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THE VALLEY OF THE Mississippi is a portion of our country which is now arresting the attention not only of our own inhabitants, but also those of foreign lands. Such are its admirable facilities for trade, owing to its numerous navigable rivers, — such the variety and fertility of its soil, — the number and excellence of its productions, — the genial nature of its climate, — the rapidity with which its population is increasing, — and the influence which it is undoubtedly about to wield in giving direction to the destiny of this nation, — as to render the West an object of the deepest interest to every American patriot. Nor can the Christian be inattentive to the inceptive character and forming manners of a part of our country whose influence will soon be felt to be favourable, or disastrous, to an extent corresponding with its mighty energies, to the cause of religion.

To give a brief, and yet satisfactory, account of this vast county, its resources, history, manners and customs of the people, political sub-divisions, cities, colleges, &c., is the great object of this work; in which the author has studied to embody, in as small a compass as possible, such information as he deems most desirable and useful to the community. Whether he has succeeded in this effort, it is not for him to pronounce an opinion. He can only say that he has honestly endeavoured to do what he could.

There are three great classes of men for whose benefit the author has endeavoured to prepare this book.


1. For those who desire to remove to the Valley of the Mississippi, and there cast their lot. Such persons, whether natives of Europe, or citizens of our Atlantic states, are, of course, solicitous to know as much as possible about that vast region to which they expect to remove. To procure such information, and in such a compass that it could be soon read, has hitherto been almost, if not quite, impossible. Until Mr. Flint and Mr. Darby, and especially the former, published their valuable works entitled the "Geography and History of the Western States," and a "View of the United States," but little had been published which attempted a systematic and extended description of that portion of our country. Some small works only, or such as had reference to insulated portions, had been written, if we except the books of travels in that region which had appeared, but which relate principally to the country along the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, Arkansas, and Red Rivers. These works are valuable, and will continue to be valuable: but they are too large, and too general in their contents, to be read by the majority of those who are about to emigrate to the West. Since a large portion of this book was written, a very valuable one has been published by the Rev. John M. Peck, of Illinois, relating mainly to the states of Illinois and Missouri.

To furnish to emigrants such information as they desire, has been a primary object with the author throughout this work. And he hopes he has succeeded, in a good degree, in the attempt, and if any reader finds that much is here wanting, he will also find much given, and perhaps as much as could be given within the limits prescribed. For the object as not been to make a large book, but a small and comprehensive one.

2. This book is designed to give information to those who purpose to travel, for amusement, health, or business, in the West. And this class is now far from being small. Every year, hundreds, and even thousands, are making a tour through the whole or


a part of the Valley of the Mississippi. And soon the American, who has not made the tour of the Valley of the Mississippi, will be considered a man who has seen but little of his own county. To know somewhat of the routes which lead to the West, the steam-boats, lines of stages, acommodations, cities and towns, curiosities, literary institutions, manners and customs of the people, &c. is certainly desirable to those who are about to journey to that portion of our country. Such persons will find, it is believed, much of that kind of information which they need in this volume. The accompanying maps, views of cities, and sketches of their environs, will be acceptable to such readers.

3. A third class, to whom the author entertains the hope that this work may be useful, is composed of those who desire to know more about the Valley of the Mississippi, although they do not expect either to travel or emigrate thither. There are thousands of such persons in our eastern or Atlantic states. For what intelligent and reading citizen can there be among us who does not desire to know well the geography, resources physical and civil, literary institutions, and the moral and religious condition of every portion of our country? Americans are the last people who can afford, or should desire to be ignorant of their own country, or any portion of it. And surely we all must desire to know much of that portion of it to which so many of our friends and relatives have removed, and which may be the home of our posterity, — especially when is superadded the interest which the West is so intrinsically calculated to excite.

As a general remark, it may be said that our eastern citizens are but little informed with regard to the "Great West." The author has met with many men who are reputed to be well informed on other subjects, but who are remarkably ignorant even of the geography of the western country, and who make the most ludicrous mistakes when speaking of its rivers, the relative position of its states, and the distance of its


towns. It is but a few months since he saw a book, published in no distant city and within a year, in I which the fact is gravely stated, that the Valley of the Mississippi contains about half a million of square miles! And this is but a trifling error compared with many that are daily made by men who ought, by this time, to know more about that part of our country.

Perhaps it will not be improper to give, in this place, a very brief analysis of this book, that the reader may know, at this stage, what he may expect to find in it.

The first ten chapters contain a general view of the Valley of the Mississippi. Beginning with a short description of the grand three-fold division of the territory of the United States, there follows an account of the great Central Valley of North America, of which the Valley of the Mississippi is a part. Then follows, in order, a general Geographical description of the Valley of the Mississippi; its grand sub-divisions: according to its large rivers; its climate in reference | to productions, its soil, minerals, forests, animals, &c. A short historical account is next given of the West, and reasons for expecting a very rapid and long continued increase of its population. Then follows a chapter on the climate of the Valley of the Mississippi in reference to temperature and diseases. This article was written by Dr. Daniel Drake of Cincinnati, and gives, in a very short compass, a more philosophical and satisfactory view of this subject than is to be found elsewhere. This chapter, which the Doctor kindly furnished at the request of the author of this work, will well repay any man for the half hour's time which he may spend in a careful perusal of it. No man in the country is better qualified than Dr. Drake, from long and close attention to this subject, to do full justice to it. An account of the Indians who still reside in the Valley of the Mississippi, and of the monuments of antiquity which abound there, follows next: and some notices of the manners and customs of the


people of the West, and of their pursuits, close the general description of the Valley of the Mississippi.

From the eleventh to the twenty-fourth chapter inclusive, there is given a geographical, statistical, and historical description of Western Pennsylvania, Western Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Kentucky, Tennessee, Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, Florida, and the regions west of these states and territories, up to the Oregon (or Rocky) Mountains. In the account of each state the following particulars are invariably given. 1. A brief outline of its constitution and government. 2. Its surface, soil, productions, facilities for trade by rivers, roads and canals, &c. 3. Cities and towns. 4. Education in common schools and academies. 5. The extent of public land. 6. Historical notices; and finally, general remarks, which may be useful to emigrants, travellers, and others.

The remaining chapters give a full account of all the Colleges, Theological Seminaries, Medical Schools, Asylums for the Deaf and Dumb, &c. Religious Denominations, Steam-boats; and the various routes by which emigrants and travellers may visit that country, expenses of removing, and of travelling, to it, &c.

The above is a very brief and imperfect analysis of a book which has been written solely with the view of imparting some knowledge of a very large and interesting portion of our country. Should any one, upon perusal, find in it nothing which he did not know before, let him lay it aside quietly, and remember that it was not written for him, but for the less informed.

The author has had occasion, in preparing this work, to refer to Flint's Geography of the Western States, Darby's View of the United States, Peck's Guide to Emigrants, Breckinridge's Louisiana, Williams' Florida, Judge Martin's History of Louisiana, Marshall's History of the American Colonies and life of Washington, the American Almanac, the Quarterly Register of the American Education Society, Western Pilot, the Accounts of the Expeditions of Lewis and Clarke, Col.


Long, Col. Pike, and the Travels of Mr. Schoolcraft, Mr. Tanner's map of the United States, &c. &c.

From these works he has obtained much information, and occasionally he has used the language of their authors, where, from the alterations which he found it necessary to make, he could not give it as quoted.

But although much has been derived from works relating to the West, much more has been derived from personal knowledge, and from intercourse with western men. The author was born in the West, and has spent the greater part of his past life there, and has been familiar from his youth with many of the scenes which he has described. He has also repeatedly, within the last three years, travelled extensively in that portion of our country. In this book nothing is stated but what he believes to be correct, though he may have been misinformed on some points.

The maps which are placed in this book, the reader will find useful. They will be particularly so to the emigrant and traveller on account of the roads and distances, from point to point, which are delineated on them. Nevertheless if the reader has access to a large and well executed map of the United States, or a good atlas of the several states, he should avail himself of them; for the maps accompanying this work, although good, are small, and cannot give a full exhibition of every part of any state. The reader should desire to be able to trace every river, county, &c. which is mentioned in this book. Indeed no man ought, if he could avoid it, to sit down to read a newspaper without having good large maps of our country, and, if possible, of the world hanging up within the range of his eye.

A large number of letters respecting the Valley of the Mississippi, written by the author of this work, appeared originally in several of the newspapers.


Some portions of them, greatly modified, are introduced into this work.

This is mentioned for the purpose of explaining the fact of a similarity between these letters and parts of this book.

In the first part of this work, the name Rocky Mountains, is used to designate the mountains which bound the Valley of the Mississippi to the westward. In the middle and latter portions of the book, the reader will perceive that the title Oregon instead of Rocky is given to these mountains. This is the original name of these mountains, and should have been continued, instead of a name which is just as appropriate when applied to any other range of mountains. In some of the late English and French works on the geography of North America, the appropriate name of Oregon Mountains has been used instead of Rocky Mountains.

Philadelphia, September, 1832.

Introductory Note to the Second Edition.

THE first edition of this work, consisting of 1000 copies, having been sold, a second is now sent forth. In this edition many improvements have been introduced. Much matter, in a condensed form, has been added. And the entire work has been brought up, as far as it can be done, to the present state of the West. It is impossible — and it is unnecessary — to specify these additions. The book will be found to be every way improved, especially in those portions of it which concern emigrants and travelers. The Public Land Offices are mentioned, and the roads and canals leading to that part of our country are described more minutely. I will only add that, throughout this edition, the name, Oregon Mountains, is employed invariably, instead of Rocky Mountains.

Philadelphia, October, 1833.


Chapter I. History of the United States.

North and South America. — Brief Historical Sketch of the United States. — Their boundaries and extent. — Three-fold division of the Territory of the United States.

The continent of America lies between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and is westward of Europe and Africa, and eastward of Asia. It stretches from 56° South, to about 80° North, and is upwards of 9,000 miles long, and from 1,500 to 1,800 in average breadth. It is divided into North and South America, by the Isthmus of Panama, in 7° of North latitude. SOUTH AMERICA contains about 6,434,200 square miles, 13,839,374 inhabitants, and embraces the following states and countries: — Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, La Plata, Peru, Chile, Paraguay, Banda Oriental or Montevideo, and Guayana. Its mighty rivers are, the Amazon, Orinoco, La Plata, and Magdalena; whilst the lofty Andes and its branches are its mountains. NORTH AMERICA readies from about the 7th degree of North latitude to the shores of the Northern or Arctic Ocean, probably about 52 the 80th. It contains 9,075,051 square miles, and has a population estimated at 23,006,344, and embraces the states and countries of Guatemala, Mexico, United States, and the British, Russian, and Danish possessions. The Mississippi, St. Lawrence, Rio del Norte, Colorado, Oregon, and Mackenzie's, are its large and noble rivers. On its western side stretches the Rocky or Oregon Mountains; and on the east, the Allegheny range; whilst in its interior lie the great lakes or inland seas, Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie, Ontario, and many smaller ones.



Although America was discovered by Columbus in 1493, yet with the exception of Mexico, which was conquered by Cortes in 1520, no permanent settlements, or colonies, were formed in North America until 1607, when one was planted on the James River in Virginia. In New York a colony was planted by the Dutch, on the Hudson, in 1610. Another was established at Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1620, by a part of Mr. Robinson's congregation, originally from England, whence they had fled from religious persecution, but directly from Holland, where they had resided several years. — This was the second English colony. As early as 1497, the Cabots, John and Sebastian, had explored in some measure the coast from Newfoundland, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, down towards the Gulf of Mexico; and in 1512, Juan Ponce de Leon, a Spaniard, discovered the coast of Florida: these two names, Newfoundland and Florida, were the only names for the whole seaboard of our country, until the name Virginia (a name given by Queen Elizabeth, or rather by Sir Walter Raleigh in honour of her,) supplanted them as regards a large part of it. Many unsuccessful attempts were made, both by the English and French, during a period of more than a century, to found colonies. The most famous of these were the calamitous ones which were made under the auspices of Sir Walter Raleigh, 1564-1587.

After 1607, colonies were successively planted from Maine to Georgia, under charters from the English sovereigns. After having suffered much from oppressive and unjust acts of the Parliament of the mother country, and anticipating a continued disregard of their rights, the thirteen original Colonies, after much deliberation, and a solemn invocation of the aid of the God of battles, declared themselves, on the 4th of July, 1776, to be a free and independent people. In 1783, their independence was confirmed, and the limits of the country defined. To the original territory of the United States, the extensive region on our western border, called Louisiana, was added in 1803, by purchase from the French government, for the sum of $15,000,000;


and in 1821 another important addition was made to our territory in the acquisition of East and West Florida, on the South; which were purchased from Spain for the sum of $5,000,000. The number of States has increased, since 1789, from thirteen to twenty-four, besides three territories, and a great extent of country in the West; and our population has been more than trebled, so that it has increased from 3,929,328 to 14,000,000.


Taken in its utmost extent, the territory of the United States, as a physical section of the earth, extends from N. lat. 24° 27' to N. lat. 49°, and from 10° E. to 54° W. long. from Washington City. It is bounded north by British North America; north-west by Russian America; west by the Pacific ocean; south-west by the Mexican states; south by the Gulf of Mexico, and Cuba channel; and south-east and east by the Atlantic ocean.

This immense region has a limit in common with British North America, from the mouth of St. Croix River to the Oregon Mountains, 3,000
By an indefinite boundary from the Oregon Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, say 600
Along the Pacific Ocean from N. lat. 49° to 42°, 486
From 42° on the Pacific, along the Mexican border to the mouth of the Sabine on the Gulf of Mexico, 2,300
Along the Gulf of Mexico, from the mouth of the Sabine to Cape Sable, 1,100
Along the Atlantic Ocean, 1,800
Having an entire outline of 9,286

The above differs a little from Mr. Darby's statement, who makes the 51°, (in one place he seems to prefer the 54° 40' as the extreme northern limit,) to be the boundary from the Oregon Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. But I doubt the propriety of taking the 51st degree of north latitude, as the line of boundary from the Oregon Mountains.


That line is not settled; but it will hardly be beyond the 49th degree. The Russians claim to 540 40' of N. lat.; and the British Government, in common with the United States, claims the country west of the Oregon Mountains, as far south as the 42d deg. of N. lat. It is to be regretted that our government does not took after this matter. The tide of population has rolled on, until it has almost reached the foot of the Oregon Mountains, and soon it wilt extend beyond those everlasting hills, upon the plains of Oregon, as that region is now denominated.

The boundaries of the United States, when particularly given, are as follows: On the north, the line between them and British America runs along the highlands, which separate the waters which flow into the Atlantic from those which flow into the St. Lawrence, to the 45° N. lat.; thence along that line to the St. Lawrence, and up that river to Lake Ontario, through the middle of that lake, and lakes Erie, St. Clair, Huron, and Superior, and the intervening rivers or outlets, to the Grand Portage on the north-west side of the last named lake; thence across to a series of little lakes which lead to Rainy Lake: down Rainy Lake River to Lake of the Woods, through that lake to its northwest angle, and thence down a meridian line to the 49°; along that degree to the Oregon Mountains — beyond these mountains it is not settled, but will probably be continued along the 49° to the Pacific; along the Pacific shore to 42°; up that degree of latitude to a point due north of the Arkansas river; down that river to the point where the 100th degree of longitude west from Greenwich intersects that river; along that meridian to Red River; down Red River to the 17° 30' W. lon. from Washington; down that meridian to the Sabine river, which it pursues to its mouth. — On the south is the Gulf of Mexico; on the east the Atlantic Ocean, and on the north-east the St. Croix river, and


a line due north from that river to the Highlands, which separate the waters running into the St. Lawrence from those which run into the Atlantic Ocean.

Mr. Darby calculates the territory of the United States at 2,257,374 square miles; or a fraction more than one-twentieth part of the whole land surface of the earth. Mr. Tanner estimates it, and I think, for reasons contained in the foregoing paragraphs, more accurately, at 2,037,165 square miles.

The territory of the United States is naturally divided into three great sections; 1st, that of the Atlantic slope; 2d, that within the great central valley of North America; and, 3d, a slope or inclined plane, extending from the Oregon Mountains to the Pacific Ocean.

Of these three divisions, the first and the last, or in other words, the eastern slope, (that is the whole section which lies east of the Allegheny Mountains, from Maine to Florida,) and the western slope, (which lies west of the Oregon Mountains,) are far from being equal to the middle section, commonly called the great "Mississippi valley," or basin. For if we take the fifteen states which lie on the Atlantic slope, viz.: the six New England States, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, District of Columbia, and about half of Florida, we have an area of 884,580 square miles. And on the Pacific slope, according to Mr. Tanner, we have 299,438 square miles, making a total on these slopes of 684,018 square miles, and leaving to the valley of the Mississippi, 1,353,147 square miles. From this view, we learn the vast extent of the section of our country which I am about to describe. In the next chapter we shall ascend the Allegheny Mountains, and take a view of the "Great Central Valley," as it is called, and give its outlines, and some general description of it.


Chapter II. Great Central Valley of North America.

The existence of a great Central Valley in North America — Boundaries of that Valley. — A General description of it and its component parts, or basins. — Boundaries of the valley of the Mississippi. — Boundaries of the valley of the St. Lawrence. — Contrast between these two vallies. General remarks.

ANY man who will take the trouble of examining a well, executed map of North America, will at once notice the, fact, that there is what may, with propriety, be called a great Central Valley extending through it, from south to north. The outlines of this Valley are as follows; On the east is the Allegheny range of mountains, which separate the waters which run into the Atlantic Ocean from those which flow into the Gulf of Mexico and the St. Lawrence. This boundary may be considered as commencing at the extreme point of Florida, and pursuing what may be called the low dividing ridge of that peninsula, it passes into Georgia, separating the streams of the Chattahooche from those which flow eastward, and thence follows the Allegheny range of mountains to the north-east, more than 1200 miles, until that range, which is almost perfectly continuous, terminates at the Gulf of St. Lawrence, in Lower Canada it may even be said to be continued in the low dividing ridge which, on the north side of the Gulf of St. Lawrence runs through Labrador to Hudson's Strait, separating the waters which flow into the Atlantic from those which flow into Hudson's Bay. On the west, the Oregon Mountains which are a continuation of the Cordilleras of Mexico, are its boundary, stretching north-west more than 2,500 miles until they terminate on the Northern Ocean, near Behring's Straits. These two ranges of mountains are more than 1,000 miles apart in the south; and they diverge to a far greater distance as they approach the North. They are of unequal heights; for whilst probably no point of the Allegheny system exceeds 7,000 feet, some of the highest portions of the Oregon Mountains are believed to be much more elevated.


Both rest on very extended bases of granite, which in its lowest position is seen at the falls of the rivers which flow from these ‘everlasting hills.’

On the south, this immense Valley terminates on the crescent-like shore of the Gulf of Mexico; and on the north, on that of the Northern Ocean. Its immense extent will be perceived by a reference to the several subdivisions of which it is composed. The principal of these are, 1st, the valley of the Mississippi, or that vast basin which is drained by the Mississippi river and its confluents, (including several smaller parallel streams which fall into the Gulf of Mexico from the same physical section,) containing at least 1,300,000 square miles; 2d, the valley of the St. Lawrence, embracing Upper and Lower Canada, and a part of the United States, and containing 500,000 square miles; 3d, the great basin which is drained by the numerous streams which flow into Hudson's Bay; and, 4th, the valley of the Mackenzie's river, a very large stream, whose course is more than 2000 miles in length, and which has many confluents. The two last named sections of this Central Valley contain at least 2,500,000 square miles; so that the whole Central Valley, including Texas, on the south west of the Valley of the Mississippi, cannot embrace less than 4,300,000 square miles!

It is remarkable that throughout this vast extent of country, from the Gulf of Mexico to Hudson's Bay and the Arctic Ocean, there is little that deserves the name of a mountain. The dividing ridges which separate Mackenzie's river from the streams which flow into Hudson's Bay, and also those which separate the latter from the confluents of the St. Lawrence, are of inconsiderable height, and are not to be compared with the mountains which constitute the eastern and western boundaries of the Valley. In fact, the whole expanse of country in the central and northern parts of this Valley, is remarkably level, and abounding intakes. Almost every river in this section of the Valley, is connected with several lakes. Mackenzie's river has Athapescow, Slave, and other lakes. The Lake of the Woods, Winnepec, and others, are connected with the large river Saskatchewine, which flows ultimately into Hudson's Bay. And indeed almost every little stream which flows into that bay, either rises in a lake, or flows through one or more; whilst


the St. Lawrence, for the first 1200 miles of its course, is little more than a series of vast lakes or inland seas. And the Mississippi too, although it is, in its main course, remarkably free from lakes, rises in the land of lakes, and its sources are from almost a hundred little lakes or ponds.

It is a circumstance worthy of notice, that the great rivers which drain the four sections (which I have called basins) of this Central Valley, all rise in the vicinity of each other, and on the western side of the Valley, and three of them indeed in the ranges of the Oregon Mountains, and within a space of less than ten degrees of latitude. The region stretching from the sources of the Mississippi and St. Lawrence, north-west toward the sources of the Mackenzie's and Saskatchewine rivers, is elevated, and level in the eastern part, and broken or hilly, as you advance north-westward.

The lowest line from the Gulf of Mexico to Hudson's Bay pursues the Mississippi to its source: thence it crosses a low marshy country to the streams which flow into the Lake of the Woods, thence down to Winnepec, and down the outlet of that lake to Hudson's Bay. The day will come when there will be a continued line of water communication from one end of this valley to the other, and abundant facilities of commercial intercourse among the hundreds of millions who will then people this vast and fertile region.

In a state of nature, in which almost this whole Valley still is, it was a vast ocean of trees, save where its lakes expand their waters, or where the prairies in the south-west prevail. This interminable forest was, and still is, the home of the Buffalo, the Elk, the Deer, the Bear, the Panther, and a vast variety of other species of animals, which I cannot here undertake to describe, or even enumerate. But what is infinitely more interesting and affecting, this vast region long was, and is still, the abode of many tribes of ignorant, degraded, benighted men, who deserve our sympathy, and our aid in furnishing them with the means of civilization, and of conversion to true Christianity.

The vallies of the Mississippi and St. Lawrence are the chief, and almost only parts of this great Central Valley which are inhabited, in any permanent manner, by civilized men. And even the greater portions of these vallies are the abodes of the uncivilized Indian, the wandering hunter


and trapper, and the beasts of the wilderness. As these two vallies are those which are most interesting to us, I shall devote the remaining portion of this chapter to some general remarks respecting them.

I have already given the greater part of the boundary of the Valley of the Mississippi. It is sufficient to say here, that on the east the boundary is the dividing ridge from the extreme southern point of Florida northward to the Allegheny mountains, along the dividing line of those mountains, through Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, Pennsylvania, into the State of New-York; thence it deflects westward, until it almost reaches the shores of Lake Erie; it then turns southward for some distance, and then pursues a western course through Ohio and Indiana, and in Illinois turns to the north; and separating the waters which flow northward into Lakes Erie, Michigan, Superior, and the Red River which flows into Lake Winnepec, from those which flow into the Ohio, Mississippi and Missouri, it terminates at the Oregon mountains a little north of the 49°. — On the west, the boundary of the Valley of the Mississippi is the Oregon Mountains, down to about 41°; and thence down the highest table land between the Arkansas and the Red River on the east, and Rio Bravo on the south-west, to the Gulf of Mexico, including Texas and adjoining parts of Mexico; and on the south is the Gulf of Mexico. As described thus, it extends, exclusive of the Florida projection, through more than 20 degrees of latitude and 36 degrees of longitude, and contains at least 1,300,000 square miles. If any one will take the trouble of drawing a line with his pencil on the map of North America, beginning at the southern point of Florida, and dividing the streams which flow into the Gulf of Mexico from those which flow into the Atlantic on the east, the Lakes on the North, and the Pacific on the west, until he terminates his course on the Gulf of Mexico again, he will have the real boundary of the Mississippi Basin or Valley; and he will be struck with two facts — 1st. That the dividing line or boundary indicated by his pencil mark, (which will exhibit the true separating ridge) is remarkably crooked. And 2nd. That it is not a mountain ridge, (when it runs through the mountain system) but a ridge, if I may so speak, in the basis of the mountains — that is, in the table land on which the mountain


ranges or ridges stand. This dividing line is not indicated at all by any one mountain ridge; as is proved by the fact, that all the mountain ridges of the Allegheny system are cut, indifferent sections of them, by rivers flowing directly in opposite directions. In Georgia and North Carolina, this dividing line is under one of the most eastern ridges of the Allegheny mountains; but after it enters Virginia, it its northward course, it changes over to the western ridges — and in Potter county, in Pennsylvania, it is quite on the western verge of those ridges. In the State of New York, it leaves the mountains altogether, and does not enter them again until it reaches Vermont; so that the Susquehanna, Delaware, and Hudson Rivers cut through every ridge of the Allegheny system.

The Valley of the St. Lawrence extends first south-east, and then turns to the north-east, having the Gulf of St. Lawrence as its base, whilst it reaches to the elevated flat, marshy, table-land on which the Mississippi has its sources. Sweeping down from this plateau to the south-east, and then terminating in the north-east, it embraces a considerable slope on the south and east, which belongs to the United States, including the whole peninsula of Michigan, a large part of Ohio, the north-west angle of Pennsylvania, and a great part of the state of New York and Vermont. From the northern part of the last named state, the highlands form its south-eastern boundary, in that part of its course, down to their termination in the British Province of Lower Canada. In giving the northern boundary of the Valley of the Mississippi, I gave at the same time that of the south-western side of the Valley of the St. Lawrence. The northern boundary of this valley is the dividing line of land which separates the waters which flow into Hudson's Bay from those which flow into lake Superior, Huron, Erie, &c., and their great outlet, the St. Lawrence River. Of course, it extends by a deflected course eastward from the table-land which lies north-west of the first named lake, to its termination in Labrador.

The valley of the St. Lawrence, as described above contains about 500,000 square miles, of which near 75,000 are included in the large and small lakes, or inland seas, which lie within its bosom.


Although the Mississippi and St. Lawrence rise on the same elevated table-land, they are exceedingly diverse in their characteristics, and pass through vallies as diverse as are the rivers which give origin to their names. The Mississippi is remarkable for its constant changes as to the size of the volume of water which it rolls to the ocean: the St. Lawrence is uniform throughout the year. A rise of 30 feet in the former is less remarkable than that of 3 feet in the latter. The former is turbid and muddy, whilst the latter is always limpid. The whole course of the one is destitute of a lake of any consequence, whilst the other is adorned with many large expansions of water. The one annually swells, and overflows its banks to a great extent — the other never does. The Mississippi flowing from north to south, passes through a great variety of climate, and falls into the ocean in the region of almost constant warm weather; whilst its great rival rises also far to the north, winds down into the south as far as 41° 30', and then turns towards the north again, and finally ends in its original climate of ice and snow. The Mississippi divides above its entrance into the ocean, and pours its waters through several separate channels into the common reservoir; whilst the St. Lawrence imperceptibly widens into a large bay, which finally opens into a gulf of the same name. The former, with twice the length, is supposed to roll a volume of water far less than that of the latter. The banks of the one for a thousand miles above its mouth, are low and monotonous; whilst those of the other generally slope from the water by an elegant acclivity, and are beautiful when cleared of the forests. Much of the surface of the Valley of the Mississippi is composed of prairie regions, and grassy plains, where but few shrubs and trees are found; whilst almost the whole Valley of the St. Lawrence, in a state of nature, is covered with interminable forests. And whilst the tide is scarcely perceived in the great river of the former, it often rises 20 and 30 feet in that of the latter, and ascends more than 400 miles.

If it is true, that the ocean waters have greatly subsided since the creation, and are now gradually diminishing, as is the fact with regard to the Baltic; the time probably was when this whole Central Valley was submerged, and the Appalachian or Allegheny mountains were islands in the


ocean; and as the waters gradually abated, the highest parts of the valley appeared, and streamlets began, of course, to run toward their Ocean Father, and following his gradually departing waves, became themselves expanded into lakes and wide rivers. That such has been the history of the rivers which flow through this great Central Valley, is manifest to any one who notices the corresponding appearances in the stratifications which are found in their banks, which show that these river-channels were formed by abrasion — that is, by the continued action of the water, wearing away channels in a soil or ground which was once continuous and uniform. There cannot be a doubt that Lake Ontario has sunk, by its outlet, the St. Lawrence, breaking through, or rather washing away, the barriers which once elevated it to the level of Lake Erie.

In the peculiar forms, if I may so speak, of these rivers, we see a fine illustration of the wisdom and goodness of God. It is manifest that all long rivers which flow towards the north are peculiarly liable to excessive floods in the spring season, when the snow and ice melt. For as the sun advances to the north, the upper or southern branches will first pour down their floods upon the parent stream below which would soon be filled with ice, accumulated upon its own unbroken bed, and which, when yielded, would spread desolation far and wide. Now what resource has the St. Lawrence to prevent this? Its numerous and extensive lakes, where the rising waters from above may be collected, as in immense reservoirs; and before they can raise the surface of the waters in these, the St. Lawrence is free from ice. Hence the reason why this river varies so little through the year in the volume of its waters. Now we cannot have a conception of the terrible results which would take place, if the Mississippi, which has not a lake from its sources to its mouth, of any note, flowed northward, and entered into the Northern Ocean. And I believe that we can scarcely find an instance of a very long river flowing from south to north, in high latitudes, which has not the admirable provision of lakes to contain and regulate its immense volume of waters in the spring time.

I will only add, that the Valley of the St. Lawrence to be an interesting country to the Christian and statesman, — to the one, because it contains many immortal beings


civilized and savage, whose moral cultivation is devoutly to be desired; and to the other because it is capable of containing a population of fifty millions, and is now the cradle of what will one day be a great nation of freemen!

The preceding view of the great Central Valley of North America will not prove uninteresting, I trust, to the reader; and it will have some bearing upon the succeeding description of the Valley of the Mississippi, which I shall commence in the next chapter.

Chapter III. Geography and Physical Character.

General Account of the Valley of the Mississippi. — Its Extent. — Subdivisions. — Geography and Physical Character.

Having spoken in the last chapter of the great Central Valley of North America, extending from the Gulf of Mexico to the Northern Ocean, I proceed to give a general description of the southern part of it, embracing all that part of the United States which lies between the Allegheny and Oregon Mountains, now called in common language, the "Valley of the Mississippi." This vast region may be described in a few words, as hounded on the North by the Lakes, and the British possessions; east by the Allegheny Mountains; on the South by the Gulf of Mexico; and west by Mexico and the Oregon Mountains.

In the last chapter, when describing the several parts of the great Central Valley, I gave the boundaries of what is strictly the valley of the Mississippi. But, in the description which I have just given, I have included under the name VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI, the whole of that part of the country which lies between the Allegheny and Oregon Mountains, and the Gulf of Mexico and the Lakes. — This is now the common, though somewhat vague acceptation of the title. It will be at once perceived that it includes on the north, a strip of land, of variable width, which properly belongs to the Valley of the St. Lawrence; and on the south-east it includes the whole of Alabama and parts of Mississippi, Florida, and Georgia, which are not watered by any branch of the Mississippi river, but which are so


much like this region in their physical features, as to be, it is believed, properly considered a part of it.

The Valley of the Mississippi, as described above, contains more than 1,350,000 square miles, or considerably more than two-thirds of the United States; and about one twenty-eighth part of the whole land surface of the earth, if we suppose with Mr. Darby, that surface to be equal to 38,840,000 square miles; or one thirty-eighth part, if we suppose, with Mr. Tanner, the land area of the earth to be 51,520,667 square miles. Leaving out the Florida projection, it reaches from the 29° to the 49° of north lat., or about 1400 miles. Its outline or boundary exceeds 6,000 miles. From the sources of the Allegheny river to the sources of the Missouri, the distance is fully 5,000 miles by the course of the rivers, and from the sources of the Tennessee to those of the Arkansas, the distance, in the same manner, is nearly 4,000 miles.

The States, Territories, &c. which are included in the Valley of the Mississippi, are the following. The areas are from Mr. Tanner's estimates.

  Square Miles
West Florida, 27,840
Alabama, 52,900
Mississippi, 47,680
Louisiana, 49,300
Ohio, 89,750
Indiana, 86,500
Illinois, 57,900
Missouri, 65,500
Kentucky, 40,500
Tennessee, 40,200
Michigan, 88,000
Arkansas, 60,700
West Pennsylvania, (or one-third of that state) 15,833
West Virginia, (or two-fifths of that state) 26,649
Mandan District 295,203
Sioux do. 162,885
Huron do. 120,975
Osage do. 91,980
Ozark do. 83,350


If we were to include the parts of Georgia, North Carolina, and New York, which really belong to the Valley of the Mississippi, we should have to add 25,000 square miles.

The extent of the Valley would stand thus:

The States and Territories named above, 1,353,145
Parts of Georgia, North Carolina and N. York, 25,000
Making a total of 1,378,145

Mandan, Sioux, Huron, Osage, and Ozark, are names given, very appropriately, to the great regions on the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Arkansas rivers, and which have been commonly called the "North Western," and "Missouri Territories." Huron District is attached to Michigan; the other districts are governed, as far as they have any civilized government, by the military Superintendants and Indian Agents, who are in the service of the United States.


This vast region may be considered as two great inclined planes, whose line of intersection follows the Mississippi river to the mouth of the Ohio, up that river to the Wabash, along that river to its sources, and thence direct to Lake Erie, by the Maumee river. This is the lowest continuous line from the Gulf of Mexico to the Lakes. On each side of this line, these planes ascend gradually to the Allegheny and Oregon Mountains on the East and West. The eastern plane is much narrower than the western; consequently the rivers which flow down from the Allegheny mountains towards the west, (or south-west as their course generally is) are shorter than those which flow down the western plane, from the Oregon Mountains. Down the former run the Ohio, commencing at the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela, and its branches, the Kanawha, Kentucky, Scioto, Cumberland, and Tennessee. Further south, the Yazoo, the Big Black and the Homochitto, come in from the east; whilst on the south-east, the Peal, Mobile, Appalachicola, and many other smaller streams, flow directly into the Gulf of Mexico. Down the latter, (the western plane), flow the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, Arkansas and Red River, &c., &c., with their numerous tributaries.


If we except the Valley of the Amazon, probably no other valley on the globe will compare in size with that of the Mississippi; and it surpasses all others in the richness and variety of its soil, and its general adaptation to the support and comfort of civilized men. In extent it is like a continent, being, in fact, more than one-third as large as Europe: In beauty and fertility it is the most perfect garden of nature; and by means of its thousand streams, wonderful facilities are extended to every part of it for commercial intercourse.

