488 pounds; hides and leather worth $26,865. This commerce, in that year, employed 21 steamers, 18 propellers, 39 brigs, and 125 schooners; an aggregate of 45,545 tons of shipping. The arrivals and departures of vessels were 3,815.

The lumber trade of Chicago is also a remarkable feature in the growth of this place. In 1848 there were here 35 regular dealers, who, during that season, received in the aggregate,


49,690,000 feet of lumber, 24,081,000 shingles, 6,208,000 lath; 8,000,000 feet is the estimate of the amount added to the above prior to the close of navigation.

The principal hotels in Chicago are the Sherman House, Lake House, Tremont House, Mansion House, &c., &c.

The Illinois and Michigan Canal.

This great work was commenced in 1836, and completed in the spring of 1848. It unites Lake Michigan, at Chicago, with the head of steamboat navigation on the Illinois river at Peru, thus forming a connection between the Mississippi river and the lakes. Peru is usually considered to be the head of steamboat navigation on the Illinois river, although boats occasionally pass further up in seasons of high water. It is 212 miles above the mouth of the Illinois, 250 above St. Louis, and about 1,500 above New Orleans. The canal is a work of the first class, both in point of capacity and in workmanship; it is 60 feet wide at top, 86 feet at bottom, 6 feet deep, with a tow-path 10 feet wide. The locks, 17 in number, are 110 feet long, and 18 feet wide, and designed for boats carrying from 100 to 120 tons. It is 102 miles long, and cost $6,600,000. This canal converts the greater part of the United States into one vast Island. A person might leave Chicago by way of the Canal, the Illinois and Mississippi rivers, and entering the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic ocean, might arrive at New York; then by way of the Hudson river, the Erie Canal, and the lakes, might return to the place from whence he started.

The Chicago and Galena Railroad, now building, and already open a part of the distance, will connect Chicago with the great lead region at Galena, near the Upper Mississippi. Other important railroads are projected, and will undoubtedly be made before the lapse of many years, uniting this thriving place more directly with the eastern cities.

Routes From Chicago.

By tile Illinois and Michigan Canal. To Des Plaines 10 21
To Summit 11 Lockport 12 33


To Juliet 6 39 To Erie 10 243
Dresden 14 53 Beardstown 3 246
Morrisana 10 63 La Grange 10 256
Marseilles 13 76 Meredosia 10 266
Ottawa 12 88 Naples 6 272
Peru 14 102 Griggsville Landing 4 276
By the Illinois River. Florence 6 282
Hennepin 17 119 Montezuma 16 298
Lacon 20 139 Bridgeport 2 310
Chilicothe 12 151 Newport 10 320
Rome 1 152 Columbiana 6 326
Peoria 18 170 Gilford 16 342
Pekin 10 180 Mouth of Illinois River 42 384
Lancaster Landing 12 192 Grafton 2 386
Liverpool 16 208 Alton 18 404
Havana 10 218 Missouri River 5 409
Bath 3 233 ST. LOUIS, MO. 18 427
Moscow 3 233      

The fare from Chicago to St. Louis is $10. Time about 2˝days. From Chicago to Peoria $6.00; and from the latter place to St. Louis $4.00.

From Chicago to Galena, Ill., by the lower route. — To Brush Hill, 17; Napierville, 27; Aurora, 36; Somonauk, 58; Paw Paw Grove, 75; Dixon's Ferry, 105; Cherry Grove, 134; Galena, 174.

From Chicago to Galena, by the upper route. — To Cazenovia, 11; Elgin, 35; Marengo, 59; Belvidere, 71; Rockford, 88; Freeport, 114; Galena, 167. The fare on the above routes is about $8.00. Time about two days.

From Chicago to Janesville and Madison, Wis. — To Rockford, (as in previous route,) 88; Janesville, 114; Madison, 154.

From Chicago to Springfield, Ill. — To Naples, (see canal and river route from Chicago to St. Louis,) 266; by railroad to Springfield, 52; total 318 miles.

For routes from Chicago to Detroit, &c. — Reverse routes from Detroit to Chicago, on pages 91 and 92.

For description of Milwaukie, see page 93.


Routes in Wisconsin.

From Milwaukie to Janesville. — To Greenfield, 9; New Berlin, 13; Vernon, 19; Mukwonago, 24; East Troy, 33; Troy, 36; Sugar Creek, 40; Richmond, 49; Johnstown, 59; Janesville, 67.

From Milwaukee to Madison, Wis. — To Prairie Village, 15; Summit, 30; Aztalan, 50; Cottage Grove, 60; Madison, 80.

From Milwaukie to Green Bay. — To Washington, 28; Sheboygan, 56; Manitouwoc, 85; Green Bay, 120.

From Janesville to Madison. — To Union, 20; Madison, 40.

From Madison to Mineral Point, Wis. — To Blue Mound, 25; Ridgeway, 85; Dodgeville, 43; Mineral Point, 51.

From Mineral Point to Prairie du Chien. — To Platteville, 16; Lancaster, 34; Patch Grove, 48; Prairie du Chien, 63.

From Mineral Point to Galena, III. — To Plattsville, 16; Hazel Green, 31; Galena, 40.

From Madison to Fort Winnebago, Wis., is 42 miles.

From Madison to Green Say, Wis. — To Fond du Lac, 72; Calumet, 97; Bridgeport, 112; De Pere, 122; Green Bay, 128.

From Prairie du Chien to Fond du Lac. — To English Prairie, 40; Muskoda, 52; Helena, 66; Arena, 75; Prairie du Sac, 84; De Korra, 115; Fort Winnebago, 124; Fond du Lac, 179.

Routes in Iowa.

From Burlington to Iowa City. — To Yellow Springs, 20; Florence, 25; Wapello, 32; Harrison, 36; Grand View, 43; Bloomington, 56; West Liberty, 76; Iowa City, 88.

From Davenport to Iowa City. — To Moscow, 25; West Liberty, 38; Iowa City, 50.


From Davenport to Dubuque. — To De Witt, 18; Andrew, 43; Dubugue, 73.

From Burlington to Peoria, Ill. — To Oquawka, 12; Monmouth, 30; Galesburg, 44; Knoxville, 49; Trenton, 55; Charleston, 69; Peoria, 90.

Route from Buffalo to the Copper Region of Lake Superior.

To Detroit, (see page 88)   330 To Fort Wilkins and Copper Harbor 85 1094
Fort Gratiot 72 402      
Thunder Bay Is. 150 552 Agate Harbor 12 1106
Sault St. Marie 172 724 Eagle Harbor 8 1114
White Fish Point 40 764 Salmon Trout Riv. 34 1148
Sucker River 44 808 Flint Steel Riv. 30 1178
Hurricane River 23 831 Ontonagon Riv. and U. S. Indian Agency 7 1185
Grand Sable 15 846      
Pictured Rocks 12 858 Iron River 15 1200
Grand Island 20 878 Carp River 22 1222
Laughing Fish River 30 908 Presque Isle River 7 1229
Chocolate River 10 918 Black River 6 1235
Dead Riv., Granite Pt., and Talcott Har. 12 930 Montreal River 25 1260
      La Pointe 26 1286
Huron River 46 976 Fond du Lac 90 1376
L'Anse Bay 33 1009      

LAKE SUPERIOR contains the greatest body of fresh water in the known world, and is the largest of the chain of the five great lakes of North America. Its dimensions, together with the rest of the lakes, may be found on page 87. Its waters are remarkably clear and transparent, and abound with fish, particularly trout, white fish, and sturgeon. The trout generally weigh 12 pounds, but in some instances exceed 50 pounds. Its shore is highly picturesque, being generally elevated, rocky, and in some parts mountainous. The pictured rocks on the shore towards the E. end are a great curiosity. They form a perpendicular wall 300 feet high, extending about 12 miles. They have numerous projections and indentations, with vast caverns, which receive the waves with a tremendous roar. At one place a considerable stream is thrown from them into the lake, by a grand cascade 70 feet high, and is projected so far that boats pass dry between it and the rocky shore. The Doric rock, or arch, appears like a work of art, consisting of an isolated mass of sandstone with four pillars, supporting a stratum or entablature of


stone covered with soil, and giving support to a handsome growth of spruce and fir trees, some of which are 50 or 60 feet high. This lake has several good harbors, and the soil and timber, in many places along the coast, are of the best description. Numerous streams empty into Lake Superior, and the country in their vicinity abounds with numerous beautiful lakes, swarm ing with great varieties of fish, particularly the speckled trout; whilst the forests are most prolific in game. At the present day this region is more noted for its extensive mines of copper, which abounds in many places along the American shore; and particularly in the peninsula of Keewaiwona Point, which stretches through its whole extent, and southwest and east of it.

Routes Through the Southern and South-Western States.


There are now numerous routes and modes of conveyance to these celebrated springs, all of which have been, within a few years, greatly improved.

From Baltimore they may be reached by a variety of routes. One of the most pleasant and expeditious, is over the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad to Harper's Ferry; thence by a similar conveyance to Winchester; and thence by stage, over an excellent road, to Staunton. From the latter place we may proceed directly across the North and Warm Spring Mountains to the Warm and Hot Springs; or may proceed to the Natural Bridge, via Lexington, and thence to the White Sulphur, via Dibrell's Springs.

This route will afford the visiter an opportunity of viewing the splendid scenery of Harper's Ferry, and also the celebrated Natural Bridge. He will likewise pass within seven miles of the noted caves, "Weir's" and "Madison's," which, by a short detention can be readily visited.

The fare from Harper's Ferry to the White Sulphur Springs is about $10. Time about two days. To Winchester, by railroad, 32 miles, and the rest of the journey is performed by stage.


Another route from Baltimore is by way of the railroad to Washington City; thence by the Potomac steamer (passing in view of Mount Vernon) to Acquia Creek; and afterwards by the Richmond, Frederidcksburg, and Louisa railroads to Gordonsmile; whence we are conveyed by four-horse post-coaches to Charlottesville, Staunton, the Warm Springs, White Sulphur Springs, &c., passing in sight of Monticello and the celebrated University of Virginia, and avoiding night travelling. By this route the Warm Springs are reached in time for breakfast, the second day after leaving Washington, and the White Sulphur on the afternoon of the same day. The latter springs are 305 miles from Baltimore.

