Sabel and Searle's Emigration Office.
19, WATER STREET, AND 3, REGENT ROAD, LIVERPOOL,
To the UNITED STATES and BRITISH AMERICA.
THROUGH RATES for Passengers and Goods, to all parts of CANADA and the WESTERN STATES, in direct conjunction with the GRAND TRUNK RAILWAY OF CANADA, the Manager of which takes charge of Passengers and their Luggage on arrival at Quebec, and forwards them, without delay or inconvenience, to their destination.
|Monarch of the Seas||3000|
|City of Brooklyn||2500|
|E. C. Scranton||2500|
|R. F. Lan||2000|
|R. L. Gilchrest||2000|
|J. S. Parsons||2500|
Vessels are despatched as Passengers and Freights offer. Through Rates for Passengers and Goods to all parts of Canada and the Western States, in conjunction with the Grand Trunk Railway, whose Agent receives persons, with their Luggage, immediately on arrival, and forwards them with despatch.
Persons taking their passages by any of the above Ships, can depend on good treatment and quick despatch, both at Liverpool and at the port of lading.
Enclosed Rooms for Families, or for persons wishing to be more select, can be reserved on payment of an extra 10s. to 20s. each person.
Luggage of Passengers stored free of expense.
Passages from the United States or Canada, via New York, to Liverpool, and drafts payable in America granted by the undersigned.
Berths in First and Second Cabin and Steerage can be secured by remitting a deposit of Å1 to the undersigned, who will give every information respecting the passage to the above ports and to the interior.
SABEL & SEARLE,
19, WATER STREET, AND 3, REGENT ROAD, LIVERPOOL.
Great Western Railway of Canada.
THERE are Three Through Express Passenger Trains West, and Four East, connecting at Suspension Bridge with New York Central, Elmira, Canandaigua, and Niagara Falls, and Baffalo and Niagara Falls Railroads, and at Detroit with Michigan Central, Detroit and Milwaukie, and Detroit and Toledo Railroads; connections are also made at Paris with the Buffalo and Lake Huron Railway, at Toronto with the Grand Trunk Railway, and at Hamilton with the Royal Mail Line of Steamers to Kingston, Brockville, Ogdensburgh, Montreal, Quebec, &c. This is the shortest and quickest route between Chicago and New York — the journey being performed in Thirty-two Hours — having Lightning Express connections (which are invariably made) with the Michigan Central and New York Central Railroads. Travellers by this route have an opportunity of viewing the magnificent scenery of Niagara Falls, and that great work of art the Mammoth Suspension Bridge. This is acknowledged to be the model Broad Gauge (5 feet 6 inches) line on this Continent, and no expense has been spared to introduce all modern improvements in its appointments and equipments, offering facilities for expedition, safety, and comfort, unequalled by any other route. The telegraph operations are entirely under the control of the Company along the whole line.
Elegant and commodious Night Sleeping Cars, and Spacious Refreshment Saloons on the route tend to add to the accommodation and comfort of Passengers.
The Officers are
C. J. BRIDGES, MANAGING DIRECTOR,
Hamilton, Canada West.
JULIUS MORRIS, GENERAL AGENT,
Buffalo, New York.
Bank of London.
THREADNEEDLE STREET AND CHARING CROSS.
Chairman. — SIR JOHN VILLIERS SHELLEY, BART., M. P.
Vice-Chairman. — JOHN GRIFFITH FRITH, Esq.
JOHN EDMUND ANDERDON, Esq.
COL. WILLIAM ELSEY, H.E.I.C.S.
THOMAS GOOCH, Esq.
JOHN JOHNSON, Esq.
THOMAS JOYCE, Esq.
THOMAS LUCE, Esq., M.P.
HENRY MORRIS, Esq.
SIR HENRY MUGGERIDGE, Alderman of London.
ALFRED WILSON, Esq.
Secretary. BENJAMIN SCOTT, Esq.
Chief Cashier and Accountant. W. C. BOORE, Esq.
CURRENT OR DRAWING ACCOUNTS are received and interest allowed on Balances.
DEPOSIT ACCOUNTS. — The rate of interest allowed on money placed on deposit at THREE days' notice of withdrawal depends upon the market value of money for the time being, as announced from time to time by public advertisement.
Whether Joint-Stock or Private, is undertaken.
Free of Charge, payable at the Principal Cities and Towns of British North America and the United States.
DIVIDENDS, HALF-PAY, &c., received for Customers without charge.
MATTHEW MARSHALL, JUN., Manager.
Keating's Cough Lozenges.
FOR half a century this well-known Remedy for Pulmonary Disorders has successfully stood the test of public approval, and their usefulness has been extended to every clime and country of the civilized world. They may be found alike on the gold-fields of Australia, the backwoods of America, in every important place in the East or West Indies, and in the Palace of Pekin. During this long period they have withstood the pretensions of numerous inferior rivals, and are now the acknowledged antidote for Coughs, Colds, Asthma, &c.
CURE OF ASTHMA OF SEVERAL YEARS' STANDING.
Cainscross, near Stroud, Gloucestershire.
SIR, — Having been troubled with Asthma for several years, I could find no relief from any medicine whatever, until I was induced, about two years ago, to try a box of your valuable Lozenges, and found such relief from them that I am determined for the future never to be without a box of them in the house, and will do all in my power to recommend them to my friends.
If you consider the above Testimonial of any advantage, you are quite at liberty to make what use of it you please.
I am, Sir, your most obliged Servant,
W. J. TRIGG.
THOMAS KEATING, Esq.
Brickfield Hill, Sydney, September 10, 1857.
DEAR SIR, — By same mail I have ordered, through my correspondents, three gross of your Lozenges. I have bought a great quantity of them in the Colony since you last sent me a supply. I recommend them right and left, as I know them to be good. — I am, Sir, your most obedient Servant,
To Mr. KEATING, 79, St. Paul's Churchyard, London.
THOMAS KEATING, Chemist, &c., 79, St. Paul's Churchyard, London
RETAIL BY ALL DRUGGISTS.
Carman and Pearse.
CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES.
CARMAN and PEARSE beg to inform Emigrants of all classes that, by the special authority and permission of the London and North-Western Railway Company of England, of the Montreal Ocean (Canadian Mail) Steam Ship Company, of several well-known Emigration Firms, and of the Grand Trunk Railway Company of Canada and its connections in Canada and the United States, they are enabled to issue Through Tickets, of each class, from London to upwards of 150 of the principal places in Canada and the United States, the cost of which will include the Railway Pare from London to Liverpool, the Ocean Passage, whether by Steamer or by Sailing Vessel, and the Railway Fare from the Port of Landing to Destination, the only additional expenses being those for removal of Luggage from the Railway Station to Ship at Liverpool, and for provisions while on land.
Provisions on Board Ship will be Supplied on a Liberal Scale, the cost of which is included in the amount of Passage-money. The Third Class Dietary is on a scale specially defined by Act of the British Parliament, and must be served properly cooked.
First Cabin Passengers by the Ships, and First Cabin and Intermediate Passengers by Screw Steamers from Liverpool will mess with the Captain, and be provided, while on board, with every requisite, excepting Wines, Spirits, Liquors, &c., which may, however, be obtained from the Steward at reasonable prices. By vessels sailing from other ports they will be required to provide Beds and Bedding. No Steward's Fees.
Steerage Passengers by Steamers, and Steerage and Second Class Passengers by Ships, will be required to provide themselves with Beds and Bedding, Knife, Fork, and Spoon, also a Plate, Drinking Cup, Hook-pot, and Vessel to hold Water (composed of tin), and any other things they may wish for their own comfort, the cost of which will not exceed about 10s. They are recommended to take some Bacon, Eggs, Potted Meats, or other delicacies.
In addition to the arrangements for Booking Passengers by way of Liverpool CARMAN and PEARSE, are also enabled to engage Berths for persons wishing to sail from London, Plymouth, Bristol, Hull, and Glasgow, and passages may now be engaged in the vessels at present on berths for American ports.
The Canadian Mail and other steamers leave Liverpool for Quebec fortnightly during summer, and for Portland monthly during winter; and the following First Class fast-sailing Ships will be despatched at convenient Periods.
|City of Quebec||664||Graham.|
|City of Hamilton||517||Hardie.|
Preface to the Third Edition.
FORTUNATELY, perhaps, for both my reader and myself, this little annual belongs to that class of publications which need little or nothing from the author by way of introduction. In fact, that critical period — its debut — may, fairly enough, be said to be safely past.
"HO! FOR THE WEST" made its first entrée in the Guide Book world just two years ago, and the growing favour with which it has been received, has induced the present issue.
While the general plan and outline of the work remain the same, the field of observation has been enlarged, and the chapters on Agriculture, Land, and others of equal, and more than average importance, occupy a larger share of the following pages than they did in the first and second editions.
