Pictures and Illustrations.
Phrenological Bust of Black Hawk (front view)
Phrenological Bust of Black Hawk (side view)
Phrenological Developments and Character of the Celebrated Indian Chief and Warrior, Black Hawk: With Cuts.
Phrenological Developments of Black Hawk.
1. Amativeness, large.
2. Philoprogenitiveness, large.+
3. Adhesiveness, large.
4. Inhabitiveness, large.
5. Concentrativeness, large.
6. Combativeness, very large.
7. Destructiveness, very large.
8. Alimentativeness, average.
9. Acquisitiveness, large.
10. Secretiveness, very large.
11. Cautiousness, full.+
12. Approbativeness, very large.
13. Self-Esteem, very large.+
14. Firmness, very large.
15. Conscientiousness, moderate.
16. Hope, small.
17. Marvellousness, large.
18. Veneration, very large.+
19. Benevolence, moderate.
20. Constructiveness, small.
21. Ideality, moderate.
22. Imitation, small.
23. Mirthfulness, full.
24. Individuality, very large.+
25. Form, very large.+
26. Size, very large.+
27. Weight, large.
28. Colour, large.
29. Order, large.
30. Calculation, large.
31. Locality, very large.+
32. Eventuality, very large.
33. Time, uncertain.
34. Tune, uncertain.
35. Language, large.
36. Comparison, large.+
37. Causality, average.
|Circumference of the head, around Philoprogenitiveness, Secretiveness, and Eventuality,||23 inches|
|From ear to ear, over Firmness,||14 6/8|
|" " over Veneration,||14 6/8|
|From the meatus auditoris to Firmness,||6 1/2|
|" " " Veneration,||6 1/2|
|" " " Benevolence,||6 1/8|
|" " " Comparison,||6 1/8|
|" " " Individuality,||5 1/2|
|" " " Philoprogenitiveness,||5 1/8|
|" " " Self-Esteem,||6 5/8|
|From Destructiveness to Destructiveness,||6 5/8|
|From Secretiveness to Secretiveness,||6 5/8 inches.|
|From Combativeness to Combativeness,||5 5/8|
|From Cautiousness to Cautiousness,||5 7/8|
|From Ideality to Ideality,||5|
Having given the measurements of the head of Black Hawk, and the relative size of his organs, we will now deduce the phrenological analysis of his character, and then present the coincidence between what phrenology describes his character to be, and what his life, thus far, shows that it really is. His head is large, giving much more than an ordinary amount of intellect and feeling, and indicative also of weight of character and extent of influence. His temperament is bilious-nervous, combining great strength with great mental and physical activity, and power of endurance; which, in even common, and especially in favourable circumstances, would call into full exercise all the powers of his mind and body. The great size of Combativeness,
53and the domestic organs, is indicated by the immense breadth of the head, behind the ears, rather than by posterior length. The phrenologist, on a careful inspection, will select the three following clusters of organs, as constituting the leading traits in Black Hawk's character; and all our readers will see for themselves these organs, or portions of the head, strikingly exhibited in the cuts.
First, the organs located in the side head, around the ears. These, being very large, give to this portion of the head a full, spherical, bulging appearance, as seen in both cuts. It embraces the organs of Combativeness, Destructiveness, Secretiveness, Cautiousness, and Acquisitiveness. These organs, when large, or very large, always give great energy and force of character, and, in a savage state, would give cruelty, cunning, and revenge; would make an Indian the bold and desperate warrior, and tend to raise such a one to be a
54leader, or chief, where physical power and bravery are the most important requisites.
Second class — the superior-posterior part, or the back and upper portion, of the head, embracing the organs of Self-Esteem, Firmness, and Approbativeness. These organs, when large, or very large, give a great amount of character, ambition, and influence of some kind, varying according to their combination; but combined as they are in Black Hawk's head, with very large organs of the animal propensities, they would give a warlike ambition, and a great love of independence and power.