Or from Fredericksburg, (instead of going via Gordonsville,) we may proceed to Richmond, Va.; — or starting from Baltimore, may reach the latter place by steamboat down the Chesapeake Bay, by the way of Norfolk, and thence up James river to Richmond, where we take the canal to Lynchburg, 150 miles; and thence proceed by stage, either by the road leading past the Natural Bridge, or by the way of Liberty, Fincastle, and the Sweet Springs, arriving at the White Sulphur.

The usual mode of reaching the Virginia Springs from the West and Southwest, is to disembark from the steamboat at Guyandotte, on the Ohio river, and thence proceed by stage to the springs, the White Sulphur being about 160 miles distant.

Travellers from the states south of the Virginia Springs take the railroad at Wilmington, N. C., for Richmond, at which place they will take conveyance as before described. Or they may proceed farther on to the junction of the Louisa Railroad; thence to Gordonsville; and thence by stage to the springs.

Description of the Virginia Springs.

Of these, the most celebrated, and most generally visited, are the White Sulphur Springs, situated on a branch of the Greenbrier river, in the county of Greenbrier, and in the valley of Howard's Creek. They are to the South what the Saratoga Springs are to the North. Thousands annually resort to them, either in search of recreation and amusement, or to enjoy the


benefit of their waters, which have been found to be very efficacious in the cure of dyspepsia, jaundice, rheumatism, liver complaint, gout, diseases of the skin, and many other complaints. The waters contain sulphate of lime, sulphate of soda, carbonate of magnesia, chloride of sodium, per-oxide of iron, organic matter, iodine, sulphate of magnesia, phosphate of lime, and precipitated sulphur. The gaseous contents are, carbonic acid, sulphureted hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.

These springs are situated in an elevated and beautifully picturesque valley, hemmed in by mountains on every side. They are in the midst of the celebrated spring region, having the Hot and Warm Springs on the N., the former 35, and the latter 40 miles distant; the Sweet 17 miles to the E.; the Salt and Bed on the S. W., the former 24, the latter 41 miles distant; and the Blue Sulphur 22 miles to the west.

The WARM SPRINGS, in the county of Bath, are among the oldest of the watering-places. The water, which has a temperature of 98° Fahrenheit, is very transparent. The accommodations for bathing are excellent.

The HOT SPRINGS are situated in a valley deeply embosomed among mountain peaks, in the county of Bath, five miles S. from the Warm Springs. Bathing-houses have been erected, and every accommodation provided for both male and female patients. The baths are six in number, each being supplied with water from a separate spring. They range in temperature from 98° to 106°

The SWEET SPRINGS are situated in a wide and beautiful valley in the eastern extremity of Monroe county, and are justly celebrated for the tonic power of their waters, used either internally or externally. Their temperature is 13° Fahrenheit.

The SALT SULPHUR SPRINGS, situated in the county of Monroe, art encircled by mountains on every side. These springs enjoy a high reputation, not only for the virtues of their waters, but also for the excellent accommodations with which they are furnished. They are in consequence much visited by invalids. Their temperature varies from 49° to 56°.

The RED SULPHUR SPRINGS are in the southern part of Monroe county, 17 miles from the Salt, and 32 from the Sweet Springs. The water is clear and cool, its temperature being 54°


The BLUE SULPHUR SPRING is situated in a narrow, but beautifully picturesque valley, on Muddy creek, a small tributary of Greenbrier river. It has comfortable accommodations for about 300 persons. The medical virtues of its waters draw thither, during the season, a large number of visiters.

The NATURAL BRIDGE of Virginia is one of the greatest natural curiosities in the country, if not in the world. It consists of a stupendous arch of limestone rock, over an unimportant and small stream called Cedar creek. The tourist who, while in this vicinity, could pass this natural wonder unheeded, would be as great a curiosity as the bridge itself. The view from the top is awfully grand; yet one should go to the brow of the precipice that descends to the level of the creek, where the view, equally sublime, will be found far more interesting, being divested, in a great measure, of the awe which is sensibly felt on looking from the bridge down into the dreadful gulf. The height from the stream to the top of the bridge is 215 feet, its average width is 80 feet, and its extreme length at the top is 95 feet. The chasm over which it passes is 50 feet wide at bottom, and 90 feet at top. It is covered with earth to the depth of about five feet, which is made firm by trees and shrubbery; whilst its sides are protected by rocks, forming a natural wall. It is 156 miles W. from Richmond, 2 miles S. of James river, 41 from Lyuchburg, and 63 miles S. E. from the White Sulphur Springs.

WEIR'S CAVE, 17 miles N. E. from Staunton, is deemed one of the most beautiful caverns in the world. It extends about 2,500 feet in length, although its exploration in a direct line does not exceed 1,800 feet, and is divided into several apartments of various sizes. The walls are formed of the most beautiful crystallized carbonate of lime, or calcareous spar. The crystals, which vary in form, are of all sizes and colors, and reflect with much brilliancy the torch-lights with which each visitor is provided. Thin sheets of similar incrustations are seen in some parts, resembling the appearance of rich and graceful drapery; and from the lofty roof of one of the halls is a sheet that appears as if floating in the air. It has received the appellation


of "Elijah's Mantle." Some of the most extensive apartments have received the names of "Washington Hall," "Congress Hall," " Organ Room," "Solomon's Temple," "Deacon's Room," &c. This cavern is under the charge of a person whose business it is to render every care and attention to visiters.

MADISON'S CAVE is a short distance from the preceding, and somewhat resembles that curiosity, although much less extensive, its length not exceeding 300 feet. The BLOWING and SALTPETRE CAVES are situated about 40 miles to the N. W. of the two preceding ones.

MT. VERNON is situated in Virginia, on the W. bank of the Potomac river, 15 miles S. from the city of Washington, and 8 miles from Alexandria. It is an interesting object of contemplation to all who delight in the name of Washington, and the mind of every American recurs to the sacred spot with the most enthusiastic devotion. Here he resided, and here lies all that was mortal of that truly good man. The old tomb in which his remains were first deposited, and which is now fast going to decay, occupies a more picturesque situation than the present one, being upon an elevation in full view of the river. The new tomb, into which his remains were removed in 1830, and subsequently placed within a marble sarcophagus, stands in a more retired situation a short distance from the house. It consists of a plain, but solid structure of brick, with an iron gate at its entrance, through the bars of which may be seen two sarcophagi of white marble, side by side, in which slumber in peaceful silence the "Father of his country" and his amiable consort.

The trouble of getting to Mt. Vernon is perhaps the greatest drawback in a visit to the "tomb of Washington," there being no regular and expeditious conveyance to it. 'Tis true the Potomac steamer passes it on its way from Washington to the railroad terminus at Acquia creek, giving passengers a glimpse of the general view only. But to visit it at one's convenience it will be necessary to go from Washington to Alexandria, 8 miles, which is accomplished by steamboat, at an expense of one shilling. At the latter place hire a private conveyance to Mt. Vernon, 7 miles farther, which will cost three dollars.


Routes from Baltimore to Charleston, S. C., and from Charleston to New Orleans.

From Baltimore to Charleston. — The traveller in Baltimore will have a choice of two routes, as follows: 1st. From Baltimore to Washington City, by railroad, 40 miles; thence by steamboat down the Potomac to Acquia creek, 55 miles; here again take the ears, and proceed to Fredericksburg, Va., 15 miles; to Richmond, 63; to Petersburg, 22 miles; to Weldon, N. C., 63 miles; to Wilmington, 162 miles. Total, 420 miles. From Wilmington to Charleston the journey is performed by steamboat; distance, in a direct line. 180 miles. Making the entire distance from Baltimore 600 miles, which is performed in about 48 hours. The usual fare is about $20.00.

Second Route. — From Baltimore, down Chesapeake Bay to Norfolk, Va., 196 miles, and from thence up James river to City Point, 95 miles, thence by railroad to Petersburg, Va., 12 miles; there connecting with the railroad to Wilmington, N. C., and from thence by steamboat to Charleston, as before. Total distance from Baltimore, by this route, 708 miles. Time about 55 hours. Fare $17.00. — N. B. For these routes respectively, see page 105.

From Charleston to New Orleans, see page 118.

Route from Baltimore to Memphis, Tenn.

From Baltimore to Charleston, S. C., (see the foregoing routes.) From Charleston to Augusta, Ga., by railroad, 136 miles; from Augusta to Atlanta, 171 miles; from Atlanta to Kingston, 60 miles. By stage from Kingston to Gunter's Landing, 99 miles; by steamboat to Decatur, 60 miles; by railroad to Tuscumbia, 43 miles; and by stage to Memphis, 170 miles. Total distance from Baltimore, 1,321 miles. From New York to Memphis, the distance by the above route is 1,507 miles, and fare about $50. — N. B. For the routes respectively, see pages 118, 119.


Route from Washington City to Wilmington, N. C.

Via Fredericksburg, Richmond, Petersburg, and Weldon.
By steamboat. To WELDON 5 218
To Acquia Creek Landing   55 Halifax 7 225
By Railroad. Enfield 11 236
FREDERICKSBURG 15 70 Rocky Mount. 19 255
Milford's Dep. 22 92 Joyners 10 265
Chesterfield 12 104 Tossnot 8 273
Junction 5 109 Goldsboro' 23 296
Taylorsville 2 111 Dudley 9 305
RICHMOND 22 133 Warsaw 20 325
Clover Hill 13 146 Strickland's 8 333
Port Walthall 3 149 Teachey's 10 343
PERTERSBURG 6 155 Washington 9 352
Stony Creek 21 176 Burgaw 7 359
Hicksford 20 196 Rocky Point 8 367
Gareysburg 17 213 WILMINGTON 13 380

From Wilmington to Charleston, S. C., by steamboat, distance 180 miles.

Fare from Washington to Fredericksburg about $3.00; from Fredericksburg to Richmond about $2.50; from Richmond to Petersburg $1.00; from Petersburg to Weldon $3.00; from Weldon to Wilmington $6.50.

Routes in Virginia.

FREDERICKSBURG, Va., is situated on the right bank of Rappahannock river, and contains about 4,500 souls.