"Ho! For the West!"
The Northern, or St. Lawrence Route to Canada and the Western States — Its Advantages.
THE first thing to be done towards emigration to Canada or the Western States of America is to select a route, and the means of conveyance thither. This important matter will, doubtless, be more or less influenced by the caprice or prejudice of the emigrant himself, and the amount of means at his command.
There are now four distinct routes from the United Kingdom to Canada and the United States; and one other to Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick; upon all of which, lines of steam and sailing packets ply regularly throughout the year. These are — the Northern or St. Lawrence Route to Quebec, during the summer, and to Portland, Maine, during the winter months; to Boston, via Halifax, N. S.; to New York direct; and to Philadelphia direct.
The limits of this work will not allow, nor indeed is it necessary, to speak in detail of these various routes. The advantages which the Northern route to Canada and the West offers to intending emigrants, to reach the scene of their future labours, may be briefly summed up under the following heads.
IT IS THE SHORTEST. — It is not, perhaps, generally known that the sailing distance between Liverpool and Quebec is, by the Straits of Belle Isle, some 400, and via the southern route some 200 miles shorter, than between Liverpool and New York; Liverpool to Quebec, via north of Ireland and Straits of Belle Isle, being 2,680 miles, and to New York, via Cape Clear and Cape Race, 3,073 miles. I mention this fact, not as being of itself of great importance, but as one of the many advantages, which practically considered, combine to make this route desirable. To Halifax, N. S., direct, the distance is 2,508 miles; to Boston, 2,856 miles.
IT IS THE CHEAPEST AND MOST EXPEDITIOUS. — From the circumstance of affording continuous water communication, and that of a very speedy nature, the St. Lawrence, in point of cheapness, has greatly the advantage. There is now a line of steamers and propellers running from Quebec and Montreal to the port of Chicago, at the head of Lake Navigation, so that the emigrant is enabled to embark without loss of time, or any expenditure of his little means, and to pursue his way undisturbed, upwards of 2,000 miles into the very heart of the country.
Transport is thus speedier, and the cost lighter, than by the southern route via New York, Boston, or Philadelphia, where the frequent transhipments and breaks in the railroad connection are sources of constant expense and annoyance to the emigrant. Another important consideration is, that by the St. Lawrence route the emigrant's luggage costs him nothing, while on most of the railroads in the States, only 50 lbs. of luggage are allowed each adult passenger free of charge, and all above that weight is charged extravagantly high, to make up for the lowness of passenger fares. If the passenger, on his arrival in the Upper Province, wishes to complete his trip to the Far West more expeditiously, he can take the Great Western Railway, to Detroit, where he again as the choice of steamboat travel, via Lakes Huron and Michigan, or the Central Railroad across the State of Michigan to Chicago.
If bound still further west he has at Chicago a choice of several roads, radiating to different points on the Mississippi River, which will put him in speedy communication with Iowa, Minnesota, Texas, Nebraska, and other new states and territories beyond the Mississippi River.
And, lastly, that considering the great advantages of a choice of railroad or steamboat travel which the St. Lawrence route presents, the increased facilities and information guaranteed to the emigrant by duly appointed Government Agents throughout both Provinces, and the fine climate and beautiful scenery of the country to be traveled through, it is, unquestionably, the SAFEST and most DESIRABLE.
The arrangements made by the Government of Canada for the reception and protection of emigrants on their arrival at Quebec, contrast in a remarkable manner with the want of such arrangements at New York and other ports of the United States, to which emigrants are conveyed from Europe. Nor is the Colonial Government one whit less mindful than the mother country, of the necessities of her adopted subjects. On the arrival of each emigrant ship in the River St. Lawrence, she is boarded by the medical officer of the emigrant hospital at Grosse Isle, situated a few miles below Quebec; and whenever disease prevails in a ship, the emigrants are landed, and remain at the hospital, at the expense of the Colonial Government, until they are cured. On the ship's arrival at Quebec, Mr. Buchanan, the Government Agent of immigrants, proceeds at once on board, to advise and protect each emigrant; he inquires into all complaints and sees that the provisions of the Passenger Act are strictly enforced. If just cause of complaint exist, he institutes, under a very summary law of the province of Canada, legal proceedings against the master, but, so thoroughly are the value and efficiency of this officer felt, that since a very short period subsequent to his appointment, it has very rarely been found necessary to take such proceedings. In cases where emigrants have arrived without sufficient funds to take them to
5places where employment is abundant and remunerative, their fares have been paid by Mr. Buchanan, out of the funds in his possession, provided for that purpose. Emigrants from other than British ports, and those destined to other parts of America besides Canada, experience precisely the same protection at the hands of Mr. Buchanan.
The foul stigma which has so long attached itself to the port of New York, in connection with frauds on emigrants is now in a fair way to be for ever wiped out. Municipal scheming having failed to effect any reform in the iniquitous policy pursued towards immigrants, the Legislature of the State has taken the matter in hand, so that now the emigrant, if he but exercise the least possible amount of caution, is no longer exposed to the dangers and pitfalls which a few years ago everywhere beset his steps.
Natural Features, Soil, and Products.
The natural features of the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada are, for the most part, very different. While the Lower Province presents to the eye of the traveller a succession of the grandest and most enchanting sights that can well be imagined, and is to the educated man of means altogether the most desirable country for a residence, Canada West, both on account of its more central situation, richer soil, and milder climate is better adapted as a field for the enterprise and industry of the emigrant.
In the Lower Province the scenery is of a far bolder character than in the Upper. On the lower part of the St. Lawrence both sides of the river are mountainous, and on the northern side the ridge which runs as far as Quebec, presents the most sublime and picturesque beauties; above Quebec, and as far as Montreal, the shore is not so bold. A little east of Montreal, and on the opposite side of the river, lie the beautiful districts of Richelieu, Vercheres, Chambly, and Laprairie, generally known by the name of the Eastern Townships; and which, for beauty and fertility, are unsurpassed by any other district in the Lower Province.
As compared with the Lower Province, Upper Canada is in general a level champaign country, with gently undulating hills and rich valleys. The western section, which comprises the garden of Western Canada, has a remarkably level surface, and is attracting at present the greatest share of emigration.
The soil of Canada is generally extremely fertile, and consists principally of yellow loam on a substratum of limestone. It greatly improves to the westward, and its quality when uncultivated is easily ascertained by the timber it produces, the larger and heavier kinds growing on the best soil. In Upper Canada the brown clay and loam, intermingled with
6marl, predominates in the district between the St. Lawrence and the Ottawa, but further west, and north of Lakes Ontario and Erie, the soil becomes more clayey and far more productive. The virgin soil is rich beyond measure, and the deposit of vegetable matter for ages, improved by the ashes of the fires which sometimes sweep the forest, render it abundantly productive, for several years, without extraneous help. In some districts wheat has been raised for twenty years successively on the same ground without manure.
The natural products of Canada are almost inexhaustible. They are second only to those of agriculture in importance, and at least equal to them in value. The fact that the energy of the people has been more directed to the agriculture than to the development of the great mineral and other natural resources of the country, and the larger amount of time and capital requisite for the prosecution of the latter, will sufficiently explain the reason why so little is generally known of this important item of colonial wealth.
The products of the forest and the mine, and of the sea and fresh water, fisheries are among the most important. Of these the products of the forest contribute, perhaps, most largely to the revenue of the country. Canada has long largely exported white and red pine timber, masts, staves, and deals, to Britain; but of late years a larger and steadily increasing trade in sawn timber has sprung up between Canada and the United States. Large quantities are now yearly shipped to Chicago and other points in the west, where, on account of its superior qualities, it is in great demand.
The timber exported, however, forms a very small proportion of the forest wealth, as the annual home consumption is valued at more than Å3,000,000.
Mines and minerals, both in commercial importance and intrinsic value, take second rank in the natural products of the country. Iron ores are said to be found in great abundance and variety; also copper, silver, gold (in quantities, fortunately, however, too small to create a fever) and tin, have been discovered, and are frequently met with.
Marble, chemical materials, and stone paints, are also frequently found, and in considerable quantities. Lithographic stone of good quality, and materials for the manufacture of glass and jewelry are easily obtained. Quarries of roofing slates have been opened to great advantage, and flag stones, and all the materials suitable for building purposes, are found in great abundance and variety.
The fisheries of Canada form the third feature of interest in the natural products of the country. The Gulf of St. Lawrence fisheries, to which, by the recent Reciprocity Treaty with the United States, they have free admission, are of great value; as are also those on Lakes Superior, Huron, and Ontario.
As this is of all others, perhaps, the most important subject of which this Guide will treat, and one in which the great majority of those referring to it will take a lively interest, I will endeavour to afford all the information that the limits of this work will admit.