The Mississippi is the great river of this region. It rises on the elevated table-land lying westward from Lake Superior. Its sources are a number of small lakes in that marshy region, in about 47° 47' north latitude. The St. Peter's, with ten or twelve tributaries, is the principal upper branch of the Mississippi. Above the falls of St. Anthony the Mississippi is five or six hundred yards wide. In latitude 89° comes in the Illinois, a noble stream, 400 yards wide at its mouth, and navigable by boats almost 400 miles. A little below 39° the Missouri discharges its mighty tribute. In about 38° the Kaskaskia from the east joins the Mississippi, eighty yards wide at its mouth, with a course of nearly two hundred miles, a great part of which, at some seasons of the year, is navigable for boats. About 37° comes in the Ohio, called by the early French settlers, "La Belle Riviere," the "beautiful river." At its junction with the Mississippi, and for nearly 100 miles above, the Ohio is as wide as the parent stream. Below 34° the St. Francis enters from the west, having a course of 500 or 600 miles. A little below 34° enters the White River, with a course of 1,200 miles, and with a mouth between three and four hundred yards wide. Thirty miles below, the Arkansas pours in its waters, five hundred yards wide at its mouth, with a course of 2,500 miles. In the state of Mississippi the Yazoo comes in from the east, between two and three hundred yards wide. Eighty miles below Natchez, and a little above 31°, the Red River enters, a stream nearly as long and deep as the Arkansas. Immediately below that point, the Mississippi rolls its greatest volume of water. A few miles below Red River it seen the first important bayou, or outlet, viz. the Atchafalaya that conveys to the Gulf by its own separate channel the surplus waters of the Mississippi.


Below the falls of St. Anthony, the Mississippi is half a mile in width, and is a clear and tranquil stream. A few miles below the entrance of the Des Moines, are rapids of nine miles in length, which are a considerable impediment to navigation. Below these rapids to the mouth of the Missouri, the river is from three quarters, to a mile and a quarter in width, with calm and transparent waters. The Missouri wholly changes its character. It now has a furious current, with a turbid mass of waters, and for a distance of 200 miles, rough and rugged shores. From the falls of St. Anthony to the Missouri, the current is at the rate of two miles an hour; below the Missouri it is four miles, and often more, per hour. Owing to accidental circumstances, the impetus of the current is often shifted, and the river tears up islands, removes the sandbars, and sweeps away the alluvial soil, with all its trees and deposites, to another place.

The sources of the Missouri rise among the Oregon Mountains, through ten degrees of latitude, or near seven hundred miles. The Yellow stone is its longest branch. The Missouri is remarkably free from falls or rapids. After leaving the Oregon Mountains, this overwhelming mass of waters, though every where flowing with great rapidity, no where swells into a lake, or rolls over a single cataract, in a distance of at least three thousand five hundred miles to the gulf of Mexico. At its junction with the Mississippi, the Missouri rolls a volume of water twice as large as that of what is called the Parent stream, and it far exceeds it in length. Indeed, there can be no doubt that the Missouri, with what is really its continuation, the Mississippi, is more than 4,000 miles in length, and is the longest river on this globe, and unlike any other, it rises in the regions of almost perpetual snow, and pours its waters into the ocean; in the region of the sugar cane and the olive.

The Ohio is, in a remarkable manner, gentle as it respects its current; and from Olean in Cattaraugus county in New-York, to the Mississippi, over a distance of more than 1200 miles, following its stream, at a moderately high flood, meets, excepting the rapids at Louisville, with not a single serious natural impediment.


In the next chapter I shall resume the consideration of the physical features of the Valley of the Mississippi.

Chapter IV. Geography and Physical Character.

Geography and Physical Character. — Valley of the Ohio. — Of the Upper Mississippi. — Of the Lower Mississippi. — Of the Missouri.

The Valley of the Mississippi has been divided by Mr. Darby into four great subdivisions. 1. Ohio Valley, length 750 miles, and mean width 261; containing 196,000 square miles. 2. Mississippi Valley, above the junction of the Missouri, including the minor valley of the Illinois, but exclusive of the region drained by the Missouri, 650 miles long, and 277 mean width, and containing 180,000 square miles. 3. Lower Valley of the Mississippi, that is, of the Mississippi below the entrance of the Ohio river, including White, Arkansas, and Red River valleys, 1000 miles long, and 200 wide, containing 200,000 square miles. 4. Missouri Proper, including Osage, Kansas, Platte rivers, &c. 1200 miles long, and 437 wide, containing 523,000 square miles.

This division, I would remark, is a convenient one — and although I believe it makes these great subdivisions too small, particularly the first three, yet I shall follow it in the general remarks which I shall make in this chapter. I need not inform the reader, that this arrangement leaves but of view the extensive region in the south-east, embracing a part of the State of Mississippi, almost the whole of Alabama, West Florida, and that portion of Georgia which is watered by the Appalachicola and its branches; and also Michigan Territory. These sections will be described particularly when I come to treat of each State and Territory separately.

The Valley of the Ohio is better known than any of the others. It has much fertile land, and also much that is unfit for cultivation, on account of its unevenness. It is divided


into two unequal portions, by the Ohio river; leaving on the right or north-west side, 80,000, and on the left or southeast side, 116,000 square miles. The eastern part of this Valley is hilly, and ascends rapidly as you approach towards the Allegheny mountains. Indeed, its high hills are of a strongly marked mountainous character. Of course the rivers which flow into the Ohio from the east, viz. the Monongahela, Kanawha, Guyandot, Sandy, Licking, Kentucky, Green, Cumberland, and Tennessee, are rapid, and abounding in cataracts and falls, which, towards their sources, greatly impede navigation. The western side of this Valley is also hilly for a considerable distance from the Ohio, but towards its western limit, it subsides into a remarkably level region. So that whilst the eastern line of this Valley lies along the high-table land on which the Allegheny Mountains rest, and where the rivers of the eastern section of this Valley rise, which is generally at least 2000 feet above the ocean level, the western line has not an elevation of much more than one half of that amount on the north, and greatly subsides towards the Kaskaskia. The rivers of the western section are, the Allegheny, Beaver, Muskingum, Hockocking, Scioto, Miami, and Wabash. Along the Ohio, on each side, are high hills, often intersected with deep ravines and sometimes openings of considerable extent, and well known by the appellation of the "Ohio Hills". Towards the mouth of the Ohio, these hills almost wholly disappear, and extensive level bottoms, covered with heavy forests of oak, sycamore, elm, poplar, ash, and cotton wood, stretch along the banks of the river. On this lower section of the river, the water, at the time of the spring floods, often overflows these bottoms to a great extent. This fine Valley embraces a population exceeding 3,000,000, which is nearly three-fourths of the whole population of the entire Valley of the Mississippi. The western parts of Pennsylvania and Virginia, the entire states of Ohio, Indiana, and Kentucky, the larger part of Tennessee, and a small part of Illinois, are in the Valley of the Ohio.

The Upper Mississippi Valley, (lying above the entrance of the Missouri) has been imperfectly explored, especially beyond the falls of St. Anthony. It possesses a surface far less diversified than the Valley of the Ohio. According


to Mr. Schoolcraft, the sources of the Mississippi river have an elevation of 1330 feet above the ocean level. This is about the elevation of the level, marshy, table-land, which extends from Lake Superior to the Missouri at the Mandan Villages. Throughout the whole of the Valley of the Upper Mississippi, of which we are speaking, there is nothing which deserves the name of a mountain. There is not probably on the earth an equal extent of territory, which is of so level and monotonous a character. The highest sources of the Mississippi river originate in the numerous small lakes which lie between the sources of the Assiniboin and Lake Superior. On the western side, it receives, as you descend from its sources, the Leech-lake river, Sac, Pine, Crow, Elk, Upper Jaway, St. Peters, Turkey, Little Maquaquetois, Galena, Great Maquaquetois, Lower Jaway, and Des Moines. From the eastern side, the Round-lake, Sandy-lake, St. Francis, Rum river, St. Croix, Chippeway, Black, Ouisconsine, Riviere au Fievre, Rock, and Illinois, pour in their several streams. It will be readily perceived that this Valley has great advantages for internal navigation and commerce.

The Upper Mississippi Valley is very dissimilar to the Valley of the Ohio. The former is remarkably level and uniform, the latter in many parts broken, hilly, even approaching to mountainous. The one abounds in lakes and marshes, the other is wholly destitute of them. The former is covered with prairies, that is, extensive districts destitute of trees, and covered with high grass and wild flowers, and low shrubs; — the latter is covered, in its natural state, with interminable forests, which are only here and there, even now, interrupted by the cultivated field. In the Upper Valley of the Mississippi, clumps of trees may be seen along the rivers and water courses, whilst the far greater proportion of it is open prairie, either elevated and dry, or low and marshy, possessing generally great fertility of soil, (although there are many strong exceptions,) and greatly destitute of timber. It will be the region of pastoral wealth, abounding in food for innumerable herds and flocks.

In latitude 45°, are the Falls of St. Anthony, where the Mississippi is precipitated over rocks of sixteen or seventeen feet of elevation; and, including the rapids immediately below, has a descent of 74 feet. The Valley of the Ohio has


a similar, but not equal, impediment to its navigation, in the rapids at Louisville, where there is a fall of twenty-two feet, in the distance of two or three miles. We may add that there are millions of acres in the Valley of the Upper Mississippi, of marsh and lake, which are covered with wild rice, (zizania aquatica) which feed innumerable flocks of water fowls, and which will probably be an article of food to a large population, as it now, occasionally, affords to the famished hunter and Indian the means of satisfying their hunger. Upon the whole, the Valley of the Upper Mississippi is inferior to the valley of Ohio, but it will eventually contain a large population. There are fine tracts of fertile land on the Ouisconsin (pronounced Wisconsin), Fox, and some other rivers.

The Lower Valley of the Mississippi has a length of 1,200 miles, from north-west to the south-east, having the sources of the Arkansas, and the mouth of the Mississippi river as extreme points; reaching from north lat. 29° to near 42°, and without estimating mountain ridges or peaks, differing in relative elevation at least 5000 feet. And as an elevation of 500 feet is believed to be equal, as it regards temperature, to one degree of latitude on the level ocean shore, if we add the actual difference of latitude, 13°, to an allowance of 10° for relative elevation, the climate at the north-west extreme must differ from that of the Delta, (or Islands, in the mouth of the Mississippi,) 23° in temperature, and render the seasons at the head of the Arkansas nearly as severe as those in north lat. 52° on the Atlantic coast of Labrador. This is Mr. Darby's estimate. But I think that that distinguished writer is in a slight error here; for it cannot be that the mountain vallies at the sources of the Arkansas are 5000 feet above the ocean level.

From the influx of the Missouri to that of the Ohio, the volume of the Mississippi rolls by a general S. S. E. course of 190 miles, by its windings; but on receiving the Ohio, it inflects to a course of S. S. W. 380 miles, to the entrance of the White and Arkansas rivers; it then turns to a very little W. of S. crosses three degrees of latitude, or about 360 miles by its sinuosities, to the point where the 31° intersects it, or rather about a mile and a half below the commencement of the Atchafalaya outlet, a few miles below the entrance of Red River. From


this point the Mississippi inflects its general course, and bends to S. E. which it pursues to its final discharge into the Gulf of Mexico, a distance by the river of 335 miles. So that from the mouth of the Missouri; the length of the, Mississippi, by all its windings, is 1265 miles; but by a direct line, only 820 miles.

Into the Mississippi, as a recipient, are poured from the east, below the mouth of the Ohio, the Obion, Forked Deer, Big Hatchie, Wolf, Yazoo, Big Black, and Homochitto; and from the West, or North West, the St. Francis, White, Arkansas, and Red rivers, with other streams of less note.

It is a most remarkable circumstance that there is such a prodigious inequality between the two opposing planes, down which are poured the confluents of the Mississippi, below the mouth of the Ohio. The western inclined plane, falling from the Oregon Mountains, sweeps over 800 or 1000 miles; whilst the eastern, sloping from the states of Tennessee and Mississippi, does not average a width of 100 miles. And whilst the White River flows down 1200 miles, the Arkansas near 2500, and the Red River from 1500 to 2000, there is no river on the eastern plane whose whole course exceeds 200 miles. The Arkansas and Red rivers are immense streams, and as they approach the Mississippi river, have many branches which, after leaving their parent river, run parallel to it, and finally unite with it again. Near the mouth of the former, some of these bayous on the south side, in high water, never return to the parent stream, but run directly to the Red River; and some of those which break from the Red River, make their way to the Atchafalaya, and find an outlet for their waters one hundred and fifty miles westward of the Mississippi.

The Arkansas rises near lat. 42° north, and lon. 32° west, and falls into the Mississippi at 33° 56', passing over eight degrees of latitude. It drains nearly as large a valley as the Ohio does. Red River rises in the mountains of Santa Fe, in north lat. 32°-35°, and west lon. 25°-28°, from Washington, and falls into the Mississippi in lat. 31°. They are both remarkable rivers for their extent, the number of their branches, the volume of their waters, the quantity of the alluvion which they carry down to the parent stream, and the


colour of their waters. They doubtless cause the Mississippi to infringe so often upon the bluffs which are so conspicuous on its eastern bank. Impregnated by saline particles, and coloured by ochreous earth, the waters of these two rivers are at once brackish and nauseous to the taste, particularly near their mouths; that of Red River is so much so, that at Natclitoches, at low water, it cannot be used even for culinary purposes. White River, which enters above the Arkansas, is a noble stream, and drains a fine country belonging to the State of Missouri and Arkansas territory. The St. Francis is also a considerable river, and falls into the Mississippi 280 miles below the Ohio.

At a short distance below the mouth of Red River, a large bayou, (as it is called,) or outlet, breaks from the Mississippi on the west, by which, it is believed, that as large a volume of water as Red River brings to the parent river, is drained off during the high spring floods, and runs into the Gulf of Mexico, one hundred and fifty miles from the mouth of the Mississippi. The name of this bayou is Atchafalaya. Below this bayou, another, of large dimensions, breaks forth on the same side, and finally falls into the Atchafalaya. This is the Placquemine. Still lower, at Donaldsonville, seventy-five miles above N. Orleans, on the same side, the Lafourche Bayou breaks out, and pursues a course parallel to the Mississippi, and enters the Gulf fifty miles west of the mouth of that river. On the east side, the Ibberville Bayou drains off a portion of the waters of the Mississippi, into lakes Maurepas, Ponchartrain, Borgne, and the Gulf of Mexico, and thus forms the long and narrow island of Orleans.

In the lower valley of the Mississippi there is a great extent of land of the very richest kind. There is also much that is almost always overflown with water, and is a perpetual swamp. There are extensive prairies in this Valley, and towards the Oregon Mountains, on the upper waters of the Arkansas and Red River, there are vast barren steppes or plains of sand, dreary and barren, like the central steppes of Asia. On the cast of the Mississippi, are extensive regions of the most dense forests, which form a striking contrast with the prairies which stretch abroad on the western side of this valley.

The Valley of the Missouri extends 1200 miles in length


and 437 in average width, and embraces 523,000 square miles. The Missouri River rises in the Oregon Mountains, through an extent often degrees of latitude, or near 700 miles. The Yellow Stone is its longest branch. The course of the Missouri, after leaving the Oregon Mountains is generally S. E. until it unites with the Mississippi. The principal branches flow from the S. W. They are the Osage, Kansas, Platte, &c. The three most striking features of this Valley are: 1st. The turbid character of its waters. 2d. The very unequal volumes of the right and left confluents. 3d. The immense predominance of the open prairies, over the forests which line the rivers. The western part of this Valley rises to an elevation towards the Oregon Mountains, equal, as it regards temperature, to ten degrees of latitude.

Ascending from the lower verge of this widely extended plain, wood becomes more and more scarce, until one naked surface spreads on all sides. Even the ridges and chains of the Oregon Mountains partake of these traits of desolation. The traveller, who has read the descriptions of central Asia, by Tooke or Pallas, would feel, if transported to the higher branches of the Missouri, a resemblance, at once striking and appalling; and he would acknowledge, if near to the Oregon Mountains in winter, that the utmost intensity of frost over Siberia and Mongolia, has its full counterpart in North America, on similar, if not on lower latitudes. — There is much fertile land in the Valley of the Missouri, though there is much that must be forever the abode of the Buffalo, the Elk, the Wolf and the Deer.


Chapter V. Geography and Natural Resources.

1. Climate, considered in relation to the productions of this region. — 2. Minerals. — 3. Soil. — 4. Trees. — 5. Animals.

IN the last Chapter I gave an account of the four great subdivisions of the Valley of the Mississippi. In this I proceed to give some further notices of its physical features and resources.

1. Climate, considered in relation to the productions, &c. — We may number four distinct climates between the sources and the outlet of the Mississippi. The first, commencing at its sources, and terminating at Prairie du Chien, in lat. 43°, includes the northern half of Michigan Territory, almost the whole of Huron and Sioux districts, and all of Mandan, and corresponds pretty accurately with the climate between Boston and Quebec; with this difference, that the amount of snow falling in the former is much less than in the latter region; and its winters are not as severe, and its summers are more equal in temperature. Five months in the year may be said to belong to the dominion of winter. The Irish potatoe, wheat, and the cultivated grains, succeed well in this climate; but the apple, peach, pear, and the species of corn called gourd seed, require a more southern climate to bring them to perfection. Abundance of wild rice grows in the numerous lakes at the head of the Mississippi, which constitutes an important article of food for the natives. On account of the vast body of frozen water still further to the north, Spring opens late; but the Autumn continues longer than in the same parallels on the Atlantic. A species of corn called the Mandan, cultivated by the Mandan and other tribes, flourishes in this climate.

The next climate includes the belt of country between 43° and 36° 30'. In this climate lie Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, the southern part of Michigan territory, Western Pennsylvania, Western Virginia, and Kentucky. The severity of winter commences with January and ends with


the second week of February. Wheat is at home in this climate. The Irish potatoe flourishes well, especially in the northern, and the sweet potatoe in the southern part. It is the region of the apple, the pear, and the peach tree. The persimmon is found throughout, and the paw-paw with its luscious fruit, abounds in the southern part. Throughout the southern half of this climate Cotton is cultivated for home consumption, and some for exportation, but not much. Tobacco and Hemp find a congenial soil, and temperature, in the same part of this climate.

The next climate extends from 36° 30' to 31°. Below 85,° in the rich alluvial soil, the apple tree begins to fail in bringing its fruit to perfection. Between 36° and 33° cotton is in general a certain crop; but below 33° is perhaps its best climate, and there it becomes a first rate staple article. Wheat is not cultivated much in the southern part, but corn grows luxuriantly throughout this climate. I have never seen finer orchards than in the northern part. Tennessee, Arkansas, and almost the whole of Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia, lie within this climate. Wheat is not cultivated in the southern part, and does not nourish in any part as well as in the one preceding. The long-moss is here seen on the trees along the swamps. The palmetto abound, and the fig tree and orange flourish in its southern parallels. Sugar cane will grow also in that part of this climate, but is not a profitable crop generally, as the season is too short for its full maturity.

Below 31°, to the Gulf of Mexico, is the region of the sugar cane and the sweet orange tree. It would be, if it were cultivated, the region of the olive. On the Florida projection, almost every species of tropical fruits, including the banana, cocoa, almond, &c. find an agreeable climate, and in many places a suitable soil. Snow is seldom seen here, and the streams are not often frozen. Winter is only marked by nights of white frost, and days of north-west winds, and these do not last longer than three days at once, and are succeeded by south winds and warm days. Cotton and corn are planted from February to June. The trees are generally in leaf by the middle of February, and always by the 1st of March. Early in March the forests are in blossom. Fireflies are seen by the middle of February. In these regions the summers are uniformly hot, although there are days


when the mercury rises as high in New England as in Louisiana. The heat, however, is here more uniform and sustained, commences earlier and continues later. From February to September, thunder storms are common, accompanied sometimes with gales and tornados of tremendous violence.

The climate of the Valley of the Mississippi corresponds, it is believed, more exactly with the latitude, than that of the Atlantic States does; this is owing to its uniformity, being a vast basin, and remote from the influences of the ocean, mountains, and other natural causes affecting climate. The elevation of the northern end, and especially that of the extreme eastern and western parts of its great planes, gives a colder climate than the same parallels on the level shores of the Atlantic ocean. In some places this elevation is sufficient to make a difference in temperature equal to from three to five degrees of latitude on the margin of the ocean. Mr. Jefferson maintained, that the temperature of the Valley of the Mississippi is higher than that of the Atlantic coast in corresponding parallels. Dr. Drake, Mr. Darby and others, maintain a contrary opinion. As far as I can learn, these last named gentlemen are right. Throughout the central line of the Valley, from the Gulf of Mexico to the lakes, I think that the mean cold of winter is greater by two or three degrees than on the Atlantic coast in corresponding parallels. Several facts show this. The Ohio at Cincinnati, and the Mississippi at St. Louis, the former of which is almost one degree, and the latter one and a half, south of Philadelphia, are about as much and as long frozen every winter, as the Delaware is at that city. The reasons for this difference in the climate of the Valley of the Mississippi and the Atlantic coast are, 1st, that the former region has not the moderating breezes from the ocean — cooler in extremely hot weather, and warmer in extremely cold, than the winds from the land — which the latter region enjoys — and 2d, it is more elevated than the corresponding portions of the sea coast.

In the southern and middle regions of this Valley, the wide, level, and heavy-timbered alluvial lands, are intrinsically more or less unhealthy. In these situations the new resident is subject to bilious complaints, to remitting fevers, and especially to fever and ague, the general scourge of the


Valley. The slopes of the Alleghenies; the interior of Ohio and Kentucky, Tennessee and Indiana, where the forest is cleared away, and stagnant waters drained; the high grounds of Illinois and Missouri, and the open country towards the Oregon Mountains, are as salubrious as any other region.

2. Minerals. — Many parts of the West abound in valuable minerals. The eastern slope of the Ohio Valley abounds in iron ore, coal, and salt. These valuable minerals are also found in almost all the states. Vast quantities of iron are manufactured in Pittsburg, and its vicinity, Immense veins of coal are found in the same region, and also in Ohio, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Alabama, and will be sources of great wealth to the inhabitants in this valley, as there is reason to believe that this valuable species of fuel will be found in almost every state. Salt water is found in many places throughout this region, and is often discovered in springs, or "licks," as they are called, to which the wild deer and buffaloes resort, in the uninhabited country, in vast numbers. Salt is manufactured in great abundance, on the Kiskiminitas, a branch of the Allegheny river; at Yellow Creek, near its junction with the Ohio above Steubenville; on the Kahawha, sixty-five miles above its mouth; on the Saline river thirty miles from Shawneetown, in Illinois, as well as in many other places.

In Washington county and the adjacent region, in Missouri, there are lead mines of great extent and value. The principal "diggings," are included in an extent of fifteen miles in one direction by thirty in the other. This district is 70 miles south-west from St. Louis. About 3,000,000 pounds of lead are smelted in a year, giving employment to about 1200 men. The ore is principally of that class called galena, and is very rich, yielding from seventy-five to eighty percent. There are also very rich mines of the same mineral at Galena, in the north-west corner of the state of Illinois, and on the Ouiscoasin, in Huron district. In 1829, it is said that about 13,000 people were employed in the neighbourhood of Galena, and it is probable that from nine


to ten millions of pounds were made that year. A larger quantity, it is believed, is now made annually. A few years ago this place was in the possession of the Winnebagoes.

Ores of copper, antimony and manganese, have been discovered, but they are not yet wrought. It is probable that mines of gold and silver will be found in this region, as they are abundant in the neighbouring country of Mexico. I may add that gold has recently been found in Tennessee and Alabama. And I have little doubt that it will be found in Missouri, and the Ozark Mountains, which stretch south-westward from that state.

3. Soil, &c. — The soil of the Ohio Valley, taken generally, may be considered fertile, but, in many places, it presents strong exceptions. Wherever the face of the earth in this valley is broken into hills, mountains, or vales, excellent fountain water abounds. In some of the more level parts of Kentucky, of limestone formation, in very dry seasons, there is a great scarcity of water. It would be difficult to find any other country of equal extent, where the natural features are more strongly contrasted. In regard to the Upper Valley of the Mississippi, timber is comparatively scarce, as much of the surface is occupied by prairies and lakes. Extensive lines of alluvial soil of great fertility border the streams, particularly of the Mississippi, Illinois, &c. The prairies are of various soils, some very fertile, and others much less so, but extremely valuable for grazing. Immense herds of cattle and horses will be here raised for an eastern market, and the population will be great, though not so much so perhaps as in the Ohio Valley. With the exception of the alluvial banks of its numerous streams, the Missouri Valley is dry and sterile, and to a great extent destitute of timber and fresh water. I ought to add that much of this region is yet to be explored, and its soil ascertained. There is, unquestionably, good soil enough to sustain a large population, in this extensive valley. The Lower Valley of the Mississippi is the most variegated section of the United States; every form of landscape, every trait of natural physiognomy, and an exhaustless quantity, with an almost illimitable specific diversity of vegetable and metallic production, are found upon this extensive region. There are the cold, sterile plains and vales


of the Oregon Mountains, the elevated and dry grounds of the Arkansas; and the exuberant fertility, with the disease and death (to the unacclimated,) of the Delta of the Mississippi.

The country lying along the Scioto and Miami rivers, in Ohio; that embraced in several counties around Lexington in Kentucky; some counties of Michigan; large portions of Missouri; and those portions of Illinois, and Indiana, which lie along the Sangamon and Wabash rivers, are of surpassing fertility. Indeed the general fertility of the soil, and the luxuriance of the vegetation, are such as to fill with admiration the mind of one whose observation has been previously confined to the Atlantic and Northern states.

Nothing strikes the attention of a traveller upon his visiting this region, more forcibly than the immense forests which cover a large portion of the Valley of the Mississippi. That part of it which has been denominated the Valley of the Ohio, was sixty years ago, and is still to a great extent, a vast unbroken forest, presenting, in the summer season, a most magnificent appearance. No prospect can be more grand than to stand upon the summit of the Laurel Hill, the last of the Allegheny range, and survey the extensive green scene which stretches out in the distance to the West. These forests are of a most luxuriant growth. The Vallies of the Upper Mississippi, the Missouri, and the Lower Mississippi, have immense prairies, or savannas, where the eye sees nothing, in the summer season, but, as it were, a vast ocean of waving wild grass, flowers of various hues, and of five or six feet in height. There are, however, large forests of trees of extraordinary size, particularly along the margins of the rivers in these vallies.

4. Trees. — The brevity which I am compelled to observe will not allow me to go into much detail in regard to the different species of trees. The sycamore is the prince of the western forests. It is often of great size, sometimes hollow, and of such dimensions as to have a cavity of several feet in diameter. Several have been found having cavities of from ten to fifteen feet in diameter, so as to accommodate a number of persons. This tree is found in all parts of the Valley, along the water courses. The ash,


the elm, the oak of various species, are found in the greater part of the Valley. The sugar-maple abounds in the northern and middle parts. The walnut, the beech, and a great variety of other forest trees abound. The yellow poplar (liriodendron tulipifera) is a princely tree in various parts of this region, and next in size to the sycamore. The cotton wood is a large tree, and abounds along the lower course of the Ohio, and on the Mississippi. The catalpa, on the Mississippi, is an elegant tree. The china tree is a beautiful shade tree, and is the ornamental tree of the towns and villages in the southern part of the Valley, and throughout all the Southern Atlantic cities from Florida to Virginia. The bow-wood is found on the Ouachita, (pronounced Washitaw). It is a splendid tree, bearing a beautiful flower, and a fruit which, although inviting to the eye, is the apple of Sodom to the taste. The dog-wood with its beautiful flower, the persimmon, wild plum, crab-apple, mulberry, &c. abound in various parts. The paw-paw is found near Wheeling, and throughout the middle part of the Valley. Its splendid fruit is too well known to need description. The peccan with its fine fruit of the nut kind, is found in Illinois and Missouri. The magnolia with its beautiful flower is found in Florida and Louisiana, and some other districts. Mr. Flint thinks that it is not to be compared with the cotton wood, the sycamore, or the poplar, as it regards size. It is nevertheless a very large tree, not only in Florida, but also in the north-eastern angle of Louisiana, and in the southern part of the State of Mississippi, 40 or 50 miles east of the Mississippi river, as I well know. The cypress begins to be seen near the mouth of the Ohio, and is, with the swamp gum, the most common tree in the deep swamps, from that point to New Orleans. This tree raises a straight column, from a cone-like buttress, to the height of sixty or eighty feet, and then throws out a number of horizontal branches, which interlacing with those of the others around, form an elevated umbrageous canopy. The cypress is a very valuable species of timber. Thousands of trunks of this tree are every year floated down to New-Orleans and other places, to be sawed at the Steam Saw Mills, or to be used for other purposes. Below 31° and along the Louisiana and Florida coasts, the live oak, quercus sempervirens, is found; valuable for ship timber. It is not a tall, but rather a spreading tree, and resembles at a distance an open umbrella,


and is remarkable for its solidity and durability. No country on earth is covered with a greater variety of useful trees, shrubs, and vines. The orange, the fig tree, the olive, &c. find a congenial climate and soil in the southern part of the Valley. The vine grows every where. The pine forests of the south can furnish millions of masts, spars, &c. &c. for our ships.

5. Animals. — The deer, the bear, the fox, the wolf, &c. are too well known to need notice. The Buffalo now keeps his range on the sources of the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Arkansas, and their branches. There, in immense herds, he traverses the fields of his great domain. The Elk is abundant in the same region, far from the abodes of civilized man, which he shuns, and prefers the remotest plains which stretch along the Oregon Mountains, better known to the Red man who roams over the same dreary regions. The beaver also lives in the same country. The panther has a wider range. The antelope, the white bear, the mountain sheep, and prairie dog, have so much fellowship with the beaver, as to inhabit the same distant land.

Birds. As to the varieties of the feathered tribe, although exceedingly numerous, and good either for food or for song, I can only give them a passing notice. All the birds of the Atlantic slope are found in abundance here, and some which are not found there. The pelican, prairie hen, wild turkey, parroquet, pigeons, swans, cranes, wild geese, ducks, &c. &c. abound in various parts of the Valley.

Reptiles. As to reptiles, they are the same, generally, as are found in the Atlantic States. The moccasin snake, the rattle snake, copper head snake, horned snake, hissing snake, bull snake, chameleons, lizards, scorpions, &c. &c. are the most famous of the reptile species. As population increases, all such things become less formidable. The hogs and deer destroy vast numbers of them. The rattle, copper head, and moccasin snakes, are very venomous. The alligator abounds in the rivers and marshes as far north as 34°. He is an unwieldy animal, but little dreaded by the inhabitants. Pigs, calves, &c. are sometimes destroyed by him.


Fishes. — As to the variety of fish found in the rivers and streams of the Valley of the Mississippi, there is but little to be said that would be interesting in such a work as this. They are numerous, and have been described by Mr. Rafinesque and others, with much particularity and accuracy.

In the next Chapter, I shall give a brief History of the Valley of the Mississippi.

Chapter VI. History of the Valley of the Mississippi.

HAVING given an account of the Geography and Natural Resources of the Valley of the Mississippi, I proceed to give a brief sketch of its civil History.

The English and Spanish dispute the honour of the discovery of this country. It appears, however, that Sebastian Cabot sailed along the shores of what was afterwards called Florida, but a few years after the discovery of America by Columbus. It is said by Spanish authors that Juan Ponce de Leon discovered this country in the thirtieth degree of north latitude in 1512. He gave it the name of Florida, and made a landing, but was glad to escape from the fierce attacks of the Indians. He had discovered land on Easter day, and from that circumstance, gave the country the name of Florida, from the Spanish name of that festival, Pasqua de Flores — the Festival of Flowers. Between 1518 and 1524, Grijalva and Vasques, both Spaniards, landed on Florida. Their expeditions proved unfortunate, through their treachery. In 1528, Narvaez obtained a grant of Florida. He landed with four or five hundred men. But his expedition proved disastrous, and he was lost near the mouth of the Mississippi, by shipwreck. He


first recorded the names of several of the Indian tribes. He was succeeded by Ferdinand de Soto, a man of great bravery and boldness, and of a chivalrous and enterprising spirit. He landed in Florida with one thousand men, marched into the Chickasaw country, was probably the first white man who saw the Mississippi river, which he crossed not far from the mouth of the Red River. On this river he sickened and died; and his followers not long after left the country.

In the year 1564, the illustrious Protestant, Admiral Coligny, established a colony of Huguenots, near the site of St. Augustine, which was sometime afterwards massacred in the most cruel manner, by the Spaniards, for the crime of being Protestant heretics. This act of cruelty was requited by Dominique de Gourgues, who hung the Spaniards on the same trees upon which they had caused the French to perish so miserably. Almost fifty years elapsed before we hear any thing more of the French in North America.

In 1608, Admiral Champlaine founded Quebec, and in the course of sixty years the French settlements spread over what is now called Upper and Lower Canada. Their hunters often made extended tours to the south and west. In their intercourse with the savages, they learned that there was a vast region in that direction, watered by a noble river, whose course was towards the south. Excited by these representations, M. Talon, the Intendant of Canada, determined to settle the question whether that river did not flow into the Pacific, and so open a north-west passage. For this purpose he employed Father Marquette, a Jesuit missionary, who had travelled much, and Joliette, a trader, to undertake an excursion for discovery. They went up the lakes to Michigan, and ascended the Fox River to its source, and crossed over to the Wisconsin, and descended that river to the Mississippi, which they descended, as some say, to the mouth of Arkansas, others to the mouth of the Missouri, and returned by the Illinois. They discovered the Mississippi on the 15th of June, 1673. The account which they gave of the wonders which they saw, induced M. de La Salle, a man of great enterprise, to undertake to explore the Mississippi. He set out, in 1679, with a number of men, and spent the winter on the Illinois. He directed Father Hennepin, who accompanied him, to explore


the sources of the Mississippi, whilst he himself returned to Canada for supplies. But the Father, preferring to descend the noble river, tells us that he actually reached the mouth in sixteen days after he had left the mouth of the Illinois River, that is, from the 8th to the 25th of March, 1680, and that he returned and visited the Upper Mississippi as far as the Falls of St. Anthony. He returned soon afterwards to France, and published an account of this wonderful voyage, dedicated his book to the great Colbert, and called the whole country Louisiana, in honour of Louis XIV. the reigning monarch of France. In 1683, La Salle founded the villages of Cahokia and Kaskaskia, in what is now the state of Illinois.