From, Fredericksburg to Winchester, Va., by stage. — To Warrenton, 40; Paris, 65; Winchester, 81.

From Fredericksburg to Staunton, Va. — To Gordonsville, 50; Charlottesville, 71; Staunton, 109.

From Baltimore to Norfolk, Va., by steamboat through Chesapeake Bay — To Fort McHenry, 3 miles; Mouth of Patapsco river, 13; Severn river, 38; Patuxent river, 85; Potomac river, 106; Rappahannock river, 138; Old Point Comfort, 182; Norfolk, 196.

From Baltimore to Richmond, Va. — To Washington, by railroad,


40 miles; by steamboat to Acquia Creek Landing, 55 = 95; by railroad to Fredericksburg, Va., 15; Richmond, 63 = 18. Total 173 miles.

RICHMOND, the capital of the state of Virginia, has a beautiful and healthy location at the head of tidewater, about 150 miles from Chesapeake Bay, and 165 from the Atlantic ocean. It is situated on the falls of James river, to which, in some degree, the health of the city is supposed to be attributable, by the continual agitation of the air, occasioned by the tumbling of the water over the rugged masses of rock, which form the bed of the river for the distance of some eight or ten miles above the city. The water-power here, for manufacturing purposes, is immense, but it has been allowed, heretofore, to run almost its undisturbed course to the ocean, without being made available for the great purposes of manufacturing industry. It is now, however, exciting considerable attention, and the enterprising spirit of the people is at last fully awakened to its vast importance. There have recently been established here both cotton and woollen factories, iron-works, flouring-mills, &c., and the population and consequent importance of Richmond will be increased. Already there are here some 40 tobacco-factories, employing from 50 to 200 hands, entirely blacks, excepting the superintendents, who are, of course, white.

Many of the houses in Richmond are well built, and some of the public buildings are very handsome: the streets cross each other at right angles. The Capitol stands conspicuously in a beautiful public ground termed the Capitol Square. In the hall of this building stands a fine marble statue of Washington. The city is abundantly supplied with water from the river. Population about 25,000. A canal extends from Richmond to Lynchburg, a distance of about 146 miles. Railroads unite it with both the North and South. A railroad is in progress from Richmond to Danville, near the southern boundary of Virginia.

Route from Richmond to Lynehburg, Va., by canal. — To Dover Mills, 20; Columbia, 50; New Canton, 64; Scott's Ferry, 72; Warren, 80; Lynehburg, 146.


From Richmond to Charlottesville, Va., by stage. — To Beaver Dam, 24; Goochland, 30; Fife's, 44; Columbia, 52; Wilmington, 63; Everettsville, 81; Charlottesville, 87. There is another route between the above places, viz.: by railroad to Gordonsville, 74 miles; thence by stage, 21 = 95.

From Richmond to the Natural Bridge, and the Virginia Springs. — To Lynehburg, by canal, 146; thence by stage to the Natural Bridge, via Fincastle, about 78 miles, = 224; and to the White Sulphur Springs, about 105 miles, = 251. Another route from Richmond is to Gordonsville, by railroad, 74; thence by stage, via Staunton, to the Natural Bridge, 110, = 184; and to the Springs, 180; and from Richmond, 254 miles. For a description of the Virginia Springs, and the Natural Bridge, see pages 100, 102.

From Richmond to Norfolk, Va., by steamboat. — To Warwick, 7; City Point, 47; Windmill Point, 62; Norfolk, 136.

From Richmond to Fredericksburg, and to Petersburg and Weldon. — See route from Washington City to Wilmington, N. C., at page 105

NORFOLK, Va., is situated on the N. bank of Elizabeth river, about 8 miles from Hampton Roads. The ground upon which it is built is quite low, and the streets are very irregular. Here is stationed a U. S. Custom-house. Population about 18,500. On the opposite bank of the river is situated Portsmouth, containing about 7,500 souls. In its eastern part is located the U. S. Navy Yard. Here is an extensive Dry Dock, and buildings suitable to carry on the business of the yard.

From Norfolk to Weldon, N. C. — By railroad to Suffolk, 17; Carrsville, 31; Franklin, 37; Newsom's Depot, 49; by stage to Gareysburg, 26; thence by railroad to Weldon, 5; total, 80.

From Norfolk to Edenton, N. G. — By stage to Lake Drummond, 18; New Lebanon, 35; Elizabeth City, N. C., 47; Hertford, 68; Edenton, 79.


There is another route, by railroad, to Franklin Depot, 37; thence by steamboat to Edenton, about 50; total, 87 miles.

In going from Norfolk to Edenton, by the stage route, the traveller will pass along the bank of that great morass called the Dismal Swamp, which is 40 miles in length from N. to S., and 25 from E. to W., containing 1,000 square miles, or 640,000 acres. It is, with the exception of a few spots, a vast quagmire, a mass of vegetable matter, decayed wood, and entangled roots of trees and plants; beneath it is soft black mud, whilst on its surface, and under the shelter of large trees, grow tender, mossy plants, which rise to the height of four or five inches. The richness of the soil, and its extreme wetness, cause a luxuriant growth of aquatic plants of all sizes and variety, from the moss and hydrangea to the gigantic cypress. There is one redeeming feature in the aspect of this miasmatic domain; viz., a beautiful sheet of water known as Lake Drummond, which probably appears the more attractive from the repulsive and gloomy character of the surrounding scenery. This lake is 7 miles long, and 5˝wide. It has no beach, the thick and tall forest extending quite into its margin, and the water being on a level with its banks, which are often gently overflowed. The Dismal Swamp Canal extends from Deep creek, in Virginia, to Joice's creek, a branch of Pascotank river falling into Albemarle Sound, N. C., a length of 23 miles.

Routes in North Carolina.

RALEIGH is the capital of the state of North Carolina, and is finely situated about five miles from Neuse river. It is laid out with much regularity, having at its centre Union Square, of 10 acres, from which extend four broad streets, 99 feet wide, dividing it into four quarters. In the centre of each of these are four other squares of four acres each, and the streets which intersect the quarters are 66 feet wide. The state-house is a splendid granite edifice, in the centre of Union Square, 166 feet long and 90 feet wide, and built after the model of the Parthenon at Athens. It has a fine dome and spacious legislative halls, and cost about half a million dollars. Pop. 3,000.


Railroad Route From Raleigh to Gaston and Hicksford.
To Huntsville   9 To Warrenton 5 63
Forrestville 7 16 Macon 5 68
Franklin 11 27 Littleton 10 78
Henderson 18 45 GASTON 9 87
Ridgway 13 58 HICKSFORD 20 107

Fare $5.00. At Hicksford travellers can take the railroad route to Richmond, Va.

From Raleigh to Fayetteville, N. C. — To Averysboro', 35; Fayetteville, 60.

Fayetteville is on the W. side of Cape Fear river, to which place it is navigable for vessels of 150 tons. It is, by the course of that stream, 88 miles from Wilmington, and 123 from the Atlantic. The principal part of the town is about a mile back from the river; it is laid out with regularity, and contains the county buildings, being the seat of justice for Cumberland county. Its population is now about 5,000.

From Raleigh to Charlotte, N. C. — To Pittsboro', 35; Ashboro'. 72; Salisbury, 116; Charlotte, 157.

From Charlotte to Columbia, S. C., via Camden. — To Belair, 19; Lancaster, 37; Flat Rock, 58; Camden, 76; Columbia, 108.

From Raleigh to Asheville and Warm Springs, N. C. — To Salisbury, 116; Statesville, 146; Eavesville, 171; Morgantown, 197; Old Fort, 232; Swannanoa Gap, 244; Asheville, 256; Warm Springs, 292.

On the road leading from Morgantown to Asheville, N. C., through the Swannanoa Gap, and a few miles from where you enter the Gap, is to be seen on the right, Mitchell's Peak, the loftiest spot this side of the Rocky Mountains. Until its altitude was determined by Professor Mitchell, of Cincinnati, from whom


(in compliment to that gentleman) it was named, Mount Washington, one of the peaks of the White Mountains, had the honor of being the highest in the states.

To the left of the Swannanoa road, some five or six miles from it, are the noted Catawba Falls, well worthy the attention and admiration of the tourist.

Asheville is in the midst of a beautiful and mountainous region of country, about 115 miles from Charlotte. It has a healthy and elevated situation on the east bank of French Broad river, and contains nearly a thousand inhabitants.

The Warm Springs, N. C., are situated in Buncombe county, on the east bank of the French Broad river, about 37 miles from Asheville. These springs, together with the road leading down the above river, are worthy both the attention and admiration of the tourist. It is a fine Macadamized road, and follows the course of the river along its bank; and as the river itself is shut in on both sides by mountains, in many places rounding high bluff points, the road has its foundation on the river, resembling piers. It is a noble monument of the conquest of art over the obstacles of nature. The scenery is very wild, rugged, and picturesque. The Warm Springs afford a very delightful watering-place, and are much resorted to by the pleasure-seeking and invalids from this and the neighboring states. Before reaching this place, the bed of the river and the road have occupied the valley between the two ranges of mountains; but here on the left bank of the river is a beautiful plateau spread out, in the midst of which, near the river bank, are the charming grounds of the springs. The main building, which is of brick, is 280 feet long, with a piazza the whole length of the building, graced by 13 large pillars. A few miles below the Warm Springs are the famous Paint Rock and Chimneys. The climate of this section is one of the most salubrious in the world, a visit to it insuring health and vigor to the debilitated; its crystal water, pure air, and exercise among the mountains, dispelling all traces of dyspepsia and ennui.

The Paint or Painted Rock, is a lofty wall from 200 to 300 feet in height, in the vicinity of the road; it is stained of a yellow color, caused by the oozing of water through the crevices


leading from beds of clay. On passing this we enter upon the state of Tennessee.

Route from Newbern to Edenton, N. C. — To Swift Creek Bridge, 18; Washington, 38; Plymouth, 74; Edenton, 96. For the route to Norfolk, Va., see routes from Norfolk to Edenton, on page 385.

From Newbern to Beaufort, N. C., is 50 miles.

From Newbern to Fayetteville. — To Trenton, 18; Kenansville, 48; Warsaw, 58; Clinton, 72; Fayetteville, 105.