The whole of Canada, but especially the Western Province, is essentially an agricultural country. By far its greatest extent is peculiarly adapted for agricultural pursuits; and the enterprise and energy of the inhabitants have been directed to agriculture with the most favorable results. From the great diversity of its climate, the fertility of its soil, and its peculiar adaptation to the growth of wheat and all cereals, Canada will always be, as she already is, a large exporter of farm produce, and take high rank as an agricultural country.
The soil of Canada is adapted, and the climate favorable to, the growth of wheat, peas, rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, hay, hemp and flax, grass-seed, Indian corn, and potatoes; and of all these large quantities are raised. As a wheat exporting country Canada has made great progress; and as the improved methods of agriculture are more generally adopted, and her rich territories in the West become better settled, her exports of breadstuff's must be immense. The average produce of wheat per acre in the Upper Province is variously estimated from 16 to 25 bushels, and in Lower Canada, from 7 to 15 bushels. In the latter province, during the last ten years, the growth of fall wheat has been either wholly abandoned or is only sown intermittingly, owing to the ravages of the fly, but it is believed its general cultivation may be eventually resumed. The following query and answer, taken from the pamphlet published by the Canada Land Company, will prove interesting to emigrants intending to settle in Upper Canada.
QUERY. — Produce of crops in average years, per acre?
ANSWER. — The produce, per acre, of all crops varies much from year to year in Canada, owing to the late and early frosts. It is, however, generally considered that the following is a fair average of ten years on all tolerably cultivated farms: — Wheat, 25 bushels; barley, 30 bushels; oats, 40 bushels; rye, 30 bushels; potatoes, 250 bushels per acre. Swedish turnips, mangel wurtzel, and other roots of a similar kind, are not generally sufficiently cultivated to enable an average yield to be given; but it may very safely be said that, with similar care, culture, and attention, the produce will not be less per acre than in England. Flax and hemp are now coming rapidly into notice as an additional resource to the agriculturist — the quality of both articles is excellent, and the quantity obtained affords a profitable return — the climate and soil being well
8adapted for their growth. Tobacco has also been raised in considerable quantities, particularly in the western extremities of the province.
With reference to the mode of clearing lands, cost of log-house, furniture, and first year's expenses of an emigrant family, much valuable information will be found in a small pamphlet entitled, "Canada: The Land of Hope,"
As nine persons out of every ten emigrating to Canada or the United States do so with a view to bettering their condition, and as the acquisition of a city lot and house, or a few acres of land, is often the first important step in the accomplishment of their object, I will devote a short chapter to the prices of land in different sections of the province, and the rules which regulate its purchase.
Land is as easily obtainable in Canada as in any other British colony. By a Provincial Act of 1841, since which time no new regulations have been issued, Crown lands are to be sold at a price to be from time to time fixed by the Governor in Council. The prices range from 1s. to 6s. 6d. in Lower Canada, and in Upper Canada from 4s. to 20s. per acre, according to their situation. In the former the purchase money is payable in five, and in the latter ten years. For lands enhanced in value by special circumstances, such extra price may be fixed as His Excellency, the Governor General, in Council, may direct.
Actual occupation of the Crown lands must be immediate and continuous. Seldom more than 200 acres will be sold to any one person, a certain amount of which must be cleared by the settler. There are regularly appointed Government agents in every county, from whom the fullest information as to the price and quality of the land can be obtained.
The average assessed value of all occupied land in Upper Canada, uncultivated as well as cultivated, is about Å3 per acre. In the Lower Province, according to the best estimate, it is about Å2 per acre for cultivated land. The only charge on Crown lands is a tax which seldom exceeds 1d. per acre on cultivated, and 3-8ths of a penny currency on wild land.
Besides the public lands there are about 2,000,000 acres of improved and unimproved lands in the hands of private individuals, which are held at from 5s. to 45s. per acre.
The British American Land Company sell their land in Lower Canada at from 8s. to 12s. per acre, requiring interest only for the first four years, and then allowing four years for the payment of the principal; the emigrant thus gets a hundred acres of land by an annual payment of from Å3 to Å4 10s.
The Canada Land Company also possess large tracts of land in various
9parts of the Upper Province, but principally on the south-east shore of Lake Huron. The price of their land varies from 10s. to Å2 per acre, increasing as the settler approaches the Huron tract. Those who cannot purchase may lease the lands for ten years, paying ordinary interest, with the right of converting their leases into freehold at any time. Besides the valuable Huron tract, this Company possesses more than 300,000 acres of land in other counties.
Free Grants of Land.
The Provincial-Government have recently opened three great lines of road, which, running east and west, will eventually be 171 miles in length, and connect the Ottawa River with Lake Huron. Along these roads the lands are laid out for settlement. The terms and particulars will be found in the "Land of Hope" pamphlet already mentioned. Cleared lands in the best and oldest settled townships of Upper Canada, with good buildings, are worth from Å10 to Å15 per acre.
Great caution is to be observed in land speculations, in building, or as they are termed "village lots." The intrinsic worth of landed property must depend on a great variety of circumstances — such as its proximity to, or distance from a market, the nature of the soil, condition of the adjoining roads, kind and quality of the wood; and, though last in order, perhaps first in importance, its having springs or rivulets of water.
In judging of the climate of such a varied extent of country as the province of Canada presents, in order to draw correct conclusions we ought to consider each province separately.
The salubrity of the province is sufficiently proved by its cloudless skies, its elastic air, and almost entire absence of fogs. The lightness of the atmosphere has a most invigorating effect upon the spirits. The winter frosts are severe and steady, and the summer suns are hot and bring on vegetation with wonderful rapidity.
The uniformity of temperature, produced through the influence of the fresh water in the lakes and rivers, which have been estimated to contain not less than 11,000,000 cubic miles of water, are found to be highly favorable to animal and vegetable life. It is therefore found that Upper Canada, from being surrounded by an almost continuous chain of lakes, and containing within its limits a larger amount of fresh water than its sister province, is in many respects more suitable to the European constitution; the winter season is not so long, nor is the summer season so warm; whilst for vegetation the western portion of the province is infinitely superior.
The compiler having spent a great portion of the winter of 1855-6, which has been considered unusually severe, in Lower Canada, can bear testimony to the delightful influences and healthful effects of a Canadian winter; having frequently experienced a much warmer and more comfortable feeling in the clear, dry, bracing atmosphere of Quebec, with the thermometer at 12 degrees below zero, than in the damp, chilling, searching atmosphere of England, at 15 or 20 degrees above.
The prevailing winds of Canada are the south-west, the north-east, and north-west. The S.W., the most prevalent wind, is generelly moderate, with clear skies. The N.E. is generally damp and chilly, and brings continued rains in summer and early autumn; and the N.W., which is most frequent in winter, is dry, cold, and elastic. East winds are usually accompanied by heavy storms and falls of snow. The south-east wind is soft and rainy. The wind blows less frequently from the west and south, and still more seldom from due north. In concluding this brief chapter, I would merely re-echo the remark of Mr. Warburton, in his excellent work entitled "Hochelaga," that to people naturally healthy the climate will be found healthy too, but to the rheumatic, consumptive, and feeble, it is a severe trial; and it has been remarked that a great number of children die in infancy.
Thus far there are two important completed lines of railway communication in Canada: these are the "Grand Trunk" and the "Great Western" Railways.
The oldest and most important of these is the Grand Trunk, which, when fully completed, will be the longest railway in the world. It extends from Portland, Maine, to Sarnia on Lake Huron, with a branch line from Richmond to Quebec, a distance of 858 miles. At Toronto, its principal western terminus, it connects with the Toronto Branch of the Great Western Railway, which joins the main trunk of that road, and continues on to Windsor. The latter town is situated on the extreme western point of the Canadian peninsula, and within sight of Detroit (Michigan), so that the traveller, by means of these two lines, is enabled to pass from one end of the province to the other.
The following is a list of all the stations on the several branches of the Grand Trunk Railway, and the distances between them. It is arranged so as to show at a glance the relative position of the different cities, towns, villages, stations, and refreshment places throughout the entire line from the seaboard at Quebec and Portland to Detroit.
|From Station to Station.||Miles.||STATION.|
|9||9||St.Francis, or Berthier.|
|From Station to Station.||Miles||STATIONS.|
The Grand Trunk and the Great Western Railways are now connected at Toronto.
Suspension Bridge (Niagara Falls) — connects with New York Central, Niagara Falls, Canandaigna and Almira, and New York and Erie Railroads; also the Erie and Ontario Railway, between Niagara and Chippewa, connecting at Niagara with "Zimmerman" steamer to and from Toronto.
Thorald — Stages run daily (Sundays excepted) between Thorald, Allanburg, Port Robinson, and Merrittsville.
Preston — Stages leave the Depot on the arrival of the afternoon train for Berlin, Waterloo, Petersburg, Stratford, Goderich, Guelph, &c., returning in time for the A. M. train.