La Salle then returned to France and endeavoured to convince the ministry of the existence of a great line of water communication of four thousand miles, from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico; and of the importance of establishing a strong line of communication from one point to the other, and thus insulating the English settlements by this impassable barrier. In 1684, he sailed from France, by order of the King, to discover the mouth of the Mississippi. He landed one hundred leagues to the westward of that point, in what is now called Texas, and after many misfortunes, and vain attempts to find that river, he set out to go by land to the French settlements in Illinois, and after undergoing incredible hardships, he fell by the hands of assassins among his own men, who conspired against him.

In January 1699, M. Ibberville arrived in the Gulf of Mexico, in the neighbourhood of the mouth of the Mississippi, with two frigates. He first landed on Dauphine Island; and on the 2nd of March he entered the Mississippi with a felucca, together with his brother Bienville, who accompanied him. Having ascended the river near one hundred leagues, they returned; Bienville proceeded down the main river, and M. Ibberville by the bayou, or outlet, which has ever since been called by his name, which leads into Lake Maurepas, Ponchartrain, &c. to the Gulf. M. Ibberville having settled his colony at Biloxi, a healthy, but sterile spot between the Mississippi and Mobile rivers, and erected fortifications, sailed for France, from whence he returned in the autumn with two more frigates. During that and


several succeeding years, the work of exploring the country was carried on with vigour, and the whole Valley was traversed, and several colonies planted. It was long, however, before the settlers turned their attention fully to the cultivation of the exuberant soil, instead of vain attempts to find the precious metals. And although much was done in the way of procuring peltry, &c. and in trading with the savages, yet these colonies were a source of much expense to the mother country. In five years preceding 1717, the balance against the parent country was 125,000 livres. On the 8th of January, 1702, the colony of Mobile was planted by M. Ibberville. Establishments were made in various places. Missions were planted by the Catholic Missionaries among various tribes of Indians, many of whom are now extinct. For many years these colonies had to contend with great difficulties. Sometimes they were on terms of peace with their neighbours, the Spaniards in Florida and Mexico, and in league with them against the English and the savages who were in alliance with them.

M. Ibberville died in 1706, and M. Bienville acted as governor for many years afterwards. During 1719 he founded the city of New Orleans, on the east bank of the Mississippi, one hundred and five miles from its mouth. In 1729 or 1730, the French utterly destroyed the Natchez, a powerful tribe of Indians, who had previously destroyed 700 French people in a quarrel which occurred in 1723. Various wars afterwards took place between the colonists and the Indians, Spaniards, and English. By wonderful adroitness and perseverance, the French had an extrordinary influence over almost all the savages throughout the whole Valley. By successive arrivals of emigrants from France, the population increased rapidly in numbers and wealth.

The "Mississippi scheme," or "bubble," as it has been called, which was originated by John Law, in 1717, and which spread ruin throughout France, was upon the whole, highly beneficial to Louisiana, as it increased its population. The amount of stock created, and on which there was almost an entire failure, amounted to more than 310,000,000 of dollars. From the year 1736 the colonies in the southern part of the Valley of the Mississippi, or Louisiana, as the whole country was called, increased and flourished. Generally


the best of terms wore maintained with the savages. Agriculture was pursued. Valuable exports were made of cotton, indigo, peltry, furs, pitch, lumber, &c. &c. from New Orleans and other seaports in the vicinity.

In 1754, France and England commenced hostilities, on account of conflicting claims to territory. At the close of the war of 1744-49, the French ceded Nova Scotia to the English. A long dispute occurred respecting its boundary: the French wishing to restrict it to what is now called by that name, and the English maintaining that it extended to the eastern line of what is now Maine, and north to the St. Lawrence. In the West, France claimed all the country west of the Alleghenies; and England, on the other, hand, had granted to Virginia and other colonies charters which extended to the "South Sea," that is, the Pacific Ocean. And a grant of 600,000 acres was made to a company called the "Ohio Company," by Virginia and the Crown. The Governor of New France (as Canada and Louisiana were called,) protested, and stirred up the Indians, and commenced the erection of forts at Presque Isle, (now the town of Erie in West Pennsylvania,) on Le Boeuf, a branch of French Creek, and at the junction of the Monongahela and Allegheny. The Lieutenant Governor of Virginia sent Major Washington in 1753 to the French Commandant of these posts, to request him to desist. This embassy failed to accomplish the object. The next year a detachment was despatched to dislodge the French from Fort du Quesne, (now Pittsburg,) at the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela. This charge was committed to Washington, who marched, the same year, with the rank of a Major, and having under his command four hundred men, to secure and fortify a position on the Ohio. He was surrounded and compelled to surrender, but on the most honourable terms, at Fort Necessity, on the ground which is commonly called the "Little Meadows," which lie on the national road from Cumberland to Wheeling, and about ten miles east of Uniontown. In 1755, General Braddock was defeated in the most calamitous manner, on the eastern bank of the Monongahela, about nine miles above Pittsburg, himself mortally wounded, and the shattered remains of his army conducted back, by Col. Washington. In 1758, '59, Du Quesne, Niagara, and Ticonderoga, were taken by the


English. The memorable victory of Wolfe at Quebec, made the English completely dominant in the Canadas in 1759, and the French humbled by repeated defeats by sea and by land, ceded, towards the close of that war, all the country west of the Mississippi, including the city and island of New Orleans, to the Spanish, by a secret treaty, made in November, 1762. At the treaty of Paris, in 1763, France ceded to England all her possessions east of the Mississippi river, and Spain ceded Florida to the English. In 1764, the English took possession of Florida, and the Spanish, under O'Reilly, took possession, in 1769, of Louisiana, limited in extent by the Mississippi on the east, as above remarked.

The American Revolution commenced in 1775, and ended in 1783. During this period the West shared but little in the conflict. General Clark captured the English force at Vincennes; and the Spanish, under Galvez, uniting with the French in espousing the cause of the United States, re-captured the English posts at Baton Rouge, Mobile, and Pensacola. Besides these events, nothing of importance during this war occurred in the Valley oft the Mississippi. By the peace of 1783, England re-ceded Florida to Spain, and acknowledged the independence of the United States, ceding to them all the country north of the 31° of N. lat. After the peace of 1783, the circumstance which most deeply interested the increasing population of the West, was the protracted controversy with Spain, with respect to the line between the United States and the Floridas, and the right, on the part of the United States, to the navigation of the Mississippi to its mouth. After much sharp and painful controversy on these subjects, Spain ceded, by secret treaty, in 1801, Louisiana to France. The latter power ceded it, April 13, 1803, to the United States, for the sum of 15,000,000 dollars.

During a period of more than fifteen years, after the Independence, the inhabitants of the West were harassed by incessant attacks from the Indians on their borders. In 1790, General Harmar marched from Fort Washington, the present site of Cincinnati, with an army of 1,453 men. Within a few miles of the place where Chillicothe stands, a bloody, but indecisive battle was fought, commonly called Harmar's defeat. In November, 1791, General St. Clair,


with an army of 1,400 men, met with a most calamitous defeat near the Miami, in which more than 600 brave men were slain, and 265 wounded. The Indians, flushed with success, increased their depredations and massacres. It has been proved that between 1783 and 1790, no less than 1,500 people of Kentucky were massacred by the savages, or dragged into a horrid captivity: and that the frontiers of Pennsylvania and Virginia suffered a loss not much less. In 1793 the government sent Gen. Wayne against the Indians, who, with an army of 3000 men, on the 20th of August, 1794, at the Miami of the Lake (or Maumee, as it is now called), gave them a tremendous defeat. The consequence was a general peace among all the tribes of Indians, in the West and South, which was secured by the treaty of Greenville, August 3, 1795. In the year 1794 an insurrection (occasioned by duties laid on spirituous liquors manufactured in the United States,) in the western part of Pennsylvania, was quelled without the shedding of blood.

In 1812, the late war with Great Britain commenced. The Valley of the Mississippi was the theatre of many of the events of that contest. In the northern parts of it were the battles of Tippacanoe, Mississinewa, River Raisin, Forts Meigs and Sandusky, the victory on Lake Erie, the capture of Detroit and Malden, and the defeat of the British army under General Proctor on the Thames. In the south were the bloody and decisive battles, with the Indians, at Tallushatchie, Talladega, Emuckfaw, Tohopeka, the attack upon Fort Boyer, the capture of Pensacola, and the victory at New Orleans. The events of that war are too recent to need a more particular notice. It terminated in the early part of 1815. It was sometime, however, before the ruinous effects of the war ceased. Every species of speculation was carried, for a while, to a ruinous excess, and several years elapsed before public confidence was completely restored.

Some Historical notices of each state in the West will be given when I come to that part of the work.


Chapter VII. Future Increase of Population.

HAVING in the last chapter given a brief and general History of the Valley of the Mississippi, I proceed now to make some remarks upon the rapid increase of population in that region, and to assign some reasons for believing that it must continue to increase at a rapid rate, for a long period, in future.

The first French settlements in the Valley of the Mississippi were made in the latter part of the seventeenth century. In 1699, Bienville and Ibberville planted a colony at Biloxi, which is in the southern extremity of what is now the state of Mississippi. During the twenty years preceding, colonies had entered the upper end of the Valley from Canada, then a part of the French dominions, and had settled at Cahokia, and Kaskaskia, in what is now Illinois; at Detroit, in Michigan Territory; and Vincennes, (or Post Vincent, as it was called,) in Indiana. These colonies were small, for a long time, and chiefly for trading posts, and not for agricultural purposes, at least not so to any important extent.

It was not until the middle of the eighteenth century, or about 1750, that the English began to make attempts to colonize that country. It has sometimes been asserted that Daniel Boone was the first conductor of an English colony in to the West. This is true of Kentucky and that part of the Valley. This event occurred in 1775. A Mr. Finley, from North Carolina, visited this state in 1767 and again he and Boone visited it, and to a considerable extent traversed it, in 1769 and 1771. In 1773 Boone advanced with a colony 40 or 50 persons; but being attacked by the Indians, they returned to Clinch river, and the party remained there two years — and in 1775 removed and settled on the site of what is Boonesboro' at this time. But it is far from being the fact, that this was the first English


colony that was led to the west. In the western part of Pennsylvania, a colony was planted, in what was long known by the name of the "Redstone Settlement," (the chief fortified place in which was "Old Fort," now Brownsville, on the Monongahela,) several years before 1775. Immediately after the peace of Paris, in 1763, by which the eastern and northern parts of the Valley of the Mississippi were ceded to Great Britain, emigrants began to plant themselves in West Pennsylvania and Virginia, and Pittsburgh became the centre of these colonies. Even before this event, colonization had commenced in that quarter. Indeed, it was partly owing to efforts to plant a colony in that region, prompted by the inducements held out by the British government, and particularly through the governor of Virginia, that the "French war," as it was and is still called, had its origin, and which was commenced in 1754, and ended in 1763.

But English settlements were also early made in East Tennessee. As early as 1755, companies from North Carolina and Virginia visited that country for the purpose of hunting. In 1757, Fort London was built on the Little Tennessee; and the next year, some settlements were made on the Holston, which were destroyed when Fort London was captured by the Cherokees, in 1760. In 1768, more permanent settlements were made in East Tennessee, which continued amid various vicissitudes, and finally flourished.

For a long period the advance of emigration into West Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee, was slow. Encountering the most formidable difficulties, and marking every step of their progress with blood, shed by the hands of unsubdued savage foes, not less than three thousand persons were either murdered or carried into a horrible captivity, (from which but few of them ever returned,) in these early settlements, before the year 1790. Before the close of the next eventful period of ten years, comparative quiet, and protection from Indian attacks, were obtained, but not without several bloody battles, lost or won. But it was not until fifteen years more had passed away, that is, until 1815, only eighteen years ago, that entire security was afforded to the settlers in every part of the Valley.

It was owing to the dangers arising from the hostile Indians, as well as to many other obstacles, which I shall


incidentally show hereafter, that the population of the West increased so slowly during the first twenty-five years — that is, from 1765 to 1790. At the last named date, it did not much exceed 150,000, by actual enumeration. From that period, it increased more rapidly, although much more slowly during the first, than the last half of the subsequent forty years. The population in 1830, will appear from the following table:

  In 1820 In 1830
West Pennsylvania, 244,862 337,846
West Virginia, 147,514 204,173
Ohio, 581,434 937,903
Indiana, 147,178 343,031
Michigan Territory, 8,919 31,639
Illinois, 55,211 157,445
Missouri, 66,586 140,455
Kentucky, 564,317 687,917
Tennessee, 422,813 681,904
Arkansas Territory, 14,274 30,388
Mississippi, 75,448 136,621
Louisiana, 153,407 215,739
Alabama, 143,000 309,527
West Florida, (about)   17,362
  2,624,963 4,231,950

No estimate is here made of the population of the western parts of Georgia and North Carolina, and the southwestern angle of New York.

From the above table it appears, that during the last forty years the population of the Valley of Mississippi has increased from 150,000 to 4,231,950; and we have reason for believing, that it will continue to increase at a very rapid rare, for a long period. The present rate of increase is such, that the whole population in that region is doubled in about eleven years. I shall proceed to give some reasons why the population must increase very rapidly for a long period.

1. The first reason which I shall mention is derived from the fact, that there is now the most perfect security


enjoyed by the inhabitants, both as it regards their personal safety and that of their property.

The emigrants to the west, in early times, and even down to the close of the late war with Great Britain, encountered dangers on the frontiers which none but they could overcome. We have all heard of Indian, wars, and of the cruel massacres which have almost always followed Indian victories. But the half has never been told. Under the colonial government, strong inducements were held forth to promote emigration and settlement in the west. Even as early as 1750, attempts were actually made to plant colonies in the western parts of Pennsylvania and Virginia, and the adjoining parts of what is now the State of Ohio. But, with few exception, none went who either remained in their new abodes, or returned again to the land of their birth. It has already been stated, that in the short period of seven years, from 1783 to 1790, more than fifteen hundred of the inhabitants of Kentucky were either massacred or carried away into a captivity worse than death, by the Indians; and an equal number from Western Virginia and Pennsylvania in the same period, met with a similar fate. The settlers on the frontiers were almost constantly, for a period of forty years, harassed either by the actual attacks of the savages, or the daily expectation of them. The tomahawk and the scalping knife were the objects of their fears by day and by night. But now the case is widely different. After the loss of many gallant men, who perished in the many battles which occurred, the Indian tribes are subdued; and even to the sources of the Missouri and the Mississippi, they generally manifest a friendly spirit. It is indeed a matter of great thankfulness to a Christian mind, that they are, to so great an extent, desirous of education, and instruction in the arts of civilized life, and are willing to hear of the way of eternal life. And now the inhabitants on the Mississippi and the Arkansas, the Missouri and the Alabama rivers, live in as perfect security as do those on the Hudson and the Delaware, the Susquehanna and the Potomac.

2. There is in the Valley of the Mississippi an immense extent still of the finest land in the world, which may be purchased at the small sum of one dollar and a quarter


per acre; and the prospect is that it will be attainable for even smaller sum.

There are probably, at a reasonable calculation, one million of square miles, or 640,000,000 acres of land fit for cultivation in the Valley of the Mississippi — equal to 4,000,000 farms or plantations, of 160 acres each; or 8,000,000 of farms, of eighty acres each, a quantity of land which, in New England, would be considered very ample for one family. It is, indeed, probable, or rather it is certain, that it will not all be needed for agricultural purposes for a century or two. I have said that there are 1,000,000 of square miles which may be cultivated. The whole valley, however, contains more than 1,350,000 square miles, so that I allow more than 350,000 square miles for mountainous regions, for marshes and swamps, and for sterile plains, and prairies, towards the Oregon Mountains. But I would remark, that excepting the skirts of the Allegheny and Oregon Mountains, there is scarcely any thing which deserves the name of a mountain in the whole valley; and as to the swamps and marshes, the day will come when many of them will be drained, either by the State or General Government. And even the prairies, excepting the very sterile, which are less extensive than most suppose, will be turned to good account. And it ought to be remembered, that forests are as necessary for a dense population, as cultivated ground is. There must be large tracts of uncultivated land, to afford fuel, timber, and pasturage.

Four millions, or rather eight millions families may have farms in the West of no inconsiderable size. Besides, thousands, or rather hundreds of thousands of families will be engaged in the navigation of the rivers; in the various arts, and trades, and manufacturing processes, which even now employ and support a large population; in merchandise and commerce; and in the learned professions of law, medicine, divinity, and the instruction of youth in thousands of common schools, hundreds of academies, and colleges, and universities. The facilities for supporting a family in the Valley of the Mississippi, not indeed equal in all places, are such as would astonish an eastern resident, who knows little or nothing about this region. It has been correctly said, that "nature has been almost too profuse in her gifts


to this great valley." Such is the fertility of soil, and other natural advantages, that too little industry is required, for the proper developement and strengthening of the valuable traits of human character. It is true, indeed, that industry, and perseverance, and frugality are needed, especially by the emigrant upon his arrival; but he will, by a few years of toil and energy, acquire the means of living, without a very constant application of his powers of body and mind. A little effort, comparatively, will enable him to support his family, and live in comfort.

3. The increased facilities of emigration to that region, and of the introduction of such articles as are necessary to the support and comfort of the inhabitants.

These facilities will appear the more manifest and striking, if we compare the present with the past. Fifty or sixty years ago, when the first emigrants crossed the Allegheny Mountains, these great natural boundaries presented almost insurmountable obstacles. There was then, and for a long period afterwards, no road that could be travelled by a wagon, with any convenience. Merchandise of every description — even salt and iron — had to be carried across on horseback: and this was almost the only mode by which a family could cross these mountains. It was then a matter of great toil and difficulty, requiring a long time, to remove a family to the West. There are many still living who well remember these toils. These subjects employ many an hour of the evenings of the western sire, as he relates the hardships of his early days, and the dangers which he encountered in removing to this new world. The frequent relation of these interesting events serves to gratify the good-natured loquacity of old age, and to while away, in a pleasant manner, the long and tedious hours of a winter night.

But how different is the state of things at present! It is almost an affair of nothing to cross this once formidable barrier. There are thousands of men in the West who have crossed it from fifty to one hundred times. There are at least fifteen good roads, several of them turnpikes, across these mountains, in various parts, from Lake Erie to the Gulf of Mexico, besides several others which are less travelled. There are not less than fifteen lines of stages, which now cross these mountains; thus uniting the western with the eastern cities. Some of these lines run once a week,


but the most of them three times a week; and six, at least, now start daily. Throughout the whole year, hundreds of wagons pass and repass on each of these routes, carrying the productions of the Atlantic slope, and the merchandise from Atlantic cities to the Valley of the Mississippi; and sometimes carrying the productions of the West to the East. And thousands of these wagons annually carry out the families and household property of eastern or foreign emigrants, who are seeking a home in the distant West. Whole caravans of families moving onward, are continnally met by the traveller, as he journeys to the East.

I have often stood and viewed with wonder, whole caravans of emigrating families, having sometimes a dozen wagons in company, as they passed along the streets of Louisville, Cincinnati, Brownsville, Pittsburg, or Wheeling. I have a thousand times met them on the summits of the Alleghenies; and, as they passed, wagon after wagon, the women and children sometimes riding, and often walking after in an irregular line, and the men driving the teams, or urging on the live stock, I have been reminded of the beautiful lines of Virgil, which represent the Trojan Prince supporting the drooping spirits of his followers amid the toils of a long and perilous voyage. With a verbal change, it might be used by many a father of a family, as he pursues his long and toilsome way across these lofty mountains, seeking a new residence, in an almost unknown land:

Per varies casus, per tot discrimin rerum
Tendimus Hesperiam, sedes ubi fata quietas

Canals and railroads are now constructing through the Allegheny range. The Pennsylvania canal, and the Chesapeake and Ohio canal are now in progress. Soon the James River and Kanawha Canal will be undertaken. Others will follow. A rail-road — the Baltimore and Ohio — to increase the facilities of intercommunication between the East and West, has been commenced under favourable omens. In a few years, probably, a national road from Washington to New Orleans, will add another line of communication between the Atlantic slope and the Valley of the Mississippi.


But this is not all. On the southern boundary of the Valley is a line of coast of 1100 miles, containing many points of access to this vast region. Thousands of emigrants enter the Valley of the Mississippi from this direction, preferring a voyage around Cape Sable, to a journey across the mountains. I have seen the large steam-boats on the Father of rivers, carrying, besides some hundreds of tons of merchandise, four or five hundred emigrants, from Germany, Ireland, or other foreign lands, — who had landed at New Orleans, — to the central or upper parts of the Valley. On the other hand, the extended chain of lakes affords, on the north, a similar and more easy manner of communication with the Valley of the Mississippi. Nor less than twenty-one steam-boats, and one hundred and twenty sail of vessels of all sizes, on Lake Erie alone, are exchanging the products of the East and West, and annually transporting thousands of emigrants to the Valley of the Mississippi.

These numerous natural and artificial channels of intercourse between the East and West, by which emigration and commerce are consequently very greatly promoted, are objects of deep interest to every American; for they are among the most powerful bonds by which our union will, with the blessing of God, be perpetuated. Natural boundaries have hitherto, all the world over, divided the inhabitants of the earth into separate and often hostile nations. But with us, neither the Allegheny nor the Oregon range of mountains will constitute a "wall of separation" to sever our union. The natural and artificial facilities of intercourse, which I have described above, give unity to our feelings and our interests. And so great is the emigration from the East to the West, and so wide the consequent dispersion of the families which compose this nation, that innumerable ties to bind us together as a people, extend over our vast country, in the natural relations of life, in the friendships of our youth, as well as in the duties which the laws of our country and our God enjoin upon us.

4. Another reason for the rapid increase of the population of the Valley of the Mississippi in future, is to be found in the increased facilities for trade and intercourse between the different sections of it.


Probably no country on earth, of equal extent, has so many advantages, in facilities for intercourse, as the Valley of the Mississippi. A thousand streams, navigable at least during several months every year, and the many canals which are now constructing, afford convenient channels of commerce and intercourse in every part of this vast region. Several thousand flat-bottom boats convey annually the productions of the various sections of this region to the sea-ports in the southern parts of it, particularly to the great emporium of the West, the city of New Orleans. And hundreds of keelboats, at seasons of low water, carry the productions of the southern, and of foreign climes, to the northern part of it. But it is the introduction of steam-boats into this vast region, watered by large rivers, some of which are many hundreds of miles in length, which has greatly increased of late years, the facilities for trade and emigration. No other country on earth will be benefitted to an equal extent by this wonderful invention. It has already made a revolution in the commercial affairs of the West. Instead of spending many months in warping a barge, or "cordelling" and "poling," and "bush-whacking" a keel-boat from New Orleans to Pittsburg, against the impetuous current of the Mississippi and Ohio, a steam-boat now makes the voyage in fifteen or twenty days, stopping also at all the intermediate places of importance. Not only has time been gained, but the expense of travelling, and of transporting goods, has been diminished three or four-fifths.

I will here give an interesting extract from the Cincinnati Daily Gazette, relating to steam-boats in the West:

"The first steam-boat built on the western waters, of which the writer of this article has any record, was the New-Orleans, of 350 tons, built at Pittsburg in 1811; and he has no account of more than seven or eight built previously to 1817. From that period they have been rapidly increasing in number, character, model, and style of workmanship, until 1825, when two or three boats, built, about that period, were declared, by common consent, to be the first in the world. Since that time, we are informed, that some of the New York and Chesapeake boats rival, and probably surpass us, in richness and beauty of internal decorations.

"As late as 1816, the practicability of navigating the


Ohio with steam-boats was esteemed doubtful. None but the most sanguine augured favourably. The writer of this well remembers that in the year 1816, observing, in company with a number of gentlemen, the long struggle of a stern-wheel boat to ascend ‘Horse-tail Ripple,’ (five miles below Pittsburg,) it was the unanimous opinion, that such a contrivance might conquer the difficulties of the Mississippi as high as Natchez, but that we of the Ohio must wait for some more happy century of inventions. In 1817, the bold and enterprising Captain Shreve (whose late discovery of a mode of destroying snags, and improving western navigation, entitles him to the reputation of a public benefactor,) made a trip from New Orleans to Louisville in twenty-five days! The event was celebrated by rejoicing, and by a public dinner to the daring individual who had achieved the miracle. Previous to that period, the ordinary passage of barges, propelled by oars and sails, was three months! A revolution in western commerce was at once effected. Every article of merchandise began to ascend the Mississippi, until we have seen a package delivered at the wharf of Cincinnati, from Philadelphia, via New Orleans, at one cent per pound! From the period of Captain Shreve's celebrated voyage till 1827, the time necessary for the trip has been gradually diminishing. During that year, the Tecumseh entered the port of Louisville, from New Orleans, in eight days and two hours, from port to port.

"Since the introduction of steam-boats, the memorandum before me furnishes a list of 343, (since increased to about 450,) of which probably about 225 are now running, whose united tonnage may be estimated at about 56,000 tons, employed during this period on the Mississippi, Ohio, and their branches. The largest size rate about 500 tons; but a large majority of them are under 250 tons.

"The average cost of a steam-boat is estimated at $100 per ton The repays made during the existence of the boat, amount to one-half of the first cost. The average duration of a boat has hitherto been about four years. Of those built of locust lately, the period will probably be about two years longer."


The number of steam-boats (when this was written,) in actual commission, is stated by this writer at more than two hundred; the average tonnage of which may be stated at 175 tons, making the amount employed 35,000 tons. The annual expenditure for fuel alone is estimated at $1,181,000. The other expenditures are calculated, by the most intelligent owners, at one million three hundred thousand dollars; making the present total annual expenditure nearly two million five hundred thousand dollars. The writer adds — "We cannot better illustrate the magnitude of the change in every thing connected with the western commerce and navigation, than by contrasting the foregoing statement with the situation of things at the time of the adoption of steam transportation, say in 1817. About twenty barges, averaging about one hundred tons each, comprised the whole of the commercial facilities for transporting merchandise from New Orleans to the upper country. Each of these performed one trip down, and up again to Louisville and Cincinnati within the year. The number of keelboats employed on the Upper Ohio cannot be ascertained, but it is presumed that 150 is a sufficiently large calculation to embrace the whole number. These averaged thirty tons each, and employed one month to make the voyage from Louisville to Pittsburg; while the more noble and dignified barge of the Mississippi, made her trip in the space of one hundred days, if no extraordinary accident happened to check her progress.

"The Mississippi boats now make five trips within the year, and are enabled, if necessary, in that period, to afford to that trade 35,000 tons. Eight or nine days are sufficient, on the Upper Ohio, to perform a trip from Louisville to Pittsburg and back. In short, if the steam-boat has not realized the hyperbole of the poet, in annihilating time and space, it has produced results scarcely surpassed by the introduction of the art of printing.


I will only add that there are five or six steam-boats on the Appalachicola and Chattahooche, thirteen on the Mobile and its branches, the Alabama and Tombigbee, several in the Opelousas trade; three on Lakes Ponchartrain, and Borgne, and the Pearl river; while, as I have mentioned before, there are twenty-one on Lake Erie, which trade with the ports on the south side of that lake, and of those above. Of the two hundred and more on the Mississippi and Ohio, and their branches, there is no stream of sufficient size which is not entered by some of them. Every little river has one or more steamboats. In a few years the number will be doubled. Every river from Cape Sable to the Sabine, and from the mouth of the Mississippi to the Yellow Stone and the Allegheny, will be covered with them, whilst they will abound not only on Lakes Ontario and Erie, but also on Huron, Michigan, and Superior.

5. The fifth reason which I shall mention, for the future rapid increase of the population of the Valley of the Mississippi, is, the increased confidence in the general salubrity of the climate of that country.

I can well remember, what fearful apprehensions were entertained, by emigrants to the west, on this subject. The fevers of the Muskingum, Miami, Wabash, and Kentucky, were objects of the greatest dread. Now they are little feared. A careful attention to health, an avoidance of exposure during the autumnal season, while the process of acclimation is going on, and a timely application of the medicines which an increased knowledge of the materia medica, and especially of the character of the diseases of this region, will soon ensure to the emigrant as good health as the inhabitants of the east enjoy, and much better, even along the rivers, than the dwellers on the Delaware and the Susquehanna, the Juniata and the Potomac, have of late years enjoyed. There are portions, unquestionably, of the lower part of the Valley, particularly the level, low, and swampy alluvial bottoms along the rivers, which will be unhealthy to those who are not acclimated.

6. Another reason for expecting that the increase of the population of the West will continue to be rapid, is found in the increased and increasing religious and literary advantages and privileges which emigrants to the West enjoy.

I am far from asserting, that these privileges and advantages are as great as it is desirable they should be. But


they are rapidly increasing. In many places, particularly in the large towns and cities, they are as great as in the eastern towns and cities; whilst great efforts are making to supply every destitute neighbourhood with these advantages. Within the last five years, astonishing efforts have been commenced, (and they are but commenced,) by the friends of religion, both in the East and West, to dispense bountifully Bibles, to those who are destitute of them, — to establish Sabbath schools, — to send the living preacher to destitute neighbourhoods, — to promote the Temperance reformation, — to plant Colleges and Theological Seminaries, &c. No one can for a moment doubt, that these efforts will greatly promote the increase of emigration to that region. A noble beginning has been made in these things, but much, very much, remains to be done. In what has been commenced, we have an earnest of what will be accomplished.

7. A seventh reason is to be found in the fact that there is already a great amount of intelligence, and of interesting society, in all the settled parts of the Valley.

The idea is no longer entertained by Eastern people, that to go to the West, or the "Back Woods," as it formerly was called, is to remove into a heathen land, to a land of ignorance and barbarism, where the people do nothing but rob, and fight, and gouge ! Some parts of the West have obtained this character, but most undeservedly, from the Fearons, the Halls, the Trollopes, and other ignorant and insolent travellers from England, who, because they were not allowed to insult and outrage as they pleased, with Parthian spirit have hurled back upon us their poisoned javelins when they left us. There is indeed much destitution of moral influence and means of instruction in many, very many, neighbourhoods and towns in the West. And noble and successful efforts are making by the Bible, Missionary, Tract, Sabbath School, Temperance, Education, and Seamen and River Men's Societies, to remove it, and to keep the march of knowledge and religion equal to the gigantic march of emigration and population. But there is in all the principal towns of the West a state of society, with which the most refined, I was going to say the most fastidious, of the Eastern cities, need not be ashamed to mingle. It has even become a fashionable way of spending a part of the year, to visit the most interesting cities and places of the West, to view their rising greatness, see the curiosities


which abound in them and their vicinities, and enjoy the cordial and even elegant hospitality of their inhabitants. Even the "exquisite," from Philadelphia, New York, Baltimore, and Boston, is to be seen in the streets and the shops of Cincinnati, Lexington, Louisville, New Orleans, and a hundred other places, and finds that even his delicate personage can pass along not only with safety, but even without molestation. The Eastern emigrant will find, that wholesome legislation, and much of the influence of religion, are enjoyed in the Valley of the Mississippi, extending to him the enjoyment of his rights and the protection of his property. There are twelve organized State and Territorial Governments. And I ought to add, that although common schools are not as good as they should be, yet there is an increasing attention to them. One state (Ohio) has recently commenced a good common school system, and other states will soon follow her example. And Sunday schools will soon be planted wherever there is a sufficient population. There are now thirty colleges actually in operation; two or three medical institutions; five or six theological seminaries, and several schools of a higher character than common; besides a large number of academies. These Institutions are indeed in their infancy, but they afford an education but little, and some of them not at all, inferior to what may be obtained in the East. I merely allude to this topic at present; I shall have occasion hereafter to mention particularly every literary institution of importance. I only speak of it now, as a fact calculated to exert a powerful influence upon the intelligent in the East, who may think of removing to the West.

I have thus given, as briefly as possible, the reasons which, to my mind, are sufficient to show, that for a long period the population of the Valley of the Mississippi must continue to increase at a very rapid rate, if not indeed at the same rate at which it has increased during the last twenty or thirty years. Let us glance, for a moment, at the difficulties which stood in the way of emigration thither during the last fifty years. At the commencement of that period, the war of the revolution was just ceasing; the country was embarrassed; the savages in the West were numerous and powerful, and almost all hostile to us. A few settlements had been made in Western Pennsylvania and


Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee. During the first fifteen years, these colonies advanced, but it was amidst tears and blood: roads were opened with great difficulty across the Alleghenies; the diseases of the country were not well understood, and death cut off many of the emigrants. During that period and until 1803, the trade on the western rivers was embarrassed by the "occlusion," as it was called, of the Mississippi, by the Spanish, who had possession of Louisiana, and with whom our government had a protracted and violent controversy during nearly twenty years. Then succeeded the Indian depredations and massacres on the frontier, until the close of the late war in 1815; together with the embarrassments occasioned by that war and the embargoes which preceded it. Then came the rage of speculation, and the consequent period of gloom occasioned by "making haste to be rich," and aggravated by injudicious legislation in some cases, in the shape of relief laws, &c. &c. But now, how different is the prospect! May it not be overclouded by any untoward event!

The following statement, extracted from the Report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office, exhibits the total sales of lands in each state and territory in (the Valley of the Mississippi, (excepting the western parts of Virginia and Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and Tennessee,) during nine years and a half — that is, from the 1st of July, 1820, to the 1st of December, 1829. This document must prove interesting to every citizen of our country, as it goes to show the immense purchases of its lands, the consequent increase and spread of its population, and its additional strength and improvement.

  Acres. 100ths.
In Ohio, 1,405,267 73
In Indiana, 2,169,149 70
In Illinois, 667,200 44
In Missouri, 923,506 32
In Alabama, 1,459,054 78
In Mississippi, 544,523 82
In Louisiana, 158,839 35
In Michigan, 443,209 23
In Arkansas, 59,899 36
In Florida, 336,567 50


The preceding statements show not only the rapid settlement of the West during the last ten or eleven years, but also the relative size, if I may so express myself, of the column of emigration to each of the states which are named.

In 1790 Kentucky became an independent state, and was admitted into the Union; in 1796 Tennessee was received into the Union; Ohio in 1803; Louisiana in 1812; Indiana in 1816; Mississippi in 1817; Illinois in 1818; Alabama in 1830; and Missouri in 1821. The Territory of Michigan was organized in 1805; Arkansas in 1819; and Florida in 1823. Within ten or fifteen years from this time, Arkansas, Michigan, and Florida will become states; and probably another will be formed in the District of Huron, on the upper Mississippi. Should the West, increase in population, for the next forty years, in the same ratio in which it has increased during the last forty, the majority of the population of the Union will be in the Valley of the Mississippi before the end of that period. That such will be the fact does not admit of a question; it is conceded by all who have paid any attention to the subject.