From Newbern to Raleigh. — To Trenton, 18; Kingston, 45; Goldsboro', 72; Smithfield, 97; Raleigh, 124.

WILMINGTON, N. C., is situated at the termination of the railroad running through Virginia and North Carolina, forming a part of the great route between the North and South. It lies on the east bank of Cape Pear river, at the head of ship navigation, 35 miles from the ocean, and about 135 miles from the capital of the state. It is the most commercial and populous place in the state, being indebted for its rise to the completion of the railroad to this place. Its population is between 6,000 and 7,000.

A steamboat runs daily from Wilmington to Charleston, S. C., 180 miles; and cars arrive and depart daily for the North.

The GINGER-CAKE ROCKS, a huge pile of stone, are on the summit of a mountain from which this great curiosity takes its name. They are situated in a wild and romantic section, in the mountainous part of Burke county, in North Carolina, about 25 miles N. W. from Morgantown. When the atmosphere is clear they can be seen for many miles, looming above the horizon, having for their background the clear blue sky, where they seem to float upon the air like a little fantastic cloud.

The pile consists of a couple of rocks of different shape and material, brought into mysterious contact, so as to equipoise and


stand firm on an astonishingly small base. The first, or lower section, is composed of brittle slate-stone, of rough, uneven surface and its form is that of the one-half of a pyramid inverted, but with its acute angle sufficiently obtuse to give it a base of four feet diameter, while its centre line is nearly vertical, which consequently throws a preponderance upon the line of the opposite angle; but to compensate for this, the second rock, in shape a perfect oblong, composed of mountain-granite, and as true in all its outlines and proportions as if from the hands of an artist, rests upon the first, in a perfectly horizontal position, and with sufficient projection over its vertical angle to produce an equilibrium and keep it standing upon its narrow base. The lower section is about 29 feet in altitude, while the upper one is 32 feet in length, 18 in breadth, and 2 feet thick, which makes the total height 31 feet. A perfect view of the upper rock can only be had at the expense of climbing a chesnut-oak tree, which grows hard by, one of the limbs of which runs out immediately over its surface, which presents not a single flaw or fissure.

While within the presence of this strange pile, the predominant feeling, after that of admiration, is fear. An attempt to


reason one's self into a consciousness of security is utterly futile. The argument that it has stood there, perhaps for thousands of years, amid the raging winds and rocking earth, is met and opposed by the ocular fact of its standing before you almost upon nothing; and approach it at what point you will, it appears leaning towards you.

"I have visited mountain districts, (says the person from whom this account has been derived,) and can with candor say, that at no other place have I yet seen such a various display of the strange, the wild, the beautiful, and sublime, as these rocks present in connection with their associate scenery, nor has any other scenery such a fixedness upon my memory."

From the summit of the mountain, the scenery from a northern point of view is sublimely grand; to the right the eye runs down and along a ravine, enclosed on each side by precipices from 800 to 1,200 feet deep, and at the bottom a river, the Linville, an affluent of the Catawba, dashes its pure waters over its rocky bed. One of the cliffs that overhang it, rising up, forms a distinct section of rock, which, overtopping its neighbors, rises to its apex in a wall, from the summit of which a shaft of rock shoots out over the gulf below, at the height of 1,500 feet. This, from its shape, is known in its neighborhood under the denomination of the Hawk's Bill, from its resemblance to the beak of that bird. Casting the eye a little farther to the left of this, at about five miles distance stands the far-famed Table Rock of Burke county, which towers upon the verge of the valley of the Catawba, to the height of 2,500 feet; and from this point of view it forms a perfect cone.

The Slack Mountain, N. C., is about 30 miles north from Morgantown; it rises to the height of 6,476 feet, and is one of the highest elevations in the United States. The Grandfather mountain is about 28 miles from Morgantown, and rises to the height of 5,560 feet; and the Grandmother, which rises to the height of 2,500 feet, is in its vicinity.

The Roan Mountain, 15 miles from the Grandfather, and 35 N. W. from Morgantown, rises to the height of 6,038 feet. This mountain is ascended with less labor than the previous ones, and is considered the most beautiful. Near its S. W. extremity


is a body of rocks, resembling in appearance the ruins of an old castle.

The Racoon Mountain is on the border of the northwestern angle of Georgia and the state of Tennessee. The look-out Mountain, a range commencing about 30 miles below, rises to the height of 2,000 feet; around its brow is a palisade of naked rocks from 70 to 100 feet in height. From the summit of this mountain the view is very grand, overlooking, as it does, a great extent of country, comprising every variety of landscape.

A number of caves are found in this region, among which is the Student's Cave, which was first explored in August, 1848, by some of the students from Mercer University. This cave is situated in Racoon Mountain, with its mouth in Tennessee, although a large part of it is in Georgia. The entrance to it is about halfway up the north side of the mountain, the longest side being 12 feet and the shortest four. The distance from the upper side of the orifice to the floor of the cave is about 70 feet perpendicular descent; the walls are of solid rock and perfectly smooth. The cave winds in a southwestern direction, but how far is not at present known; it is supposed, however, that it forms a part of the great Nicojack Cave, which is situated about 20 miles S. W. of the Look-out Mountain, and half a mile from the S. bank of the Tennessee, towards which it winds, and from which it is distant but four miles. The peculiar feature of the cave is, that it consists of an irregular passage or entry with rooms, and in some cases suites of rooms opening at irregular distances on each side. The width of the entry is about 25 feet, and the roof varies from 5 to 60 feet in height. The most attractive part of the cave, however, as far as known, is about 400 yards from the entrance. Here is a noble and lofty dome, with all its proportions perfect, which spans the entire passage; immediately under the dome, about 10 feet from the floor, there is a deep recess, formed by a bold curve of the wall on each side. The background of this recess is filled up by an appearance like that of a splendid Grecian temple, which, aided by the excitement of the visit, and by the shadows cast by the lights, renders the façade perfect.

From this apartment, on the left of the passage, is a regular


winding stairway, about five feet in width. The walls are of stalactite formation, and glitter in the torchlight like polished diamonds. On ascending this stairway some 35 feet, is a wall, in the middle of which, and about three feet from the floor, is an opening a foot and a half in diameter. On crawling through this aperture the visiter will enter a suite of rooms gorgeous beyond description. The first is a small antechamber about 12 feet in diameter; the walls of stalactite and the floor of stalagmite, and the ceiling so high, that with the aid of several torches it cannot be seen. On the farther side of the chamber, near the entrance to the next room, are two splendid columns, each about two feet and a half in diameter, resembling beautiful shells, and so high as to be lost in the darkness above. The one on the left appears as perfect a Corinthian column, gorgeous capital and all, as art could fashion. Passing between these, and through an arched doorway, another large room is entered, where may be seen almost every variety of stalagmite formation that can be imagined. Statues and busts, trees and bushes covered with sleet, thrones, pyramids, and shafts, cover the floor in splendid profusion. Gorgeous columns extending up to the ceiling, and heavy stalactites terminating below in their curled leaves, reach down to within three feet of the floor. One of these, when struck, sounds like the tolling of a large bell; another gives forth the deep tones of the largest pipes of the organ, not faintly, but filling with its loud peal the whole compass of the cavern, while its rich notes swell and reverberate in the arches below. The third chamber appears like a regular wardrobe, with ladies' dresses hanging all around the walls, every fold in the garments appearing as distinctly marked as though they were actual dresses. — The railroads extending from Charleston, S. C., and Savannah, Ga., to the Tennessee river, afford a ready communication with that part of the country in which the Student's Cave is situated.

CHARLESTON, the metropolis of the state of South Carolina, is the most populous, wealthy, and flourishing city on the Atlantic


coast south of Baltimore. It is in N. Lat. 32° 46' 33", and in W. Long. 79° 57' 27". In 1840 its population was 41,137, and in 1850 it will probably be near 60,000. This city is well situated for trade and commerce, being seven miles from the ocean, on a peninsula formed by the confluence of Ashley and Cooper rivers, which here enter the harbor, which is two miles across. Opposite the city Ashley river is 6,300 feet wide, and Cooper river 4,200 feet; both here have a depth of from 30 to 40 feet.

Charleston is built on slightly elevated ground, being but nine feet above high-water mark; it is about two miles long, something over a mile broad, and is regularly laid out, although not uniformly so. Its streets, which extend from river to river, run from E. to W., and generally parallel to each other, and are crossed by others nearly at right angles; they vary in width from 30 to 70 feet. Many of the buildings in the city are constructed of brick, which is now the only material permitted by law to be used within its limits. Those of wood are neatly painted, and frequently have piazzas extending to the roof, beautifully ornamented with vines. In the outskirts of the city the houses have


fine gardens attached, planted with orange, fruit, and ornamental trees, with vines and shrubbery in profusion.

The public buildings are a city-hall, an exchange, courthouse, jail, a state citadel, two arsenals, a college, a medical college, asylums, libraries, a theatre, six banks, whose united capital amounts to $8,025,525, and about 30 churches; besides numerous hotels, some of which are costly and magnificent structures, and where the stranger meets with every attention and comfort.

The city is defended by Fort Pinckney, situated on an island S. E., and near the city; and by Fort Moultrie, on Sullivan's Island, at the entrance of the harbor. Fort Johnson is two and a half miles below, and on its S. side. But, perhaps, its greatest protection is its shoals and changing channels, at all times difficult or dangerous, having but a depth of about 15 feet. A canal 22 miles long, from the head of Cooper river, connects the waters of the harbor with the Santee river, 50 miles to the N., opposite Black Oak Island, in Sumter county.

Charleston possesses great facilities for trade with the interior country, by means of the railroad extending through South Carolina and Georgia to Chattanooga, on the Tennessee river, a distance of 438 miles. By the road now in progress from the latter place to Nashville, the capital of Tennessee, about 150 miles in length, a communication will be opened with the navigable waters of the Tennessee, Ohio, and Mississippi rivers, thus tapping the whole of the lower section of the Mississippi valley.