Paris — Water's stages, from Westring's Hotel, run daily (Sunday excepted) between Paris, Brantford, Otterville, Springfield, and Tilsonburg.
O'Neil's stages to Simcoe, others to Galt, Ayr, and Scotland; connect with Buffalo and Lake Huron Railway.
Woodstock — A stage leaves Woodstock every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, for Simcoe, Otterville, and places South, on arrival of morning train from the West; also to Stratford, and other places North, every P.M. (Sundays excepted) on arrival of the morning express trains East and West.
Ingersoll — Stages run daily between Ingersoll, Mount Elgin, Tilsonburg, Eden, Straffordsville, Vienna, Port Burwell, and St. Mary's.
London — Stages leave Robinson Hall daily (Sundays excepted), for Port Sarnia, Port Stanley, Stratford, and places intermediate.
Chatham — Stages run daily (Sundays excepted) between the Chatham Arms, Chatham, and Thompson's Hotel, St. Thomas, via Morpeth and the Lake Shore.
Detroit — Connects with Michigan Central Railroad for Michigan City, Chicago, &c.; Detroit and Pontiac; Chicago and Burlington; Chicago and Rock Island, Galena, and Chicago Union; Chicago, Alton and St. Louis, and Illinois Central Railroads.
It is particularly requested, that any incivility or want of attention on the part of any of the Company's employees, may be immediately communicated to the Managing Director.
Station refreshments saloons at London, Hamilton, and Suspension Bridge, N. Falls.
Elegant and commodious refreshment saloons on Company's ferry steamers, Transit and Globe, on Detroit River.
Trains are run by Hamilton time. Chicago time is 30m. slower; Detroit time 15m. slower.
Parcels left at any of the ticket-offices are now booked, and promptly forwarded to and from any station by Passenger trains, at very moderate rates.
Chicago and the Great West.
I will now suppose the traveller or emigrant to have arrived safely by the Michigan Central Railroad, or by steamboat round the lakes, in the "garden city" of the West, as Chicago is not inappropriately called. This is now the great "half-way house" between the East and the West, and the centre from which radiate all the great lines of communication, spreading for thousands of miles to the West, South, and North.
I would strongly advise all emigrants, and especially those with families, who must be already weary with the long journey, and have yet another to take before they reach their destination, to wait a few days in Chicago, both to recruit themselves after their long confinement on board ship, and also to obtain reliable information as to the best sections of the country, and the most direct and cheapest route to reach them. If caution on the part of the emigrant was necessary in Liverpool, and other ports on the other side, its exercise is indispensable from the moment he sets his foot in his adopted country. At Chicago the poor emigrant will find himself literally clumped down upon wharves and docks, 4,500 miles from home, without the protecting aid of efficient immigrant officers, to be fleeced and worried by wolves in human shape, who, under the disguise of old countrymen, forwarding and immigrant agents, hotel and boarding-house keepers, licensed hackmen and guides, infest the docks and railway stations from day to day, bent only on plunder,
14and even seduction. They are ever ready to set aside their ostensible calling — if, in fact, they have any at all — to oblige a "friend." But be not deceived by their frank manner and ready tongue; they have but one aim in their proffered assistance, and that is, spider-like, to fatten themselves upon every victim they can draw within their net. Avoid them as you would the plague. Seek the advice of the regularly appointed railroad agents, who are always at their offices ready to give information to all presenting themselves, and you will have the consolation of knowing that you have saved your money, time, and temper.
I would especially warn all, except the better class of mechanics, and even those, if men of families, against staying too long in the city. Such has been the influx of immigration to Chicago and other western cities of late, and so great the inclination among labourers, and indeed all classes of emigrants, to hang about them till something turned up, that they have become greatly overstocked. Three or four days spent in Chicago, which will cost the emigrant from two to four dollars, according to the kind of lodging he has chosen, will suffice to show him what his chances are for securing employment; and should they not be such as to warrant the renting of a small house in the outskirts of the town, or a more permanent settlement, he had better at once select some one of the many rising towns and villages in Illinois, Iowa, or Wisconsin, easily accessible from. Chicago by railway, and move there before his means are all expended.
Chicago is famous for the number and excellence of her hotels. The "Briggs," "Tremont," and "Richmond," are amongst the best. Fares 2 dollars, or 8s. 4d. sterling, per day, including attendance. The "Revere" and "Martin's" are conducted on the European plan.
The "American," "Clarendon," "City," and "St. Nicholas" Hotels, and the Lake House — the two last-mentioned having been recently fitted up — have commodious, airy rooms, and well-furnished tables, at 1 dollar 50 cents per day.
Besides these, there are several good houses in different parts of the city, accessible to all the railway stations, and steamboat landings, where comfortable clean beds and wholesome food can be obtained for 1 dollar per day.
Persons applying for accommodation at the latter class of houses would do well, I think, to make an agreement with regard to price before-hand, as the one dollar a day will frequently be found to have no other existence than that upon the bills which are generally distributed at the stations, to induce travellers to their houses.
Immigrants should be especially careful not to display money or other
15valuables which they may have with them, as gangs of sharpers and pickpockets are always hovering round hotels, boarding houses, and places of amusement, ready to prey upon the unwary.
Fruits, and green vegetables of all kinds, of which there are large quantities exposed for sale during the summer season, should be avoided altogether, or else eaten very sparingly, as they induce diarrhea. The less water, especially if it be iced, that is taken the better, as it relaxes the system, in the intense heats of July, August, and September, and induces diseases, which perhaps appear trifling at first, but which often terminate fatally.
Railroads Out of Chicago.
Those bound for Northern or Central Missouri or Nebraska Territory, will find the Chicago and Burlington Railroad the most direct route; and those destined for Western and Northern Wisconsin and Minnesota, should take the Chicago, St. Paul, and Fond-du-lac Railroad.
Before entering on any description of the vast tracts of country which comprise the fine field for emigration known as the North-western States, and territories of the American Union, a few words on the general appearance of the country, nature of the soil, and the system which governs the sale and tenure of the government lands in this locality, will be found of material assistance to the intending emigrant.
The Valley of the Upper Mississippi.
The Mississippi rises in latitude 47° 10' north, longitude 95° 54' west; is surrounded by an immense marshy plain, indented with small lakes, abounding with fish and wild rice, and elevated 1,500 feet above the Gulf of Mexico.
The surface of the Mississippi Valley may be arranged under three natural divisions — the forest, the barrens, and prairie country. The timber most abundant are the oak, of various species, black and white walnut, ash, elm, sugar maple, honey-locust, birch, buckeye, hackberry, linden, hickory, cotton wood, white and yellow pine, pecan, sycamore, with several others. The undergrowth consists chiefly of plum, crabapple, dog-wood, green-brier, &c. The trees are very luxuriant in their growth, and are frequently found of a stupendous size.
Barrens are a species of country of a mixed character, uniting forest and prairie, have as productive a soil as can be found in the Western States — are healthy, more rolling than the prairies and abounding with that important requisite, good springs. The farmer may settle, without hesitation, on any part of this land, where he can find timber enough for his present wants, for the soil is better adapted to all the purposes of
16farming, and changes of the seasons, than the deeper and richer mould of the prairies.
The third natural division is the prairie country, which is again subdivided or classified into what are known as the "oak openings," the "rolling prairie," and the boundless level prairies of the "Far West," where, as you advance, one immense sea of grass swells to the horizon after another, unbroken, for miles, by rock or tree.
The "oak openings," so termed from their distinctive feature of the varieties of oak which are scattered over them, interspersed at times with pine, black walnut, and other forest trees, which spring from a rich vegetable soil, present by far the most extensive surface. Among them are found some of the most lovely landscapes of the West, presenting for miles and miles a varied scenery of natural growth; here, trees, grouped or standing single, and there arranged in long avenues, as though planted with human hands, with slips of open meadow between. Michigan and Illinois abound with these "oak openings." The "rolling prairie," which forms the second division, presents very different features. Abounding with the thickest and most luxuriant belts of forest, they also present wide, and slightly undulating tracts of the rankest herbage and flowers, many ridges and hollows filled with purple thistles, and ponds filled with aquatic plants. The soil on the "bottom" lands is very deep and rich and the edges of the timbered strips are the favourite haunt of the emigrant settler and backwoodsman, in quest of game.
The climate of such an extent of country as the Upper Mississippi Valley presents, is necessarily so very varied, that I have thought it best to treat of this subject under the heads of the different States and territories which comprise it.
Under the admirable Public Land system of the United States, land is as easily obtainable, and of as secure tenure as in any other part of the world. The public lands belonging to the General Government are principally situated in the Upper Mississippi Valley, and embrace an aggregate area of over one million and a half of acres.