Third class — very large perceptive faculties. So large a development of these organs as he possesses, we have seldom, if ever, seen. These, in a civilised and educated community, give a knowledge of the properties of things, a fondness for scientific and historical facts, and a practical, business talent; but in Black Hawk's case they would give tact and management in executing, also extraordinary powers of observation, and such a memory as is requisite to the hunter and warrior. His domestic organs are unusually large for a male Indian, as may be seen by the length and breadth of the posterior portion of his head, as exhibited in the cuts, but more strikingly on the bust, or living head. These would give a very strong love of home, family, friends, children, wife, and, with very large Self-Esteem, his tribe; and, combined with very large Combativeness and Destructiveness, would create the most unyielding resistance to ward off all attacks on their peace and happiness, and the most indomitable perseverance and insatiable thirst to revenge all assaults.
Combativeness and Destructiveness, "very large," would give great propelling power and physical courage, and almost any amount of resistance and severity when necessary. Secretiveness "very large," and Cautiousness "full," would give cunning, and induce a resort to stratagems and artful schemes; would also give much forethought and care, with scarcely any dread of danger. Self-Esteem, Approbativeness, Firmness, and Veneration, all "very large," would give real dignity, self-respect and self-command, love of character, at times much pride, at others vanity, decision, fixedness of will and purpose, great religious adoration, and a respectful deference to men whom he recognised as having qualities similar to his own. Self-Esteem and Approbativeness "very large," combined with strong domestic feelings, would lead him to place the highest value on the happiness, good opinion, and character of his family, his friends, his tribe, and the red men generally; but would prevent him from doing any thing mean, low, or disreputable, either to them or himself. Veneration "very large," Marvellousness "large," Benevolence and
55conscientiousness "moderate," unenlightened, would give much superstition, the highest adoration of the Great Spirit, a resort to supernatural aid, great reliance upon the declarations of his prophet, and acquiescence in the will of the Great Spirit, indefinite ideas of abstract right and justice,
In conclusion, the brain of Black Hawk is so balanced as could scarcely fail to render him distinguished, amid the circumstances and influences which exist in a savage state. The above delineation of character is given from exact measurements, and on strictly phrenological principles, without any particular reference to its counterpart. Any experienced phrenologist would have sketched the same, or a very similar character, from the above data, without any knowledge whatever of the real character; and every reader must see the coincidence between the developments in the cuts, and the corresponding inferences.
We will now select quotations from the life of Black Hawk, dictated by himself, interpreted by A. Leclair, U. S. Interpreter for the Sacs and Foxes, edited by J. B. Patterson, of Rock Island, Illinois; a book bearing the strongest internal and external evidence of its authenticity: and also from a large work, titled "Book of the Indians
56of North America," by S. G. Drake, published in Boston. We shall let the old chief speak for himself, and intersperse the quotations with explanations and remarks, showing the beautiful and almost perfect harmony between his real and his phrenological character.
The following corresponds with his large domestic organs
"I then (having just completed an expedition against the whites, and held an Indian council) started to see my wife and children. I found them well, and growing finely. This is the only wife I ever had, or ever will have. She is a good woman, and teaches my boys to be brave. (Combativeness also appears here.) Here I would have gladly rested myself, but I could not; I had promised to avenge (Destructiveness) the death of my adopted son. I passed on, and distinctly saw two little boys (whites) concealing themselves! I thought of my own children (Philoprogenitiveness), and passed on. Soon after the death of my eldest son, my youngest daughter, an interesting and affectionate child, died also. This was a hard stroke, because I loved my children (Philoprogenitiveness). In my distress I left the noise of my village, built a lodge in my corn-field; gave every thing I had away, retaining only a buffalo robe; resolved on blacking my face, and fasting for two years, for the loss of my two children — drinking only of water in the middle of the day, and eating sparingly of boiled corn at sunset. I fulfilled (Firmness) my promise, hoping the Great Spirit (Veneration) would have pity on me."
The male Indians are generally deficient in the organ of Philoprogenitiveness; and though we have seen some hundreds, seldom, if ever, have we seen the organ so large as in Black Hawk — and the manifestation in character is equally strong.