Chapter VIII. Climate and Diseases.

1. CLIMATE. The vast extent of the Valley of the Mississippi necessarily imparts to its climate a diversified character. The new states and territories already organized within its limits, are ten in number; while portions of two of the old states extend into the same region. The new may be divided into the warm and temperate. The former are Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and the southern half of the territory of Arkansas — the latter, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri. The first group lie between the latitudes of 30° and 35°; the second, extend from the parallel last mentioned, to that of 42°. Hence the first division corresponds with South Carolina and Georgia — the second with North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Jersey, and the southern


part of New York. In estimating the change of climate to which emigrants from the old states will subject themselves in settling in the new, it should be recollected, that Tennessee lies in the rear of North Carolina, Kentucky of Virginia; and that Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri, stretch out behind Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, and the southern part of New York. The New Englander, and New Yorker north of the mountains of West Point, should bear in mind that his migration is not to the West, but South West; and as necessarily brings him into a warmer climate as when he seeks the shores of the Delaware, Potomac, or James' River.

Besides variations of latitude, several causes conspire to produce diversities in climate. Between the Lower Mississippi states, and the portions of the old states corresponding with them in latitude, these causes are neither numerous nor powerful; and hence, on the same parallels, their differences of climate are less than the differences between the upper states of the Great Valley, and corresponding portions of the Union near the sea board. First — the elevation of the land above the surface of the ocean, is nearly the same in Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Alabama, as in Georgia and South Carolina. Second — Their geographical relation to the sea is similar. Third — Neither of them is contiguous to mountains, except the north-west portions of South Carolina. Hence, the emigrant from the banks of the Santee or the Savannah River, to those of the Lower Mississippi or Red River, if he keep in the same latitude, will experience but little change of climate. He will observe, however, in his new residence, that north-east winds, attended with cool rains, are less frequent; and, on the contrary, that the south-west wind is more prevalent, and perhaps more humid — as it does not, like that of the country he has left, undergo the modifying influence of the peninsula of Florida. The northern parts of Alabama and Mississippi, are occasionally visited with snows several inches deep, and frosts that congeal the surface; but their duration is transient; while in the southern parts of the same states, and in Arkansas and Louisiana, these phenomena are much rarer. In their upland parts, these warm states have, on the whole, winters, which are dry, frosty, and bracing: in the maritime portions, raw, humid, and rainy. In the former,


the summers are fair, and not intemperate; in the latter, hot, infested with thunder gusts, and often sultry.

The inhabitant of New England, or indeed of any of the old states north of the Potomac, who starts on a migration to the states which are bounded on the south by the Gulf of Mexico, should be prepared to encounter a decided change of climate, consisting in increased heat throughout the year, and especially in a prolonged summer, in more copious rains, and in a greater prevalence of south-west winds.

The emigrant from the shores of the Mediterranean, will find in this portion of the Valley of the Mississippi, the nearest approach to his own climate, though eight or ten degrees further south, but he should prepare himself for greater extremes between summer and winter, than he has been accustomed to in Italy, or the south of France.

The greater emigration to the Upper, or temperate Mississippi states, than to the lower, renders the study of their climate, compared with that of the Atlantic states and Europe, more interesting than the inquiry through which we have just passed.

As in most cases, it is not less useful to inquire into causes than to look merely at effects, I shall direct the attention of those who contemplate an emigration from the Atlantic to the Western states, to some of the circumstances which may be presumed to modify the climates of the two regions.

First — The Atlantic states have an ocean on one side, lakes on another, and mountains, between 2 and 3000 feet high, on a third — the first and last of which are so contiguous to the emigrating portions of these states, as to exert a decided influence on their climate. On the other hand, the Upper, or temperate Mississippi states, are remote from the sea, and comparatively remote from mountains; but have on one side more extensive lakes than those which skirt the Atlantic states. The ocean lies to the east of the latter, and the Allegheny Mountains to the west; while the states in the interior have the Lakes to the north, and the Alleghenies to the east — varieties in the physical geography of the two sections, that cannot fail to exert an influence on the temperature and humidity of their winds. Thus, the northeast, east, and southeast winds of the sea board, are always much more damp than those of the interior. In spring


summer, and autumn, they bring more copious rains; and in winter, deeper snows. They are also more frequent and violent than in the Upper Mississippi states. Finally, in winter they are warmer; and in summer, as coming from the surface of the ocean, would be more fresh and temperate than in the Valley of the Mississippi, were it not for the Allegheny Mountains, which cool the currents that roll over them to that region. Those mountains, on the other hand, reduce the temperature of the south-west and west winds, which blow from the interior of the continent towards the ocean, and give to the people of the middle maritime states, a succession of less sultry breezes in summer than envelope their brethren in the west. For the same reason, the northwest wind is drier and colder, at the same season, on the leeward than the windward side of the Alleghenies.

Second — The courses of rivers, by changing in some degree the direction of the winds, exert an influence on climate. In the Atlantic states, from New England to North Carolina, the rivers run more or less to the southeast, and increase the winds which blow from the northwest, while the great bed of the Mississippi exerts an equal influence in augmenting the number and steadiness of the winds which blow over it from the south-west; and here is another cause of difference in climate, chiefly perceptible, first, in the temperature, which, if no counteracting cause existed, they would raise in the west considerably above that of corresponding latitudes in the east — and, secondly, in the moisture of the two regions, which is generally greater west than east of the mountains, when the south-west wind prevails, as much of the water, with which it comes charged from the Gulf of Mexico, is deposited before it reaches the country east of the Alleghenies.

Third — The great cities of Boston, New-York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, are but a few feet above the level of the sea, and the country connected with them has but little elevation — while the towns which are rising on the banks of the Upper Mississippi, the Missouri, Wabash, Ohio, Cumberland, and Tennessee Rivers, are elevated about 500 feet above the surface of the ocean, and the intervening country about 250 feet more. The influence of this elevation, so often overlooked in comparing the climates of the eastern


and western states, would give cooler summers to the latter than the former, were it not for the greater prevalence of south-west winds in the region of greater elevation. To estimate the full effect of this superior elevation, it is necessary to refer to the increasing altitude of the immense unwooded plain down which the Missouri flows from the Oregon Mountains, which themselves rise to the varying height of 5, 6, and 7000 feet, and give to the western winds, which would otherwise arrive moist and temperate from the Pacific Ocean, a decided character of transparency and coldness.

Fourth — The west abounds in lofty forests, of far greater extent than the east — an element of difference in the climate of the two, the influence of which must be admitted, although its exact amount cannot, perhaps, be estimated. Forests are said to retard the velocity of the winds, and increase the precipitation of their moisture. It is more certain that in spring, summer, and autumn, they intercept the rays of the sun, most of which are thus reflected before they reach the surface of the earth, and copious evaporation is prevented. They seem, also, to promote the condensation of vapour, from the surrounding air; and may be considered as one of the causes of the more copious dews, which are said to fall west than east of the mountains.

Fifth — The general inclination of the surface of the Atlantic states is to the east and south-east — that of the Mississippi states to the south. Were these angles of inclination great, their effects upon the temperature of the two regions would be decisive; but being slight, the increased heat of the west, from this cause, is not perhaps very considerable.

Such are the leading causes of any differences of climate which may exist between the states which lie on the sea, and those on the Upper Mississippi, and its tributaries. These differences, especially in temperature, have been much dwelt upon, ever since the publication of Mr. Jefferson's celebrated Notes on Virginia, in 1781. But as it respects the heat of summer, they have been greatly overrated. Two causes have contributed to augment and perpetuate the error: First — The extensive popularity of Mr. Jefferson's book. Secondly — The great number of emigrants from New England, and New York, most of whom


have been unconscious how much they had changed their latitude in a migration to the interior, and have made reports concerning the heat of the latter, in the same language as if they had travelled on the latitudes in which they were born. As a general fact, the settlers from Virginia, in Kentucky, and from Maryland and Pennsylvania, in the states north of the Ohio River, have not complained of hotter summers than they had been accustomed to experience in their native land. It is probable, however, that the summer temperature of the west, is rather greater than that of the east, in corresponding latitudes; an effect, as far as it exists, to be ascribed chiefly to the greater prevalence of southwest winds in the former than the latter — and to the influence of the Allegheny Mountains, over which those winds must pass to reach the Atlantic states. Both these causes, however, are in a good degree compensated by the greater elevation of the interior, as already pointed out. So great is the effect of this elevation, that in the middle of the state of Ohio, where it is nearly 1000 feet above the level of the sea, the temperature is probably lower than in corresponding latitudes of eastern Pennsylvania.

To solve the problem of comparative temperature, accurate contemporary observations should be made on compared thermometers, placed under similar circumstances in a great number of situations; but this has not yet been done. The only points that admit of a comparison approaching to this, are Cincinnati and Philadelphia or its vicinity — the former, however, situated about 50' south of the latter.

From a series of daily observations in Cincinnati or its vicinity, for eight consecutive years, the mean annual temperature has been ascertained to be 54 degrees and a quarter. Dr. Rush states the mean heat of Philadelphia, at 52 degrees and a half; Dr. Coxe, from six years' observations, at 54 and a sixth; and Mr. Legaux, from 17 years' observations, at Spring Mill, a few miles out of the city, at 53 and a third; the mean term of which results, 53 and a third, is but the fraction of a degree lower than the mean heat of Cincinnati, and actually less than should be afforded by the difference of latitude.

A reference to the temperatures of summer and winter, will give nearly the same results. From nine years' observations (three at Spring Mill by Mr. Legaux, and six in


Philadelphia by Dr. Coxe,) the mean summer heat of that part of Pennsylvania, appears to be 76 degrees, and six-tenths. The mean summer heat at Cincinnati, for an equal number of years, was 74 and four-tenths. The average number of days, in which the thermometer rose to 90 degrees or upwards, during the same period, was 14 each summer; and the greatest elevation observed was 98 degrees: all of which would bear an almost exact comparison with similar observations in Pennsylvania. Mr. Legaux states the most intense cold, at Spring Mill, from 1787 to 1806, to have been 17 and five-tenths degrees below cipher — while within the same period it was 18 at Cincinnati. The average of extreme cold for several years, as observed by Mr. Legaux, was one and eight-tenths of a degree below cipher: the same average at Cincinnati, was two degrees below. From all which we may conclude, that the banks of the Delaware and Ohio, in the same latitudes, have nearly the same temperature.

The interior states have not only been declared much warmer than the eastern, in the same latitudes, but denounced as liable to sudden and extreme changes, in a degree entirely unknown in the latter. This opinion has, perhaps, in part, arisen from the report of emigrants — who, upon settling in the new country, have had their curiosity awakened, and become, for the first time in their lives, attentive to natural appearances. They have then gone on to compare the sudden changes in the west, with those of the climate left behind; but which, unfortunately, they had never observed — and, of course, decide in its favor. The thermometers of the two countries indicate no material difference on this point, as appears from what follows. Mr. Volney states the annual range of the mercury, in Pennsylvania, on an average, at 100°. Mr. Legaux even makes it more. At Cincinnati, it is exactly 100°. The extreme range, taking the cold in one year, and the heat in another, in Pennsylvania, according to various authorities, is about 120 degrees; the difference in the west in the course of 25 years, has not exceeded 116°. The difference between the warmest and coldest times of each day in the year, I have found by comparing the manuscript journal of Mr. Legaux with my own, is at least as great on the Schuylkill as the Ohio. President Day has kindly furnished me with a statement of


this difference at New Haven, for two years — from which I find, that the daily changes from cold to heat, were about one degree greater at Cincinnati than at New Haven — but the opposite changes were two and a quarter degrees greater there than in Cincinnati. And at a short distance from the seaboard, the difference would be still more striking. An inquiry into those sudden and irregular reductions of temperature, which are every where deprecated, would give results in no degree unfavorable to the west. No fall of the mercury at Cincinnati has ever exceeded 20° in an hour and a half, which Dr. Rush states to have taken place in Pennsylvania. The Doctor also asserts, that the thermometor has fallen 41 1/2°; and Mr. Legaux saw it fall 47° in 24 hours — which is five degrees more than any depression ever observed in Cincinnati, in the same length of time. Finally, Dr. Rush declares that there is but one steady trait in the character of the climate of Pennsylvania — and that is, it is uniformly variable. From these evidences, to say nothing of others, I think the opinion that the climate of the west is more changeable than that of corresponding latitudes in the maritime districts, is proved to be without any sufficient foundation.

Let us recur to the winds, the great modifiers of climate in every country. I have already referred to the greater prevalence of southwest winds in the interior of northeast and northwest winds in the maritime states. Not having at hand the materials for an extended comparison, I shall insert a tabular view of observations made at Cincinnati, for six succeeding years, with so few omissions, that they amount to 4200. They have been brought to the eight principal points of the compass; and while they show the relative prevalence of different winds in the successive months of the year, will furnish data for comparisons between the western and eastern states, by those who reside and observe in the latter.


MONTHS S.E. S. S.W. N.E. N. N.W. E. W. CALM.
January, 6 2 13 8 1 21 3 6 6
February, 5 1 13 8 1 14 0 5 8
March, 10 1 16 11 1 10 0 5 4
April, 7 0 24 10 1 8 1 3 5
May, 7 1 19 10 0 10 1 4 6
June, 9 1 23 12 5 7 1 2 3
July, 6 1 19 11 2 11 1 4 4
August, 6 1 23 10 1 12 1 1 6
September, 6 1 23 9 0 8 2 3 3
October, 9 1 24 6 1 10 2 4 3
November, 9 3 13 6 1 10 2 7 5
December, 7 1 11 5 0 15 2 6 9
Total, 87 14 221 106 14 136 16 50 62

From this table it appears, 1. That the different winds of Cincinnati prevail in the following order: — Southwest, — northwest, — northeast, — south-east, — west, — east, — south, and north. 2. That the south-west is the prevalent wind nine months out of the twelve, viz. from March to November inclusive. 3. That the N.W. wind prevails in January, December, and February. 4. That the greatest number of calm days are in December and February; the least in June, September, and October, which are equal. 5. That the southern are to the northern winds, as 322 to 256; or about 40 to 32. 6. That the western are the prevalent winds throughout the whole year; being to the eastern as 407 to 209, or nearly as 4 to 2. 7. That the west wind blows only half as much in the six warmer, as in the six colder months. 8. That the east, south, and north winds are nearly equal.

Most of these deductions are exhibited by the following table; in which the whole number of observations, stated above, are supposed to be represented by 1000, and the subsequent numbers to be its fractional parts.


1000, of which the South-east make 122
South, 19
South-west, 313
Southern, —454
North-west, 192
North, 19
North-east, 150
Northern —361
South-east 122
East, 22
North-east, 150
Eastern, —294
South-west, 313
West, 70
North-west, 192
Western, —575
Calm, 87

A brief sketch of the character of the principal winds embraced in these tables, may be useful to those who propose to emigrate to the West.

1. The South-West. — This wind, which, as we have just seen, prevails on the Ohio three-fourths of the year, exhibits two different characters, or is divisible into two varieties — the humid and the arid. The former of these is characterised by prevailing throughout the night; by generally continuing two or three days after its commencement; by alternating with the north-east wind; by sinking the barometer more than any other aerial current; and by always causing clouds, and generally rain, which is often profuse. The arid southwest commences between sunrise and ten o'clock in the morning. It is at first very gentle, and increases in force with the progress of the day until four or five o'clock in the evening, when it begins to subside. About sunset it ceases, and the succeeding night is clear and serene. This is the predominant wind in the hottest and driest weather, with which indeed it is identified in the mind of every observer in the West. Its prevalence, in comparison with the other variety, is perhaps as eight or ten to one. It is seldom attended with an atmosphere altogether cloudless, but never produces any other


form of rain than a thunder shower. It sinks the barometer less than the humid southwest, but raises the thermometer higher than any other wind. It is not known whether at present it prevails more or less than upon the first settlement of the western states.

2. The North-West. — This wind, like that already described, exhibits two varieties, one of which occurs in warm, the other in cool weather. A state of calmness, or the dry southwest, generally precedes and follows the former of these varieties. It is the gale which attends thunder storms; and of course commences to the windward. Its duration is transient, seldom continuing longer than a few hours, and its geographical extent is equally limited. The other, which is the principal variety of northwest wind, begins, it is well known, to the leeward; it generally succeeds rain, and may be regarded as the harbinger of fair weather. In spring and autumn, however, it is frequently attended with moderate showers, which seldom continue more than a day; and in winter it produces snows, that are sometimes among the deepest which fall in the valley of the Mississippi.

In common, it does not exhibit any nocturnal intermission, though, for the most part, it blows with less violence at night, than in the day. It is generally followed by a calm, which is succeeded by the southeast or southwest wind. It frequently undergoes a change into the northeast, blowing from every intermediate point of the compass. On the barometer and thermometer it produces effects opposite to those of the southwest wind. The greatest elevation of the former, and depression of the latter of these instruments, hitherto observed at this place, were during the prevalence of this wind. The longer it continues, the lower is its temperature; and when it is not too much reduced, it feels as pleasant, as it is uniformly pure and invigorating.

3. The North-East. — This current, by ascending the St. Lawrence, may reach Cincinnati without passing over the Alleghenies: but it generally traverses those mountains, and deposits on them, as already stated, a part of its humidity, as appears from its seldom producing much rain or snow along the Ohio. Except, however, when it succeeds to the moist southwest, and follows a storm, this wind constantly produces one of them, or at least cloudy weather. In temperature and weight, it holds a medium between the


south-west and north-west. It sometimes continues to blow for a week after a southwest storm, during which the sky will be perhaps nearly clear. It is invariably moist, and produces in all exposed to it, the sensation termed rawness; though in a much less degree than in the Atlantic states.

4. The South-East. — This partakes much of the character of the humid southwest, for it raises the thermometer and sinks the barometer in a moderate degree. It is always damp and generally produces rain or snow. It frequently succeeds to the northwest, and is then for the most part attended with a clear sky.

5. The West. — This is generally a cool and rapid wind. From the region it traverses in reaching this place, it must necessarily be dry and enlivening. In the winter, when it continues long enough for the air of the Oregon Mountains to arrive, it produces intense cold, sinking the thermometer sometimes below cipher.

6. The North, East, and South. — These winds do not prevail, respectively, more than one week in each year. The first seems to possess most of the qualities of the northwest; and the second of the northeast; the third appears to be a modification of the humid southwest, and is always stormy.

In regard to the weather, on the Ohio, the following table setting forth the results of 4268 observations, will afford sufficient information for the general reader. Observations made in other parts of the upper Mississippi states, would, probably, give nearly the same proportions of clear and cloudy weather.

  Clear days. Cloudy days. Variable days.
1 180 107 68
2 158 112 91
3 187 78 85
4 152 106 107
5 185 111 68
6 172 112 74
Mean terms, 172.33 104.33 82.16

From these results, it may be expected, that of the 365 days in the year, about 176 will be fair, 105 cloudy, and 84 variable.

The condition of the weather, in each month of a mean


year, for the above period, is exhibited in the following statement:

  Clear Days. Cloudy Days. Variable Days.
January, 9.8 13.1 7.8
February, 10.3 12.0 6.5
March, 13.5 9.1 8.3
April, 13.1 10.8 7.6
May, 15.0 8.5 7.5
June, 15.5 5.0 9.6
July, 19.0 5.5 6.0
August, 19.6 4.6 6.5
September, 19.5 5.3 6.1
October, 16.1 6.0 8.1
November, 9.5 13.5 5.5
December, 9.6 14.1 5.8

From this table it appears, that July, August, and September, have the greatest, and each about an equal number, of fair days; that October, June, and May, compose the next class; to which succeed the months of March and April, followed by February, December, January, and November; that in the four latter months there is the greatest proportion of cloudy weather; that next to these rank April, March, and May, succeeded by the remaining months, which are nearly equal. Lastly, that in the number of days which are variable, according to the sense in which that term is here employed, there is among the months no great difference.

The quantity of water in the form of rain and snow, which falls annually in the West, has not been accurately ascertained. It is probably, about thirty-six inches, and nearly the same as in corresponding latitudes east of the mountains. Taking the mean of a series of years, it is found that in April and May there falls the largest quantity; next to these are November, March, December, July, and October, succeeded by January, August, February, September, and June. The same months, in different years, afford very different quantities of rain. September has been observed to vary in this respect, from less than an inch to more than five; October from half an inch to eight; and April from two to nine. The spring rains are sometimes excessive, and protracted for eight or ten weeks; during which there are showers perhaps, on an average,


every third day. During the spring of 1813, there fell upwards of sixteen inches; four times the quantity which fell in the ensuing four months. At other times, this state of things is reversed. In the spring of 1814, there fell not more than nine inches; and in the three subsequent months, the quantity was equal to fourteen.

Every irregular distribution of the spring and summer rains, is of course prejudicial to agriculture. The copious and long continued storms of the former season, now and then check the early growth, or even prevent the planting, of many important vegetables. To these rains such dry summers occasionally succeed, that the pastures are consumed, the leaves of the Indian corn become curled, and those of many forest trees, in dry situations, die and fall off before the usual time. But, fortunately, such extraordinary droughts occur too seldom, and are too limited in their extent, to be regarded as any great calamity,

From the Valley of the Tennessee River, to the summit level, between the lakes and the waters which flow into the Ohio, the snows become deeper and deeper. In Tennessee they seldom exceed a few inches — in the centre and northern parts of Ohio and Indiana, they sometimes, as was the case in the winter of 1830-31, fall to the depth of two feet. North of the Ohio River the snows are deeper in proportion to the latitude, than they are on the opposite side; which is owing perhaps to two causes, first, the greater elevation of the interior of Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; secondly, the vicinity of the lakes. At Cincinnati, the deepest snow which falls does not exceed a foot; but one third of that depth is a more common maximum for the winter. This being the case, and periods of mild weather with rain occurring frequently, in almost every winter month, the ground is seldom covered for any great length of time. Severe winters, however, have occurred a number of times, in which the same snow has continued on the ground for several weeks, during which the Ohio was bridged with ice from its sources to its mouth. This happened as far hack as 1796, and was repeated as late as 1831-2, showing that no particular change of climate has yet taken place in the West.

More snow probably falls east of the mountains than west below the latitude of 40° — above that parallel, the difference is not perceptible. This can be easily explained.


In the maritime states, every eastern wind, in winter, almost of necessity brings snow, as it transfers the atmosphere of the seas, over the colder surface of the continent. In the West, the great lakes supply, in this respect, the place of the Atlantic Ocean, and augment the depth of the snows, for two degrees to the south of their shores.

The fogs of the western rivers are said to be denser, than those of the eastern, but additional facts are necessary to an accurate estimate.

In tornadoes, hail-storms, winter thaws, and floods, summer frosts, premature springs, anticipating autumns, and oilier anomalies, the climates of the East and West, in the same latitudes, seem not materially to differ.

In the interior states, the pleasantest travelling and emigrating months, are April, May, and June; September after the equinox, the entire month of October, and the first half of November. The vernal travelling season, is more showery than the autumnal, but from the fulness of the rivers and the lively green of the forests and fields, more cheerful. The autumn is smoky, dusty, and often deficient in water, but serene, equable in temperature and decorated with leaves of every tint, which present the traveller of taste with an untiring succession of picturesque and beautiful views.


1. Of the warm Mississippi States. — The diseases of this portion of the great Valley are few, and prevail chiefly in summer and autumn. They are the offspring of the combined action of intense heat and marsh exhalation; and prevail, especially in the vicinity of water courses, ponds, lagoons, and marshes. The population of the villages and country generally, are visited by remitting and intermitting bilious fevers. New Orleans and Natchez are infested with the same maladies, particularly the former, and experience, in addition, occasional attacks of yellow fever. To the whole of these diseases the natives, both Creole and Anglo-American, are much less liable, than emigrants, who must, in general, undergo a seasoning, which in sickly situations is apt to be repeated; and often proves fatal, or greatly enfeebles the constitution, by producing chronic inflammation of the liver, or enlargement of the spleen, terminating in jaundice, or dropsy; and greatly disordering the digestive


organs. Inflammation of the liver, both acute and chronic, is, indeed, an exceedingly common malady in this region; and in a great degree, replaces those affections of the lungs, which are so fatal in the North, and so rare in the South. When an Individual finds himself subject to an annual attack of fever, or seized with inflammation of the liver, the chronic varieties of which are sometimes extremely insidious, his only safe resource is a yearly migration to the north, in the month of April or May, where he should remain till October. Should he resolve to defy the climate, he will probably fall a victim to his temerity. The much dreaded yellow fever, as it but seldom returns, and is nearly limited to the larger towns, carries off but few persons, compared with the maladies just named; but its victims are chiefly selected from the emigrant population. When it breaks out, none who are not acclimated should venture to remain within its reach.

Those who migrate from a colder climate to the southern Mississippi states, should observe the following directions. First — To arrive there in autumn, instead of spring or summer. Second — If practicable, to spend the hottest part of the first two or three years, in a higher latitude. Third — To select the healthiest situations. Fourth — To live temperately. Fifth — To preserve a regular habit. Lastly, to avoid the heat of the sun from 10 in the morning till 4 in the afternoon, and above all the night air. By a strict attention to these rules, many would escape the diseases of the climate, who annually sink under its baleful influence.

Were the other portions of the year in these southern climates as insalubrious as the summer and early autumn, the destruction of human life would be frightful; but happily, no region on earth is healthier for eight months of the year, than that which we are now considering. During this period, there is, it is true, some disease; but it is chiefly that which was generated in the hot season. The latter part of the autumn, and the entire winter and spring seasons, originate fewer maladies than in almost any other part of the Union. Thus it is, that the balance between liabilities and exemptions is maintained, and the wisdom and goodness of Heaven practically manifested.

3. As we advance northwardly, and at the same time ascend on the great inclined plane, which extends from the


Gulf of Mexico nearly to the shores of the lakes, the diseases constantly become more diversified, and more equally distributed throughout the year. The intense and steady heat of a protracted summer, is replaced by a variable temperature, with a greater diurnal range of the thermometer. Spring and autumn bring a rapid succession of hot, or at least warm and frosty days. The northern and southern winds come into perpetual conflict, and neither predominates very long. The winters lengthen, and the cold becomes intense — but still, on the banks of the Ohio, and up the Mississippi to the mouth of the Missouri, thaws and warm rains, with south-west winds, occur more or less in every month, from November to March. It is not till we pass the latitude of 40°, that the empire of frost in winter is tolerably established. Beyond that degree, the cold of winter is about as steady as is the heat of summer below the latitude of 34°. Between those two parallels, neither summer nor winter has much constancy.

Thus the temperate, or upper Mississippi states, are far more infested with the maladies which depend on variations of temperature, than the southern division; and from the autumnal to the vernal equinox, are much more unhealthy. If the other, or the hot portion of the year, in this northern division, was exempt from the diseases depending on great heat and marsh exhalations, the boast of its inhabitants, when comparing their lot with that of their southern friends, would be better founded than it is. But along all the streams, more especially those which have alluvial bottom lands, which are annually overflown, and where the forests and original vegetation have been but partially subdued, the inhabitants are liable to the summer diseases of the south — some of which, as cholera and dysentery, seem to be more frequent and violent than towards the Gulf. Others, however, as the numerous varieties of bilious fever, are incomparably less general and malignant.

From these observations it may be collected, that the two great causes of disease in the upper Mississippi, or western states, are variations of temperature and marsh exhalation. A third cause is supposed to be the water. Throughout most of these states, which have a limestone foundation, — the imperishable basis of their wealth, — the spring and well water is hard. This, by those who have lived elsewhere, in


sand-stone regions, or on primitive or transition rock formations, where the water is soft, is believed to be unhealthy. To them, it may indeed prove so at first, but their systems soon become reconciled to the change; and I have not, as yet, seen any evidence that this kind of water produces a single permanent disease. In the fourth place, the question is often asked, are not fogs unhealthy? Do they not produce ague and fever? The answer, I think, should be in the negative. I have not observed, that those who are constantly exposed to them are more unhealthy; or, indeed, as unhealthy as many others in society, who are not exposed to them. Fogs are but water in a state of vapour, through which exhalations of a poisonous nature may, it is true, be diffused; but these exhalations, sent up from the surface of the earth through the day, appear to subside in the evening with the dews, before the fogs begin to arise; and hence, an exposure to the former, is far more dangerous than the latter.

Passing from causes to effects, I shall proceed to enumerate the principal diseases which seem to have connexion with the soil and climate of the West.

In autumn, winter, and early spring, the pleurisy, severe colds, croup, and those forms of disease of the lungs, which have received the name of "hasty consumption," are of frequent occurrence. True, hereditary, consumption is however, a rare disease in the West, compared with New-York or New England — and families which, remaining on the banks of the Hudson or Connecticut River, would be cut off by that malady, might often be preserved, by a migration to the Valley of the Ohio, the Cumberland, or Wabash. Acute inflammations of the brain, of the liver, and of the joints, in the form of rheumatism, are, likewise, of frequent occurrence, during the cold and variable portions of the year.

From the accession of hot weather, commencing in Tennessee with the monthly of May, and on Lake Erie with its close, till after the autumnal equinox, summer diseases prevail over all the West — but are most rife in the valleys, and above all on the shores of the lake. These maladies may be divided into two groups: First, cholera infantum, — or the summer sickness of children — cholera morbus, diarrhoea, colic, and dysentery. The first of these complaints, in the west, as in other parts of the United States, is more frequent


and fatal in the towns than the country; though the latter is by no means so exempt as is generally supposed. Dysentery is not of constant annual recurrence. Many summers pass without originating a single case — while others produce it as an epidemic, spreading indiscriminately over the hills and vallies, and affecting equally the dense and sparse population.

The family of diseases, just enumerated, precede and follow the summer solstice; but, with the exception of dysentery, rarely run into autumn. They are the legitimate offspring of hot days and cool nights, and almost invariably display the greatest violence in June and July.

Secondly. To the summer, succeed the autumnal diseases of the west, which are, substantially, the same that prevail in the south. They often begin in summer, and very commonly continue till arrested by the frosts of autumn. These maladies are intermitting and remitting bilious fevers — the former of which, in their various shades, have received the names of ‘ague,’ ‘dumb ague,’ and ‘chill and fever.’ The intermitting fever is essentially a disease of the country, instead of the larger towns; and prevails much more in the vallies, and on the slopes of the hills that bound them, than on the uplands. Its relative prevalence in different years is very different. It often graduates into the remitting fever. This is the most formidable of the summer and autumnal diseases of the west; and, in some seasons, appears with a degree of malignity approaching to that which it displays in the south. Unlike intermitting fever, it prevails as much or more in the towns than in the country. In most years, it is a mild and manageable disease; but sometimes, as just intimated, proves exceedingly fatal — which may be the case in one town, while others are but little affected; and in another year the case will be reversed.

When this malady becomes protracted, it commonly passes into ague and fever. In this form it frequently recurs through the winter and succeeding spring, when relapses of intermitting fever are, likewise, apt to occur. They are generally the immediate consequence of exposure to a cold and damp atmosphere.

A form of winter or relapsing intermittent fever, is ‘periodical head-ache,’ or ‘sun pain,’ so called by the people,


from the well known fact, that the fit generally comes on in the morning about sun-rise, and seldom continues after sun-set. It is a painful, but not a dangerous disease.

Sore eyes may be mentioned as a prevailing disease of the western states. They are more common in the newly than the old settled parts of the country; and prevail more in autumn than any other season. Treated even by a skilful physician, they often prove obstinate; and, neglected or improperly managed, are frequently followed by blindness.

In several parts of the west, a disease prevails, which has received the appellation of ‘sick stomach,’ from its prominent symptoms, nausea and frequent vomiting, especially on taking exercise. It is, also, called ‘milk sickness,’ from an opinion, that it is produced by the milk of cows, which have fed on some poisonous plant. It has likewise been ascribed to the water of certain springs, and to marsh exhalations. The cause, however, is perhaps unknown, and it seems to be evanishing.

Goitre, or ‘swelled neck,’ once prevailed on the upper waters of the Ohio, particularly in and about Pittsburg, but has nearly disappeared.

Typhus, or nervous fevers, are sometimes considerably prevalent in the western towns; but, on the whole, are, I think, less frequent and fatal than in the east.

Dyspepsia, and liver complaints of a chronic kind, are troublesome maladies in the Mississippi states, especially in the cities. In many cases, they have seemed to roe to arise from the same cause with autumnal fever, the poison acting feebly on the system; but more commonly they are the offspring of abuses in the use of tea and ardent spirits.

As to measles, small-pox, scarlet fever, and other diseases of that natural class, they prevail occasionally in the west, in the same manner as in other countries.

Let not the eastern reader be alarmed, at the catalogue of diseases which I have enumerated. He should recollect that most of them prevail in his own section of the Union, and often with great mortality; while some, as consumption, and I might add typhus fever and dysentery, are far more fatal in the east than the west. Nor should the Lower Mississippi states be considered preferable to the Upper, on the score of health; for, although they are sickly but four months of the year, yet such is the extent and energy


of the diseases which then prevail, as more than to counterbalance the whole year in the temperate states.

That these states are not unfavourable to human life, may be inferred from the unprecedented increase in their population. The number of inhabitants in Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana and Ohio, is at least three millions. Had they been unhealthy, it is quite incredible that in the short period of half a century, so great a number could have congregated within those commonwealths. Was the climate especially fatal to emigrants, the number cut off, and the number repelled, must have given a ratio of increase, far beneath that which has actually existed. As to a seasoning, or acclimation, I am, doubtful whether in the temperate Mississippi states, it has any existence. At Cincinnati, I am sure it can seldom be perceived. When formidable and fatal diseases have prevailed, they have as often attacked those long resident in the city, as the ‘new comers;’ and nothing is more common, than to see persons arrive at all periods of the spring, summer, and early autumn, and still enjoy as good health as if they had entered its atmosphere at the winter solstice. I would, however, caution travellers and ‘movers,’ against much journeying in September and early October, when bilious fevers prevail; for, however secure they might be, if they could be transferred, without a journey, to a western town, the usual process of reaching it in autumn, over land, the necessary mode when the waters are low, is apt to generate serious diseases.

Chapter IX. Indian Tribes, Monuments, &c.

HAVING in the last Chapter remarked on the climate of the Valley of the Mississippi in reference to temperature, diseases, &c. I now proceed to give some account of the Indian inhabitants, their manners, customs, present state, &c. together with some notices of those ancient remains which are still to be found in almost every part of the West.