A railroad also extends from the South Carolina road at Branchville to Columbia, the capital of the state, 130 miles; and this is to be extended to Greenville, in the northwestern angle of the state, about 120 miles farther. There is a regular daily steamboat line running between Charleston and Wilmington, N. C., connecting the railroad terminations of the great northern and southern route of travel at these places. Other lines of steamboats run between Charleston and Savannah, Ga., and also to St. Augustine, Flor., &c. Lines of fine steamships keep up a regular and expeditious communication with New York, and also Philadelphia. Fine packet ships run at stated periods between it and New York, and other vessels sail for most of the large cities on the coast, and also for Europe.


From Charleston to New Orleans.

From Charleston passengers proceed by railroad to Augusta, Ga., or rather to Hamburg, 136 miles, which is separated from Augusta by the Savannah river, which is also the dividing line between the states of South Carolina and Georgia. From Augusta a great western chain of railroad, making trips by night only, conveys you to Atlanta, 171 miles; from whence Griffin, 43 miles, is reached by a partially returning trip on the Savannah and Macon route, forming an acute angle with the Augusta and Atlanta line.

From Griffin to West Point (at present the termination of the railroad from Montgomery) is 69 miles, which is performed by daily lines of stages passing through Greenville, Lagrange, &c. The distance from West Point to Montgomery, 97 miles, is performed by railroad. Total distance from Charleston to Montgomery 516 miles. Fare $26.00. Time through, 51 hours.

From Montgomery to Mobile, by the Regular Line of light-draft steamers, 408 miles. Fare $10.00. Time about 50 hours. Or from Montgomery to Mobile, 197 miles, by the daily mail coach. Time 40 hours. Fare $8.00.

From Mobile to New Orleans, 166 miles, by the daily line of mail steamers. Time 20 hours. Fare $5.00. Total distance from Baltimore to New Orleans, 1,583 miles. Time through, about 6 days, 22 hours. The delays of from two to five hours, between each division of the route, make the time about 7˝days.

N. B. — For that portion of the route from Baltimore to Charleston, see page 104.

To Sineath's   13 To Graham's 9 81
Ladson's 5 18 Blackwell 9 90
Summerville 4 22 Williston 10 100
Inabnets 9 31 Aiken 20 120
Georges 17 48 Marsh's 8 128
Branchville 15 63 HAMBURG 8 136
Midway 9 72      



To Belair   10 To Madison 8 104
Berzelia 11 21 Rutledge 8 112
Dearing 8 29 Social Circle 8 120
Thomson 9 38 Covington 10 130
Camak 9 47 Conyers 11 141
Cumming 10 57 Lithonia 6 147
Crawfordville 8 65 Stone Mountain 8 155
Union Point 11 76 Decatur 10 165
Greensboro' 7 83 ATLANTA 6 171
Buckhead 13 96      

Fare $7.00.

Atlanta is 307 miles from Charleston, and 292 from Savannah, and 131 from the Tennessee river.

To Boltonville 8 To Kingston 5 60
Marietta 12 20 Adairsville 10 70
Noonday 6 26 Oothcaloga 10 80
Acworth 9 35 Resaca 5 85
Allantown 5 40 Dalton 15 100
Cartersville 10 50 Rossville Station 26 126
Hamilton 5 55 CHATTANOOGA 5 131

Fare $5.50.

By Railroad. By Railroad.
To Kingston, (as in previous route) 60 To Tuscumbia 43 262
By Stage. By Stage.
  Jacinto, Mi. 56 318
To Rome 16 76 Ripley 32 350
Gaylesville 32 108 Holly Springs 28 178
Van Buren 22 130 North Mt. Pleasant 17 395
Gunter's Landing 29 159 MEMPHIS 38 433
Decatur (By Steamboat) 20 219      

Fare $14.25, and from Charleston, S. C., to Memphis, $28.00.

To Hancock (By Railroad) 11 To Fayette 14 36
Jonesboro' 11 22 Griffin 7 43


By Stage. To Auburn 7 149
To Zebulon 12 55 Notasulga 12 161
Greenville 25 80 Chehaw 8 169
La Grange 18 98 Franklin 7 176
To Opelica (By Railroad) 30 142      

Through fare about $11.50.

(For the routes from Montgomery to Mobile, see page 130.)

From Charleston to Columbia, by railroad. — To Branchville, 63 miles, (see route page 896;) Orangeburg, 81; Lewisville, 93; Fort Mott, 101; Camden Junction, 108; Gadsden, 113; Columbia, 131. Fare $6.50.

From Charleston to Camden, by railroad. — To Camden Junction, (as before,) 108; Camden, 152. Fare $7.50.

From Charleston to Savannah, by steamboat. — To Sullivan's Island, 7; St. Helena Sound, 53; Port Royal Entrance, 82; Savannah river, 101; Savannah, 125 miles. Fare $5.00.

Principal Stage Routes Through South Carolina.

From Charleston to Savannah, daily. — To Jacksonboro', 32; Blue House, 50; Pocolaliga, 64; Grahamsville, 78; Savannah, Ga., 111 miles.

From Charleston to Georgetown, S. C., daily. — To Santee river, 44; Georgetown, 60 miles.

From Charleston to Cheraw. — By railroad to Camden, (see 4th route above,) 152 miles; by stage to Tiller's Ferry, 25; Cheraw, 60; total 212 miles.

From Charleston to Darlington, C. H. — By railroad to Fort Mott, 101 miles; by stage to Sumterville, 18; Bradleysville, 28; Durant's Ferry, 44; Darlington, 69; total 170 miles.


From Charleston to Columbia, Camden, and Hamburg. — See railroad routes respectively, from Charleston to those places.

COLUMBIA, the capital of South Carolina, is situated on an eminence on Congaree river, at the confluence of Broad and Saluda rivers. The streets are of good width, regularly laid out, and shaded by trees called the Pride of India. It has a state-house, court-house, and other public buildings. It is also the seat of South Carolina College, founded in 1804; it contains a library of about 16,000 volumes. Pop. about 5,000.

From Columbia to Camden and Cheraw, daily. — To Camden, 30; Cheraw, 88 miles.

From Columbia to Greenville, via Laurensville, twice a week. — To Oakville, 13; Pomaria, 26; Newberry, 40; Huntsville, 58; Laurensville, 76; Greenwood, 88; The Plains, 103; Greenville, 115 miles.

From Greenville to the Warm Springs, N. C. — To Traveller's Rest, 10; Merrittsville, 24; Flat Rock, 37; Hendersonville, 45; Asheville, 64; Warm Springs, 101 miles.

From Greenville to Augusta, Ga., via Abbeville, twice a week. — To Pickensville, 13; Pendleton, 28; Anderson, 44; Varennes, 52; Abbeville, 75; Fraziersville, 85; Duntonsville, 110; Edgefield, 119; Hamburg, 141; Augusta, Ga., 142 miles.

From Columbia to Augusta, via Edgefield, daily. — To Lexington, 12; Leesville, 30; Edgefield, 53; Hamburg, 75; Augusta, Ga., 76 miles.

From Columbia to Yorkville, via Winnsboro', twice a week. — To Cookham, 20; Winnsboro', 30; Albion, 35; Chesterville, 58; Brattonsville, 69; Yorkville, 79.

From Yorkville to Abbeville, via Laurensville, three times a week. — To Pinckneyville, 20; Unionville, 38; Cross Keys, 49


Laurensville, 74; Waterloo, 85; Dead Fall, 95; Abbeville, 104 miles.

From Cheraw to Salisbury, N. C., twice a week. — To Sneedsboro', 14; Wadesboro', 28; Cedar Hill, 40; Albemarle, 58; Rockville, 61; Salisbury, 84 miles.

From Cheraw to Fayetteville, N. C., via Montpelier, daily. — To Brightsville, 12; Laurel Hill, 33; Montpelier, 41; Randallsville, 47; Davis Spring, 57; Fayetteville, 68 miles.

From Marion to Georgetown, S. C., via China Grove, daily. — To Flintville, 15; Lynch's Creek, 24; China Grove, 41; Georgetown, 60 miles.

Routes in Georgia.

SAVANNAH, the largest and most important city in the state of Georgia, lies in N. Lat. 32° 4' 56", and in W. Long. 81° 8' 18" from Greenwich. Its population is about 25,000. The city is built on a sandy plain, elevated 40 feet above the water, on the S. side of Savannah river, 18 miles from the Atlantic. The harbor is one of the finest on the southern coast, being, at its entrance over the bar, a mile wide, and having a depth of water, at low tide, of from 18 to 21 feet. Vessels drawing but 13 feet of water can come close up to the wharves of the city; whilst those requiring a greater depth find a good anchorage a few miles below. The plain on which the city stands extends a mile along the river E. and W., and continues for several miles S., increasing in width back from the river. The streets of the city are regularly and beautifully laid out; between every other one is a handsome public square, surrounded and interspersed with trees of various kinds, forming miniature parks covered with grass, which give the city, during the spring and summer months, a cool, airy, and rural appearance. Many of the streets are lined on either side with trees; some have single and others double rows, running through their centres, the latter forming perfect arcades, and serving at all times for delightful and shady


walks. The city contains a number of handsome public and private buildings, numerous churches, benevolent societies, &c. The warehouses are numerous, generally lining the wharves, and built of brick or stone, mostly three or four stories high.

Savannah is the centre of a large inland trade, and which, from her fortunate position upon one of the best harbors on this part of the Atlantic coast, must continue greatly to increase. Already a stretch of railroad exists between her and the interior country, terminating on the banks of the Tennessee, nearly 500 miles distant; thereby opening to her enterprise the trade of the great West. Other roads will eventually be made, connecting her commerce and interests with those of her sister states lying immediately west. A regular steamboat communication is also kept up between Savannah and Charleston, and St. Augustine, Flo., and other places on the coast; and a line of sailing vessels runs regularly to New York.

To Eden   21 To Darisborough 22 123
Reform 9 30 Tennile 14 136
Armenia 16 46 Oconee 11 147
Halcyondale 4 50 Emmett 5 152
Scarborough 20 70 Gordon 18 170
Brinsonville 10 80 Larksville 10 180
Midville 10 90 MACON 11 191
Holcomb 10 100      

Fare $7.00.

By Railroad     To Milner's 7 47
To Howard's   6 GRIFFIN 11 58
Crawford's 7 13 Fayette 7 65
Forsyth 11 24 Jonesborough 14 79
Collier's 6 30 Hancock 11 90
Goggan's 5 33 ATLANTA 11 101
Barnesville 5 40      

Fare $4.00.