"What pleasure it is to an old warrior to see his son (Philoprogenitiveness) come forward and relate his exploits (Destructiveness); it makes him feel young again." "I would rather have laid my bones with those of my forefathers (Veneration), than remove for any consideration; yet, if a friendly offer had been made, I would, for the sake of my women and children, have removed peaceably."
Amativeness, Adhesiveness, and Philoprogenitiveness, prompted the last sentence.
His "very large" Self-Esteem and Approbativeness, restrained by "very large" Veneration, created that love of fame — that high sense of honour — that nobleness of soul — that native magnanimity and greatness which always characterised him, and which are rarely found to such a degree in even civilised and refined society. His life shows that he despised every thing like meanness and littleness — was on all occasions the man, and possessed the natural elements which would adorn the most elevated stations. Had those elements been enlightened by education and Christianity, and controlled by the intellectual
57and moral, instead of being debased by the animal, part, they would have presented a far brighter, nobler, and more exalted portrait.
"I was proud (Self-Esteem) to have an opportunity to prove to him (his father) that I was not an unworthy son, and that I had courage and bravery (Combativeness). Standing by my father's side, I saw him kill his antagonist, and tear the scalp from his head. Fired with valour and ambition (Combativeness and Approbativeness), I rushed furiously upon another — smote him to the earth with my tomahawk — run my lance through his body — took off his scalp, and returned in triumph to my father. This was the first man I ever had killed."
And this, too, when only a boy of fifteen years old; yet, even some time before, he had wounded an enemy, and was therefore "a brave." He continues: —
"After a few moons had passed, having acquired considerable fame as a brave, I led a party of seven, and attacked one hundred Osages; killed one man, ordered a retreat, and came off without losing a man."
What a vivid description this of "very large" Approbativeness, Self-Esteem, Firmness, Combativeness, Destructiveness, and Secretiveness, in a lad about sixteen. Had these organs, or even one of them, been below average size, they never would have manifested such qualities in character. The remarkable development of these organs (see cuts) will warrant us in presenting a few more illustrations. Black Hawk, alluding to the above exploit, says — "This excursion gained for me great applause (Approbativeness), and enabled me soon to raise a war party, of one hundred and eighty, to go against the Osages. Finding, to their (Black Hawk's party) sorrow, the Osages had fled before their arrival, they returned."
In his "nineteenth year," we find him again leading to battle two hundred efficient warriors against the Osages, " determined to conquer or die." In this engagement he says — "I killed in personal conflict five men and one squaw, and took the scalps of all I struck except one." Soon after this we find him again in the field with his father
"And seeing him fall, I took command (Self-Esteem), and fought desperately till the enemy retreated, killing three men (out of twenty), and wounding several. Soon after this I took a small party, and went against the enemy, but could find only six men! Their forces being so weak, I thought it cowardly ("very large" Self-Esteem) to kill them." "Determined on the final extermination of the Osages, we started early next morning, and before sun-down fell upon forty lodges, and killed all their inhabitants except two sqaws. During this attack, I (Self-Esteem) killed seven men and two boys." "The loss of my father by the Cherokees made me anxious to avenge his death (Destructiveness and Veneration), by the annihilation of all their race. Finding but a small party of five, great as was my hatred of this people, I could not kill so small a party." (Very large Self-Esteem.)
"I led a large party against the Chippeways, Kaskaskias, and Osages. During this long and arduous campaign, I had seven regular engagements
58comments and a number of skirmishes. I killed thirteen of their bravest warriors with my own (Self-Esteem) hand."
The British, at the battle of Niagara, had taken many prisoners, and the Indians were killing them. Says Black Hawk — "I immediately put a stop to it, as I never thought it brave, but cowardly, to kill an unarmed and helpless enemy." He did this, not because the scene distressed his Benevolence, but it wounded his high sense of honour — his Self-Esteem.