After the lands have been surveyed, one section, or square mile, or township, is set apart for state educational purposes, which is generally known as the school section.
Thus Government has wisely secured to settlers and their children for ever the advantages of an enlightened system of political and social existence.
In many cases persons have settled on the public lands without purchase, as squatters, and have made improvements on their clandestine occupations. To secure such settlers from injury, Congress has passed a
17pre-emption law, which gives them the privilege of purchasing at a minimum rate, to the exclusion of all others, who, previous to the passing of that Act, were entitled to purchase and drive away the original improver without recompense for his labour.
The management of the public lands is vested in a Commissioner, who is subordinate to the Secretary of the Interior. The General Land Office is located at Washington, but for the convenience of purchasers, branch or local officers are distributed throughout the different States. The following are the localities of the offices: —
IN ILLINOIS — Springfield. All aliens residing in this State may take by deed, will, or otherwise, lands and tenements, and any interest therein, and alienate, sell, assign, and transmit the same to their heirs, or any other person, whether such heirs, or other persons be citizens of the United States or not, in the same manner as natural-born citizens of the United States, or of this State (Illinois) might do; and upon the decease of any alien having title to or interest in any lands or tenements, such lands and tenements shall pass and descend in the same manner as if such alien were a citizen of the United States; but all such persons shall have the same rights and remedies, and in all things be placed on the same footing as natural-born citizens and actual residents of the United States. — (Revised Statutes, p. 47, sec. 1.)
IN WISCONSIN — Mineral Point, Green Bay, Milwaukie, and Willow River.
IN IOWA — Dubuque, Fairfield, and Iowa City.
IN MINNESOTA — Still Water, on Lake St. Croix.
It is at these offices that all sales of land are made, and all business between the Government and the settler transacted.
The North-Western States.
The State of Illinois.
There is probably no State in the whole Union, not even excepting Ohio, that has advanced so rapidly in population, and in the amount of her agricultural produce and export, as Illinois. Little more than forty years ago it was a howling wilderness, her vast prairies only inhabited by wandering tribes of Indians, and the ever watchful wolf; but in that short space of time, it has sprung up, as if by impulse, to be one of the most fertile and productive in the West. It is situated between 37° and 42° 30' north latitude, and between 87° 49' and 91° 30' west longitude;
18and is bounded on the north by Wisconsin; on the east, by Lake Michigan and Indiana; on the south-east and south, by the Ohio River, which separates it from Kentucky, and on the west by the Mississippi River, which forms the boundary between it and the States of Iowa and Missouri. Its greatest length from north to south is 378 miles, and its greatest breadth 212 miles. Its computed area embraces 35,459,200 acres, — 1,833,412 of which are so called swamp lands; the residue, 33,625,788 acres being tillable, and, for the most part, have a soil of unsurpassed fertility.
Accessible by means of her extensive railroad system, the chain of lakes, and the Mississippi, Ohio, and Illinois Rivers, it invites immigration from all parts of the world; and the unrivalled advantages which it offers in the general salubrity of its climate, the fertility of its soil, and more than all, the ready market which may be said to be found on almost every square mile of its surface, all conduce to make Illinois one of the most desirable fields for the labour of the immigrant, and especially of the farmer.
When we consider that in 1840, its population was but 476,1 83 souls, and that in less than sixteen years it has added upwards of three quarters of a million to its settled population, some idea may be formed of the real progress this State has made. The aspect of the country generally presents a level plain, occasionally broken in the northern and southern portions of the State by high lands, but nowhere mountainous. Probably two-thirds of the State consists of prairie land, and the soil throughout is rich, deep, and productive, being watered by an abundance of pure springs, and well adapted for all kinds of grain. Except on the immense prairies, in the central portion of the State, some of which extend for thirty miles without a tree or pool of water on them, it is everywhere well watered. In all the ingredients of soil, and concomitants of climate requisite to the most bountiful production of the cereals and grasses — in all of those conditions regarded as peculiarly favourable to the growth of stock, and particularly in topographical adaptation to the application of machinery in agricultural pursuits — Illinois may proudly challenge comparison with the most favoured of her sisters of the north-west or southwest. "We have travelled," writes the editor of the Democratic Press, of Chicago, "through nearly every county in the State — we have conversed with the old pioneers who know every foot of the ground — we have had the opinion of surveyors and engineers; and from all that we can gather from our own observation, and that of others, we hesitate not to say that at least eighty per cent, of the entire area of the State consists of first-class arable land, and ninety per cent, of it is susceptible of profitable culture."
The climate in the northern part of the State partakes much of the character of that common to the lake districts of Western Canada, while
19in the southern counties it is much warmer, being sufficiently mild for the cultivation of cotton, while peaches ripen very quickly. Except on the river bottoms, and in the neighbourhood of swamps, the country is healthy, and free from endemie diseases. In order to avoid fever and ague, bilious fever, and other diseases common to new countries, I would strongly advise immigrants always to select the healthiest situation for a residence, altogether removed from marshy exhalations; to live temperately, and preserve a regular habit, and to avoid as much as possible exposure to the intense heat of the mid-day sun, and the damp chilly airs, which generally during the summer and autumn follow sun-down. The prevailing winds are either western or south-eastern. Storms generally come from the west, or north-west; in the summer, sometimes from the south. The severest storms rise in the west.
The productive industry of Illinois is chiefly employed in agriculture. The cereal staples are wheat, oats, and Indian corn; tobacco, hemp, and flax, are also raised. An excellent quality of potato is raised throughout the State. It is also a great stock raising State; and Illinois beef and pork are known all the world over. Some estimate may be formed of the extent to which this important branch of farming has been carried, when it is stated upon good authority, that the live stock in the different portions of the State during the year 1854, was valued at upwards of twenty-five millions of dollars. Not least in value are the mineral treasures of the State. The great lead region of the North extends within and beyond the limits of the State, and is believed to occupy a district of 200 miles long and 60 broad. Copper and iron ores also exist, and bituminous coal of a fair quality is found in great abundance. Mining, however, from the large capital required to be invested in it, has thus far been much neglected, except, perhaps, in the neighbourhood of Galena, from which port large quantities of galena, or lead ore, are annually shipped to St. Louis, New Orleans, Chicago, New York, and other cities on the Mississippi River, lakes, and seaboard.
Lands may be purchased, — 1. of the Federal Government; 2. of the Illinois Central Railroad; 3. of private proprietors.
Government lands can be purchased by intending settlers, at prices ranging from 12 1/2 cents, to 2 dollars 50 cents per acre; but the best are held by speculators and others at much higher rates, and the immigrant of small means wishing to purchase land will now find better investments for his money in Iowa, and the new territories lying west of the Mississippi River. As there are always a large proportion of the farmers in this, and other States, ready to sell out and push further west, men with means may frequently pick up improved farms at from 10 dollars to 25 dollars per acre. I would strongly recommend those of the latter class, who are satisfied to make Illinois their home, to visit the counties of
20Lake, Du Page, De Kalb, Boone, Stephenson, McHenry, and Winnebago, which, form the northern tier of counties of the State, and to all parts of which the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad, and its branches, afford easy access. The Illinois Central Railroad Company have also a large amount of land, laying contiguous to their road, for sale on advantageous terms. The Office of the Land Department of this Company is located in the second story of the Central Railway Depot at Chicago.
The State is divided into 99 counties. The following are among the principal cities and towns: — Springfield, Chicago, Galena, Alton, Peoria, Quincy, Bloomington, Rock Island, Rockford, Freeport, Peru, Ottawa, Cairo, and Jacksonville. Living is cheap in all parts of Illinois. Mechanics in most of the interior towns can get good board and lodging for 2 dollars 50 cents to 3 dollars per week. At country hotels, in the northern portion of the State, prices range from 3 dollars to 6 dollars per week; and in Chicago, a good room and board, at private lodging and boarding houses, can be obtained for from 4 dollars to 7 dollars per week, exclusive of washing.
The State of Wisconsin.
This fine young State has, for the last few years, been attracting considerable attention in Europe, and especially in Great Britain, the result of which has been a continued flow of emigration from the different British ports to the different sections of the country, until we find that, by the last census returns, the amount of the foreign population far exceeds the native American population throughout the State.
Wisconsin lies between 42° 30' and 47° north latitude, and between 87° and 92° 30' west longitude; and is bounded, north, by Lake Superior and the northern peninsula of Michigan; east, by Lake Michigan; south, by Illinois; and west, by Iowa and Minnesota.
This State originally formed part of that vast territory, known as "New France," which originally belonged to the French, but which was ceded to Great Britain in 1763. Few settlements were made previous to 1836, when it was erected into a separate territorial government. It was admitted into the Union as a State in 1848, so that it is not yet nine years old. Its increase has been very rapid, and its splendid situation and facilities of intercourse, its agricultural capacities, its mineral wealth, and other natural advantages, are every day inducing increased attention, and offering golden prospects to every grade and condition of man.