For the continuation of this route into Tennessee, see route from Atlanta to Chattanooga on page 119.


From Savannah to Augusta, Ga. — To Midville, by railroad, (see route from Savannah to Macon,page 401,) 90 miles; by stage to Waynesboro', 27; Augusta, 54; total 144. Fare through to Waynesboro' $5.00; and to Augusta $6.50.

From Savannah to Milledgeville. — To Gordon, by railroad, (see route from Savannah to Macon, page 401,) 170 miles; by stage to Milledgeville, 17; total 187 miles. Fare through $8.25.

From Savannah to Columbus, Ga. — To Macon, by railroad, (see route from Savannah to Macon, page 401,) 191 miles; by stage to Knoxville, 25; Davison, 60; Tallbotton, 62; Columbus, 95; total 286 miles. Fare through about $13.00.

Augusta is situated on the W. bank of the Savannah river, at the head of steamboat navigation, and by the course of the river about 135 miles from Savannah. The streets are wide, well laid out, planted with trees, and intersect each other at right angles. From a large bend in the river the town faces to the northeast. Many of the houses and stores are quite handsome, and the place itself presents quite a business-like appearance. The banks of the river are elevated 20 feet above its surface. A bridge 1,200 feet in length leads across the river to Hamburg.

Steamboats ply regularly down the river to Savannah. It is also on the great route of travel between Charleston and New Orleans. Pop. about 7,000.

Macon, Ga., is the county-seat of Bibb Co., and is situated on both sides of the Ocmulgee river, at the head of navigation, 32 miles W. S. W. from Milledgeville. A bridge 380 feet long unites the two divisions of the town. A large amount of cotton is annually shipped from this place. Pop. about 5,000.

From Savannah to Darien, Ga. — To Riceboro', 35; South Newport, 48; Darien, 63 miles. Fare about $4.00. From Darien to Jacksonville, Flo., reverse the route from Jacksonville to Darien.


From Darien to Macon, Ga. — To Surrency, 52; Perry's Mills, 70; Boxville, 85; Lumber City, 95; Jacksonville, 110; Copeland, 128; Graham, 124; Hartford, 140; Perry, 160; Macon, 189.

From Milledgeville to Macon is 30 miles. Fare $2.50.

From Augusta to Athens, Ga., by railroad. — To Union Point, (see route from Augusta to Atlanta, page 397,) 76; Woodville, 81; Lexington Depot, 98; Atfiens, 115. Fare $5.75.

From Athens to Dahlonega, Ga., by stage. — To Jefferson, 20; Gainsville, 43; Dahlonega, 69. Fare about $3.50.

MILLEDGEVILLE, the capital of the state of Georgia, is situated on the W. bank of the Oconee river, at the head of steamboat navigation, 158 miles from Savannah. The city is built on elevated ground, and the streets, which are broad, cross each other at right angles. The State-House is erected on an eminence about three-quarters of a mile from the river; it is a fine building in the Gothic style of architecture. Pop. about 2,500.

The Indian Springs, Ga., a fashionable southern watering-place, are situated in Butts county, 52 miles N. W. from Milledgeville. They are in the forks of two creeks, 10 miles W. of the Ocmulgee, which empty into that stream. They contain sulphur and other ingredients, and are used for the gravel, rheumatism, cutaneous, and other diseases. Visitors will here find every accommodation.

The Madison Springs are in Madison county, Ga., about 103 miles N. from Milledgeville, and 23 N. E. from Athens, and 7 from Danielsville, the county-town. These springs, also, are a fashionable resort; they are tinged with iron, and are useful in the cure of cutaneous diseases generally. Here, as at the springs before described, the visiter will meet with every attention.

Routes in Florida.

ST. AUGUSTINE, Flo., is situated on the Atlantic coast, about 30 miles below the mouth of the St. John's river, and two miles


from the ocean. It is the chief town of East Florida, and contains a population of about 2,500.

The town is of oblong form, the streets being narrow, — some of them are not more than 10 feet wide, and the principal ones are but from 15 to 18 feet in width. The houses are placed on the line of the street, and not generally contiguous to each other. They are mostly two stories high, projecting from the second story into the street. The first story is usually built of stone, covered with stucco, whilst the second is constructed of wood. The harbor would be one of the best on the coast if it were not for the bar at its entrance, which prevents the approach of large vessels, the depth of water on it being from eight to twelve feet.

"In the vicinity of the town grows the palm, or date-tree. Its branches attract notice from their singular beauty and constant rustling, like aspen leaves, as well as from the peculiarity of the under branches, which resemble, and serve for ladders, by which to ascend the tree. The fruit in form resembles the largest acorn, and is covered with a thin, transparent, yellowish membrane, containing a soft saccharine pulp, of a somewhat vinous flavor, in which is enclosed an oblong, hard kernel. When ripe it affords an agreeable nourishment. The orange, lemon, and olive, grow here to great perfection."

St. Augustine is the oldest city in the United States, having been settled by the Spaniards 43 years before the British made their first settlement in North America, at Jamestown, Va. It is now a dilapidated place, and from appearances is fast going to decay. The remains of old buildings are scattered through the town, and from present indications, will continue to increase in number until the whole place becomes one general ruin. The surrounding country now is scarcely cultivated, and almost uninhabited. The inhabitants depend for sustenance principally on fish and game, which are here very abundant.

The grand object of curiosity is the old Spanish castle of St. Mark, now called Fort Marion. It is a fortification built in a scientific style, and was completed about a hundred years since. There are a number of Spanish guns, mortars, and howitzers in it, which came into the possession of our government with the fort when the territory was purchased. One of them bears the


date of 1735. This place is frequently selected as a winter residence by consumptive persons, on account of its genial atmosphere. Green peas and other garden vegetables are frequently gathered, fit for use, in the early part of February.

From St. Augustine to Savannah, by steamboat, is about 160 miles.

Route from St. Augustine to Darien, Ga., ma Jacksonville. — To Jacksonville, 38; St. Mary's, Ga., 83; Jefferson, 105; Waynesville, 128; Darien, 160.

From Jacksonville to Tallahassee, Flo. — To the White Sulphur Spring, 82 miles. This curious spring rises in a basin 10 feet deep and 30 feet in diameter; it discharges a quantity of water and after running a course of about 100 feet, enters the Suwanee river. The waters have been found very beneficial in cases of consumption, rheumatism, and a variety of other complaints. Visiters will find ample accommodations here. From the mineral spring to Madison, 35 miles; Lipona, 73; Tallahassee, 98 — or 180 miles from Jacksonville.

PENSAOOLA, Flo., is situated on the bay of the same name, 10 miles from the sea, and about 64 miles E. from Mobile. Like St. Augustine, it is built of an oblong form, and is more than a mile in length. The shore is low and sandy; but the town is built on a gentle ascent, rising 40 feet above the water. Vessels of light draft only can reach the town, yet the bay affords one of the most safe and capacious harbors in the Gulf of Mexico.

The U. S. government has established a naval station and depot here, for which its harbor, the facilities for obtaining fine shiptimber in its vicinity, and its relative position admirably fit it. Its market is well supplied with beef, fish, oysters, turtles, seafowls, garden vegetables, &c. It contains about 2,000 inhabitants.

Route from Pensacola to Mobile, Ala. — To Blakely, 50; Mobile, 64 miles.


From Pensacola to Tallahassee, Flo. — To La Grange, (on Choctawhatchie Bay,) by steamboat, 65 miles; by stage to Holmes Valley, 25; Oakey Hill, 42; Marianna, 66; Chattahoochee, 90; Quincy, 108; Salubrity, 117; Tallahassee, 130.

TALLAHASSEE is the capital of the state of Florida, and the seat of justice of Leon county. The city, which is on elevated ground, is regularly laid out, and contains a number of fine squares, a state-house, with other public buildings, and a population of about 1,800. A railroad extends to Port Leon, 26 miles, a place situated on Appalachee Bay, and which is the port of Tallahassee.

Routes in Alabama.

MOBILE, a port of entry, and the most important place in the state of Alabama, lies on the w. side of Mobile river, at its entrance into Mobile Bay, 30 miles N. from the Gulf of Mexico. It is in 30° 40' 1ST. Lat. and 88° 21' W. Long, from Greenwich, and contains about 16,000 inhabitants.

It is pleasantly situated on an extended plain, elevated 15 feet


above the highest tides, and has a beautiful prospect of the bay, from which it receives refreshing breezes. Vessels having a draft of more than eight feet of water cannot come directly to the city, but pass up Spanish river, six miles round a marshy island, into Mobile river, and then drop down to the city. As a cotton mart, and place of export, Mobile ranks next in importance to New Orleans and Charleston. In 1840 the tonnage of this port was upwards of 17,000 tons. The city is supplied with excellent water, brought in iron pipes for a distance of two miles, and thence distributed through the city. This port is defended by Fort Morgan, (formerly Fort Brower,) situated on a long, low, sandy point, at the mouth of the bay, opposite to Dauphin Island. A lighthouse is built on Mobile Point, the lantern of which is 55 feet above the level of the sea.

Mobile was founded by the French, about the year 1700, and was ceded by that nation to England in 1763. In 1780 England surrendered it to Spain, and on the 5th of April, 1813, it was made over by the Spanish government to the United States. It was incorporated as a city, in December, 1819.

A number of sailing vessels ply regularly between Mobile and New Orleans, and places in the Gulf of Mexico, and the principal cities on the Atlantic coast. Steamboats also keep up a daily communication with New Orleans, via Lake Borgne, and likewise with Montgomery, continuing the route hence to Charleston, S. C., and the East. Preliminary steps have been taken towards the construction of a railroad 450 miles in length, extending from Mobile to Columbus, in Kentucky, and situated on the Mississippi river, about 18 miles S. from Cairo. From this latter place one will ultimately be made to Chicago, on Lake Michigan, thus opening a direct and expeditious intercourse between the great lakes of the north, and the Gulf of Mexico in the south.

For the steamboat and stage routes from Mobile to Montgomery, Ala., reverse those routes from Montgomery to Mobile, at page 130.