When North America was discovered, it was in the occupancy of a great number of tribes of Indians who derived their means of subsistence almost solely from fishing and hunting. And when the first settlements were made in the north part of the Valley of the Mississippi, by the French in 1670 at Detroit, and during the next fifty years, at Biloxi, Mobile, New Orleans, Natchez, Post of Arkansas, &c. in the southern part, that vast country was filled with numerous tribes, possessing indeed striking and similar traits of national character, and the same habits of living, although widely differing in language. Within the next succeeding fifty years, say from 1720 to 1770, French colonies and trading posts were planted in Tennessee, Upper Alabama, the interior of Mississippi, on the Red River, Arkansas, and along the Ohio at various points from its mouth to its sources, and on the shores of Lake Erie; whilst in the latter portion of that period, the English commenced the establishment of colonies and trading posts within the eastern verge of the Valley, and indeed, before the close of that period, had gained possession of the whole country east of the Mississippi River. So that during the last seventy or eighty years almost the whole of the eastern side of the Valley and a part of the western, has passed from the possession of the Indian inhabitants into that of the whites.

When we look back to the state of this valley one hundred years ago, we find that every portion of it was occupied by powerful tribes and nations, the names of many of which are handed down to us in the early histories of the country. But widely different is the present state of things. Several large and powerful tribes have been destroyed by intestine wars, or, what is more deplorable, by wars with the civilized emigrants, who have gained possession of the best part of the Valley.

What are called the Southern Indians are the Choctaws, Cherokees, Chickasaws, Creeks, and Seminoles, inhabiting parts of Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, North Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. These tribes are entirely insulated now from those which are west of the Mississippi. They were all once very powerful tribes, and their wars with each other and with the French and English, and of some of them with our own government, are well known. At present the Seminoles are only about 4,000, and the Chickasaws


3,500. While the Choctaws are about 12,000, the Cherokees 11,000, and the Creeks 20,000, — exclusive of those portions of the tribes which have removed west of the Mississippi, and which, if added, would make the number of the Choctaws 18,000, the Cherokees 14,500, and the Creeks 22,500. The government, it is well known, is endeavouring to remove the portions of these tribes which are still east of the Mississippi, to a country west of Arkansas Territory and the state of Missouri, and to place the Choctaws immediately north of the Red River, the Cherokees between the Arkansas and its great branch the Canadian River, and the Creeks on the north bank of the Arkansas River. The Chickasaws are to unite with the Choctaws, and the Seminoles will have a separate portion of the country. The country which the government has purchased in that region from the Osages and other tribes, contains about 100 millions of acres. The Creeks and Seminoles have recently sold their lands in Alabama and Florida to the United States, and will probably remove within two years. The Choctaws and Chickasaws have already commenced removing, having sold their lands a year ago.

In Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, which once contained so many powerful tribes, are now to be found only scattered remnants of the Shawanese, Putawatomies, Miamis, Kickapoos, Peorias, Kaskaskias, and Cahokias; and almost all these are about to remove west of the Mississippi, to the country granted to them in exchange for their land in these states.

On the Upper Mississippi and towards Lake Superior, are the Chippeways, Menomonies, and Winnebagos. About the lead mines on the Mississippi live the Sacs and Foxes. In the same region are the Iawas. High up the same river live the Sioux or Dacotas, extending over to the Missouri. In the Valley of the Missouri River live, in succession as you ascend, the Osages, reaching to the Arkansas; the Pawnees in three divisions, who were once numerous, and next to the Sioux in strength; Arickarees, Mandans, the Minnetarees, Arripahas, Assineboins, Crows, and Black-feet. On the Arkansas are found the Quapaws, Chiamanches, &c. On the Sabine, and between it and the Arkansas Red River, are the remnants of several tribes, residing also partly in Texas, such as the Appallaches, Chetimaches,


Tunicas, &c. once numerous and powerful. The Cados are high up on the Red River.

Creeks, 22,500
Choctaws, 18,000
Cherokees, 14,500
Seminoles, 4,000
Chickasaws, 3,500
Pawnees, 6,500
Omahas and Otoes, 3,180
Delawares, 1,600
Shawanese, 6,350
Kansas, 1,500
Osages, 6,500
Senecas, 400
Senecas & Shawanese, 320
Miamis, 1,000
Wyandots, 450
Kickapoos, 1,800
Perias, Piankashaws, Weas, and Kaskaskias, 1,000
Sioux, 25,000
Chippeways, 6,000
Black Feet, 5,000
Assinaboins 8,000
Putawatamies 6,500
Winnebagos, 5,300
Sacs 6,300
Menomonies, 4,000
Crows, 4,500
Arripahas, 4,000
Crees, 3,000
Ottawas, 4,000
Algonquins, 3,000
And about twenty other small tribes including Mandans, Arickarees, &c. 25,000

I have no adequate data upon which to give a very accurate statement of the numbers belonging to the tribes within the Valley of the Mississippi. These tribes are very numerous, and many of them very small. The following statement has been made, and is probably as accurate as any which the reader is likely to find any where.

It is mournful to look back to the former state of many of the tribes of this vallley, when the French planted their numerous trading posts among them, and compare it with their present condition. Several of the tribes which then existed are now wholly extinct, or lost in others; and at least twenty which were then numerous, contain now not more than from fifty to five hundred souls each! I do not attribute this destruction to the influence of the whites, to the degree which some do. Undoubtedly our wars, and still more our vices, have done much to ruin the tribes contiguous to us. But other causes and more powerful, unquestionably have existed. For it is a fact that the tribes


far remote from us have greatly diminished within the last hundred years. The truth is, it is impossible that a savage people, living a wretched and wandering life, divided into separate tribes, almost constantly at war with each other, can avoid a gradual but certain destruction. For centuries before the colonizing of the Valley of the Mississippi, these desolating causes had existed, and had swept away millions from the earth. There is unquestionable evidence, I think, that this whole continent, and especially the Valley of the Mississippi, and the neighbouring country of Mexico, was once inhabited by a vast population, possessing, in some degree at least, a greater amount of knowledge of the arts than the present race of Indians.

An uncivilized state of mankind is one of constant tendency to annihiliation, all the world over. Nor need we marvel at it. From the very nature of the human mind, and the condition in which men are placed in this world, it cannot be otherwise. A state of barbarism, is a very miserable one. Its uncertainty, often, of the means of sustenance; its great destitution of social or individual happiness; its gloom and dreariness; its want of happiness here, and its ignorance of life and immortality beyond the grave, — are unfavourable to a rapid propagation of the species, or indeed to propagation at all.

There are probably sixty tribes of Indians in the West, inhabiting a great variety of climates, scattered over a great extent of country, speaking different dialects; and yet they all possess, essentially, the same traits of character, and their manners are not merely similar, but almost identical. A greater physical and moral resemblance exists among them than is to be found among the inhabitants of any other region on the globe.

With regard to stature, some of the tribes exceed the medium height of our people; this may be said of the Sioux, Osages, and perhaps the Cherokees. Some other tribes, on the contrary, are rather shorter than the whites of our country. Their complexion is well known to be that of a very dark, smoked, copper colour; and exceedingly similar in all the tribes. The hair is very black, coarse, of a glossy appearance, and seldom becomes grey, although this is sometimes the case. The forms of Indians are almost universally straight, their limbs well proportioned, vigorous,


agile, and their bodies seldom corpulent. The feeble of their children generally die through the hard usage to which they are subjected. In their gait they have a peculiar motion, and always place one foot immediately before the other in a light line, and seldom deflect their toes from that line. They are almost always to be seen walking in single file, one following immediately after another, even when engaged in earnest conversation.

Their foreheads are broad, slightly retiring, and very seldom projecting. The nose is prominent, and its base very much expanded. The cheekbones are high; the lips of moderate thickness, and their eyes black. The females have the comparative delicacy of conformation which in every nation belongs to the sex.

As to moral habits, they are unquestionably indolent as it regards such labour as we are accustomed to perform. — This might be expected. Their mode of life from time immemorial has been wholly diverse. They need the exciting circumstances of the chase or war, and then they will travel further, and perform more incredible exploits of activity and daring, than those who are unacquainted with them would imagine to be possible. But steady, unremitting industry is intolerable to them. Excepting the Cherokees and some of the Choctaws, very few of the Indians have made much progress in the knowledge of the arts of civilized life. But the truth is, that very few, and these inadequate, efforts have been made in other tribes to induce them to live a civilized life. The great and only hope of their civilization is with the children, through intellectual and religious education.

As to the domestic virtues and habits of the Indians, and the happiness or misery of their condition, there have been very different opinions. Rousseau, Chateaubriand, and others have described them as amiable, virtuous, and eminently happy. I have known many who have professed to entertain the same opinion. But Volney, and Charlevoix, among the former writers, and many of the latter, have much more justly described their condition, as that of a race, taken as a whole, neither amiable nor happy. Indeed I know not how any man who has really studied the condition of the uncivilized Indians, can possibly represent them as in any other than a very wretched condition. Their


countenances are almost always stern, and melancholy, seldom wearing a smile. They manifestly have not the acute sensibility which civilization imparts, or rather increases. — That they have affections is certain, but not generally of an ardent, tender kind. Born amidst forests, and perpetual gloom; from their childhood conversant with rocks, woods, deserts, and the dreariness and solitude of the wilderness; having only a precarious, and often a scanty, subsistence, subject to constant and deep alternations of hope and fear; enjoying but little the present life, and having no certain hopes of a life to come, it is no wonder that cheerfulness and joy should seldom be depicted in their countenances. It is not surprising that they should have little fear of death. They scarcely regard it in any other light than as the end of a life void of attractions, and even of existence, which few of them firmly believe to be prolonged beyond the present stage of being. Their fortitude in the endurance of suffering results from a physical insensibility, to which is added the effect of constant inculcation of it as a chief or only virtue. No ordinary stimulus can move them. But when they are excited, they have no moderation. Their rage, their fury in battle, their alternations of hope and despair exhibited in gaming, their brutal exhiliration in drunkenness, are truly horrible.

It is interesting to observe how manifestly the Indians, degraded and ignorant as they are, show the traces of the moral law written on the hearts of all men. There are certain virtues which they hold as being of universal obligation, such as honour, constancy, generosity, forbearance, and regard for truth. They generally admit, under some form of modification, the being of a God, and the immortality of the soul. Many of the tribes have forms of prayer which they use on extraordinary occasions, such as when starting on expeditions of hunting or war. They are exceedingly superstitious, and greatly under the influence of their prophets or "medicine men." Every thing with them which is inexplicable is a "medicine." Their prophets and jugglers have almost as much influence as their chiefs and warriors. Their ideas of a future world are of course dark and confused. Their Elysium is a great and beautiful country of prairie and forest, filled with wild beasts, which are hunted by the happy and good, that is, those who


were brave on earth, and killed many of their enemies; whilst the cowardly and undistinguished sink into oblivion, not being able to pass with fearless hearts, the "narrow bridge."

As to matrimony, it is well known that every man may marry as many wives as he can maintain. All the evils which naturally flow from polygamy are of course experienced. Jealousy among the wives, their quarrels and their brawls, are frequent occurrences in the harem of an Indian chief. Marriage is generally managed by the parents.

The vices of the Indians are such as might be expected among an uncivilized people, who are destitute of the power of Christianity. And it is greatly to be regretted, that their intercourse with the whites has been, generally, any thing else than beneficial to their morals. The most shameless abominations are committed by men, whom the Indians, in their ignorance, call Christians, only because they have a white complexion, and belong to a nation which professes to be Christian.

The more civilized Indians dress after the fashion of the white people. This is the case with the Cherokees, some of the Choctaws, and of the small tribes in Ohio and Indiana. Their clothes are coarse, but decent. The Cherokees, having made considerable progress in the arts — having farms on which they raise grain and cotton, and possessing looms and mills, and blacksmith's shops, and horses and cattle, &c. not only dress comfortably, but many of them have respectable cottages and houses. But the uncivilized tribes wear a calico jacket, and over that a blanket or buffalo skin wrapped around them, and have moccasins and leggings. But in summer, their youth especially, go without the last named garments. When they can afford it, the squaws of the partially civilized tribes, wear blue broad cloth petticoats.

Their laws have the nature of universal custom, and are like a spell in their influence over the Indians; so much so, that if any Indian knows that he has committed an offence for which he must die, (according to their custom), he seldom embraces the opportunity of escape, but will return home to die, and dies as if there was an irresistible fatality which prevented him from doing otherwise. This is an inexplicable circumstance, excepting upon the principle that


public opinion is every thing; and an Indian considers that he might as well die, as live under the conviction that he deserves, in the opinion of all, to die. This consciousness is intolerable. This fact, of itself, demonstrates how low their conceptions of death are!

I think that no man who has any correct moral sentiments, or any just idea of what constitutes true human happiness, can avoid feeling a deep sympathy for these poor benighted ‘children of the wood.’ Is not their condition a miserable one? Are they not, in some degree, intelligent, and of course accountable beings? And what can be done to raise them from their degradation and misery? The answer, to my mind, is plain — that is, instruct them in the principles of Christianity, and the arts of civilized life. Especially begin with the young. Almost all the tribes are willing to have their children thus instructed. And our government, as well as the Christian community, ought to arise, and give to every tribe these great blessings. They can be made Christians, and civilized men. They have minds and vigorous ones too. They are not more barbarous than our ancestors once were. The Gospel of Jesus Christ can influence their hearts, and raise their thoughts, and their despairing eyes, towards heaven.

I have indeed met with men, some of whom have been among the Indians, and know something of them, — and some who have not, — who have professed to believe that there is no need of sending the Gospel to the Indians — that they are happier and better off without it. With regard to the latter class, — those who have never been among the Indians, — they are deceived by the misrepresentations of others, or by their own dreams of the simplicity and happiness of what they consider the "natural state of man." As they know nothing about the matter, it is not worth while to lose a moment in refuting their romantic and absurd ideas. But as to the former class, viz. those who have been much with the Indians, and who yet believe they are better off without civilization and Christianity, I have a word or two to say. I have uniformly found that this class, which is composed of men who are universally ignorant of the true nature of the Christian religion, may be divided into three subdivisions.

1. Those who think that the fact, that the poor Indians prefer their own state to that of civilization, is conclusive


proof that they are really in a better condition than they would be, if civilized. These gentlemen would be opposed, of course, to every effort to enlighten mankind in any way. They must believe that the world is at present, excepting a few political evils, doing about as well as can be desired. They have no standard at all of excellence in human condition. Knowledge, and science, and the arts, and literature, and taste and refinement, and the innumerable blessings of civilized life, are nothing at all in the estimation of these gentlemen. And to instruct any ignorant person, who is contented with his ignorance, is to do him an injury, to make him less happy, although it may be the means of elevating him in the scale of human dignity, and affording him increasing and refined pleasures, commensurate with his expanding faculties and enlarged desires!

2. Those who know that increased knowledge and advantages bring with them increased accountability, and having a morbid sensibility on that subject, as it affects their own case — being conscious that they do not live up to the measure of their advantages — they think that ignorance is a happy state of total or comparative exemption from responsibility. These men do not consider that increased light brings with it not only increased responsibility, but also increased ability, if we are not wanting to ourselves, of meeting, happily, that responsibility.

3. Those who have been guilty of living in an unlawful manner among the Indians — who have indulged in sensual lusts, or who have defrauded them in dealing; and who, as is commonly the case with abandoned men, try to persuade themselves that all others are as bad as themselves. It should be no subject of marvel that such men think the Indians are as virtuous and as happy, if not more so, than the whites; and verily, they are probably better than such white men as they are! I have no doubt that the Indians are really more virtuous, or rather less vile and abominable in their lives, than the mass of white men who trade with them, and who too often rejoice to find, that they are beyond the Sabbath, and beyond the inspection and surveillance of that hundred eyed argus, — public opinion. Some of these men dread the instruction and Christianization of the Indians, because it would pour a flood of light upon their dark deeds, and break up forever their unrighteous traffic.


But I rejoice that the subject of civilizing the Indians, is awakening the attention of the Christian public. Missionaries are labouring with much success among the Cherokees, Choctaws, and Chickasaws — and their efforts among the Osages, Creeks, and some other tribes, are not without encouragement: and, as the government is now about to try the experiment of collecting several tribes on the west of Arkansas Territory and the state of Missouri, what benevolent heart does not wish, that there may be one day, a happy community of civilized Indians, sharing in all the blessings of our government?

MONUMENTS. — The antiquities of the Valley of the Mississippi, may be divided into three classes. 1. Those belonging to the Indians. 2. To people of European origin. 3. Those of the unknown people, who inhabited this region before the Indians. The antiquities of the first named class, are neither numerous nor interesting. They are rude axes and knives, pestles and mortars for preparing their corn for food; arrow-heads, and other similar articles. To the antiquities of the people of European descent, belong the medals found, occasionally — such as, one at the mouth of Muskingum River, which was a thin round plate of lead, bearing on one side the inscription, "Petit-belle riviere," and on the other, "Louis XIV." Some coins have been found inscribed, "George II." and "Caroline." Some Roman coins are said to have been found in Tennessee. Traces of a furnace of fifty kettles exist in Kentucky, a few miles from Portsmouth.

The antiquities of a people who inhabited the Valley of the Mississippi prior to the Indians, are very numerous. They are to be found from the lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. They consist of tumuli or mounds, and what are supposed to have been forts, cemeteries, temples, altars, camps, towns, watchtowers, &c.

In the vicinity of Newark, Ohio, is found a fort containing forty acres within its walls, which are about ten feet high. It has gateways and walls in front of them for protection. Another fort contains 22 acres, and has an observatory, partly of earth, and partly of wood, in the middle of it. There is another circular fort, containing 26 acres. There are also parallel walls, with watchtowers. It is said that there are more than 1000 wells, many of them exceeding


20 feet in depth, in the vicinity of the same town. Near Marietta, in the same state, are to be found traces of fortifications, of a remarkable extent. On the spot where Cincinnati now stands, were four mounds, or pyramids. One of them was 35 feet high, in the form of an ellipsis. In one of these mounds, pieces of jasper, rock crystal, granite, &c. were found; also, a small oval piece of sheet copper, several marine shells, a quantity of isinglass, several copper figures of animals, human bones, &c. &c. Many of these mounds, all over the valley, contain an immense number of skeletons. The largest mound is on the bottom land, along Grave Creek, 14 miles below Wheeling, in western Virginia. The most numerous collection of mounds is to be found a few miles east of St. Louis, on the American bottom. More than 200 of all sizes are to be counted there. Near Cahokia there are many mounds. In some of the prairies they are to be found. They are generally on the bottom lands of rich alluvial soil. They are sometimes, however, to be seen on high hills; for instance, on the high bluffs on the north bank of the Missouri, above Cote-sans-dessein. It is a remarkable circumstance, that these mounds are most numerous in those portions of the valley which are best calculated to sustain a dense population.

Millions of human beings have been buried in these tumuli. To have erected such works, so numerous and large, must have required a great population. Mr. Atwater has even supposed that Ohio, several hundred years ago, contained more than 700,000 inhabitants, of a race now extinct.

The antiquities of Tennessee and Kentucky are very numerous, and exceedingly interesting; but the limits of this work will not allow me to go into details on this subject. Some notices of these antiquities will be given when we consider each state and territory in the west.

Besides the human skeletons found in the nitre caves of Kentucky, and other relics of by-gone generations, masses of bones of animals of enormous sizes, to which the name of Mammoth and Megalonyx have been given, and which have excited great attention on the part of naturalists, have been discovered.

In closing this chapter, I would state, that in the Museums at Cincinnati, and Lambdin's Museum at Pittsburg, are


to be found many very interesting specimens of the relics of antiquity, belonging to this valley.

Chapter X. Character, Manners, and Pursuits, of the Valley of the Inhabitants.

IT cannot be expected that, in a work so limited as this is, any thing like justice can be done to the subject of this chapter. I shall only give a general description of the character, manners and pursuits of the people of the West, avoiding details as much as possible.

The population of the Valley of the Mississippi is exceedingly heterogeneous, if we regard the very great variety of nations of which it is composed. There is not a country in Europe which has not furnished some portion of its population. But by far the greater proportion of the European population, is from Great Britain and Ireland. Of course, emigrants from those portions of Europe, speaking our own language, and having so many of the elements of character and manners homogeneous with our own, produce no influence, worthy of notice, on the lineaments of the national character of the West, especially after their amalgamation with us, which is effected by a short period of residence. The emigrants from France, however, possessing traits of character very diverse from our own, speaking a very dissimilar language, and still more, grouped together as they almost invariably are, produce a very great diversity in the general character and manners of the West, as far as that sort of population prevails. But inasmuch as it is confined almost entirely to Louisiana, and some isolated portions of Illinois, Missouri, and Michigan, and has little or no influence upon the other parts of this vast country, but little notice will be taken of it, in this general description of the character and manners of the people of the West.


As it regards the emigrants from the other countries of Europe, the smallness of their numbers, compared with the entire population, and their dispersion throughout the country, render their influence too inconsiderable an element to be taken into account in a description of the national character and manners of the West. We must look to those causes and circumstances which exist amongst themselves, and which have had a chief influence in moulding the character of the population of the Valley of the Mississippi, unless indeed we mean to speak of the West; not as it is, but as it exists in our imagination.

The great difficulty in describing the character and manners of the West, taken in the general, arises from the fact that they do not essentially differ from those of the population of the Atlantic states. The shades of difference, — and they are only shades, — are such as have been created by causes and circumstances existing in the West alone. Every one who has seen much of the West, at once perceives these shades; but they are too attenuate and impalpable to admit of being very distinctly pourtrayed. I shall, however, endeavour to indicate some of the traits of difference, after having made the remarks which I am about to make, with regard to the mode in which the West has been peopled from the Atlantic states.

In travelling over the various states and territories of the West, I have been struck with a fact which is somewhat remarkable. It is the manner in which that country has been colonized. The emigration to the Valley of the Mississippi seems to have gone on in columns, moving from the East almost due West from the respective states from which they originated. From New England the emigrating column advanced through New-York, peopling the middle and western parts of that state in its progress; but still continuing, it reached the northern part of Ohio, then Indiana, and finally Illinois. A part of the same column from New-England and New-York is diverging into Michigan. It is true also, that straggling companies, as it were, diverge to a more southerly direction, and scatter over the middle and southern parts of the Valley, and are to be found in every state, in every county and town, in greater or less numbers. The Pennsylvania and New Jersey column advanced within the parallels of latitude of those states into West Pennsylvania, and still continuing, advanced into the middle and southern


parts of Ohio, and extends even into the middle parts of Indiana and Illinois. The Virginia column advanced first into the western part of that state and Kentucky, — which was long a constituent part of it, — thence into the southern parts of Indiana and Illinois, until it has spread over almost the whole of Missouri. The North Carolina column advanced first into East Tennessee, thence into West Tennessee, and also into Missouri. And the South Carolina and Georgia column has moved upon the extensive and fertile lands of Alabama, and has in some degree peopled Mississippi. Louisiana was a foreign colony. The American part of it is composed of emigrants from the upper part of the Valley, and from the southern and eastern states. The same remark is true of the small population of the state of Mississippi. In Arkansas the emigrating columns of Kentucky and Tennessee predominate. As was remarked of the New England column, it may be said that straggling parties from all the others have wandered from the main bodies, and have taken a more northerly or southerly direction. A hundred considerations of business or affinity, have operated to occasion this divergency.

The above mentioned fact furnishes a better key than any other that I know of, to furnish a correct knowledge of the diversities of customs and manners which prevail in the Valley of the Mississippi. For if one knows what are the peculiarities of the several states east of the Allegheny Mountains, he may expect to find them, with some shades of difference, occasioned by local circumstances, in the corresponding parallels in the West. Slavery keeps nearly within the same parallels. And so does every other peculiarity. The New England column is intelligent, industrious, economical, enterprising, moral, and fond of institutions for the promotion of knowledge and religion. The Pennsylavania column of Scotch, Irish, Germans, &c. partakes of all the characteristics of those worthy nations. The southern columns have a great degree of similarity, and are distinguished by high-mindedness, generosity, liberality, hospitality, indolence, and, too often, dissipation. The southern character, however, is a noble one, when moulded by good influences.

The peculiarities, or, to speak more properly, the developements of character, which may be said to distinguish the


population of the West, may be readily enumerated; and they are all created by the peculiar circumstances in which the people have been placed in that new world. They are,

1. A spirit of adventurous enterprise: a willingness to go through any hardship or danger to accomplish an object. It was the spirit of enterprise which led to the settlement of that country. The western people think nothing of making a long journey, of encountering fatigue, and of enduring every species of hardship. The great highways of the West — its long rivers — are familiar to very many of them, who have been led by trade to visit remote parts of the Valley.

2. Independence of thought and action. — They have felt the influence of this principle from their childhood. Men who can endure any thing: that have lived almost without restraint, free as the mountain air, or as the deer and the buffalo of their forests — and who know that they are Americans all — will act out this principle during the whole of life. I do not mean that they have such an amount of it as to render them really regardless alike of the opinions and the feelings of every one else. But I have seen many who have the virtue of independence greatly perverted or degenerated, and who were not pleasant members of a society, which is a state requiring a compromising spirit of mutual cooperation in all, and a determination to bear and forbear.

3. An apparent roughness, which some would deem rudeness of manners.

These traits characterize, especially, the agricultural portions of the country, and also in some degree the new towns and villages. They are not so much the offspring of ignorance and barbarism, (as some would suppose), as the results of the circumstances of a people thrown together in a new country, often for a long time in thin settlements; where, of course, acquaintances for many miles around are soon, of necessity, made and valued from few adventitious causes. Where there is perfect equality in a neighbourhood of people who know but little about each other's previous history or ancestry — but where each is lord of the soil which he cultivates. Where a log cabin is all that the best of families can expect to have for years, and of course can possess few of the external decorations which have so much influence in creating a diversity of rank in society. These circumstances, have laid the foundation for that


equality of intercourse, simplicity of manners, want of deference, want of reserve, great readiness to make acquaintances, freedom of speech, indisposition to brook real or imaginary insults, which one witnesses among the people of the West.

The character and manners of the traders and merchants who inhabit the principal cities and towns of the West, do not differ greatly from those of the same class in the Atlantic states.

A voyage on board of a large and crowded steam-boat from Pittsburg to New Orleans, or from that city to Cincinnati or St. Louis, or Nashville, would exhibit to an eastern traveller the concentrated traits of character and manners which distinguish the western people, save that a considerable abatement should be made for the exciting circumstances, which occasion an unnatural prominence of peculiarities.

There are, besides the French population, — which is distinguished for its quiet, inoffensive, domestic, sober, industrious, frugal, unenterprising spirit and manners, — five or six classes of people in the Valley of the Mississippi. 1. The agricultural portion. 2. The merchants and traders. 3. The manufacturers. 4. The river men, who follow the rivers as a business, on board the common boats (flat bottomed, keel, barges, &c.) or steam-boats, as common hands or labourers, pilots, engineers, &c. This is a numerous and very peculiar class of men. 5. The hunters who live on the verge of the frontier, and in their westward movement are constantly treading on the heels of the savages. They dwell on the public lands, and are a race of men possessing remarkable traits of character and manners, which are a compound of civilization and barbarism. They are truly sui generis, in every respect. Their language is a very peculiar dialect, employing many words and phrases in a sense which is utterly unknown to any body else. 6. The gaming adventurers, black legs, &c. who infest the steamboats and chief places from Pittsburg to New Orleans, who live upon the ruin of the unwary, the ignorant, and the young.

The population of the Valley of the Mississippi, taken as a whole is a highly interesting one. It is in a state of rapid formation as to the elements of character. Good and bad influences are active and potent. It is indeed a critical


period. Every thing should be done that can be done to disseminate the seeds of knowledge and virtue and true religion. These are interests, however, to which Christians and patriots, both in the East and in the West, are far from being indifferent. Let light prevail; let the means of adequate literary and moral education be diffused through every portion of that vast region; let true religion exert its plastic influence to mould the hearts of men into the habits of goodness; let good sentiments be kept every where uppermost, and our country is safe, and love, and kindness, and happiness will prevail along every river, and throughout every valley of that vast country.

I have travelled extensively in every state and territory in our country, excepting two, and I am free to say, that I have travelled in the Valley of the Mississippi with quite as much pleasure as in the Atlantic states. In all my extended journeys through that country, I have never known an instance of a man being treated in an uncivil manner whose deportment was gentlemanly. Every where I have found sincerity, kindness, true deference, and real hospitality, although associated oftentimes with great plainness and roughness of manners.

The West does not enjoy the same advantages, as it regards education, and in many places, of constant religious instruction, which the East generally does. There is, as might be expected, a far greater number of persons who are uneducated, and of persons who have but little taste for reading, than is to be found in the Atlantic states. These evils are felt and lamented, and I hope will be remedied. Measures are now pursuing which are calculated to accomplish this desirable object.

The people of the West live amidst the elements of greatness. The lofty mountains on each side of the valley, the extensive inland seas on the north, the immense forests and prairies, and mighty rivers, with which they are so familiar, are calculated to have an elevating effect upon the human mind. Nature, every where appearing upon a grand scale, must have some influence in prompting to noble conceptions, and in impressing its own image of greatness on the western character. But these external influences are impotent of themselves, except to excite the imagination and to supply striking and appropriate similies, metaphors, and


create the language of wonder. The advantages of culture, not merely of instruction, but also of education, in the proper sense of the word, must co-operate with the grandeur of nature, to produce true greatness in man.

I have not mentioned the fact of the existence of a multitude of singular and uncouth phrases and words, as characteristic of the West, for I have deemed them utterly unworthy of notice. I have heard some scores of them in my tours, but such of them as are not the coinage of rude boatmen, or of still more ignorant hunters, are of eastern origin, and claim no pretensions to regard in this work. Every country has its low, vulgar expressions, and its proverbial language, which it would be a useless labour to collect, and still more unjust to consider, as any data for estimating national character and manners.

PURSUITS OF THE PEOPLE. — On this topic I shall say but little.

In the northern half of the Valley, the vast majority of the people are engaged in agriculture. The productions are wheat, corn, rye, oats, potatoes, apples, &c. &c. Great quantities of salted beef and pork, and of live stock, as sheep, hogs, cattle and horses, are sent to distant markets, either across the mountains to the east, or down the rivers to New Orleans, and intermediate cities. In the lower half of the valley, cotton, corn, tobacco, hemp, sugar, rice, &c. are staples within the respective parallels of their growth, and are products chiefly of slave labour.

Western Pennsylvania and Virginia, Kentucky, the south part of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri, send vast quantities of flour, corn, and corn-meal, pork, bacon, salted beef, apples, cider, dried apples and peaches, &c. to New Orleans and intermediate places. From the north part of Ohio, and from Michigan, and the north-western angle of Pennsylvania, are sent vast quantities of the same agricultural products to New York, by the lakes and the New York canal; and from the same regions are driven great quantities of live stock to the East. Whilst from Tennessee and Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana and West-Florida, are exported, this year, (1833,) by way of New Orleans and Mobile, probably more than 500,000 bales of cotton, 40,000 hogsheads of tobacco, 100,000 hogsheads of sugar,


and 5,000,000 gallons of molasses. Also from the same region, corn, rice, tropical fruits &c. &c. to an amount of which I am ignorant, are sent to New Orleans, Mobile, and other but smaller sea-ports; whilst from the same states great numbers of cattle, hogs, and horses are annually driven to eastern and southern cities. From the upper Mississippi and Missouri, vast quantities of furs, skins, buffalo tongues, &c. &c. are sent by way of St. Louis or Mackinaw to the East and South, by the American Fur Company.

In West Pennsylvania are extensive manufactories of iron, salt, whiskey, &c. The manufacture of iron and machinery, and the building of steamboats, are carried on to a great extent at Pittsburg, Brownsville, and some other places in West Pennsylvania, and at Cincinnati. Steamboats are built at many other places on the Ohio from New Albany to Pittsburg. They are beginning to be built at St. Louis and Alton, on the Mississippi, and a few have been built at Nashville. Salt and iron are manufactured in West Virginia; cotton bagging, bale ropes, and cordage, are manufactured in Tennessee and Kentucky. Various manufactures are springing up in Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, which will be more fully enumerated when I come to treat of those states in detail. It is found difficult to introduce those manufacturing processes which demand great skill into states where the labour is done almost wholly by slaves. For the present ignorance of the slave population is utterly incompatible with great skilfulness in the manufacturing arts and processes. And free labour, (that is, of the whites) is difficult to obtain, except at enormous prices, in slave holding states. These difficulties will be remedied at some future period.

The number of merchants, and of traders, (who are often a distinct class from the regular merchants,) is very great in the Valley of the Mississippi. As there is scarcely a spot in all the West which is 50 miles from some navigable stream, (that is, navigable during some portion of the year,) it will be at once perceived that the number of traders will be immense. Thousands of the producers are partial traders, and deport, in their own boats, the produce of their farms, to a distant market — a circumstance which roust have a great hearing on the character and manners of the population of the Valley of the Mississippi.


Chapter XI. Western Pennsylvania.

Map of Pennsylvania and New Jersey.

Map of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

HAVING completed the general description of the Valley of the Mississippi, I now proceed to give some notices of its several political subdivisions. In doing this, I shall commence with the upper part, and advancing southward in the order in which that great valley is commonly visited by travellers and emigrants from those eastern states which lie north of the Potomac, I shall describe the states and territories, successively, until I arrive at Florida. By pursuing this plan, I shall not only have it in my power to give an account of the several states and territories in order, but also to present the reader with a sketch, from point to point, of the principal tours which I have made in that vast region, and which, having been performed along the great rivers and most important roads, will, I trust, be interesting. Without further preamble, I shall begin with Western Pennsylvania, taking my first stand at the city of Pittsburg, which place I have often visited, crossing the Alleghenies by various roads, and by various modes of travelling.

WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA, is bounded on the north by Lake Erie and New York; east by the dividing line or ridge which separates the waters which flow eastward into the Susquehanna and Potomac from those which flow westward into the Ohio; south by Maryland and Virginia; and west by Virginia and Ohio. The southern boundary is on lat. 39° 43'; the northern is on lat. 42°, saving a small projection which extends down to lake Erie; and the western is on 3° 30' W. lon. from Washington. Its area is about 15,833 square miles, or one third part of the state.

The following is a list of the counties in Western Pennsylvania, together with their respective population according to the census of 1830:

The small Italic letters annexed to the counties indicate their situation in the state: as, e, w, n, s, n e, n m, e m, &c. east, west, north, south, north-east, north of middle, east of middle, &c. The seats of government of the different states are printed in small capitals.