A boat being aground in the Mississippi, says Black Hawk, " I approached it cautiously (Cautiousness and Secretiveness), and fired upon it. I prepared my bow and arrows to throw fire into the sail,and, after two or three attempts, succeeded in setting it on fire."
Again he says — "I explained to them (his tribe) the manner the British and Americans fought. Instead of stealing (Cautiousness and Secretiveness) upon each other, and taking every advantage to kill the enemy and save their own people, as we do, &c. &c. Those chiefs will do well to paddle a canoe, but not to steer it." (Mirthfulness and Comparison.)
The following is a striking illustration of mortified Self-Esteem and Approbativeness. Having been taken prisoner, and carried to Fort Jefferson, he said —
"I felt the humiliation of my situation. A little while before, I had been the leader of my braves — now I was a prisoner of war, but I had surrendered myself. We were now confined to the barracks, and forced to wear the ball and chain. This was extremely mortifying, and altogether useless. If I had taken him prisoner, I would not have wounded his feelings by such treatment, knowing that a brave chief would prefer death to dishonour."
His Veneration is remarkably large, as is also his Marvellousness, Firmness, Self-Esteem: these, with moderate Benevolence and Conscientiousness, render the crown of his head conical, and actually led some persons, seeing Black Hawk in Philadelphia, to say that his head resembled a "pyramid." (See the cuts.)
The following quotations will strikingly illustrate his religious organs. On the death of his father, he said — "I now fell heir to the medicine bag of my forefathers, (which had been handed down from time immemorial, and was considered the ‘soul of their nation,’) and blacked my face, fasted and prayed for five years." (Firmness.)
Again: "I approached the spot from which the smoke proceeded, and saw a mat stretched, and an old man sitting upon it in sorrow. I knew that he had come there to be alone, to humble himself before the Great Spirit, that he might take pity on him."
Veneration, and particularly Marvellousness, dictated the two following quotations:
"During my slumbers the Great Spirit told me to go down the bluff to a creek — that I would there find a hollow tree cut down — to look into the top of it, and there I would see a large snake; to observe the direction he was looking, and I would see the enemy close by, and unarmed. I took one of my braves, and went down to the bluff. Here I found a tree that had been cut down; I looked into the top, and saw a large snake, with his head raised, looking across the creek. I raised myself cautiously, and discovered two war chiefs, walking arm in arm, without guns.
"A good spirit had care of it (Block Island), who lived in a cave in the rocks immediately under the place where the fort now stands, and has often been seen by our people. He was white, with large wings like a swan's, only ten times larger. We were particular not to make a noise in that part of the island, for fear of disturbing him; but the noise of the fort has since driven him away, and no doubt a bad spirit has taken his place.
"If the Great and Good Spirit wished us to believe and do as the whites, he could easily change our opinions. We are nothing compared with his power, and we feel and know it. We thank the Great Spirit for all the benefits he confers upon us. For myself, I never take a drink of water from a spring, without being mindful of his goodness."
Such devout adoration and unwavering confidence — such humble acknowledgments and sincere thankfulness, as expressed In the last paragraph — might well grace the Christian's language, who worships Jehovah, the only true God of Heaven and Earth.
On entering upon another warlike expedition, he said, "The prospect before us is a bad one (Hope ‘weak’). I fasted, and called upon the Great Spirit to direct my steps to the right path. I was in great sorrow." And after a victorious battle he says, "I lighted my pipe, and sat down to thank the Great Spirit." He closes his narrative thus: "I am now done. A few more moons, and I must follow my fathers to the shades. May the Great Spirit keep our people and the whites always in peace."
Notwithstanding his whole life abounds with the manifestations of Veneration and Marvellousness, yet there is scarcely a single exhibition of Benevolence and Conscientiousness. (See, in the cuts, the striking difference in the developments of Veneration and Benevolence.) The leading functions of Conscientiousness are to give a feeling of penitence, a spirit of forgiveness, a sense of guilt and right. But we cannot find a single instance of the three former in his whole character. True, he occasionally talked about "right and wrong," and once spoke as follows
"We can only judge of what is right and wrong by our standard of right and wrong, which differs widely from that of the whites. They may do bad all their lives, and then, if they are sorry for it, when they die, all is well. But with us it is different: we must continue throughout our lives to do what we conceive to be good."