By Steamboat. To Portersville 12 42
To Cedar Point, Ala. 30 Pascagoula, Miss. 13 55


To Mississippi City 28 83 To Fort Coquilles 11 139
Cat Island 11 94 Point aux Herbes 7 146
East Marianne 11 105 Lakeport, (on Lake Pontchartrain) 15 161
West Marine 5 110 By Railroad.
St. Joseph's Island 5 115 NEW ORLEANS 5 166
Grand Island 4 119      
Lake Borgne 9 128      

Fare $5.00.

Montgomery, Ala., is situated on a high bluff at the head of steamboat navigation on the Alabama river. It is now the capital of the state, the seat of government having been of late removed from Tuscaloosa. A large amount of cotton is annually shipped from this place. It contains a population of between 8,000 and 4,000.

For the route from Montgomery to West Point, and the Georgia Railroad, reverse the route from Atlanta, via Griffin to Montgomery: see pages 119, 120.

ToWashington   12 To Black Bluff Landing 24 176
Lowndesport 10 22 Bell's Landing 20 196
Vernon 9 31 Claiborne 22 218
Miller's Ferry 9 40 Gosport 7 225
Benton 14 54 Oliver's Ferry 8 233
Selma 28 82 French's Landing 9 242
Cahawba 16 98 James Landing 6 248
Portland 23 121 Tombigbee River 39 287
Bridgeport 17 138 Fort St. Philip 23 310
Canton 4 142 MOBILE 21 331
Prairie Bluff 10 132      

Fare $10.00.

For the continuation of the route from Mobile to New Orleans, see pages 129, 130.

To Pintlala   13 To Burntcorn 18 90
Hickory Grove 11 24 Claiborne 24 114
Sandy Ridge 5 29 Mt. Pleasant 18 132
Kirkville 5 34 Stockton 35 167
Greenville 12 46 Blakely 16 183
Activity 26 72 MOBILE 14 197

Fare $8.00.

From Montgomery to Tuscaloosa, Ala., by stage. — To Weturnpka,


15; Kingston, 39; Maplesville, 61; Randolph, 71; Centreville, 85; Scottsville, 93; Mars, 99; Tuscaloosa, 123.

From Tuscaloosa to Tuscumbia, Ala. — To Few Lexington, 24; Eldridge, 51; Thorn Hill, 73; Eussellville, 103; Tuscumbia, 111.

From Tuscaloosa to Suntsville, Ala. — To McMath's, 32; Jonesboro', 44; Elyton, 56; Mount Pinson, 70; Blountsville, 96; Oleander, 120; Lacy Springs, 132; Whitesburg, 139; Huntsville, 149.

From Huntsville and Tuscumbia to Nashville, Tenn. — See those routes respectively from Nashville, on page 84.

Huntsville, Ala., is a neat and thriving place, situated about 10 miles N. of the Tennessee river, and 30 from the railroad at Decatur. It is built principally of brick, with some large and handsome houses. It contains a courthouse, and other public buildings, churches, &c. This place is supplied with pure and wholesome water from a natural spring, issuing from a rock. The surrounding country is very fertile. Pop. about 2,700.

Florence, Ala., is situated on the N. side of the Tennessee, at the foot of the Muscle Shoals. When the river is in a good stage of water, steamboats from the Ohio can reach this place. It carries on some trade with New Orleans. Pop. about 2,000.

Tuscumbia, Ala., is situated on the s. side of the Tennessee, nearly a mile from its bank, and five miles from Florence. It has several handsome buildings, and a population of about 2,250. A railroad extends from Tuscumbia to Decatur, thus obviating the difficulties in the navigation of the river by the existence of the Muscle Shoals.

Routes in Mississippi.

JACKSON, the capital of the state of Mississippi, is situated on the W. bank of Pearl river, in a central, healthy, and pleasant location. It is laid out with some regularity, and contains some handsome public and private edifices. It is the seat of a college


Founded in 1841. A railroad extends to Vicksburg, on the Mississippi, for a description of which see Index.

From Jackson to Vicksburg, by railroad. — To Clinton, 10; Bolton's, 19; Edwards, 28; Big Black river, 34; Bovina, 36; Mt. Alban, 39; Vicksburg, 46. Fare $2.00.

From Jackson to Natchez, Miss., by stage. — To Newtown, 10; Gallatin, 40; Malcolm, 75; Hamburg, 85; Natchez, 101.

From Jackson to Woodville, via Natchez and Bayou Sara. — To Natchez, (as in previous route,) 101 miles; Cold Spring, 121; Woodville, 137; by railroad to Laurel Hill, 13; Bayou Sara, 24; total 150 miles.

From Jackson to Granada, Miss. — To Canton, 24; Benton, 51; Lexington, 76; Carrollton, 106; Granada, 126.

From Jackson to Columbus, Miss. — To Canton, 24; Springfield, 42; Hopahka, 60; Louisville, 98; Columbus, 145.

From Columbus, Miss., to Tuscumbia, Ala. — To State Line, 18 miles; Moscow, 35; Pikeville, 54; Toll Gate, 66; Russellville, 98; Tuscumbia, 115.

From Granada, Miss., to Memphis, Tenn. — To Coffeeville, 18; Oxford, 30; Waterford, 54; Holly Springs, 63; Memphis, 116 miles.

Description of New Orleans.

NEW ORLEANS, the former capital of the state of Louisiana, and the great commercial emporium of the southwest, is situated on the left bank, in a great bend of the Mississippi; by the meanders of the river, 94 miles from the Gulf of Mexico, and in N. Lat. 29° 57' 30", and in W. Lon. 90° 8' from Greenwich. It is distant from New York 1,663 miles, Philadelphia 1,576, Boston


1,887, Baltimore 1,478, Washington City 1,438, Charleston, S. C. 879, Cincinnati 1,548, St. Louis 1,201, Pittsburg 2,025, Chicago 1,628, and the Falls of St. Anthony 1,993.

The city is built on land gently descending from the river towards a marshy ground in the rear, and from two to four feet below the level of the river at high-water mark. It is prevented from overflowing the city by an embankment of earth, termed the Levee, which extends from Fort Plaquemine, 43 miles below the city, to 120 miles above it; it is 15 feet wide and 4 feet high, and forms a delightful promenade. By referring to the position of this city on the map, a person must at once be struck with its unrivalled facilities as a vast commercial depot. It is accessible at all times by vessels of the largest description coming from the ocean, and its advantages of communication with the upper country, and the whole valley of the Mississippi, are at once stupendous and unrivalled. It is not an exaggeration when we state that, including the tributaries of this noble river, New Orleans has upwards of 17,000 miles of internal navigation, penetrating the most fertile soils, and a great variety of climates; but at present the resources of this immense valley are only partially developed. Not unfrequently from a thousand to fifteen hundred flat-boats may be seen lying at the


levee, that have floated down the stream for hundreds of miles, with the rich produce of the interior country. Steamboats of the largest class may be observed arriving and departing almost hourly; and, except in the summer months, at its wharves may be seen hundreds of ships and other sailing craft, from all quarters of the globe, landing the productions of other climes, and receiving cargoes of cotton, sugar, tobacco, lumber, provisions, &c. Indeed, nothing can present a more busy, bustling scene, than exists here at this time; the loading and unloading of vessels and steamers, with hundreds of drays transporting tobacco, cotton, sugar, and the various and immense products of the "Far West," make a vivid impression upon the mind of the stranger.

The total estimated value of produce received from the interior for the year ending August, 1847, was $90,033,256, whilst in 1844 it was only $60,094,716. The total receipts of cotton for the year ending August, 1847, were 740,669 bales. The exports were, to Great Britain, 385,368 bales; to France, 95,719; other foreign ports, 83,920; total, 565,007. The year previous 835,775 bales were exported to foreign ports. The principal portion of the business of New Orleans is transacted between October and June.

New Orleans consists of the city proper, which is built in the form of a parallelogram, the suburbs of St. Mary's, Annunciation, and La Course, called fauxbourgs; to which may be added the city of La Fayette, although under a separate government. Below the city are the suburbs of Marigney, Dounois, and Declouet; and in the rear are Treme and St. John's. The whole extent is probably not less than five miles in a line parallel with the river; and extending perpendicularly to it, from a quarter to three quarters of a mile; and to the Bayou St. John, two miles. The appearance of the city from the river, in ascending or descending, is very beautiful. "Viewed from the harbor, on a sunny day, no city offers a more striking panoramic view. It envelopes the beholder something in the form of a crescent. An area of many acres, covered with all the grotesque variety of flat-boats, keel-boats, and water craft of every description, that have floated from all points of the valley above, lines the upper part of the shore. Steamboats rounding to, or


sweeping away, cast their long horizontal streams of smoke behind them. Sloops, schooners, brigs, and ships occupy the wharves, arranged below each other in the order of their size, showing a forest of masts. The foreign aspect of the stuccoed houses in the city proper — the massive buildings of the Faubourg St. Mary — the bustle and movement on every side — all seen at one view, in the bright coloring of the brilliant sun and sky of the climate, present a splendid spectacle."

In 1840 the population of the city was 102,193. For the principal hotels and public buildings, see engraved plan of the city of New Orleans; and for the routes diverging therefrom, as follows:

Routes from New Orleans.

From New Orleans to New York and intermediate places. — To Lake Pontchartrain, (by railroad,) 5 miles; Pt. aux Herbes, (by steamboat,) 20 miles; Fort Coquilles, 27; Lake Borgne, 38; Grand Island, 47; St. Joseph's Island, 51; West Marianne, 56; East Marianne, 61; Cat Island, 72; Mississippi City, 83; Deer Island, 88; Pascagoula, Miss., Ill; Pottersville, 124; Cedar Point, Ala., 136; MOBILE, Ala., 166 miles from New Orleans. Fare $5.00.

By steamboat from Mobile to Montgomery, 331 miles. Fare $10.00. Or by stage from Mobile to Montgomery, 197 miles. Fare $8.00.

From Montgomery to West Point, by railroad, 97 miles; and from West Point to Griffin, Ga., by stage, 69 miles. Total distance from New Orleans, by the shortest route, 529 miles.