Counties County Towns In 1830
Washington, s w, Washington, 42,784
Greene, s w, Waynesburg, 18,028
Fayette, s w, Uniontown, 29,172
Westmoreland, s w, Greensburg, 38,400
Allegheny, w, Pittsburg, 50,552
Beaver, w, Beaver, 24,123
Butler, w, Butler, 14,531
Armstrong, w, Kittanning, 17,701
Mercer, w, Mercer, 19,729
Venango, w, Franklin, 9,470
Crawford, n w, Meadville, 16,030
Erie, n w, Erie, 17,041
Warren, n w, Warren, 4,697
McKean, n, Smithport, 1,439
Jefferson, w m, Port Barnet, 2,025
Indiana, w m, Indiana, 14,252
Somerset, s, Somerset, 17,762
Total of population,   337,846

About one half of Cambria county is in the Valley of the Mississippi, being drained by some of the confluents of the Conemough, which flows into the Allegheny river.

Government of Pennsylvania. — Governor — term of office three years, salary $4,000; Secretary of State; Treasurer; Auditor General; Surveyor General, and Attorney General.

Senate, consists of thirty-three members, elected for four years. House of Representatives, one hundred members, elected annually.

Judiciary. — There is a Supreme court, consisting of a Chief Justice and four Associate Judges. This court holds its courts in five places in the state, which is divided into five districts for that purpose.

The state is also divided into 16 districts, for the sessions of the Courts of Common Pleas. Each of these Circuits has a presiding Judge, and two Associates from each county. The Judges of the Supreme Court receive a salary of $2,000 per annum; the Judges of the Common Pleas, $1600, and the Associates, $200.


Harrisburg is the capital of the state.

Pittsburg is the seat of the sessions of the Supreme Court, and of the United States District Court, for Western Pennsylvania, and may be considered the capital of this part of the state.

Surface of the Country. — As a general remark it may be said, that West Pennsylvania is broken and hilly. Somerset, parts of Fayette, Westmorland, Cambria, Indiana, Jefferson, and McKean, are mountainous; whose rallies' are from 1,000 to 1,500 feet above the ocean level, and their ridges from 500 to 1,000 feet higher. Washington, part of Fayette, Westmoreland, and Allegheny counties are remarkable for their lofty, insulated, and fertile hills, with narrow and exuberant bottom lands intervening, The appearance of this country, variegated by elevated hills which are seldom in the shape of ridges, but rather disconnected and conical, with innumerable vales, is exceedingly picturesque when viewed from some elevated part of the most western range of the Alleghenies. The counties which lie northward of Pittsburg, although broken, are not generally covered with such high hills as those which I have just mentioned. They have also much more level bottom lands along the water courses. On French Creek, and many other of the confluents of the Allegheny River, there are extensive bottoms, covered with beech, birch, sugar-maple, intermixed with the Weymouth pine and hemlock spruce. It is from these extensive forests, and those on the sources of that river, that the vast quantities of lumber sent to the country below, as far as New Orleans, are annually drawn.

Soil and Productions. — The soil of the southern counties is generally good, excepting Somerset county, and some portions of Greene, which are called glade lands. Corn, wheat, rye, barley, oats, flax, the potatoe, &c. grow well in every county. Few portions of the West have a soil better adapted to these productions than Washington, Fayette, Westmoreland, Allegheny, and parts of the other counties. The counties which lie towards Lake Erie and New York have a thinner and colder soil than those towards Virginia. They are well adapted to the purpose of grazing. They abound in herds of cattle and other live stock; and, as has already been remarked, they furnish vast


supplies of lumber, — of which it is supposed that no less than 30,000,000 feet of plank annually descend the Allegheny river, and find a ready market in the towns and cities which border on the river from Pittsburg to New Orleans.

In a state of nature, this country was covered with continuous forests of oak, walnut, hickory, sugar-maple, poplar, beech, elm, sycamore, and buck-eye along the streams, chesnut, &c. &c. This region is watered by the Monongahela, Allegheny, Youghioghany, Loyalhanna, Conemaugh, French Creek, and Beaver, and their common recipient the Ohio. By inspection of the map it will be seen, that all these confluents converge towards one district, the centre of which is Pittsburg. To this emporium the productions of this whole region are chiefly brought to market by the natural channels of these confluents, which are navigable for boats much of the year, excepting the north-western section, which trades with New York, by Lake Erie and the Erie and Hudson canal.

This is emphatically an agricultural country; but large quantities of live stock are driven annually to an eastern market, by way of the three excellent turnpike roads which connect, in this State, the West with the East, viz: the national road which passes from Wheeling to Cumberland, through the southern part of this region; the southern Pennsylvania road; and the northern road from Pittsburg, through Ebensburg, Huntingdon, &c. to Philadelphia, uniting with the Southern Pennsylvania road at Harrisburg.

One of the productions of this part of the state is, to the joy of all good men, greatly and rapidly on the decline. I mean whiskey. A section of this country has obtained an inglorious celebrity for the quantity and quality of this liquid fire which it produces. There is scarcely a whiskey-bibber in the land, from Lake Erie to the Gulf of Mexico, who has not vociferously praised the Old Monongahela. But I rejoice to believe that this infamy will soon be done away. A large proportion of the distilleries in this part of our country, have ceased within two years, and the temperance cause is advancing rapidly. It is believed that there is not one half the quantity of whiskey now manufactured here that was made two years ago. In Washington county, more than two-thirds of the distilleries have been abandoned. In 1791-4 an insurrection occurred in Western Pennsylvania, because of the excise or tax on the


manufacture of whiskey. Happily the difficulty was settled and the liberty poles thrown down, without bloodshed. It is stratifying to believe that no such uproar would now be made by the enlightened citizens of Western Pennsylvania, who seem to feel a noble determination not to be behind any of the friends of temperance in other parts of our country, in their efforts to expel the evils of drunkenness from the land.

During the months of October, November, December, March, April, May, and June, the Ohio is navigable for steam-boats up to Pittsburg, and its confluents, for flat and keel boats, which convey the productions of this region to a market in the southern part of the Valley. During January and February the navigation is usually interrupted by the ice, and in July, August, and September, by the want of sufficient depth of water in those streams. Steamboats, during the fall and spring high waters, run up to Brownsville, on the Monongahela. The other rivers in Western Pennsylvania, are not yet navigated by steamboats to any considerable extent.

Inexhaustible quantities of bituminous coal, exist throughout this section of our country, in the vallies and in the hills, in strata varying, in different places, from a few inches to several feet in depth, and afford abundance of fuel, cheaper even than the wood which its forests supply, and admirably suitable for manufacturing purposes. There is a great abundance of iron ore, particularly in the tier of counties which border the Allegheny range, from which vast quantities of iron are manufactured. In the counties of Westmoreland and Fayette, are many furnaces and forges. Much of the iron of those counties is taken in the form of blooms and pigs to Pittsburg, Brownsville, &c. and there manufactured into various forms of iron. On the Conemaugh and Kiskiminitas, salt is manufactured to a great extent. It is also made in some other places, but in comparatively small quantities.

The natural advantages of this region, the general productiveness of its soil — for there is scarcely any part which cannot be cultivated with advantage, even the knobs of its hills — its facilities for intercourse, natural and artificial; and the salubrity of its climate, will render it a very populous country. When the Pennsylvania canal shall be completed, and it is now finished from Pittsburg up to the


Allegheny mountains at Johnstown, and almost completed in its eastern section to the same mountain; when the canal uniting the Allegheny river with Lake Erie; and when the Ohio and Chesapeake canal, now in progress, and also the Baltimore and Ohio rail road expected to extend into tins region, and already commenced, shall all be completed, no country will enjoy greater facilities for intercommunication and trade. The farmer and manufacturer of Western Pennsylvania will then have New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, with the places intermediate, as the markets to winch he can send the products of his labour.

There was no part of the west settled by Anglo American colonists before Western Pennsylvania. Several years before the American Revolution, settlements were made in the neighbourhood of Pittsburg, and on the Monongahela, in what was then called "Redstone Settlement." The horrors and dangers of Indian wars were long known to its earlier inhabitants.

Chief Towns.Washington, the seat of Justice for Washington county, is 25 miles south-west of Pittsburg; it is nearly midway between Brownsville and Wheeling, on the national road from Cumberland to Columbus in Ohio. It is in the centre of a beautiful and fertile country. Canonsburg, is a small town, 18 miles southwest of Pittsburg. On the turnpike road from the city to Washington and Wheeling. It is chiefly distinguished for its being the seat of Jefferson College. Brownsville, is on the eastern bank of the Monogahela River, 45 miles, by the river, south of Pittsburg. It is a place of much business. Uniontown is on the national road, and is beautifully situated near the western base of the Laurel Hill or Ridge. Erie is an important post on Lake Erie, about 120 miles north of Pittsburg. It has considerable trade with Buffalo, &c. Also Greensburg, Beaver, Meadville, are growing and important towns. Several of them are the seats of justice for the counties in which they stand. Along the Monongahela there are several places, such as Elizabetbethtown, Wiliamsport, Bridgeport, (which is separated from Brownsville by Dunlap's creek) where steamboats, are built every year. Steam boats are also built at Beaver and in its vicinity and at Shause's town, a small village on the left bank of the Ohio, 12 miles below Pittsburg.


The steam-boats which are built at these places after being launched, are commonly taken to Pittsburg to be finished, and receive their engines.

There is a vast number of villages and towns in Western Pennsylvania, and many of them beautiful, and containing an intelligent and pleasant society, but which the limits of this work will not allow me even to name.

The most important town, or rather city, for it is incorporated as such, is Pittsburg, — which has been rightly called the "Birmingham of the West."

Pittsburg is situated in 40 deg. 27 min. of north latitude, and 3 deg. 02' west lon. from Washington; 300 miles west of Philadelphia, 120 south of Lake Erie, 1,100 by land, and 2,029 by water, above New Orleans. It stands at the junction of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers. The Monongahela here runs nearly a due north-west course; the Allegheny flows into it from the north-east; and, both combining their streams, form the beautiful Ohio, which flows away in a north-western direction. The city stands upon a level alluvial bottom of quite a limited extent; for immediately back of it, and at a distance of less than a mile from the Point, rises Grant's Hill, with Ayres' Hill on the west, and Quarry Hill on the east, which may be called the great secondary bank, and which spread out so as to leave along the Allegheny River a strip of land of about one-third of a mile in width, of great fertility: and along the Monongahela, a still narrower margin of alluvial bottom.

This city was founded in the year 1765: a fort had been built rive years before, by Gen. Stanwix. This fort stood near the point of junction of the rivers. It cost 60,000 pounds sterling. The stone magazine still remains entire. The fort was called Fort Pitt, in honour of the celebrated Earl of Chatham, under whose auspices as Premier, almost the whole of the Valley of the Mississippi was wrested from the French in the war of 1754-1763. Whilst, this place was in the possession of the French, it was a most important post of trade. Here, surrounded by savage tribes, the trader found a ready market for his articles of traffic. A small fort, erected here by the French, was called Fort Du Quesne. It was in attempting the capture this fortress that Braddock was defeated, on the eastern bank of the Monongahela, at the distance of about nine


miles above Pittsburg. And afterwards, Grant, with his 800 Caledonians, met with a similar disaster upon the hill which has ever since served as a monument, commemorative of his name and his defeat.

The city of Pittsburg stands on the Delta above described, having a triangular form. It is rapidly extending along the alluvial margins of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers, by the sides of the hills above mentioned — and is even encroaching upon them. Houses are building on their sides and summits. On the western side of the Monongahela, and about a mile above Pittsburg, lies the flourishing town of Birmingham, and immediately opposite to the city, along the west bank of the same river, and under the high and jutting hill called Coal Hill, is a street of manufacturing establishments, which may be considered as an extension of Birmingham, and is connected with Pittsburg by a bridge, built in 1818, at an expense of $110,000. In the opposite direction, and north of the Allegheny river, stands Allegheny Town, on a beautiful alluvial plain of great extent, connected with Pittsburg by a bridge, erected 1819, at an expense of $100,000.

Pittsburg is admirably situated for trade and manufactures. It may be said to stand at the head of steam-boat navigation; for the Allegheny and Monongahela can only be ascended in times of high water. It is the mart of portions of Western Virginia and New-York, as well as Western Pennsylvania; while the Ohio opens to the enterprise of its citizens the whole of the Mississippi Valley. The exhaustless banks of coal which exist in the neighbouring hills, and the excellent mines of iron ore which are found in great abundance in the counties along the mountains, and in the banks of the Ohio below, give to this city its preeminence over all other western cities, for manufacturing purposes.

In 1810, the population of Pittsburg was about 5,000; in 1820 it was 7,248; and at present, including its suburbs, it is near 30,000. During a part of the period from 1817 to 1824, this city suffered much from the general stagnation of business, and the extensive bankruptcy which prevailed. During the last 8 or 9 years its prosperity has been wonderful, and bids fair to continue.

There are in Pittsburg, one Baptist church; five Presbyterian;


four Methodist; one Episcopal; one Roman Catholic, (besides which there is a Cathedral of great dimensions building on Grant's Hill); one Covenanter's; one Seceders'; one German Reformed; one Unitarian; one Associate Reformed; one Lutheran, and one African: total 19. This statement includes the suburbs of the city.

Besides the Banks, Hotels, Churches, Bridges, Manufacturing Establishments, &c. the principal objects worthy of the attention of a stranger are, 1. The Western University of Pennsylvania, whose buildings are nearly completed. They stand near Grant's Hill, on the Monongahela side of the city. 2. The State Prison in Allegheny Town, which has cost the state a vast amount of money, and is established somewhat upon the plan of the new Prison in Philadelphia. 3. The Theological Seminary, located also in Allegheny Town. The edifice of this important and rising institution has been recently completed. It stands on a beautiful, insulated hill, or knoll — rather of the form of a ridge than of a sugar-loaf — about 100 feet higher than the waters of the Allegheny river. It is literally quite a task to ascend this hill of science and religion. The centre building is four stories high, and the wings are three stories. The whole is 150 feet long, and contains 70 or 80 rooms for students. There are also rooms for the library, (which, by donations from Scotland, and from individuals in this country, is already quite respectable,) a chapel, halls for recitation, rooms for a steward, &c. The prospect from this eminence is truly delightful. One gets, above the smoke of this smoky city, and breathes the pure atmosphere, and looks abroad over the city with its immense manufacturing establishments, and the noble rivers below, over whose waves boats of every description are constantly moving, propelled by oars, sails, or steam. 4. The Museum, established by Mr. Lambdin, whose efforts are worthy of the highest praise. I know not, in all this wonderful city, an object more worthy of a stranger's attention, than this Museum. It contains many fine specimens of the relics of aboriginal times and arts. 5. The United States Arsenal, about two miles above the city, on the south side of the Allegheny River, at a village called Lawrenceville. This is a large depot of arms, ordnance, &c. It encloses about four acres. 6. The City Water Works, erected in 1828, — a noble and valuable monument


of liberality and enterprise. The water is elevated 116 feet, from the Allegheny River, by a pipe of 15 inches in diameter, and 2,439 feet in length, to a basin or reservoir, on Grant's Hill, 11 feet deep, and calculated to contain 1,000,000 of gallons. The water is raised by a steam engine of 84 horse power, which will elevate 1,500,000 gallons in 24 hours. I might mention also the beautiful aqueduct of the Pennsylvania canal, across the Allegheny River, a short distance above the bridge.

The great quantities of coal in all the hills around, and of iron manufactured in this entire region — particularly along the mountains, — combined with the fine situation of this city for commercial enterprise, have made it a vast assemblage of manufacturing establishments, which are day and night rolling up immense volumes of smoke, darkening the very heavens, and discoloring every object — even the houses and the inhabitants. There are here ten Foundries, for various castings, including steam engines and ploughs. M'Clurg and Company's was erected in the year 1803, for the sum of $77,000, and has cast many cannon, balls, &c. for the government. There are six Glass Works. The excellence of the manufactures of this city in glass are well known. There are eight Rolling Mills, consuming 3,190 bushels of coal daily, and driven by ten steam engines, of from 60 to 100 horse power each. There are five Cotton Factories, propelled by steam, and having many thousands of spindles. There are seven shops for making and repairing steam engines and machinery. There are two Steam Flour Mills. I cannot specify the copper, tin, nail, and earthenware Factories — nor those for the manufacturing of knives, files, and other articles of cutlery. Nor the Saw Mills, Dye Wood Cutting Mills, Brass and Bell Foundries, &c. which employ 24 steam engines. The number of yards for the building of flat, keel, and steam-boats I do not know exactly. This is one of the greatest places in the West, and in the world, for the building of steam-boats.

The preceding paragraph gives a brief statement of the Manufactories of Pittsburg alone. The following statement, obtained from a perfectly authentic source, embraces the manufactories of Pittsburg and its vicinity — and, in some cases, of Allegheny and Westmoreland counties. I give it in detail, as it was furnished to me, that the reader


may have some idea of the extent of the manufactures of this growing city, and of the region in the vicinity.

1. There are the following NAIL FACTORIES AND ROLLING MILLS, in Pittsburg and its vicinity. The weight of metal manufactured in 1831 by each, together with the value of the manufactures is given:

  Weight in lbs. Value.
Union, 720,000 $43,200
Sligo, 400,000 32,000
Pittsburg, 782,887 86,544
Grant's hill, 500,000 30,000
Juniata, 500,000 40,000
Pine Creek, 457,000 34,100
Miscellaneous Factories, 360,000 28,800

2. Foundries. — There are 12 Foundries in and near Pittsburg. During the year 1831, 2,963 tons of metal were converted into castings, 132 hands employed, 87,000 bushels of coal consumed, and the value of the manufactures was $189,614. Exclusive of Pittsburg and its vicinity, there are 5 Foundries in Allegheny and Westmoreland counties.

3. In and near Pittsburg, there are 37 Steam Engines, valued at $180,400, which employ 123 hands.

4. There are 8 Cotton Factories, with 369 looms, 598 hands, and worth $300,134. In the counties of Westmoreland and Allegheny, there are 5 Cotton Factories.

5. In Pittsburg, and the two comities above named, there are 8 Paper Mills, valued at $165,000.

6. There are in Pittsburg and its vicinity, 5 Steam Mills, which employ 50 hands. Value of their products, annually, $80,000.

7. There are 5 Brass Foundries and 8 Coppersmiths' Shops. Value of manufactures, $25,000.

8. Within the limits of the city, there are 30 Blacksmith's shops, which employ 136 hands. There are also 4 Gunsmiths, and 9 Silversmiths and Watch repairers.

9. In Pittsburg, and the counties of Westmorland and Allegheny, there are 26 Saddleries and 41 Tanneries. There are also 64 Brick Yards, and 11 Potteries.

10. There are 4 White Lead Factories in the city, and 7,400 kegs made annually — value, $27,900. There are also 4 Breweries,


11. There are 6 Printing Offices in Pittsburg, and 6 more in the two counties.

The estimated value of the manufactures of every kind in Pittsburg, and the counties of Allegheny and Westmoreland, in 1831, was $3,978,409!

In Allegheny and Westmoreland Counties, the number of Distilleries was, in March 1832, sixty-two; in 1830, it was one hundred and sixty-eight!

There are, it is believed, not less than eight thousand wagons arriving at this city every year from Philadelphia, loaded with merchandise for the west. Whilst the quantity of flour, whiskey, lumber, salt, &c. which is brought to this place by the roads, the canal, and the rivers, for exportation to the lower parts of the valley, is immense. I have no data for estimating accurately the worth of the merchandise which is at present brought annually from the East. In 1818, it was estimated at 89,425 tons, and valued at $17,885,000! At present it cannot be less than 20 million dollars. Much of the heavier kinds of merchandize, is now brought up from New-Orleans by steam-boats.

The coal which abounds here is found in strata of from 6 inches to 10, or more, feet in depth. And what is remarkable, it is found in the hills which overlook Pittsburg at the height of about 300 feet above the bottom of the rivers. Below this one stratum, which is of about equal elevation, no other is found until you descend into the base of the hills below the bottom of the rivers. It is not the fact that the great mass of these hills is coal. But a small portion of them is of this species of substance. Coal Hill, immediately opposite the city on the west side of the Monongahela, is a great source of this kind of fuel. The miners have penetrated a great distance, and the coal slides down the hill into boats, or is deposited for the wagons, by a kind of rail-road, or inclined plane, to the alarm of many a passerby. The perforations made in digging the coal, reach, in some places, very far into the hill. It is worthy of a stranger's attention to explore the interior of these gloomy regions, survey the dark caverns and the pillars which sustain the superimposed mass of mountain, and contemplate the leaden colored faces of the miners, as they meet his eye when the torch's gleam falls upon them. But let him not expect to escape without atoning for his temerity in entering


these abodes of Pluto, or rather Plutus, by paying a suitable reward either in money, or, as is too commonly the case, in whiskey.

To a stranger nothing is more imposing than to stand on the bank of the Monongahela above the Point, and survey the steam-boats as they depart on their long voyages down the Ohio, or when they arrive upon their return. There is something grand in seeing the large boats, of a beautiful form, and great power, marching up heavily loaded, overcoming the resistance of the current, and discharging at intervals their steam, which occasions a very loud and startling roar, re-echoed in quick succession from the hills which environ the city. Nothing is more striking to one who witnesses the scene for the first time. When the rivers are navigable, say during 7 or 8 months in the autumn and spring, nothing is more common than for several boats to arrive and depart daily, occasioning much activity in the trade of the city. Thousands of travellers here embark for the farther "West."

There is much moral power in this city — much wealth and intelligence — many men of talents in the learned professions of law, medicine, and divinity, some of whom are extensively known in our country.

In Pennsylvania there is no system of common schools established by the authorities of the state. Education has therefore depended upon the voluntary efforts of the people. Schools have generally been maintained by the inhabitants of each neighborhood during some portion of the year. There are, however, many neighbourhoods where, owing to the sparseness of the population, or their poverty, or their want of interest in the subject, schools have been very inadequately supported. And, in many places, the teachers are incompetent for want of knowledge, or grossly deficient in moral character. A change for the better is, however, going forward. In this city, and in most of the large towns and larger villages, and in many of the most populous neighborhoods, very respectable schools are maintained. Academies are also established in all the larger towns, and the higher branches of learning taught in many of them. I would remark in this place, that there is a great demand in West Pennsylvania, for good school teachers: they would find certain and profitable employment.


As I intend to give a full account of the Colleges, and other literary institutions of the Valley of the Mississippi, in a separate chapter, I shall not here speak of the Colleges, &c. of Western Pennsylvania, but only refer the reader to that chapter. For the same reason, I shall say nothing here respecting the Religious Denominations, but reserve what I have to say on that subject for a distinct chapter.

I shall now close this description of Western Pennsylvania, with a few general remarks.

1. This portion of our country has occupied a considerable place in the annals of our nation. Seventy-five years ago, it was the abode of numerous tribes of Indians. The French claimed much of this region, and had several fortified posts in it, and, with their Indian allies, carried terror and death into the adjoining English settlements in the east. The principal of these fortifications was Fort Du Quesne, which was subsequently called Pittsburg. Many indeed were the brave and enterprising settlers who fell amid a long continued, and vindictive, but successful war, during which savage cruelty, and civilized inhumanity and stratagem, bedewed these hills and vallies with blood, and caused the voice of lamentation, uttered by sorrowing widows and fatherless children, to be heard in many a distant neighborhood. It was here that our beloved Washington learned the arts of war in successful and unsuccessful campaigns against the Indians and their Canadian allies. In 1753, he was sent by the lieutenant Governor of Virginia, to warn the French to leave this region of country, which, as well as what is now Ohio, Indiana, &c. they had commenced occupying. In 1754, he was again sent; with the title and command of a Major, to dislodge the; French and Indians from the post which they had commenced fortifying at the junction of the Monongahela and Allegheny. At a place called the "Little Meadows," (ten miles east of Uniontown,) in the immediate vicinity of which, the National road from Cumberland to Wheeling now passes, he was attacked by a numerous body of French and Indians. Having but one regiment, and protected only by a small stockade, he was compelled to surrender; which he did on honourable terms.

In 1755, Col. Washington again marched out to this region, as an aid-de-camp to Gen. Braddock. The disastrous


issue of this expedition is too well known to be repeated here. On the east bank of the Monongahela, where an excellent female seminary now stands, the British and American forces met with a terrible defeat. Braddock, mortally wounded in the battle, soon afterwards died; and in the retreat, the remnant of the army was commanded by Washington until its arrival at Dunbar's camp in the neighbourhood of the Little Meadows. About half a mile westward of the latter place, by the roadside, Braddock was buried. His bones, many years afterwards, were taken to England.

In 1758, the British General Forbes, marched against Fort Du Quesne. Col. Grant, who commanded the advance, with 800 Scotchmen, was defeated on the hill which bears his name. But in November of that year, this fortification surrendered. This event gave security to the emigrants, who now began to settle in this region. In 1759, Quebec was captured. And in 1763, this war was ended by the treaty of Paris.

2. In 1790, Congress passed a law imposing excise duties upon spirits distilled in the United States. This law was violently opposed in many parts of the country, especially in the western part of Pennsylvania. During the period of 1790-94, many meetings were held by the malecontents at Pittsburg, Brownsville, Parkinson's Ferry (now Williamsport,) on the Monongahela, Braddock's Field, and other places, where violent measures were adopted to defeat the law, and prevent the government officers from doing their duty. Many outrages were committed. The whole country became a scene of disorder. The Marshal of the United States for this District, was openly resisted, and escaped for his life, down the Ohio, after the burning of General Neville's house, which was done by the insurgents, because the Marshal was harboured there. It is impossible for any one, who did not live on the spot, rightly to conceive of the deplorable state of things. Matters waxed worse and worse. Neighbourhoods were torn to pieces by dissensions; houses and other property began to be burned by the rebels; and there was at length but little security for life, especially to those who stood forward prominently in behalf of the government.


Meanwhile, the government did all that it could, consistently with dignity and justice, to conciliate the disaffected. The laws were modified, proclamations were issued, and an amnesty proffered. But all in vain. At length, President Washington, having the proper sanction of the Supreme Court, called on the governments of the neighbouring states in 1794, for their aid in quelling this insurrection. And the autumn of that year, 12,000 men from Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, and Virginia, advanced upon the insurgents by way of Bedford and Cumberland. Governor Lee, of Virginia, commanded; and, under him, were the Governors of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The advance of this formidable force soon settled the difficulty. The proffered terms of pardon were accepted. A few of the chief leaders of the rebellion, who were found, were taken to Philadelphia for trial. No life was lost; the liberty poles disappeared; the "whiskey boys" quietly submitted; thus happily ended the "Whiskey Insurrection."

3. Western Pennsylvania presents many and strong inducements to eastern emigrants, especially to such as desire to remove — not exactly to a new and uncultivated country — but to one where the wilderness has given place, in a good degree, to cultivated fields. And there are many such emigrants, who, possessing a considerable amount of property wish to purchase in a country where land, although fertile and cultivated, is much cheaper than it is in favourable situations older states. Such emigrants will find much cultivated land in West Pennsylvania, of a good quality, convenient to market, or to the natural and artificial channels of trade, which abound in this section of our country. Rivers and roads are found in almost every part, leading to the great marts of business, either in the East or the West. Canals are adding to these facilities, and soon Railroads will still more increase them.

Farms can be purchased for various prices, in this entire region, according to their relative advantages for trade and proximity to market towns. It is impossible to state these prices with much accuracy. Some good farms will cost 8 or 10 dollars per acre, in a good state of cultivation,


and having houses, barns, &c. In more favourable situations they will cost from 15 to 85 dollars per acre; and in the neighbourhood of considerable towns, they will command even a greater price per acre.

The advantages of this country for trade, agriculture, the raising of live stock, &c. have already been mentioned. Many thousands of sheep are raised in Washington county, and in other counties, for the production of wool. And this business is found to be profitable. Whilst manufactures of iron, cotton, wool, &c. &c. now employ profitably a vast amount of capital.

The climate of West Pennsylvania is eminently salubrious. Of this I speak from long and intimate knowledge. It is essentially the climate of New Jersey and Eastern. Pennsylvania, as it regards temperature, excepting so far as it is modified by elevation, which is very considerable in every portion, and especially along the mountain ranges and vallies. The Ohio at Pittsburg, is 678 feet above the Atlantic ocean off Philadelphia, and the hills around are from 400 to 500 feet higher.

The morals of the people are generally good. Intemperance is rapidly diminishing. Religion was early planted in this region, and has a great influence upon the public mind. The preaching of the gospel is enjoyed in almost every part. Schools are improving, and Sunday schools, with libraries, are becoming to a good degree general. Whilst Colleges are numerous, and some of them very good, and all of them affording an education to young men at a moderate rate of expense. Manual labour schools are also establishing, which are opening the doors of science to the gifted sons of the humblest and the poorest.

Upon a survey of all these circumstances, I think it may be truly said that this portion of the West holds out many inducements to eastern emigrants.


Chapter XII. Western Virginia.

The Ohio River and its Scenery. — Western Virginia.

Map of Virginia, Maryland and Delaware.

HAVING in the last Chapter given a description of Western Pennsylvania, or what may be properly called the country which lies at the head of the Valley of the Ohio, I proceed to speak of another and more southern portion of this Valley. The present chapter will contain some, account of the Ohio River, and a brief description of Western Virginia.

The Ohio River may be considered as commencing at Pittsburg, at the junction of the Monongahela and Alleghany. From that point its general course is towards the N.W. to Beaver, 28 miles. From Beaver it pursues a course a little S. of W. to Wellsville, about 50 miles below Pittsburg. From this place its general course is almost due S. to Marietta, only verging a little to the West, as it approaches that place. From Marietta it pursues a S.W. course to the mouth of the Sandy. From that point it pursues a westward, or rather a little N. of West course, until, passing Cincinnati, it receives the great Miami. From its junction with that river to its union with the Mississippi, its main direction is south-west.

The length of the Ohio from Pittsburg to the Mississippi, is 952 miles. In the language of the boatmen it is called 1000, and even 1100 miles long. Cincinnati is nearly midway from Pittsburg to its junction with the Mississippi, The captains of the steam boats reckon Louisville to be near 650 miles below Pittsburg, and 450 above the mouth of the Ohio.

The course of this river, like that of all the streams of the Valley of the Mississippi, is singularly crooked. Its bends, as they are called, or meanderings are perpetual and uniform, and almost monotonous. In no place, from its source to its mouth, can the eye take in a section of more than five or ten miles in length; and excepting a few


"long reaches," — which is the boatmen's name for the straight portions of the river, — not more than from five to seven miles can often be seen in any one place.

About seventy-five rivers and creeks empty into the Ohio between Pittsburg and its mouth. The most important of these are, on the left hand as you descend, Chartiers, in West Pennsylvania; Wheeling creek, Little Kanawha, Great Kanawha, Guyandot and Sandy, from West Virginia: Little Sandy, Licking, Kentucky, Salt, Green, Cumberland and Tennessee, from the state of Kentucky. On the right, or westside, Beaver, from Pennsylvania; Muskingum, Hocking, Scioto, Little Miami, Great Miami, from Ohio; Wabash, from Indiana.

Between Pittsburg and the mouth of the Ohio there are one hundred considerable islands. There is also a number of sand-bars, tow-heads, &c. Some of the islands are several miles long, but of a narrow width. Not a few possess great beauty, fertility of soil, and afford delightful sites for a retired residence. They are generally too low to be very safe situations in times of high floods. They are all covered with dense forests, save where cultivation has converted the wilderness into a fruitful field.

The current of the Ohio is remarkably uniform, smooth and placid. In this respest it is surpassed by no other river on earth. The banks are generally high and abrupt, forming in many places bluffs and cliffs of the height of three or four hundred feet. Between these high bluffs and hills there are often strips of alluvial land, commonly called bottoms. These interval or botttom lands possess astonishing fertility. They are often of considerable width, so as to form farms of large extent, and of great beauty and value. The high hills which border the river, sometimes in immediate contiguity, at others standing off and leaving a considerable extent of bottom land, varying from a quarter of a mile to a mile in width, exhibit a wild and picturesque grandeur which cannot be conceived by those who have not witnessed such scenery. They are commonly covered, even to their very summits, with dense forests of oak, beech, walnut, &c. &c.; whilst along their base and far beneath their summits, a continuous grove of the white armed sycamore; the beautiful sugar-maple, ash, elm; and along the lower half of the river's course, cotton-wood, hackberry,


Cypress, &c. rear their heads, and add inexpressible beauty to the prospect. These trees are frequently of a gigantic size, and cast their broad shadows, in the mornings and evenings, quite across the placid bosom of the gentle Ohio. And when seen, during the full moonlight, from the beat which floats peacefully down the calmly moving stream, whilst nothing is heard save the bells of the cattle on the banks, the distant barking of the watchful dog, or the dissonant notes of the "moping owl," the effect on the mind of the traveller is indescribable. The constant shifting of the scene, the alternation of bright and dark sides of the hills, together with the variation in the appearance of the river — one place reflecting the beautiful beams of the moon, and another enveloped in the deep shadows cast from the lofty and overhanging bluffs, — altogether form a scene surpassing in beauty and effect any thing which I have elsewhere seen.

I have passed many times up and down this river from its source to its mouth. At one time I descended in a steam boat, when the river was full of floating ice, and the banks were covered with snow, and all nature wore a most forbidding aspect. Nothing was pleasant but the fire in the beautiful and elegantly furnished cabin. At another time, I descended when the heat of a mid-summer's sun, would have rendered the steamboat an intolerable place, had it not been for the perpetual breezes which float up or down the river. I have passed up and down this river when its stream was swollen by the vernal and autumnal floods, and when the largest steam boats proudly pursued their way up and down between Pittsburg and New Orleans, without obstruction. And I have been on this river, in the latter part of summer and the beginning of autumn, when it was with the utmost difficulty that a steam boat of 80 or 100 tons could pass from Pittsburg to Louisville; when it would sometimes require hours to get her over a sand-bar or a shoal, with all the aid that could be given by "sparring," and hauling, by means of a cable fastened at one end to a tree on shore and the other to the capstan, or to the shaft of the wheels, whilst a heavy pressure of steam was employed to force the boat ahead.

Before the introduction of steam-boats, every species of water craft was employed in navigating this river — some of which were of the most whimsical and amusing structure.