The soil of Wisconsin is excellent; black marl predominates in the lowest timber and prairie lands, and is often six feet deep. The dark loam is the most common in the openings and on the rolling prairie, and
21is cultivated with the best success. The country is naturally divided into timbered, opening, and prairie. The climate is mild and salubrious, and perhaps more congenial to the European constitution than that of any other of the United States. All kinds of crops that are raised in temperate climates may be cultivated with success in Wisconsin; and owing to the great range of pasturage on the prairies, it is an uncommonly fine grazing country.
Wisconsin is rich in minerals. The lead district joins that of Illinois, and occupies the south-west corner of the State. The production of galena has been very considerable, and the copper mines of the north and west are prospectively of immense value. Many other metals are found, and good marble and building stone are abundant in almost every part.
Bounded on the north and east by two of the largest and finest fresh water seas in the world, and on the west by the great river Mississippi with numerous other navigable rivers and streams throughout the State, Wisconsin presents facilities for internal intercourse and communication with the world at large, unsurpassed by any State in the Union. The ports on Lake Michigan are already distinguished for their busy commerce, and their rapid increase in prosperity and wealth, while all along the shores of Lake Superior, towns and villages are starting up where the produce of the fisheries, and the valuable copper mines, find an easy outlet to all parts of the world. The river trade is great, and the busy strife of commercial activity has penetrated every corner of the State.
Steamboats ply on all its waters; and the railroad system, which, though not so extended as that of its southern neighbours, is fast opening up new and important lines of travel, and developing the vast resources of the interior.
Wisconsin has made provision for an extensive system of education, and in this important feature no State in the Union presents so many inducements to the settler with a family to raise and educate. There is also an excellent university at Madison, which was established in 1849.
The State is divided into 29 counties, 18 of which are south of the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers; north of these the settlements are very sparse. The most important cities and towns are Madison, Milwaukie, Sheboygan, Jansville, Beloit, Manitowoc, Green Bay, Racine, Mineral Point, Prairie du Chien, Fond du Lac, at the head of Winnebago Lake and Fort Winnebago, at the portage of the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers.
Madison, the capital, is one of the handsomest cities in the West. It is beautifully situate on a gently rising ground, between "Four Lakes," and about ninety miles west of Milwaukie. It was laid out in 1836, with a central square, in the middle of which stands the State House.
22This is a spacious stone edifice, two stories high above the basement, and surmounted with a handsome dome, which can be seen for a distance of ten miles from every direction. Population about 4,000.
Milwaukie, the principal commercial city of the State, and, in point of population, second only to Chicago in the north-west, is situated on both sides of the Milwaukie River, near its entrance into Lake Michigan, ninety miles north of the latter city. It is the natural outlet to one of the finest grain regions in the Union, and was once the rival of Chicago for the great trade of the north-west. In 1834, it was surrounded by a wilderness; it now contains about 45,000 people, a large proportion of whom are Germans.
There is connection between Chicago and Milwaukie, by the Chicago and Milwaukie Railroad, twice daily, and also by steamboat on Lake Michigan daily, during the summer season. The latter is the cheapest, and most pleasant route for emigrants.
The State of Iowa.
This is emphatically a "Land of Promise " to the emigrant, and is now perhaps attracting more attention and filling up more rapidly than any other State in the Union.
Iowa is situated between 40° 30' and 46° 30' north latitude, and between 90° 20' and 97° 40' west longitude; and is bounded, north, by Minnesota territory; east, by the Mississippi River, which separates it from "Wisconsin and Illinois; south, by Missouri; and west, by the territory of Nebraska. It formed a portion of Louisiana until the year 1803, when it was purchased by the United States' Government, erected into a separate territorial government in 1838, and admitted into the Union as a State in 1846.
Like all the other Western States, Iowa owes its present prosperity to its agricultural resources. Probably no country in the world, in every point of view, is more promising to the agriculturist. Its fine prairies are easily converted to cultivation, and its natural pastures afford peculiar facilities for the rearing of cattle, and sheep farming. Wool growing, indeed, has become one of the staple employments of the farmer; and the raising of hogs for market is no less profitable in its results. The sheep and hog are here raised with little or no trouble, the natural productions of the forest and prairie affording a plentiful subsistence. The cereal and root crops grow luxuriantly, and all the fruits of temperate climates find here a congenial soil.
Fertile and productive, yielding minerals of the greatest value, penetrated by numerous navigable rivers, and bordered by the noble Mississippi,
23easily accessible, and free from many of the dangers incident to newly settled countries, Iowa offers the greatest inducements to emigrants and others to make it their home. The settled portion of the State is well provided with good roads, and several railroads in course of construction will soon find a ready market for the surplus produce of the country. The land is good and cheap, the climate healthy, and education is well provided for; while every portion of the country is open to easy navigation and land travel.
Prairie predominates in this State. The prairie lands are variously covered: some are clothed in thick grass, suitable for grazing farms; while hazel thickets and sassafras shrubs invest others with perennial verdure. The soil is universally good, being a rich black mould, mixed sometimes with sandy loam, and sometimes with red clay and gravel. The state is well watered by numerous navigable rivers and streamlets flowing into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, which bound the State to the east and west. The margins of the streams are generally thickly timbered.
The climate is excellent, especially on the prairies; and the country, excepting the low margins of the rivers, which are frequently inundated, is as free from endemic diseases as the most favoured portion of the Union. Periodical breezes blow over the prairies as regularly and refreshingly as on the ocean between the tropics.
Although mainly an agricultural State, Iowa is possessed of great mineral wealth. Lead, zinc, iron, &c., are very plentiful. The "mineral region" is principally confined to the neighbourhood of Dubuque. The lead mines of this region are perhaps the most productive and valuable in the world. Ten thousand miners could here find profitable employment. Iron ore is abundant in several districts; but as yet the mines have not been worked to any great extent.
Game of every kind and variety is found in great abundance throughout this State, affording pleasure to the sportsman and profit to the hunter. Though the buffalo, once a denizen of this beautiful country, is now almost extinct, and though the elk is only found in the wild recesses and more unsettled parts, a great variety of wild animals still remain. The wolf, panther, and wild cat are still numerous, and in the wooded districts the black bear is found. Foxes, raccoons, opossums, gophers, porcupines, squirrels, and the otter, inhabit almost the whole unsettled country. Deer are also quite numerous, and the musk-rat and common rabbit are incredibly prolific. Among the bird tribes are wild turkeys, prairie-hens, grouse, partridges, woodcocks, &c. Geese, ducks, loons, pelicans, plovers, snipes, &c., are among the aquatic birds that visit the rivers, lakes, and sluices. Bees swarm in the forest. The rivers and
24creeks abound with excellent fish; and the insect tribes, varied and beautiful, add gaudiness to the scene.
Those seeking land in Iowa would, I think, do well to visit the counties of Clayton, Dubuque, Jackson, Clinton, and Scott, laying all along the Mississippi River in the north-east portion of the State, where they will find well-cleared farms, easily accessible by good roads from the Mississippi River, which still forms the great natural outlet of the country.
The settled portion of Iowa is divided into 99 counties. Among the principal cities and towns are Iowa City, the capital; Dubuque, Davenport, Burlington, Keokuck, Muscatine, and Fort Madison, on the Mississippi River; all of which, especially Dubuque and Keokuck, are very thriving places. At the former city the Land Office for the district, and the Surveyor-General's Office for the States of Iowa and Wisconsin, are located.
The interior towns are in general small, consisting chiefly of agricultural settlements; Maquoqueto in Jackson county, Salem in Henry county, and Fairfield in Jefferson county, are perhaps the most important.
The Territory of Minnesota.
The territory of Minnesota derives its name Minni-sotah, the name given by the Sioux Indians to the St. Peter's River; minni, in their language, meaning "water," and sotah, "muddy or slightly turbid." The country originally belonged to the French by priority of discovery. At an early period their traders, missionaries, and soldiers, had penetrated into the western wilderness.
Minnesota is situated between 43° 30' and 49° north latitude, and between 89° 30' and 120° 10' west longitude; and is bounded on the north by Canada West; east, by Lake Superior and the State of Wisconsin; south, by the State of Iowa; and on the west, by Missouri territory. Of the immense territory included within these limits — embracing an area of 166,000 square miles — 22,336 square miles belonged to the late territory of Wisconsin, and the remainder to the late territory of Iowa. It has frequently, and I think not inappropriately, been called the New England of the West. Its northern latitude and healthy climate, are calculated to foster habits of industry and enterprise. Its extensive water-power, its beautiful scenery, its forests of pine, its relative situation to the remaining portions of the Mississippi Valley, and its superior advantages for manufacturing enterprise, naturally suggest as an appropriate name for this country, "The New England of the West."