Conscientiousness moderate might have dictated the above; but,
60from the whole tenour of his life, it is evident that he had no definite ideas of the fundamental principles of right and justice.
The many speeches of Black Hawk before the Indians and the whites, as well as interviews with them, plainly evince strong intellectual faculties, especially Comparison, Eventuality, and Individuality. Addressing Colonel Eustis at Fort Monroe, he said, "Brother, your houses are as numerous as the leaves (Comparison) upon the trees, and your young warriors like the sands (Comparison) upon the shore of the big lake which rolls before us." But he was deficient in Causality; he could not trace out far the relations between cause and effect, and skilfully adapt means to ends on a large scale. Alluding to his defeat, when at the head of several tribes, and with fair prospects of committing far greater depredations on the whites, he said, "There was bad management somewhere, or the difficulty that has taker place would have been avoided."
The following extract from a speech to his tribe shows very great Eventuality and Individuality, in narrating fact upon fact: "The white people had already entered our village, burnt our lodges, destroyed our fences, ploughed up our corn, beat our people, brought whiskey into our country, made our people drunk, and then taken from them their horses, guns, traps," &c.
That his organ of Language is large, is proved from the copia verborum in his frequent speeches, and from the fact that he conversed fluently in several Indian dialects, and on this account was once taken to be the chief of another tribe.
The fact that he was so great a hunter, so distinguished a chief, so great an observer, and could remember and relate almost every thing he saw, is proof of large Form, Size, Locality, Individuality, and Eventuality. The following sentence is a grand specimen of mingled Self-Esteem and Veneration, from a conquered Indian chief, in his first words to the president (Jackson) of the United States at Washington, 1833: "I am a man, and you are another."
We were much pleased with the following extract from the pen
61of the editor of the U.S. Literary Gazette, Philadelphia: "We found time yesterday to visit Black Hawk and the Indian chiefs at the Congress Hall Hotel. We went into their chamber, and found most of them sitting, or lying on their beds. Black Hawk was sitting in a chair, and apparently depressed in spirits. He is about sixty-five, of middling size, with a head that would excite the envy of a phrenologist — one of the finest that Heaven ever let fall on the shoulders of an Indian."
We conclude this article by quoting a part of Black Hawk's speech at "Prairie du Chien," after he was taken prisoner. In this we have a summary of his character, and many striking traits of the Indian chief and conquered warrior.
"You have taken me prisoner with all my warriors... When I saw that I could not beat you by Indian fighting, I determined to rush on you, and fight you face to face. I fought hard — but your guns were well aimed; the bullets flew like birds in the air, and whizzed by our ears like the wind through the trees in the winter. My warriors fell around me: it began to look dismal. I saw my evil day at hand. The sun rose dim on us in the morning, and at night it sunk in a dark cloud, and looked like a ball of fire. That was the last sun that shone on Black Hawk. His heart is dead, and no longer beats quick in his bosom. He is now a prisoner to the white men; they will do with him as they wish. But he can stand torture, and is not afraid of death. He is no coward — Black Hawk is an Indian
"He has done nothing for which an Indian ought to be ashamed. He has fought for his countrymen, the squaws, and papooses, against white men, who came year after year to cheat them and take away their lands. He is satisfied; he will go to the world of spirits contented; he has done his duty; his father will meet him there, and commend him. Black Hawk is a true Indian, and disdains to cry like a woman. He feels for his wife, his children, and friends; but he does not care for himself.... Farewell, my nation! Black Hawk tried to save you, and avenge your wrongs. He drank the blood of some of the whites. He has been taken prisoner, and his plans are stopped; he can do no more. He is near his end; his sun is setting, and he will rise no more. Farewell to Black Hawk."