The barge, the keel boat, the flat bottom or family boat, the pirogue or canoe, ferry boats, gondolas, skiff's, dug-outs, and others, whose designation I cannot this moment recal to mind, formerly floated in great numbers down the Ohio and Mississippi, to points of destination sometimes more than two thousand miles distant from the place from which they started. And even since the introduction of steamboats, which in great numbers now traverse this river, and its branches, many hundreds — I might almost say thousands of these boats — still continue to float on these waters. The keelboats find much to do, during that portion of the summer and autumn when the river is too low for the steamboats to run. Hundreds of flat bottom boats (called, in the western boatman's dialect, "broad horns,") annually float down from a thousand places on the Ohio and other western streams, to Cincinnati, or Louisville, or New-Orleans. I have often passed fifty of them in a day, rowing with their long sweeps, or else floating leisurely with the current — often two or three lashed or fastened close together, and thus allowing the hands and passengers to while away the hours in holding converse together on the extended roof, or in each other's cabins.

This mode of navigation is slow, compared with the steamboat, but it is cheap — and to people who have but little to do, or who are not inclined to do much, time is reckoned of but little consequence. It is a great mistake to suppose that the introduction of steamboats has been succeeded by the disappearance of all this sort of craft. The rapidly increasing trade of this region, together with the cheapness and convenience of the flat boat navigation, seems to increase, rather than diminish their number. Convenient and pleasant as is a steamboat for families of emigrants removing to the West, yet there are hundreds and thousands of such families, who prefer the flat boat, slow as its motion is. Some prefer it, because they think that it is safer than the steamboats, to which so many accidents have happened. Others cannot afford to bear the expense of a passage in a steamboat. Besides, hundreds of farmers, who live on the small but navigable streams which flow into the Ohio and other large risers of the West, build their own boats at little expense, load them with their own and their neighbours' produce, and, when they have descended the small streams


in the vicinity of which they live, find that it is often cheaper to float on down to a distant market in their boats, than to ship their cargoes on board of a passing steam-boat.

These boats, however, are not only subject to great delays, but also exposed to some dangers from the rapid sandbars, rocks, and sudden and violent storms and tornadoes, which sink them before they can be gotten to the shore. Considering the form of these boats, and their unwieldy nature, it is truly wonderful that more accidents of this kind do not happen. As it is, they are so seldom, that they are scarcely estimated at all, by those whose business or choice it suits to descend to Cincinnati or New Orleans by this mode of navigation. There is not on earth a class of men of a more peculiar and marked character, than the western boatmen. They are as much a sui generis sort of men, as our sailors are. They have, it is true, lost much of the lawless and outrageous spirit which they had in the olden time, and before the introduction of steamboats upon the western waters. They have become less intemperate more civil in their intercourse with other men, but yet their distinguishing traits of character remain, boldness, readiness to encounter almost any danger, recklessness of consequences, and indifference to the wants of the future, amid the enjoyments, the noise, whiskey and fun, of the present. It is a mounful fact, that their own inclination, as well as their mode of life, almost constantly exclude them from the means of moral and religious instruction. Their condition is beginning, however, to excite Christian sympathy, and to elicit suitable efforts for the promotion of their reformation.

There are many beautiful and rapidly growing towns and cities, between Pittsburg and the mouth of the Ohio. The chief of them are Beaver, Steubenville, Wellsburg, Wheeling, Marietta, Galliopolis, Burlington, Portsmouth, Maysville, Ripley, Augusta, Cincinnati, Newport, Covington, Lawrenceburg, Madison, Jeffersonville, Louisville, New Albany, Henderson, Shawneetown, and Smithland. Almost a hundred more, flourishing, but yet small villages, springing up on the banks of this beautiful river, might be mentioned. But I shall reserve whatever degree of particular description of these places I may give in this book, until I come to speak of the states in which they stand.


I am acquainted with no river scenery in our country through which it is more delightful to pass, than that which borders the Ohio River, in the spring or early part of summer, when all nature seems to be teeming with life — when the noble forests which crown both the hills and the vales on each side of this gracefully meandering river, have put on their dark coloured foliage — and when the balmy breezes, scented by the flowers of the shrubbery which forms the undergrowth along the banks, are wafted gently over the noble steamboat, as she careers along — Or, when autumn is beginning to shed its mellow influence upon the vegetable world, and the forests, as the soft and serene day opens in the morning, or wears away towards the evening, exhibit from the vales and the lofty banks on either side, the varied tints, — the yellow, the red, and the purple, intermixed with the yet unchanging green, — which give signs of the gradual decline of nature towards the lifelessness and coldness of approaching winter. Nothing can be more pleasant than to make a voyage at such a period, in an elegant boat, possessing suitable accommodations, (as many western steamboats do,) in company with pleasant and intelligent passengers. Many an hour will glide swiftly away, while the deck is promenaded in the morning and the evening and the ever-varying scene contemplated with renewed admiration.

But I must now close these general remarks respecting the Ohio and its scenery, and occupy the remainder of the chapter with a brief description of Western Virginia.

WESTERN VIRGINIA, is bounded on the north by Pennsylvania, and Maryland; on the east by the line which separates the waters which flow into the Atlantic by the Potomac, James' River, Roanoke, &c. from those which flow west; on the south by North Carolina and Tennessee; west by Kentucky; and north-west by the Ohio river, which separates it from the state of Ohio. A narrow strip of land projects northward between a part of the western line of Pennsylvania and the Ohio river. The area of Western Virginia is about 26,649 square miles, or two-fifths of the state. The line of division which separates Western from Eastern Virginia, can easily be traced on a good map of the state. On the south-west, the Sandy, up to a certain point, thence a direct line to the Cumberland Mountains, and thence along those mountains to the Tennessee line,


form the boundary which separates Virginia from Kentucky.

The following is a list of the counties in Western Virginia with the census of 1830. In 1820, the population was 147,514. The population of the entire state in 1830 was 1,211,272.

Counties, County Towns. Population in 1830.
Brooke, n w, Wellsburg, 7,046
Ohio, n w, Wheeling, 15,584
Monongalia, n w, Morgantown, 14,056
Harrison, n w, Clarkesburg, 14,723
Randolph, n m, Beverly, 5,000
Russell,s w, Lebanon, 6,714
Preston,n, Kingwood, 5,244
Tyler, n w, Middlebourne, 4,104
Wood, w, Parkersburg, 6,429
Greenbrier, w m, Greenbrier, C.H. 9,006
Kanawha, w, Charleston, 9,326
Mason, w, Point Pleasant, 6,534
Lewis, w m, Weston, 6,241
Nicholas, w m, Nicholas, C.H. 3,346
Logan, w, Logan, C.H. 3,640
Cabell, w, Cabell, C.H. 5,834
Monroe, w m, Union, 7,798
Pocahontas, w m, Huntersville, 2,542
Giles, w, Parisburg, 5,274
Montgomery, s w, Christiansburg, 12,306
Wythe, s w, Wythe, C.H. 12,163
Grayson, s, Grayson, C.H. 7,675
Tazewell, s w, Jeffersonville, 5,749
Washington, s w, Abingdon, 15,614
Scott, s w, Estillville, 5,724
Lee, s w, Lee, C.H. 6,461
Total of Population, 204,173

From the above table it appears that there are 26 counties in Western Virginia. The increase of population has been somewhat more than 55,000 during the period of ten years, from 1820 to 1830.

The whole number of counties in the state, in 1830, was 105.


Executive Government of Virginia. — Governor elected by the General Assembly — term of office, three years, salary $3,333 1/3. Lieutenant Governor, $1,000. Two Counsellors each, $1,000. Treasurer and Auditor, each $2,000.

LEGISLATURE, styled the General Assembly of Virginia, consists of a Senate and House of Delegates. The Senate consists of 32 members; and the House of Delegates of 134, of whom 31 are elected by the counties in Western Virginia. The Legislature meets annually on the 1st Monday in December, at Richmond, the capital of the State.

JUDICIARY. — The Court of Appeals consists of a President, with a salary of $2,720, and four other judges, whose salary is $2,500 each. This Court holds two sessions annually, one at Richmond, for East Virginia; the other at Lewisburg, in Greenbrier County, for West Virginia, including all the counties West of the Blue Ridge, commencing on the first Monday in July, and continuing ninety days, if business requires it.

General Court. — The state is divided into ten districts and twenty circuits. There are twenty Judges, — one for each circuit. A Circuit Superior Court of Law and Chancery is held twice every year in each county and corporation.

Face of the Country, &c. — The eastern part of Western Virginia, as any one will perceive who examines a well-executed map of Virginia, is composed of a section of the Allegheny system of mountains. This mountainous section is much wider on the south than on the north, for the dividing line which separates the eastern from the western streams crosses over from the Blue Ridge to one of the western ranges of this system of mountains, at a short distance north of the New River, which is the main branch of the Kanawha River. So that whilst many ridges and spurs of the Alleghenies are in the southern part, there are but two or three mountain ridges, exclusive of the detached portions, in the middle and northern parts of Western Virginia.

The vallies which lie between these mountains are by no means always narrow strips of comparatively level land; they often expand until they seem, to one surveying them from an elevated spot, like vast basins, surrounded by elevated mountains. Such is the valley in which Abingdon is


situated, and that which embosoms a large portion of East Tennessee, having the Clinch, and further south the Cumberland mountains, on the west, and the Blue Ridge on the east. Much, however, of this vast basin in East Tennessee is interrupted by minor mountains and ridges, which, when compared with the great natural boundaries, in the distance, are insignificant. In Virginia, the ridges are more compact, so to speak, than in East Tennessee. Still the valley in which Wythe and Washington counties are situated, having Walker's mountain on the west, resembles more a basin than a valley. Smaller basins, such as Burke's Garden, are to be found throughout the whole mountainous region in Virginia.

Nothing can be more beautiful to the eye of the traveller, as he pursues his way over these successive ridges, than to survey, from their summits, the vallies and basins which lie before him, and on his right and left. They appear often like vast oceans of trees, lying at an immense distance below him, waving their green surfaces to the various blasts of wind which agitate them. They are not now continous forests. Here and there, the green surface is interrupted by cultivated farms, fields of grass, of corn, or of wheat, adding variety to the scene, as well as giving assurance to the traveller that he is in a land inhabited by civilized men.

The mountainous belt, in Virginia, is about 120 miles in width, being composed of successive parallel ridges or mountains, interrupted by the rivers and smaller streams, which intersect them in various places. Beyond these mountains lies the hilly portion of Western Virginia, sloping down to the Ohio river.

An examination of this mountainous zone, stretching from southwest to northeast, presents this remarkable phenomenon, viz. these mountain ridges have little or no effect upon the course of the rivers which rise and flow from this elevated region. They run east or west, without having their course affected by opposing mountains; for when necessary, they seem to cut through them, as if these everlasting barriers afforded no impediment at all to their course. And their sources interlock with, and pass by each other, pursuing their opposite ways, without any reference to the mountain ridges, so that you can select no one of these ridges as the great dividing line, separating the western


from the eastern waters. In fact they rise on the great elevated table-land upon which the mountains seem to have been superimposed, and have their courses shaped entirely by the declinations of its surface, without reference to the mountains at all; so that if one could imagine these mountains to be removed away, the rivers would still pursue their channels, formed in the eternal base, unaffected by the removal of the mountain mass.

Beginning at the southern end of this mountain system, as it regards Virginia, on the Tennessee and North Carolina line, and advancing northward, you first find the Holston, Clinch, &c., flowing south-westward into the Tennessee, and so into the Mississippi. Next you come to the New River, or main branch of the Great Kanawha, which rises in the north-west angle of North Carolina, and runs northwest through every ridge of the Allegheny system, (including what is called the Allegheny Ridge) excepting the Blue Ridge, on the west side of which it rises. As you proceed further northward, you come to the Roanoke, which rises west of the Blue Ridge, and in its course south-eastward, cuts through that mountain. Next you come to the James River, which also cuts the Blue Ridge; and some of its main branches rising far to the West, cut through every ridge of the system, save the most western one or two. Still further north you find the Potomac and its branches rising almost in the western sides of the mountainous region, and cutting in its way eastward almost all the ridges; and on the opposite side, you find the Monongahela; and its branches the Cheat and Youghiogany, in their course westward, cutting through the remaining ridges. Indeed these remarks might be extended to those parts of the Allegheny system which lie south and north of Virginia. I shall leave to others to account for this phenomenon.

The vallies which lie between these mountain ridges possess, generally, great fertility of soil. And no climate is more salubrious. The traveller who would spend the summer months in visiting this region, whether in quest of health or pleasure, will not find himself disappointed. There is a good line of stages running from Richmond, by way of Staunton, Lexington, Lewisburg, Charleston on the Kanawha, to Guyandot on the Ohio, crossing the Alleghenies. Another runs up the great valley, intersecting the one from


Washington via Lynchburg, and continues on through the southeastern angle of Western Virginia, into East Tennessee. Tours along these and other roads in this mountain region, although over rough roads, will be found to be very pleasant in the summer and autumn. I have never witnessed finer scenery than these mountains and vallies, interspersed with well cultivated farms, afford.

The Legislature of Virginia, at its Session in the winter of 1830-31, incorporated a company to make a rail-road from Lynchburg to the New River, or principal branch of the Kanawha. It is now proposed to contine this rail-road through Abingdon, into the centre of East Tennessee, to Kingsport or Knoxville on the Holston, — and, perhaps, ultimately, into the northern part of Alabama. Several meetings have been held in various towns in this region, to consider the subject, and devise measures to promote it. That such an improvement would be of immense advantage to this region, fertile not only in soil, but also in the most valuable minerals, and yet shut out from many of those facilities of trade enjoyed by most other sections of our country, is manifest — And nothing but a rail-road can well be made. It would be from 250 to 300 miles in length, over a very favourable surface, and open an easy mode of conveying an immense amount of valuable productions to an eastern market, and thus increase the population and the wealth of this interesting region. In the counties through, or near which such a road will pass, if ever made, are to be found in abundant quantities, coal and copper, in Montgomery; lead, in Wythe, so abundant that vast quantities would be sent to the East, if it could be transported at a sufficiently low price; salt, in Washington, (a few miles from Abingdon) where one hundred thousand bushels will be made this year, and where enough could be made to supply East Tennesses and East Virginia, — gypsum, in Washington, superior to that of Nova Scotia, and very abundant: iron, in unlimited quantities, can be manufactured in Wythe and Washington, in Virginia, and in Carter, Sullivan, and Washington counties, in Tennessee.

This railroad I trust will be undertaken soon. Northern capitalists will find it profitable stock. Engineers are now surveying the ground, and find it to afford the best of facilities. The route of this proposed railroad is the natural


outlet of the productions of South-Western Virginia, and Eastern Tennessee. Expensive as the carriage is, flour and wheat are carried by wagons from this region to Baltimore; and even 4,000 bales of cotton were last year carried from East Tennessee, in this way, to the same city. And all the merchandise which is sold in South-West Virginia and East Tennessee, is brought, at great cost, in wagons from Baltimore or Lynchburg.

The country which reaches down from the mountain range to the Ohio, in Western Virginia, is generally hilly. These hills are often of great height, of a round and cononical shape, insulated by ravines, or by narrow bottomlands, which separate their bases. The surface of this portion of the state is, therefore, exceedingly diversified; and much of the hilly parts is not susceptible of cultivation, on account of its unevenness.

Soil and Productions. — The soil of the bottom lands is generally of great fertility. Along the water-courses, there is much land of a fine quality. The sides and summits of the hills, in many cases, have a productive soil. In some places, however, the hills are rocky and barren. The whole country, in a state of nature, was covered with dense forests of oak, ash, elm, sugar-maple, sycamore, poplar, &c. The sycamore grows along the water-courses; the maple, elm, buck-eye, and paw-paw, grow on the alluvial bottoms chiefly.

The productions are wheat, rye, maize, (universally called corn in the West, and indeed generally throughout the United States,) oats, buckwheat, Irish potatoes, &c. &c. Tobacco is raised in some counties to a considerable extent. Cattle, horses and hogs, are here raised for an eastern market. Flour, corn, &c. are in great quantities sent by the various rivers of this section of our country, to New-Orleans and other places in the lower part of the Valley.

Salt is manufactured, in great quantities, on the Kanawha River, in the vicinity of Charleston, about 65 miles above its mouth. At the point where the salt factories are established, the Kanawha River is about 150 yards wide. The "salt region" extends 15 miles along the river, and the quantity of salt now manufactured annually, is about 1,200,000 bushels; and may be extended to an indefinite amount. The salt water is obtained by boring through a great rock,


to the depth of from 300 to 500 feet. Copper or tin tubes are introduced to keep out the fresh water, which lies above the salt water, and the latter rises as high as the surface of the river; along the margin of which, and in the water's edge, though all communication with it is cut off, the wells are sunk. It is then raised to the top of the bank of the river, about 40 feet, by forcing pumps, propelled by steam-engines, and conveyed to the furnaces as required. Bituminous coal abounds on the spot, and is used for the purposes of evaporating the water.

These works at present employ about 1,000 men, as salt-makers, coopers, boat-builders, &c. The average price of salt has hardly exceeded 30 or 35 cents per bushel at them. By means of the increasing channels of cheap transportation, which are now opening by canals, rail-roads, &c. supplies of salt may be obtained from the West in future emergencies, — such as happened in the last war.

During the year 1827, 787,000 bushels of salt were made at these works, giving employment to 471 regular labourers, and using 1,695,000 bushels of coal in evaporating 64 millions of gallons of water. The capital employed was estimated at $548,000, and the agricultural productions consumed, valued at $47,600, besides the cost of 183 tons of iron, and $7,950 paid to mechanics. And all this is exclusive of the cost of transportations, making of barrels, building of wagons, boats, &c.

About 100,000 bushels of salt are now annually made in the neighborhood of Abingdon, in Washington county, as I have already remarked.

No state in the Union is richer in valuable minerals than Virginia, and particularly the western part of it. Iron is every where abundant in the mountainous regions. Coal, gypsum, lead, copper, &c. are also found in the southwestern counties, and will probably be abundant. Mineral springs of the most valuable character are found in several


places. The most celebrated of these are the Warm, Hot, Sweet, White Sulphur, and Red Sulphur Springs, in the midst of the mountains; and partly in West, and partly in Central Virginia — and are found in Greenbrier, Bath, and Monroe counties. There are fine orchards in Western Virginia; and apples and cider constitute important articles of exportation. Lumber of every description is also, in large quantities, sent down the rivers to the Ohio, and thence to the towns in the lower part of the Valley.

Western Virginia is drained by a considerable number of streams, which are navigable for flat boats, and some for steam-boats, during the spring and fall months. On the North is the Monongahela and its branches; on the West, Wheeling Creek, Little Kanawha, Great Kanawha, Guyandot, Sandy, and many smaller streams; and on the South, is the Holston and its branches. These streams, flowing down from the mountains, are rapid in their currents, and have numerous cataracts towards their sources, which furnish fine waterpower for mills, &c.

Towns. — There are many very pleasant towns in Western Virginia. The largest is Wheeling, which is situated on the Ohio, 92 miles below Pittsburg. It is a place of great business. At this point, thousands of travellers and emigrants embark on board the steamboats for the more distant West. The national road from Cumberland to Columbus and St. Louis, crosses the Ohio at this place. This road is completed beyond Zanesville, in Ohio; and will be finished to Columbus soon. It has cost a vast sum of money, and is a great public benefit. The population of Wheeling is about 6,000, and is rapidly increasing. The situation of this town is quite romantic lying below very lofty hills. It is a place of extensive manufactures in iron, cotton, flour, &c. Steamboats are built here.

Morgantown, Clarksburg, Lewisburg, Abingdon, Charleston, Wellsburg, Point Pleasant, Parkersburg, and many others, might be mentioned as pleasant places.

Education. — The state of Virginia has established no general system of common schools. In this respect Western Virginia is in the same condition as Western Pennsylvania. Virginia appropriates, however, $45,000 annually to educate poor children. This is a very defective measure, but accomplishes some good. Academies exist in


some of the larger towns. But there is no College Western Virginia. There is but little need, perhaps, that there should be, as there are many Colleges in the neighbouring states.


1. The character of the people of Western Virginia very different from that of the inhabitants of the East part of the state. There are but few slaves in the W less wealth, and more industry and equality among the people. Their manners resemble much more those of Western Pennsylvania than those of Eastern Virginia.

2. The climate is one of pre-eminent salubrity. No part of the West enjoys greater, if as great, advantages in respect.

3. Although there is no public land for sale in Western Virginia, yet emigrants will find much land of good quality offered for sale, by those who have cultivated it for several years, and are now desirous of removing still farther west

4. Very spirited efforts are now making by the inhabitants of Eastern and Western Virginia, to secure the construction of a canal, or, if that cannot be done, a railroad from the James River to the Kanawha. And there be but little doubt, that there will soon be such a channel of communication between the East and the West, through this state. Its importance must be obvious to every one.

5. The early history of Western Virginia, if well ten, would constitute a chapter filled with the details o hardships, sufferings, and massacres of the first emigrants But few events, however, of genera] interest at this occurred in this section of our country. Logan, famous Mingo chief, lived near the mouth of the Kanawha River. The story of his calamities, as well as a specimen of his simple but affecting eloquence, is well known.

6. A mile and a half below Parkersburg, at the mouth of the Little Kanawha, is the celebrated island which was formerly the residence of Mr. Blennerhasset. The beauty and charms of this delightful spot, like the once cheering prospects of its former proprietor, have long since disappeared.


Chapter XIII. Ohio.

Map of Ohio and Indiana.

THE STATE OF Ohio is bounded on the north by Lake Erie and Michigan Territory; east by Pennsylvania and Virginia; south by the Ohio river, which separates it from Western Virginia and Kentucky; and west by Indiana.

Extending from N. lat. 38° 30' to 42°, and in lon. from 3° 34' to 7° 44' W. from Washington. Its area is 39,750 square miles, or 25,440,000 acres.

The Ohio river forms the boundary of this state on the south-east and south, for near 500 miles.

Adams, s, 12,231 West Union, 101
Ashtabula, n e, 14,584 Jefferson, 191
Athens, s e, 9,787 Athens, 73
Allen, w m, 578 Wwapaghkonetta, 110
Butler, s w, 27,142 Hamilton, 101
Belmont, e, 28,627 St. Clairsville, 124
Brown, s, 17,867 Georgetown, 104
Champaign, w m, 12,131 Urbana, 50
Clarke, s w m, 13,114 Springfield, 43
Clermont, s w, 20,466 Batavia, 109
Columbiana, e, 35,592 New Lisbon, 152
Coshocton, e m, 11,161 Coshocton, 84
Cuyahoga, n e, 10,373 Cleveland, 138
Crawford, n m, 4,791 Bucyrus, 69
Clinton, s m, 11,436 Wilmington, 67
Dark, w, 6,204 Greenville, 103
Delaware, m, 11,504 Delaware, 23
Fairfield, m, 24,786 Lancaster, 28


(Table Continued.)
Fayette, m, 8,182 Washington, 45
Franklin, m, 14,741 COLUMBUS,  
Gallia, s, 9,733 Gallipolis, 108
Geuga, n e 15,813 Chardon, 157
Green, s w m, 14,801 Xenia, 57
Guernsey, e m, 18,036 Cambridge, 83
Hamilton, s w, 52,317 Cincinnati, 112
Hocking, s m, 4,008 Logan, 47
Highland, s m, 16,345 Hilsboro', 74
Harrison, e, 20,916 Cadiz, 124
Hancock, n w m 813 Finlay, 114
Hardin, w m, 210 Hardin, 66
Henry, n w, 262 Napoleon, 161
Holmes, m, 9,135 Millersburg, 80
Huron, n, 13,346 Norwalk, 113
Jefferson, e, 22,489 Steubenville, 149
Jackson, s, 5,941 Jackson, 74
Knox, m, 17,085 Mount Vernon, 45
Lawrence, s, 5,367 Burlington, 135
Licking, m, 20,869 Newark, 34
Lorraine, n, 5,696 Elyria, 130
Logan, w m, 6,440 Bellefontaine, 62
Madison, m, 6,190 London, 27
Marion, m, 6,551 Marion, 47
Medina, n e m, 7,560 Medina, 111
Meigs, s e, 6,158 Chester, 94
Mercer, w, 1,110 St. Mary's, 111
Miami, w m, 12,807 Troy, 78
Monroe, s e, 8,768 Woodfield, 140
Montgomery, w m, 24,362 Dayton, 66
Morgan, s e , 11,800 McConnellsville, 70
Muskingum, m, 29,334 Zanesville, 59
Perry, s m, 13,970 Somerset, 46
Pickaway, m, 16,001 Circleville, 26
Pike, s, 6,024 Piketon, 65
Portage, n e, 18,826 Ravenna, 127
Preble, w, 16,291 Eaton, 92
Putnam, n w, 230 Sugar Grove, 148


(Table continued.)
Paulding, n w, 161    
Richland, n m, 24,008 Mansfield, 71
Ross, s m, 24,068 Chillicothe, 45
Sandusky, n, 2,851 L'r Sandusky, 103
Shelby, w m, 3,671 Sydney, 86
Scioto, s, 8,740 Portsmouth, 91
Seneca, n m, 6,159 Tiffin, 85
Stark, e m, 26,588 Canton, 116
Tuscarawas, e m, 14,298 New Philad'a. 107
Trumbull, n e, 26,123 Warren, 157
Union, m, 3,192 Marysville, 37
Van Wert, n w, 49 Willshire, 146
Washington, s e, 11,731 Marietta, 106
Wayne, n m, 23,333 Wooster, 86
Williams, n w, 387 Defiance, 175
Warren, s w m, 21,468 Lebanon, 83
Wood, n w, 1,102 Perrysburg, 135
Total, 73 Counties 937,903  
Population of Ohio at different periods.
  Population.   Increase.
In 1790, about 3,000 From 1790 to 1800, 42,365
1800, 45,365 ' 1800 ' 1810, 185,395
1810, 230,760 ' 1810 ' 1820, 350,674
1820, 581,434 ' 1820 ' 1830, 356,469
1830, 937,903    

GOVERNMENT. — Governor, term of office two years, salary $1,200; Secretary of State; Treasurer; and Auditor.

Senate consists of 36 members, elected biennially; House of Representatives consists of 72 members, elected annually.

JUDICIARY. — Supreme Court consists of a Chief Judge and three Associate Judges—salaries, $1,200 each.

Courts of Common Pleas. — The state is divided into nine districts, in each of which there is a presiding Judge,


salary $1000, and two Associates in each county who receive each, $2 50 per day, during their attendance at court.

All the fudges of the Supreme Court and the Courts of Common Pleas are elected by the House of Representatives for the term of 7 years. The Supreme Court sits once a year in each county, and the Court of Commons Pleas three times a year.

The only capital crime in Ohio is murder in the first degree. There is no imprisonment for debt, except in case of fraudulent withholding of property.

Columbus is the seat of Government.

Face of the Country. The eastern part of the state which borders on Pennsylvania is hilly, but gradually becomes more level as you approach westward. Maumee, Sandusky, Cuyahoga and other streams which comes more level as you approach westward. Along the whole course of the Ohio River, there is, in this state, a strip of land, of from 10 to 15 miles, and in some places more, in width, which is broken and hilly. These hills especially in the immediate vicinity of the river, are very high and often of quite a mountainous aspect.

The western half of the state is in general remarkable level. On the immediate borders of Indiana, it is so much so as to assume a very monotonous appearance. The central parts of the state, from the neighbourhood of the Ohio River up to lake Erie may be compared, as it regards level character, not with entire accuracy, to the country around Philadelphia, or rather that portion of Pennsylvania which is seen by the traveller as he passes from that city to Lancaster by the main turnpike road.

Soil. — At least three-fourth parts of this state possesses a soil that may be said to be fertile, and a large portion may safely be pronounced to be first rate land. Even the highest hills commonly possess a good soil, and are covered in a state of nature with forests of trees of prodigious size. In some cases, especially in the portion of the state bordering immediately on the Ohio river, they are too rocky to be susceptible of any mode of cultivation. Sometimes the bluffs on and near the mouths of the rivers which fall into that stream, exhibit on their sides masses of exposed gray limestone or sandstone.

That part of Ohio which may be considered as the poorest as to soil and vegetable productions, is a district of country lying along the Ohio River, commencing in Belmont county


stretching down to the Scioto river, and extending from the Ohio into the state to the average distance of about 40 or 50 miles. Many of the hills in this district are stony, and have a sterile soil. They abound in metallic ore, marble and other valuable species of stone, such as are suitable for mill-stones, oil-stones, &c. &c. On the water courses there is a considerable quantity of fertile land even in this district.

The vallies of the Miamis the Scioto, and a portion of those of the Hocking and Muskingum, have much land of the very finest quality. The same may be said, although in a sense somewhat more qualified, of the vallies of the Maumee, Sandusky, Cuyahoga and other streams which flow into Lake Erie.

Forty years ago this state was covered with one immense, uninterrupted, forest of oak, walnut, hickory, ash, poplar, beech, locust, elm, sugar tree, &c. &c. And even now, to one who stands on an eminence in any part of the state, and surveys this country, the cleared land bears no comparison with that which, is yet covered by the lofty forest. The sycamore, elm, honey-locust, sugar-maple, buck-eye, grow chiefly in the level and fertile alluvial bottoms. The under wood of this country is such as the dog wood, spice wood, red bud, sassafras, sumach, paw-paw, iron wood, &c. The dog wood grows on all lands. The paw-paw, and spice wood grow on fertile soils, the former chiefly on alluvial bottoms.

The hackberry is found in the western part of the state on bottom lands: a species of the buck-eye is the horse chesnut of the east. The linden tree is the bass of New England. There are several species of the oak, viz. black, white, red, jack, post, &c. and of the walnut, hickory, &c, in the west.

Beech grows on two kinds of lands — on low wet bottoms, and on elevated undulating and even hilly land. Its prevalence is indicative of a cold soil, not always very fertile, but generally productive and very lasting. A large portion of the land in the vicinity of the Ohio is covered with beech interspersed with other timber, and on the very level lands in the northwestern part of the state, on the streams of the Maumee and Sandusky, this species of timber greatly abounds.

Rivers. This state is composed of two unequal inclined


planes. The longer of which slopes down southward to the Ohio river, and the shorter slopes northward to Lake, Erie. Down these planes flow all the rivers of the state. The streams which flow into the Ohio, are the Mahoning, a branch of the Beaver, Little Beaver, Muskingum, Hocking, Scioto, Little Miami and Great Miami. Those which flow into Lake Erie are the Maumee, Portage, Sandusky, Cuyahoga, Grand, and Ashtabula. These streams afford numerous and highly important facilities for boat navigation, to the various sections of the state through which they flow. The Muskingum, Scioto, Great Miami, Maumee and Cuyahoga are particularly important streams, as they flow from the table-land of the state, and their upper branches so interlock with each other as to render the construction of canals not only a practicable, but also a comparatively easy undertaking. Vast quantities of the cultivated productions of this state, as well as of timber, and lumber of every sort, are every year sent down these rivers to the Ohio and Lake Erie, and find a distant market in New-Orleans and New-York.

Canals and Roads. — Two important canals have been undertaken by this enterprising state. 1. The Ohio and Erie Canal. This canal commences on Lake Erie at Cleveland, at the mouth of the Cuyahoga. It follows the banks of that river 37 miles, thence it crosses Portage summit to the Tuscara was river, descends along the course of that river to the Tomoka creek, a little stream which falls into that river from the west, a few miles below the town of Coshocton; it ascends along the Tomoka a short distance and thence crosses over to the Licking river, a branch of the Muskingum; it ascends along the Licking to a point on the South Fork a few miles south of Newark; thence it crosses over to Walnut creek, a small stream which falls into the Scioto; after reaching that river, it descends along the eastern bank to Circleville, and there crosses over to the west or right bank of the river; descending along that bank it passes Chillicothe, and continues to the mouth of the Scioto at Portsmouth.

The length of this canal is 307 miles, its width is 40 feet, and the depth of water 4 feet. There is a feeder extending 10 miles from Columbus, to the main canal, and also one from Racoon creek near the Licking summit. This canal crosses several streams on aqueducts, such as those over


the Cuyahoga, Tuscarawas, White Woman, and Scioto, besides many smaller ones.

This canal is now completed. This great work was commenced in 1825. It has gone forward at a steady rate. Many difficulties have been encountered in its prosecution. There are 1,185 feet of lockage on this canal. The surface of Lake Erie is 568 feet, and that of the Ohio River at Portsmouth 474, above the ocean level. This canal has opened a large amount of trade between the central parts of Ohio and New York.

2.The Miami-Canal; which extends from Cincinnati to Dayton on the Miami River. It is 65 miles in length, exclusive of feeders. The dimensions are the same as those of the Ohio and Erie canal. It was finished in 1830, and has opened a channel of trade between Cincinnati and one of the finest portions of the state. It cost the sum of $746,852. It is probable that this canal will be continued, at some future time, to the Maumee, an entire distance from Cincinnati, of 265 miles.

In 1828, the general government appropriated to the state of Ohio the half of the public lands along the canal, within the distance of 5 miles on each side of it, provided the work should be undertaken within five years from the approval of that act, and finished within twenty years; and also provided that the said canal be a public highway for the business of the government of the United States, free from tolls. The state has ageed to continue this canal as far as the sales of the public land will sustain the expense.

Erie and Mad River Rail-Road. It is proposed to make a railroad from Sandusky to Dayton on the Miami River. By this route another channel for commercial intercourse will be opened between Lake Erie and the Ohio. The length of this railroad will be 153 miles, and will cost $10,775 per mile. It is ascertained that it is perfectly practicable to make this road, and a company have undertaken the work. In a few years it will be completed. This road will pass through Tiffin, Bellefontaine, Urbana, and Springfield.

Congress further assigned to this state 500,000 acres of the public lands which lie within it, for the construction of any other canals, or extention of those which were then commenced, upon the conditions that the same be complete


within seven years from the time of the approval of this act; and that he said canals shall be public highways for the use of the government of the United States, free from toll, for ever. The total quantity of land granted by Congress to this State for internal improvements, is 922,937 acres.

To construct the canals above described, which are 372 miles in length, and benefit a large portion of the people, the state has borrowed the following sums, which, with their respective amount of interest, are given from the Ohio State Journal:

  Sum borrowed.   Per Cent. Interest.
Loan of 1825 $400,000 at 5 $20,000
" " 1826 1,000,000 " 6 60,000
" " 1827 1,200,000 " 6 72,000
" " 1828 1,200,000 " 6 72,000
" " 1830 600,000 " 6 36,000
Foreign Debt, 4,400,000   $260,000
School Fund, (bor'd.) 169,460   10,167
Total, $4,569,460   $270,167

To meet the interest due last year, on the canal loans, the following sources were relied on:

Direct Tax of 2 mills on a dollar, $121,516
Canal Tolls, 80,000
Sales of land granted by Congress, 50,000
Donation, interest on deposits, &c. 20,000
Amounting to $271,516

The taxes in 1831, for canal, state, country, township, and school purposes, &c. amounted to $585,076 21, or about 62 cents, upon the average, to every inhabitant of the state.