The present territory was established by Act of Congress, 3rd of March, 1849; and shortly after Alexander Ramsay was appointed governor, and made St. Paul his capital, where the government was organized, and where it has since remained. The organization of the government of the territory having been so recent, it is impossible to exhibit by statistics the resources of this new and almost untouched country. I will, therefore, give a brief sketch of its general character, and the inducements which it offers to intending settlers.
The surface of the country is generally undulating, but varies considerably in its elevation. In some parts, especially in the neighbourhood of the Mississippi and St. Peter Rivers, the ground is much broken, and their margins lined with high bluffs of various formations; while in others the rivers flow through deep channels, seemingly worn into the earth by the force of their waters. Perhaps the most striking feature in the natural aspect of the country, is the great abundance of water contained within its limits, and the peculiar facilities which its rivers and lakes afford for inland navigation and for purposes of manufacture. Every portion of the territory may be reached by inland navigation.
By the recent treaty concluded with the Sioux Indians, all that beautiful country stretching along the west side of the Mississippi River, from Iowa to St. Peter's River, has been thrown open for settlement. It is a country of great fertility, of picturesque scenery, and is probably rich in mineral treasures; it also possesses a healthy climate and abundant water-power; thus offering an inviting field for manufacturing and agricultural pursuits.
With regard to the climate of the territory, I can only say that the high latitude in which it is situated will operate upon the minds of some as a serious objection to make it a place of residence. I passed the winter of '49-50 in the country, and found the weather intensely cold, but the air dry, elastic, bracing, and healthy, much like that of Lower Canada. Early frosts, sufficient to injure vegetation, are frequent, and the raising of fruit has on that account been unsuccessful. The mean annual temperature, according to thermometrical observations made during several years at Fort Snelling, is 45° 38'. Fort Snelling is in latitude 44° 53'. Owing to the severity of the winter and backwardness of the spring, the opening of navigation in the Mississippi is generally late, which is one of the great drawbacks to the progress of the territory, as, until railroad connection is formed to the south, the inhabitants are cut off from all communication with the outer world, except by stage or sleighs, during the winter, or for five months in the year. In ordinary seasons the Mississippi may be considered navigable to St. Peter's River until the 25th November, and to re-open about the 15th of April.
With regard to immigration, the prospects are favourable, and thousands are landed at St. Paul from the boats plying regularly between that place and points down the Mississippi, during the season of navigation. To all those wishing to engage in manufactures and fond of a northern latitude, the numerous rivers and streams affording water power, distributed all over the country, and the dry, bracing atmosphere, will offer great inducements to settle in Minnesota. The almost inexhaustible pine forests in the different sections of the country present a wide field for the operations of the hardy lumbermen; but there are many serious disadvantages to be overcome in its high latitude and isolated situation; and I would strongly recommend farmers, mechanics, and others in search of a home, to visit the northern part of Illinois and the eastern counties of Iowa before venturing so far north as St. Paul, feeling assured that in those more genial climates he will find a more fertile soil, a more advanced society, a readier market for his surplus produce, and more than all, a renewed confidence in the real prosperity and permanent progress of the country which he has selected as his future home.
Minnesota was divided into the following counties in lieu of the counties of St. Croix and La Pointe, which constituted all that remained of the territories of Wisconsin and Iowa, from which Minnesota was formed — viz., Itasca, Washington, Ramsay, Benton, Pembina, Wahkato, Wahnahtah, Dahkotah, and Wabashaw. The principal settlements are at St. Paul the capital, Still Water, St. Anthony, Mendata, Fort Snelling, Pembina, Kaposia, Sauk Rapids, and Fort Gaines.
St. Paul, the capital, is pleasantly situated on the top of a bluff which rises, about 80 feet on the left bank of the Mississippi, about eight miles below the Falls of St. Anthony. The town was laid out in 1848-9; and such has been the rapid progress of the young city and the country round it, that it now contains a population of about 12,000 people. It is well located for commerce, and from its being at the head of navigation, below the Falls, must always command a thriving trade.
The route from Chicago or Milwaukie to St. Paul is by railroad to Dubuque, or Prairie du Chien, where the emigrant will find regular steam packets running to St. Paul and all important points on the river. From Galena or Dubuque to St. Paul, or St. Peter, the fare varies from 4 to 6 dollars, cabin; 1 dollar 50 cents to 2 dollars 50 cents, deck; freight per 100 lbs., 25 cents. Horses and cattle, per head, 3 dollars 50 cents. Families with considerable luggage or freight can frequently secure passages at much lower rates.
The distance, by water, between Galena and St. Paul, is 327 miles; from Prairie du Chien, 239 miles.
The Territory of Kansas.
The Territory of Kansas extends from 37° to 40° North latitude, and from the State line of Missouri 800 miles westward. It lies in the same belt as northern Kentucky and Virginia, and southern Indiana and Illinois.
The description which follows applies to the eastern portion of the Territory, extending 200 miles west from the eastern boundary. It is the portion which is now open for settlement.
The surface of the country rises from the deep valleys of the streams by a series of steps or terraces, stretches away in smooth slopes, and culminates in gently undulating up-lands about 900 feet above the sea. Between each terrace are intervals, often several miles in breadth, smooth as if leveled by the roller, but inclined toward the valleys. Near the large streams the land is sometimes broken, but leaving the immediate banks there is scarcely an acre of land where the surface is incapable of cultivation. It is one unbroken stretch of arable land, with a drainage so perfect that not a pond or swamp exists over its whole extent.
The scenery, though less varied than in rugged and mountainous districts, is exceedingly picturesque and beautiful; the swelling surface of the prairie dotted with island groves; lofty table lands overlooking great rivers belted with luxuriant forests, green flowery plains and vales of quiet beauty, walled in by the eternal battlements of nature; bluffs and hills lifting their bold graceful outlines against the sky, everywhere delight the eye, and redeem the landscape from monotony.
As to the geology of Kansas, the rocks consist of limestones, sandstones, clay, &c., belonging to the coal formation; they are usually horizontal, or but slightly inclined, and can be cheaply quarried on nearly every hillside, furnishing excellent stone for building or lime-burning.
Scarcely a square mile can be found where they do not come to the surface; the beds alternate with each other, so that sand, lime, and good clay for brick, can be procured almost everywhere.
Coal is also very generally distributed; it is a soft, free-burning bituminous coal, generally quite free from sulphur, and already used extensively by blacksmiths. The seams thus far opened nowhere exceed three feet in thickness, but are sufficient to furnish fuel to the population for centuries. Iron occurs in several localities; saline springs occur on the upper tributaries of the Kansas, and also extensive deposits of gypsum.
The soil of Kansas is equal to the best soils of Illinois and Iowa; it is quite uniform in composition, everywhere preserving the character of a rich heavy loam.
The first terrace above the rivers is covered with an alluvial soil often 4 to 6 feet in depth. The higher terraces and uplands have the common prairie soil of the west; the subsoil is usually a stiff clay, in some localities mixed with gravel. Patches of sandy soil occur, but they are rare; lime is everywhere a prominent ingredient of the soil.
Water powers are found upon many of the streams, but are not frequent. The coal, however, will furnish a cheap motive power.
The climate of Kansas is somewhat different from that of the same latitude further east. Its distance from the ocean gives here the purely continental climate. Its atmosphere is remarkably pure and dry. The amount of rain and snow that falls is smaller than in the Atlantic States. A cloudy day is very rare, and a whole month often passes without a shower. The temperature is generally mild in winter, but an occasional cold spell occurs, of short duration. The winter is confined to its proper months, rarely commencing before December, or extending into March. The heat of summer is tempered by the fresh breezes which, rising and falling with the sun, render this a delightful season. April and May are the rainy months. Frosts have never been known to trouble the crops.
The dryness, purity, and free circulation of the air, in the absence of swamp and stagnant waters, which we find in Kansas, are conditions favourable to health. The experience of early settlers also indicates a healthy climate. Cases of bilious fever and ague occur more frequently than in older settled countries, but in most cases they are the result of gross ignorance or carelessness. Let the settler take only a reasonable care of himself and family, and he will rarely suffer in acclimation. On the contrary, as has been the experience of many, he will find himself rejuvenated, old complaints gone, and endowed with a fresh fund of constitutional vigour. Let him build his house on the uplands, dig his well if he cannot get spring water, eat, sleep, and bathe regularly, avoid the poisoned alcoholic drinks of the West, and he will come out right. Persons afflicted with pulmonary and rheumatic complaints generally experience relief in Kansas.
The timber is mainly confined to the valleys, but is occasionally dispersed over the uplands in groves and parks of rare beauty. It occurs in belts from a few rods to several miles in width, following the valleys to their termination.