At Griffin the traveller will have a choice of routes; by railroad to Savannah, Ga., via Macon, 249 miles, or by the railroad to Charleston, S. C., via Augusta, Ga., 349 miles, or from New Orleans, 878 miles. From either of these places he may reach New York by fine steamships. Or by taking the cars on the route from Wilmington, N. C., to the Potomac river, via Weidon, N. C., and Petersburg, Richmond, and Fredericksburg, Va. From Acquia Creek, Washington City is reached by steamboat: and from the latter place to Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, and Boston, by railroad.


From Savannah to Charleston, by steamboat, is 125 miles; and from Charleston to Wilmington, by the same conveyance, 180 miles; from Wilmington to Weldon, 162 miles; from Weidon to Petersburg, 63 miles; from Petersburg to Richmond, 22 miles; from Richmond to Fredericksburg, 63 miles; from Fredericksburg to Washington City, 70 miles. Total from Charleston, 560 miles; from New Orleans, 1,438 miles; and from New York, 1,663 miles.

From New Orleans to New York, via Wheeling and Pittsburg. — To Baton Rouge, 138 miles; Natchez, 279; Vicksburg, 395; Memphis, 781; Mouth of the Ohio river, 1,026; Louisville, 1,415; Cincinnati, 1,548; Maysville, 1,611; Portsmouth, 1,662; Marietta, 1,849; Wheeling, 1,931; Pittsburg, 2,025. By canal to Johnstown; by railroad to Hollidaysburg; by canal to Harrisburg; and to New York, via Philadelphia, by railroad. Total, 2,511 miles.

Or by stage from Wheeling, on the Ohio river, crossing the mountains to Cumberland; from thence by railroad to Baltimore; and from thence to Philadelphia and New York. Total by this route, 2,367 miles.

From New Orleans to New York, via St. Louis, the Lakes, and, Buffalo. — To the Mouth of the Ohio, 1,026; to St. Louis, 1,201; by the Illinois river and Michigan Canal to Chicago, 1,593; by steamboat to New Buffalo, and railroad to Detroit, 1,863; steamboat to Buffalo, 2,188; from Buffalo to Albany, by railroad, 2,551; thence to New York. Total, 2,696 miles.

The traveller can now stop at the head of Cayuga Lake, and reach Ithaca by steamboat; from thence to Owego by railroad; here take the cars on the New York and Erie Railroad, and reach New York.

From New Orleans to New York, via Cincinnati and Sandusky City. — To Cincinnati by steamboat, 1,548; from thence to Sandusky City by railroad, 1,765; from thence by steamboat to Buffalo, 2,017; and thence by railroad and steamboat to New York, 2,525 miles.

From New Orleans to Nashville, Tenn. — By steamboat to the


mouth of the Ohio river, 1,026; to the mouth of the Tennessee, 1,087; to the mouth of Cumberland river, 1,097; Eddyville, Ky., 1,153; Canton, 1,174; Palmyra, 1,235; Clarksville, 1,250; Nashville, 1,300.

From New Orleans to Florence, Ala. — By steamboat to the mouth of the Ohio river, 1,026; to the mouth of the Tennessee and Paducah, 1,087; Aurora, 1,140; Petersville, Tenn., 1,155; Reynoldsburg, 1,191; Perryville, 1,235; Carrollville, 1,260; Coffee, 1,286; Savannah, 1,296; Tuscumbia, Ala., 1,365; Florence, 1,370.

From New Orleans to the Raft on Red River. — By steamboat to the mouth of Red river, 236 miles; Black river, 265; Bayou Saline, 284; Alexandria, 341; Regolet de Bondieu, 355; Bayou Cane, 391; Natchitoches, 415; Shreveport and the Raft, 497.

From New Orleans to Fort Gibson. — By steamboat to Arkansas river, 620 miles; Arkansas, 682; New Gascony, 753; Pine Bluffs, 778; Little Rock, 928; Lewisburg, 994; Scotia, 1,040; Morrison's Bluff, 1,075; Van Buren, 1,150; Fort Smith, 1,158; Fort Coffee, In. Ter., 1,168; FOET GIBSON, 1,252.

From New Orleans to Austin, the capital of Texas. — By steamboat to Red river, 236 miles; Alexandria, 341; Natchitoches, 415. From thence by land conveyance to Fort Jesup, 441; Milam, (Texas,) 484; San Augustine, 499; Nacogdoches, 535; Crockett, 596; Montgomery, 666; Washington, 701; Independence, 712; La Grange, 764; Bastrop, 804; AUSTIN, 837.

MEXICAN GULF RAILWAY. — Depot in New Orleans, corner of Elysian Fields and Good Children-st., Third Municipality.

To Proctorsville, Lake Borgne, distance 27 miles. Fare 75 cents. Children and slaves 35 cents each.

The British steamers arrive at Ship Island, from Southampton and Havre, about the 2d of every month, on their way to Vera Cruz; and return from thence to Ship Island, for Havana and England, on the 21st and 22d of each month.


By the following will be seen, at a glance, the distance of the principal places from New Orleans by water, with the probable fare to be paid to reach either.

From New Orleans Miles. Fare. From New Orleans Miles. Fare.
To Baton Rouge 138 $5.00 To Louisville 1415 $13.00
Natchez 279 8.00 Cincinnati 1548 15.00
Vicksburg 395 10.00 Maysville 1611 17.00
Memphis 781 12.00 Wheeling 1931 20.00
Cairo 1026 12.00 Pittsburg 2025 21.00
St. Louis 1201 14.00 Nashville, Term 1300 20.00
Dubuque 1650 20.00 Florence, Ala. 1370 22.00
Falls of St. Anthony 1993 23.00      

We wish it understood, that the above charges may sometimes vary, owing more or less to competition, and the low stages of the water. We obtained the above information personally, and therefore, as a general thing, the traveller may depend upon its accuracy; at all events, it will be near enough to make up a general estimate of expenses.

Rates of Passage from New Orleans to the principal American and foreign ports, by sea.
To Mobile $5.00 To New York $60.00
Pensacola 8.00 Boston 65.00
Tampa Bay 15.00 Havana 25.00
Galveston 20.00 Tampico 30.00
Savannah 25.00 Vera Cruz 35.00
Charleston 30.00 Liverpool 120.00
Baltimore 50.00 London 125.00
Philadelphia 60.00 Havre 120.00

Routes in Texas.

Galveston, the commercial capital of Texas, is situated on the eastern end of an island of the same name, and on Galveston Bay. Its harbor is one of the best on the Gulf coast, there being about 14 feet of water ou the bar at low tide. This city, although settled as recently as 1837, is increasing rapidly in trade and population, and now ranks among the first of the commercial places on the southern coast of the United States. It contains between 6,000 and 7,000 inhabitants. It is about 450 miles (by water) from New Orleans.


There are regular lines of steamboats plying between Galveston and New Orleans; also to Houston, and to the principal places on the coast.

Route from Galveston to Austin. — To Houston, (by steamboat,) 82 miles; San Felipe, (by stage,) 136; Rutersville, 178; La Grange, 183; Mt. Pleasant, 213; Bastrop 223; Austin, 256.

From Galveston to Matagorda, by stage. — To San Luis, 27 Velasco, 38; Cedar Grove, 64; Matagorda, 89.

From Galveston to Washington. — To Houston, 82; Myrtle Turf, 112; Washington, 147.

From Galveston to Corpus Christi. — To Velasco, 38; Matagorda, 89; Texana, 133; Victoria, 159; Goliad, 194; Corpus Christi, 245.

AUSTIN, the capital of the state of Texas, is situated on the E. side of the Colorado river, about 200 miles from Matagorda Bay. It is elevated about 40 feet above the river, on which it is built, and contains about 1,500 inhabitants.

From Austin to Galveston. — Reverse route from Galveston to Austin, 4th route above.

From Austin to Matagorda. — To Bastrop, 33; Mt. Pleasant, 43; La Grange, 73; Columbus, 108; Egypt, 138; Preston, 158; Matagorda, 198.

From Austin to Washington. — To La Grange, 73; Rutersville, 78; Industry, 98; Mt. Vernon, 118; Independence, 132 Washington, 142.

From Austin to the Rio Grande. — To Bastrop, 33; River San Marcos, 77; River Guadaloupe, 98; San Antonio de Bexar, 148; River San Miguel, 190; River Frio, 220; River Nueces, 282; Rio Grande, (town and river,) 332.


From Austin to Brazoria. — To Bastrop, 33; La Grange, 73; San Felipe do Austin, 120; Richmond, 160; Brazoria, 210.

From Austin to Matamoras. — To Bastrop, 33; Gonzales, 86; Goliad, 146; San Patricio, 220; Brownsville, Rio Grande, and Matamoras, 365.

From Austin to Corpus Christi. — To San Patricio, (as in previous route,) 220; Corpus Christi, 243.

From Austin to the Sabine River, via San Augustine, — To Bastrop, 33; Brazos River, 108; Trinity River, 188; Crocket, 212; Nacogdoches, 275; San Augustine, 310; Milam, 325; Sabine River, 335.

Houston is situated in the centre of an extensive cotton-growing region, on Buffalo bayou, 82 miles from Galveston, and contains a population of nearly 5,000.

From Houston to Austin. — See route from Galveston to Austin, page 139.

From Houston to Washington. — To Myrtle Turf, 30; Washington, 86.

From Houston to Beaumont. — To Lynchburg, 35; Liberty, 60; Beaumont, 112.

From Matagorda to Austin. — Reverse route from Austin to Matagorda.



1. Sometimes, at the request of passengers, a captain will tie his boat up along-shore, for a short time, in order to give them an opportunity of seeing the cave.

2. For the above routes see pages 13, 14 and 38.

3. Toledo is 310 miles from Buffalo; it is situated on the extreme western end of Lake Erie, and is off the direct route between Buffalo and Detroit. Steamboats, however, arrive at, and depart regularly from this place.

4. This is the termination of the South Carolina Railroad, haying reached the east bank of the Savannah river. To continue the route through Georgia, we must cross the Savannah river to Augusta, where commences the Georgia Railroad. Omnibuses will be found at the Hamburg station, to convey passengers to the depot of that road. Fare 50 cents. Supper may be procured in Augusta.

5. By steamship the passage is $75.00.