Oak, hickory, cottonwood, black walnut, ash, basswood, elm, locust, hackberry, coffee, tree and sycamore are the most common trees. Chestnut, maple, cedar, buckeye, paw paw, persimmon and pecan-nut occur.
The soil and climate of Kansas are adapted to most of the grains, grasses, and fruits raised in the north. Winter wheat, corn, oats, rye, barley, buckwheat, potatoes, sweet potatoes, and all common garden products; pumpkins, squashes, melons have been tried and succeed admirably.
29Hemp and tobacco may be profitably cultivated, and the new Chinese sugar cane would probably be at home there.
Among the fruits may be mentioned apples, pears, peaches, plums, cherries, apricots, grapes, currants and strawberries. The choice and tender varieties of these fruits may be grown successfully. The grape culture promises to be a profitable branch of business. The dryness of the atmosphere ripens the fruit, and concentrates its juices to the finest flavour.
A fine nutritious grass grows everywhere, yielding even on the dry prairies, two tons of hay per acre. Clover, timothy and redtop grass do well where tried. The winters are short, and attended with so little snow that cattle are kept without fodder in many parts of Kansas. To those who wish to raise cattle, horses and sheep for market, the best inducements are here offered.
The cost of opening farms, &c. will of course depend upon the location, in a great measure, but a few general facts may be of use. Breaking costs from 2 dollars 50 cents to 4 dollars per acre; rails from 2 to 3 dollars per 100; sod fence from 30 to 40 cents per rod; stone fence 80 cents to 1 dollar per rod; hedge set 32 cents per rod, growing in five years to an efficient fence; timber sells for from 25 to 30 dollars per 1000 feet, one half of which cost is in sawing. Oak, black walnut, and cotton-wood are generally used. Brick will be cheap when business is fairly started. Working cattle sell at from 80 to 100 dollars per yoke; horses from 75 to 150 dollars; mules from 100 to 200 dollars per head.
Rents are of course high; board from 3 to 5 dollars per week.
Masons, carpenters, blacksmiths, wagon makers, and cabinet makers are in great demand, and will find abundant employment and good prices. Every branch of common mechanical labour can be profitably pursued. Masons and carpenters secure from 2 dollars 50 cents to 3 dollars per day. Rough stone, or concrete as it is called, is a favourite building material; and every man who can lay stone will find constant work.
Grist and saw mills, and machine shops are greatly needed, and would be excellent investments.
If you conclude to go to Kansas, the sooner you start after navigation opens the better. If you go in March or April, you can secure a claim, break some portion of it, get in a few acres of corn, beans, and potatoes. Planting commences about the 15th of April, and may be continued until the 1st of June. Corn planted on the sod yields from 30 to 40 bushels to the acre; or about half its yield on old land.
Any farmer of ordinary capacity, having his teams and tools, and being on the ground by the first of April, will be able to raise enough food to keep his family through the winter till another harvest. The
30land is ready for the plough in March, and continues so till the 1st of December. The ground may be worked for all agricultural purposes during nine months of the year.
The Missouri River is always open as early as the 1st of March, and affords a cheap, comfortable transit to Kansas.
Freights up the Missouri to Kansas, are from 30 cents to 2 dollars 50 cents per hundred, according to the stage of the water. The highest rates occur in March, October, and November. Lowest in May and June. Present rates are 40 cents.
Persons wishing to go up the Kansas Valley, or to the southern portion of the territory, should stop at Wyandotte City or Quindaro, two new towns in close proximity to each other, and located on the Missouri River, just above the mouth of the Kansas. Colonel Eldridge, late proprietor of the Free State Hotel, will run a line of hacks daily from Wyandotte to Lawrence; fare, three dollars. A steamer will make regular trips from Quindaro to Lawrence three times a week, carrying passengers at three dollars each. Leavenworth City, 25 miles higher up, is the largest town in Kansas. Here a fine line of new hacks to Lawrence has been laid down; fare, three dollars each. Atchison, ten miles beyond, Doniphan and Iowa Point, connect with the northern portion of the territory, and communicate by stage with the interior.
At these points teams can be obtained for any part of the territory and purchases of stores can be made.
Persons wishing to go with their own teams can make a safe and easy transit cross Iowa or Missouri. The principal routes cross the Mississippi at Dubuque, Davenport, Muscatine, Burlington, Hannibal, Mo., and St. Louis. Either of these are good wagon routes, and the choice will be determined by the starting point. A loaded team will make twenty-five miles per day, the distance from the farthest point named being about 400 miles. It is hardly safe to start before the first of May, as the teams must depend mainly upon green feed. The expense is trifling, if provision is made for camping. In warm weather this trip can be taken even by females, without exposure to severe hardships. No difficulty will be encountered from finding the route from any of the above starting points. Every party should have a tent, cooking utensils, and abundant bedding. They can live in their wagons and tents after arriving in the territory, until a home is secured.
The cheapest and most direct route to Kansas is via Chicago and Burlington Railroad from Chicago to Burlington, Iowa, thence by Missouri River Railroad to Nebraska City, a total distance of 500 miles.
Persons not familiar with the method of acquiring titles to lands in new States are apt to over-estimate the difficulties, and suffer much needless anxiety. The following hints as to Kansas lands may be of use to
31settlers, or persons wishing to invest. Any person who is a citizen of the United States, or has filed notice of intention to become such, who is either the head of a family, a widow, or a single man over twenty-one years of age, may enter upon 160 acres of government land, wherever he or she may choose to select it, if not already occupied, and by residing upon it and improving it, secure the same at 1 dollar 25 cents per acre. It is necessary only to make an actual residence on the land, to file a notice of intention to pre-empt the same, and to be ready to make the payment before the public sale, which will be advertised for three months.
Hints to Emigrants.
Choice of a Ship.
In this as in almost everything else, the traveller will be guided by circumstances, and decide for himself. For those on business, wishing to make the trip as expeditiously as possible, and all who have the money to spare, I would recommend as the most comfortable, quickest, and, in the end, the cheapest means of communication, one of the numerous boats belonging to the different steamship lines, of which there are three designed to trade between Liverpool and Quebec in summer, and Portland, U. S. (with which Montreal is connected by the Grand Trunk Railway,) in winter.
Children are computed according to the Passengers' Act — viz., children from one to twelve years of age, half the price of adults; under one, no charge. The Colonial tax on all passengers is, by an Act of the Canadian Legislature just passed, 5s. each person, but which is always included in the passage money, and paid by the master of the vessel. After the emigrant has chosen his ship he should, to avoid the imposition which is so largely practiced at Liverpool and other large shipping ports, purchase his ticket himself at the offices of the agents of the ship, and keep it till the end of the voyage, as otherwise if the ship is prevented by any accident from reaching her destination, or if the passengers for any other reason are not landed at the place named in the tickets, he may have a difficulty in obtaining a return of his passage money, to which in that case he would by law be entitled. The emigrant must not fail to remember that personal cleanliness preserves health; and to provide a good supply of warm clothing, including flannel to be worn next the skin during the voyage.
It would also be well to ascertain that the vessel carries a medical officer.
Travellers and emigrants should be equally careful not to encumber themselves with too much baggage, as it is a source of constant annoyance and expense. Almost all articles of wearing apparel are nearly as cheap in Canada and throughout the United States as in England. All baggage should be legibly marked with the name and destination of the owner upon it, with the addition of the word below upon all packages not required on the voyage. The addition of the words "via Quebec," in conspicuous characters, would save the emigrant a great many questions, always perplexing in a new country, and might possibly save him his baggage, as in case of its being lost in handling, it will remain in the Government warehouse at Quebec till called for.
The average length of passage to Quebec in the summer season by screw steamer is 11 days, and by sailing vessel 21 to 40 days, and the best period to arrive is early in May, so as to be in time to take advantage of the spring and summer work, and to get settled before the winter sets in.
The best shape in which emigrants can take money to Canada or the United States is in small draft, or bill on some bank, by letter of credit on the station agent of the Grand Trunk Railway Company, or on the agent of the ship at the port of destination, or by paying any surplus he may have before sailing into some well-established Bank; the certificate of deposit is convenient for carriage, and serves as a sort of passport to the emigrant. English gold and silver is always current in Canada or any State of the Union at 4 dollars 84 cents for the pound sterling, and 22 cents for the shilling, more or less, according to the rate of exchange. The English shilling now passes current in trade for only 20 cents. As the difference in making change is always to the loss of the buyer, and not unfrequently very perplexing, I would strongly advise all those who have money to avail themselves of the money-order system, whereby they obtain, on their arrival, American money exactly equal in value to the sterling which they lodge in England.
Information on Canada.
The latest and most reliable intelligence is regularly given in the columns of the "CANADIAN NEWS," published every alternate Wednesday, at 11, Clement's Lane, Lombard Street, London. Those seeking information upon the resources of the country should obtain this publication.