The national road from Cumberland into the West, is completed to the vicinity of Columbus, through Indianapolis and Terre Haute in Indiana, to Vandalia in Illinois, and will terminate probably at St. Louis. There is no where in our country a finer road


than the part of it which is finished from Wheeling to the vicinity of Columbus. This road is now of great advantage to Ohio, and will be far more so when the whole line is completed.

There is now a road making, to be McAdamized, if practicable, from Cincinnati to Columbus, which is to be, eventually, continued to Lake Erie. The principal roads, with the distances marked, are indicated on the map which relates to this and the succeeding chapter.

There is a large number of lines of stages in this state, some of which start daily, but the most of them three times a week. I can only mention a few of them. 1. There are two lines daily, called the Mail and Accommodation Lines, from Cincinnati through Columbus, to Washington and Baltimore. 2. A line from Cincinnati, by way of Hillsboro, Chillicothe, and Lancaster, intersecting the above mentioned lines at Zanesville. 3. A line from Columbus up to Cleveland, by way of Wooster. 4. One from Wooster to Pittsburg by way of Canton and New Lisbon. 5. From Buffalo in New York, to Detroit, along the Lake shore in this state. There are also lines from various points on the Ohio, such as Ripley, Portsmouth, Gallipolis, &c. up into the central points of the state, and continued to Lake Erie. Indeed, there is scarcely any important place in the state, which cannot be approached by stage, especially from March to December.

Productions. — This state produces abundantly every thing which grows in the middle states. Corn grows luxuriantly, yielding, on rich alluvial bottom lands, from 50 to 75 bushels per acre. Fifty bushels per acre, are a common and almost average crop. Wheat grows finely in this state, and flour is exported in vast quantities by the Ohio and Lake Erie, to Southern and Eastern markets. Many steam Mills have been erected in this state, especially in the vicinity of the Ohio River, for the manufacturing of flour. Mills for the same purpose, propelled by water, are to be found in every part of the state. Rye, oats, buckwheat, &c. &c. grow abundantly in every part of the state. Melons, squashes, pumpkins, beans, peas, potatoes, onions, beets, carrots, parsnips, tomatos, — and, in a word, all sorts of vegetables which grow in the middle and northern states, are raised in great perfection

Hemp is cultivated to some extent. Tobacco is beginning


to be raised in considerable quantities, for exportation Flax is grown by almost every farmer for domestic manufacture.

The orchards of this state would be excellent, if sufficient attention were paid to them. Apples, peaches, pears, quinces, apricots, plums, cherries, currants, gooseberries, strawberries, and all kinds of fruits which are the growth of this climate, are abundant in this state, wherever attention is bestowed upon their cultivation.

Horses, cattle and hogs, are here raised in great numbers, and driven to an eastern market. And thousands of barrels of beef and pork, are boated from all the towns on the navigable streams, for the southern part of the Valley, or to New York. In the year 1831, 410 flat bottom boats arrived at New-Orleans, loaded with salted beef and pork, flour, corn, in ears or in meal, apples, cider, dried fruits, whiskey, &c. from this state. How great a quantity of these articles was shipped on steam-boats for the same destination, or transported by Lake Erie to the East, I have not the means of stating accurately. Vast quantities of lumber are annually sent down the Ohio River from this state.

Manufactures. — There are a number of cotton and woollen factories established in the towns along the Ohio. Cincinnati is a rival of Pittsburg, in manufactures of iron, &c. I shall have occasion to speak particularly of the manufactures of that city, in another place. There are a number of furnaces for smelting iron ore in the counties along the Ohio, particularly in the region of Hocking River. Glass is manufactured in several towns in the same part of the state. Iron is also made in some of the counties bordering


on Lake Erie. On the Muskingum, below Zanesville, salt is manufactured at various places, for about thirty miles. About 250,000 bushels are made annually. Considerable quantities are also made on Yellow Creek, about 14 or 15 miles above Steubenville. In 1830, there were, in this state, $334,762 invested in the manufacture of salt, and 446,350 bushels were made.

In every town and village in the state, all the ordinary manufactures, such as hats, cabinet ware, &c. &c. are made to an extent proportioned to the demand. And almost every farmer in the state is the manufacturer of a large part of the articles of wearing apparel, &c. which his family need. It is impossible to make any estimate of these things. But if it could be done, it would exhibit a very great amount of manufactures of this sort, and of immense value.

Cities and Towns. — CINCINNATI, is the great commercial emporium of this state and, next to New Orleans, the largest city in the Valley of the Mississippi. It is situated on the right or western bank of the Ohio, at North latitude 39° 06', and west longitude 7° 25'. It stands on the first and second banks of the river — the former of which is above ordinary high water, and the latter gently rises about 60 feet more, and then spreads out in an extended, level plain.

No city has a more beautiful site than that which Cincinnati occupies. The Ohio here pursues its meandering way towards the west. Immediately opposite the city it runs nearly due west; consequently, the city faces the south. But the river bends, both above and below the city, and pursues a straight course but a short distance.

The reader will have a good idea of Cincinnati, by imagining an extensive circular plain, bounded by high wooded hills, forming a circumference of about 12 miles; and that this plain is divided by a gently meandering and beautiful river, flowing through it on its westward way. The city spreads out on the northern bank, whilst opposite stand the beautiful and rapidly growing villages of Newport and Covington, divided by the Licking River, which here flows into the Ohio. When viewed from the top of the hills which bound the horizon, this extensive plain is covered the central part with a growing city, extending up and


down the river, with its bustle, and its beautiful houses; whilst around are spread fertile fields, and the river is adorned with boats of various descriptions, from the humble flat boat to the noble steamboats, which are almost constantly heaving in sight, rounding to the wharf, or setting out for a distant port.

Cincinnati was founded in 1789. But it was not until 1808, that it began to grow rapidly. At that period the Government sold the land on which it stands. Fort Washington, erected many years before, stood on this site. In 1826, the population was 16,230; in 1830, 26,515; and in 1831, 28,014. At present, it exceeds 30,000, exclusive of a floating population of 1,500 or 2,000.

Some of the streets run parallel with the river; others, commencing at the river, cross the former at right angles. Several of these streets are 66 feet wide, and 396 apart. The houses are generally of brick, and many of them painted white, yellow, or lead colour. The public buildings, many of which are very beautiful, are a Court-house, four Markets, one of which is 500 feet in length; Bazaar, two Banks, Cincinnati College, Catholic Athenaeum, Medical College, Mechanic's Institute, two Museums, Hospital and Lunatic's Asylum, High School, many Hotels, 24 Churches, of which the 2d Presbyterian is very elegant — and the Unitarian, and some of the others, display much taste.

The plain on which Cincinnati stands extends a mile back, to the hills which bound it on the North, and along the river a mile and a half, or two miles. The upper part of the city extends up to the point where the hills meet the river, and along the narrow strip of land which intervenes between those hills and the Ohio. It is in this quarter that many boat yards are situated, and where many flat, keel, and other kinds of boats, are built every year. There have been built at this city, no less than one hundred and fifty steamboats!

The value of the manufactures of this city is very great, exceeding $2,500,000 annually! Vast quantities of cabinet work, hats, &c. &c. are here made for exportation.

1. There are ten Foundries, including a Brass and Bell Foundry, and one for casting type.

2. There are three or four Cotton Factories, and about fifteen Rolling Mills, and Steam Engine Factories and Shops.


3. There are five Breweries.

4. There is a Button Factory; and a Steam Coopering Establishment, where several thousand barrels are made annually by machinery, propelled by steam.

5. Two Steam Flour Mills, and five or six Steam Saw Mills.

6. There is one Chemical Laboratory.

There are probably not less than 40 different manufacturing establishments driven by steam power.

The imports, of which dry goods are the principal item, exceed $5,000,000. The exports, consisting of various articles of produce, of which pork is the chief; and of manufactures, of which iron articles and cabinet furniture are the chief, probably exceed the imports in value.

I shall give, in a few words, a summary statement of those matters which are most important to the stranger.

1. In 1831, the taxable property of this city, consisting of houses and lands, and merchandise and manufactures, was valued at $4,206,204, a sum much too low. The revenue of the city that year was $35,230; and the expenditures $33,858.

2. There are two Banks, and a Savings' Fund Association; two Museums, very interesting to strangers; and two Hospitals.

3. There are three Insurance Companies belonging to the city, and two branches of Insurance Companies at Hartford, Connecticut.

4. There is a company which supplies the city with water, which is elevated by steam power from the Ohio.

5. There are several Literary and Scientific Institutions, of which the Lyceum, Atheneum established by the Catholics, and which is really a college, and cost about $20,000; Medical College, having 7 or 8 Professors; Academy of Medicine, and Lane Theological Seminary, are the chief.

6. In 1831 there were 18 public schools, embracing 2,700 scholars, at an expense of $6,610 for Teachers' wages. This city is imitating the noble example of Boston, in establishing free schools for the whole population. The number of private schools and academies is great.

7. There are three Library Companies, which have in all near 10,000 volumes of books.

8. There are 3 daily, 2 semi-weekly, 6 weekly, (four of


which are religious,) two semi-monthly, two monthly, and one quarterly (medical) publications — sixteen in all — issued in this city.

9. There are 34 charitable associations, and 25 religious societies.

10. There are several Fire Companies, and a large number of fire engines.

11. There are six Presbyterian Churches, five Methodist, four Baptist, two Episcopal, one Lutheran, one Associate, one Catholic, one Unitarian, one Friends' Meeting, one Swedenborgian, one Jewish Synagogue, one African, one Christian.

12. In 4 months during 1831, there were issued from the Cincinnati press 86,000 volumes, of which 20,300 were of original works. In the same time, the periodical press issued 243,200 printed sheets.

The number of lawyers, physicians, merchants, &c. is great.

Along the Ohio above Cincinnati, there are many pleasant and nourishing places. The most important are Ripley, Portsmouth, Burlington, Gallipolis, Marietta, and Steubenville.

RIPLEY is a nourishing place. Several steamboats have been built there during the last two years. It is 46 miles above Cincinnati, and has about 700 inhabitants.

PORTSMOUTH stands on the Ohio at the mouth of the Scioto, and 103 miles above Cincinnati. The Ohio and Erie canal commences here. This place is finely situated for trade. As this canal opens up a channel of intercourse with New York, and all the West, a great commission business roust eventually be done at this town. It has about 1,000 inhabitants. Five or six steamboats have been built here. This town is 45 miles from Chillicothe, and 90 from Columbus. BURLINGTON and GALLIPOLIS are pleasant and growing places, the former 144, and the latter 185 miles above Cincinnati. Gallipolis was originally settled by a small colony of French, who suffered greatly through the imposition of speculators, sickness, and other calamities. Many of them left the place through discouragement. MARIETTA stands on the Ohio hank just above the entrance of the Muskingum. It is a beautiful place, but exposed to inundations at very high stages of the river. It has fine


schools and seminaries of learning. The population is about 1,300. There is much fine bottom land in the vicinity of this place, both on the Virginia and Ohio banks of the river. A number of steamboats have been built here. This place is 277 miles, by the river, above Cincinnati. STEUBENVILLE is a very pleasant and flourishing town 379 miles above Cincinnati by the river, and 60 below Pittsburg by the river, but 38 across the peninsula. It is situated on an extensive alluvial bottom, of sufficient elevation to be safe from inundations. The country around this place is fertile, and exports great quantities of flour, whiskey, &c. It contains 3,000 inhabitants. For many years there has been here a large woollen factory of much celebrity, which has consumed 60,000 pounds of wool annually. There are three four mills, one cotton factory, a steam paper mill, and three or four churches.

There are many beautiful and flourishing towns through the interior of the state, some of which I shall mention, beginning with the eastern part.

NEW LISBON in Columbiana county, CANTON in Stark, and Wooster in Wayne, have each about 1200 inhabitants, are places of much business, and centres of large fertile districts, which will soon have a dense population. Wooster is 124 miles, and New Lisbon 56 miles westward of Pittsburg.

MASILLON NEW PHILADELPHIA, COSHOCTON, and NEWARK, situated on the two principal branches of the Muskingum, and through which the Ohio and Erie canal passes, are flourishing and beautiful places, and will become very large and important centres of trade for the fertile regions which surround them.

ZANESVILLE, on the eastern bank of the Muskingum, at the point where the Licking joins that river from the west, is a large increasing town of 4,000 inhabitants. It is the county town of Muskingum county, and being situated on a stream which is navigable during several months in the spring and fall, it possesses great advantages. The falls in the Muskingum river give fine water power to this flourishing place, which is employed by several flour-mills, saw-mills, an oil-mill, a rolling mill, nail factory, and woollen factory. A bridge over the Muskingum connects Zanesville with West Zanesville, which stands at the Junction


of the Muskingum and Licking, and one over the latter river unites the town of Putnam with West and East Zanesville.

LANCASTER, the county town of Fairfield county, 34 miles from Chillicothe, and 28 from Columbus, is situated in a delightful and very fertile valley, on the head stream of the Hocking, and has a population of 1,500 inhabitants. A bluff of great height, and singular appearance, half a mile north of the town, affords a most admirable prospect over the town and surrounding country.

CHILLICOTHE, on the west bank of the Scioto, CIRCLEVILLE and COLUMBUS on the east, are very important towns in the Scioto valley. Chillicothe is the seat of justice for Ross county, and was once the capital of the state. It has between 3000 and 4000 inhabitants, and is the centre of a very fertile region which is watered by the Scioto and the Paint Creek, which here runs parallel with the river and falls into it a few miles below the town. There are several cotton factories, mills, &c. in the neighbourhood. In the vicinity, on Paint creek, and even on what is now occupied by this town, formerly stood several ancient tumuli, or mounds. In levelling one of them for the purpose of erecting a building, many human bones, it is said, were found in this monument of former, and now unknown generations. Chillicothe is 45 miles above Portsmouth, and 96 from Cincinnati.

CIRCLEVILLE is 19 miles above Chillicothe, and is a growing place, which will be much benefitted by the canal. It is the county town of Pickaway county. Within the limits of the town are two mounds or tumuli, one is square and the other circular and gives name to the town. These monuments are highly interesting. This place has a population of about 1500 inhabitants.

COLUMBUS, the political capital of the state, is in the centre of Franklin county, and very nearly of the state. It is 112 miles northeast of Cincinnati, 135 miles west of Wheeling, and 396 from Washington city. It is a beautiful town, occupying a site which in 1812 was covered with a dense forest. The public buildings are the statehouse, a courthouse for the supreme court, a building for the public offices, a market house, &c. all of brick. The population is near 3000, and constantly increasing. The State


Prison, or Penitentiary, is located here. It is poorly conducted for want of a suitable building. A new and excellent building upon an improved plan, is about to be erected. There is a good asylum for the deaf and dumb at that this place sustained by legislative aid. The country around Columbus is very fertile and almost perfectly level. On the west-side of the Scioto, at the distance of a mile, is the village of Franklinton.

DAYTON, on the Miami, 65 miles from Cincinnati, is a very flourishing place. Springfield in Clark county, Hillsboro' in Highland, Mansfield in Richland, Ravenna in Portage, St. Clairsville in Belmont, Urbana in Champaign, Athens in Athens county, and many others might be mentioned as interesting places in the interior of the state, and most of them, situated in districts of excellent land.

CLEVELAND, on Lake Erie, at the mouth of the Cuyahoga, and at the termination of the Ohio and Erie canal, is a place of great business and rapidly increasing in population. Lower Sandusky on the Sandusky bay, and Perrysville and Maumee, at the foot of the rapids in the Maumee river, and at the head of sloop and steam-boat navigation on that river, Huron at the mouth of Huron river, Grand River, at the mouth of Grand River, may be mentioned as places on Lake Erie which are destined to be important.

EDUCATION. This state is setting a noble example, on the subject of education, to the other states of the Valley of the Mississippi. Within a few years, each township has been divided into school districts, according to the provisions of a school act which was adopted by the state. The following summary of what has been done by public authority to promote education, I have obtained from official sources, and is of a very recent date.

The number of acres of land set apart by congress, for schools within Ohio, (including salt reserves, which have been mostly sold, and the avails appropriated for common schools) is 678,576, estimated to be worth $1,200,000

Probable number of acres sold is 339,288, payable by instalments; unsold 339,288, or about one half.

The amount received on account of sales of said land is $391,420, which has been loaned chiefly to the commissioners


of the canal fund, on an interest of 6 per cent, The proceeds of all school lands, are to be thus invested.

The amount raised by taxation for the support of common schools, being three-fourths of a mill upon the dollar of the taxable property in the state, was, in 1832, about 50,000 dollars.

The total amount at present raised by law, for the support of schools will not educate the whole number of children more than two months in a year. Not less than five school examiners are to be appointed in each county by the court of common pleas, every two years, who are to examine the teachers. The manner of distributing the school money to the teachers is various, as there are various funds from which it accumulates.

Congress has granted 92,800 acres of public land to this state for Colleges, Academies, and Universities. Of which, one township, containing 23,040 acres, very valuable, has been given to the Miami University at Oxford.

Also, two townships of land have been given to the Ohio University at Athens, — a quantity of 46,080 acres, but much inferior in quality to that appropriated to the Miami University.

There are academies in all the principal towns; in many of which the Latin and Greek languages and the mathematics are taught. In Cincinnati, Marietta, Chillicothe, Steubenville, and some other places, are female seminaries of much and deserved celebrity. Throughout the state there is an increasing interest felt on the whole subject of education. And in a few years the common school system of Ohio will equal that of New York.

There are five or six colleges in this state in actual operation, besides other important institutions, which will be described in the chapter devoted to the Literary Institutions of the Valley of the Mississippi.

GENERAL REMARKS. — To those who desire to emigrate to the West, this state proffers many inducements.

1. Its climate is healthy, in an eminent degree. All emigrants, in this and every other part of the Valley, should be careful not to expose themselves too much at first, and to keep out of the damp airs of night, especially during the autumnal season: to wear a sufficient amount of warm


apparel, and occupy as speedily as possible comfortable houses.

2. There are 5,242,221 acres of public land to which the Indian title has been extinguished; besides 344,613 acres, to which that title has not been extinguished, but which will soon be, in all probability. In almost every part of the state, land which is new or uncultivated, may be purchased, either from the government, or from those who purchased large quantities of public land, which they are now willing to sell to others. For the convenience of those who wish to purchase public land, the state has been divided into eight districts, in each of which is a Land Office maintained by the General Government, where lands may be entered and paid for. These offices are at Steubenville, Marietta, Wooster, Zanesville, Chillicothe, Cincinnati, Wappakonnetta and Bucyrus. The qualities of the lands in each district are various. Much good land is to be found in all — perhaps most in the last four.

The following is a table of the place of these Land offices, with names of the Registers, and the Receivers of moneys arising from the sales.

At what place opened. Registers. Receivers.
Marietta Joseph Wood David C. Skinner
Zanesville Thomas Flood Bernard Van Horne
Steubenville David Hoge John H. Viers
Chillicothe Thomas Scott Isaiah Ingham
Cincinnati P.S. Symmes Morgan Neville
Wooster Joseph S. Lake Samuel Quinby
Wappakonnetta T.B. Van Horne Robert I. Skinner
Bucyrus Thos. Gillespie Joseph H. Larwell

3. There is no difficulty in purchasing most valuable farms here, which have from 50 to 100, and some 150 acres, in a good state of cultivation, and having on them houses, barns, orchards, &c. &c. These houses are not generally any thing more than plain cabins, as they are


called; but yet they will answer the purpose until better ones can be built. There are thousands of farmers in this state, as well as in western Pennsylvania and Virginia — a fact which has already been mentioned — who settled here when their families were young, often when they themselves were just married, and having paid for their quarter of a section of land (160 acres,) or an eighth (80 acres,) and raised a family of children, they are now desirous of selling their improved land for a sum with which they will again into the wilderness, either in this state, or farther west, and buy land enough to give each of their sons, and perhaps their daughters too, a plantation of 80 or 160 acres. And this they can easily do by selling their present farms at the rate of from five to ten dollars, and (if near to some town or on the bank of a navigable river, or along an important public road,) for even a much larger sum, per acre. With this amount they can purchase much public or Congress land. It is true they have to begin in the woods again. But this is nothing to men who are inured to such labour, and who expect to do nothing but labour all their days, and to find their happiness in doing so.

Emigrants who can afford to do so, will often, and I should say, generally, find it to be most pleasant to purchase farms which are already somewhat cleared and cultivated, and which have at least 30 or 40 acres under good fences, and withal a house which may be made comfortable until a better one can be built. It is a great trial to eastern families to go at once into the woods, and have to build a house hastily, and then be much exposed to sickness, in an unfinished and uncomfortable building, in the midst of a deep and gloomy forest. There is no difficulty in obtaining farms which are partly cultivated, and which may be had at prices differing according to location, fertility of soil, extent of ground cleared, and value of buildings erected. Young and single men from the East may go at once into the forest, if they are enterprising and fond of hard labour.

4. Mechanics of all descriptions have work enough to do in this state; and, if industrious, are certain to do well. — This is true of every sort of mechanics, and especially so of those who are engaged in such trades as are most essential to comfort or business.

5. Travellers will find this state a wide field for pleasant


and profitable journeying in the seasons of spring, summer and autumn. This state abounds in pleasant towns, delightful and ever-varying scenery, along its rivers and main roads.

6. The history of this state is an interesting one. It suffered exceedingly from the hostility of the Indians until the close of the last war. Fort Washington occupied for many years the spot where Cincinnati now stands. From that point the armies of Harmar and St. Clair marched to defeat in 1790 and '91. And from that point Wayne set out in his campaign which ended so triumphantly in 1794. During the late war with Great Britain, this state suffered much. Many of her citizens were in the armies of their country, and many fell in the attacks upon Fort Meigs, and in the battle on the Thames. The north-western part of this state was then a frontier. For a period of 25 years, the inhabitants of this state suffered deeply from the attacks of the savages; and many a father, mother, and child, suffered a cruel death.

The first permanent settlement in this state was made at Marietta, by the Rev. Dr. Manasseh Cutler, and General Rufus Putnam, in 1788. The population at present considerably exceeds 1,000,000, and is rapidly augmenting. In 1790, it was about 3,000; in 1810, it was 230,760. This statement shows the astonishing increase of the population of this state during 40 years. But great as her population now is, nothing so much arrests the attention of a traveller as the great disporportion which there is between the uncultivated and the cultivated portions of the land. There appears, as it were, but a spot here and there of cultivated ground amid an almost uninterrupted forest. I was much struck with this circumstance, when I passed from Cincinnati through the central parts of the state, last summer, taking Lebanon, Springfield, Columbus, Wooster, Canton, and New Lisbon on my tour. This state might have a population of five millions, and yet not have a very dense population; and it might have ten millions and yet not be as densely populated as some parts of Europe.

A large part, of the state is settled by emigrants from New England; this is particularly true of the northern part. — The north-eastern part once belonged to Connecticut, and is sometimes called New Connecticut, but more commonly, the Western Reserve, which embraces eight counties and


3,000,000 acres of land, and belonged, originally, by charter from the British government, to the state of Connecticut. After the revolution, that state sold to the general government the land which she claimed in this state. The sum which she received as an equivalent constitutes the foundation of her school fund.

Chapter XIV. Indiana.

Map of Ohio and Indiana.

INDIANA is bounded on the north by Michigan Lake and Michigan Territory; east by Ohio; south by the Ohio river, which separates it from Kentucky; and west by Illinois, from which it is separated, in part, by the Wabash River.

This state extends from N. lat. 37° 48', to 41° 36'; and from W. lon. 7° 44' to 11°; its area is about 36,500 square miles, or 23,360,000 acres.

The Ohio flows along the southern end of this state, in its course, more than 350 miles.

Allen, n e 996 Fort Wayne, 141
Bartholomew, m 5,476 Columbus, 41
Boone, s w m 621 Thorntown, 62
Carroll, n 1,611 Delphi, 88
Cass, n 1,161 Logansport, 113
Clark, s 10,686 Charlestown, 103
Clay, w 1,616 Bowling Green, 69
Clinton, n w m 1,423 Frankfort,  
Crawford, s 3,238 Fredonia, 122
Daviess, s w m 4,543 Washington, 106
Dearborn, s e 13,974 Lawrenceburg 98
Decatur, s e w 5,887 Greensburg, 55
Delaware, e m 2,374 Muncytown, 59
Dubois, s w m 1,778 Portersville, 124
Elkhart, n 935 Pulaski,  
Fayette, e m 9,112 Connersville, 68
Floyd, s e 6,361 New Albany, 121
Fountain, w 7,619 Covington, 81


(Table Continued)
Franklin, s e 10,190 Brookville, 70
Gibson, s w 5,418 Princeton, 141
Greene, s w m 4,242 Bloomfield, 76
Hamilton, m 1,757 Noblesville, 22
Harrison, s e 10,373 Corydon, 124
Hancock, m 1,436 Greenfield, 21
Hendricks, m 3,975 Danville, 30
Henry, e m 6,497 Newcastle, 49
Jackson, s m 4,870 Brownstown, 69
Jefferson, s e 11,465 Madison, 85
Jennings, s e m 3,974 Vernon, 64
Johnson, m 4,019 Franklin, 20
Knox, w 6,525 Vincennes, 126
Lawrence, s m 9,234 Bedford, 73
Madison, m 2,238 Andersontown, 41
Marion, m 7,192 INDIANAPOLIS,  
Martin, s m 2,010 Mount Pleasant, 121
Monroe, s m 6,577 Bloomington, 51
Montgomery, w m 7,317 Crawfordsville 44
Morgan, m 5,593 Martinsville, 30
Orange, s m 7,901 Paoli, 96
Owen, w m 4,017 Spencer, 52
Perry, s 3,369 Rome, 143
Pike, s 2,475 Petersburg, 119
Posey, s w 6,549 Mount Vernon, 187
Putnam, w m 8,262 Greencastle, 42
Parke, w 7,535 Rockville, 68
Randolph, e 3,912 Winchester, 97
Ripley, s e m 3,989 Versailles, 79
Rush, e m 9,707 Rushville, 40
St. Joseph, n 287    
Scott, s e 3,093 New Lexington, 89
Shelby, m 6,295 Shelbyville, 30
Spencer, s 3,196 Rockport, 167
Sullivan, w 4,630 Merom, 115
Switzerland, s 7,028 Vevay, 105
Tippecanoe, n w m 7,187 Lafayette, 70
Union, e 7,944 Liberty, 77
Vanderburg, s w 2,611 Evansville, 170
Vermillion, w 5,692 Newport, 86
Vigo, w 5,766 Terre Haute, 83
Warren, w 2,861 Williamsport,  
Warwick, s w 2,877 Boonsville, 187
Washington, s m 13,064 Salem, 91
Wayne, e 18,571 Centreville, 63
Total, 63 Counties, 343,031, of whom 3 are slaves.


Several new counties have been added since the Census of 1830. The following is a list of them:

La Porte, n, w Michigan.
La Grange, n e  
Huntingdon, n e m  
Wabash, n m  
Miami, n m Miamisport.
Grant, m Marion.
  Population. Increase.
In 1800 5,641 From 1800 to 1810 18,879
' 1810 24,524 ' 1810 to 1820 122,658
' 1820 147,178 ' 1820 to 18 30 194,404
' 1830 343,031    

GOVERNMENT. — The Governor is elected for three years; salary $1000 per annum. Lieutenant Governor is President of the Senate, and receives $2 per day during the session of the Legislature.

The Legislature is called the General Assembly of Indiana, and is composed of a Senate, the members of which are elected for three years, and a House of Representatives, whose members are elected annually. The number of the former is at present 30; and of the latter 75. Pay of members of both houses $2 a day each.

The Legislature meets annually at Indianapolis, the capital of the state, on the 1st Monday in December.

JUDICIARY. — The Judiciary power is vested in a Supreme Court, Circuit Courts, and such other inferior Courts as the General Assemble may establish. The Supreme Court consists of three Judges. And each of the Circuit Courts consists of a President and two Associates. All the judges hold their office for 7 years, if not removed for improper conduct.

The judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the Governor, with the consent of the Senate. The presiding Judges of the Circuit Courts are appointed by the Legislature and the Associates are elected by the people.


There are seven presiding Judges of Circuit Courts. The Judges of the Supreme and Circuit Courts receive $700 per annum. The Associate Judges receive $2 a day during the Courts.

Face of the country. — The country immediately bordering on the Ohio River, — say a strip of land, of from 15 to 25 miles wide, — extending from the Wabash River to the Miami, is broken and hilly. The hills along the Ohio may, with propriety, be called bluffs in many places. When one has ascended from the river to the summits of these hills, he finds that the country which lies beyond them is comparatively level, interrupted by deep ravines, and precipitous banks on the water courses. But, after having passed over some 10 or 15 miles, he finds that the land is generally more level, and continues to become more so, until it is almost perfectly level. This is the character of four-fifths of the entire surface of the state.

There is what may be called a low mountainous ridge, extending from the Ohio at Louisville, a little north of west to the east branch of White River at Hindostan; thence it pursues a due west course to the Wabash below Vincennes. This ridge is very perceptible. It begins in Kentucky, and is really the cause of the rapids or "falls" in the Ohio at Louisville. It causes rapids in both branches of White River, and also in the Wabash, a short distance above the mouth of White River. This low ridge, although scarcely perceptible, probably continues across the state of Illinois, and is seen distinctly in the ledge of rocks at the Grand Tower, below the entrance of the Kaskaskia.

The northern part of this state is generally level, or gently undulating. This is also the character of the middle portions of the state.

Although there are no very extensive "prairies" in this state, yet the Wabash is skirted by many of a limited extent; and which, in general, possess a fertile soil.

It would be difficult, to conceive of a country possessing a more delightful appearance than this state presents, both in those parts which are cultivated, and those which are not. The level, exuberant fields, covered in the summer with crops of the most luxuriant growth — and the noble forests, where the hand of cultivation has not yet made an opening, are both objects which must ever be viewed with interest by travellers and emigrants.


This state is quite as level, as a whole, as it is desirable that land for cultivation should be.

Soil. — This state may be divided into three divisions for convenience, in treating of its soil.

1. The first section embraces the southern end of the state, from Illinois to Ohio. In width it may be described as embracing the two tiers or lines of counties which lie between the Ohio River and the East Fork of White River, which rises, in some of its eastern streams, towards the Ohio line. Besides, it includes a line of counties next to them on the north, and through which the East Fork of White River flows in the lower part of its course, after leaving Bartholomew county. So that this portion of the state may be said to comprehend the three tiers of counties which lie parallel with the Ohio River. The first of these tiers, beginning at the Wabash at its junction with the Ohio, consists of Posey, Vanderburg, Warrick, Spencer, Perry, Crawford, Harrison, Floyd, Clark, Jefferson, Switzerland, and Dearborn — in all twelve counties.

They all border on the Ohio River. The second tier consists of Gibson, Pike, Dubois, Orange, Washington, and Scott — and does not extend to the Ohio line; but ends at the west side of Jefferson, one of the counties of the first tier. This second tier embraces six counties. The third tier consists of Knox, (of which Vincennes is the chief town,) Daviess, Martin, Lawrence, Jackson, Jennings, and Ripley — in all seven counties.

The general character of this portion of the state, embraces 25 counties, as it regards soil, is upon the whole good. There are some excellent counties, and parts of counties — and some of a very different description. There are but few counties out of the whole number, which have not a considerable extent of good land. I suppose that in majority, the good greatly predominates over the indifferent. There is but little, comparatively, which is unfit for cultivation. The second rate, and even the third rate land would be considered fine land in many of the Atlantic elates. In these counties, beech may be said to predominate, interspersed with oak, ash, poplar, sugar tree, walnut, and sycamore on the bottoms, &c. &c. This is, as I remarked before, the most broken and hilly portion of the


state. The soil is, in general, durable; and improves in productiveness by proper cultivation.

2. The second grand section of this state is a zone of about sixty or seventy miles in width, stretching across the state, from Illinois to Ohio, and lying immediately north of the first named division. It occupies the entire central portion of the State, and extends about 20 miles South, and 40 miles north of Indianapolis. It embraces about forty counties in six successive tiers. Their names are as follows — Sullivan, Greene, Monroe, Bartholomew, Decatur, Franklin; Vigo, Clay, Owen, Morgan, Johnson, Shelby, Rush, Fayette, Union; Vermillion, Parke, Putnam, Hendricks, Marion, (of which Indianapolis is the chief town, and capital of the state,) Hancock, Henry, Wayne; Warren, Fountain, Montgomery, Boone, Hamilton, Madison, Delaware, Randolph; Tippecanoe, Clinton, Carroll, Cass, Wabash, Allen.

There is not a finer district of country of the same extent in the United States, than that which has been described above. Almost every part of it posseses a fine soil, covered in its natural state with heavy forests of oak, poplar, walnut, hickory, ash, sugar-maple, beech, wild cherry, honey locust, coffee tree, hackberry, cucumber tree, linden, &c. &c. with dogwood, iron wood, spice bush, and other small under wood. The Wabash River is skirted on each side by small prairies, in this and the former division.

3. The third division embraces all that portion of the state which lies north of the last named division — in other words, between the tier of counties through which the Wabash runs, and the northern boundary of the state. With the exception of a strip of 10 miles in width, which lies along the northern line of the state, and which embraces the following counties — La Porte, St. Joseph, Elkhart, and La Grange, the whole of this region, embracing near 3,000,000 of acres, belongs to the Putawatomies, a tribe of Indians, who will soon sell their lands, it is expected, and remove to the west of the Mississippi. The Miamis, another tribe of Indians, own a portion of this state south of the Wabash, but of small extent. The whole extent of land in this state, to which the Indian title is not extinguished — in 1832, was 3,681,040 acres.

A large portion of the third great division of this state


is excellent land. There is, however, a much greater amount of flat and wet land, than in the other portions of the state. There is a considerable number of ponds and marshes, many of which, perhaps, may be drained. But the wet and marshy part is inconsiderable, when compared with what is entirely fit for cultivation. The Kankakee river, which is a branch of the Illinois, rising in this state, runs through a country abounding in ponds and marshes.

The new counties on the northern boundary, possess in general an excellent soil, especially those through which the St. Joseph's runs, in the sweep which it makes down into this state.

Rivers. — The Ohio flows along the whole of the Southern end of the state, — a distance, by its winding course, of 353 miles. It receives only a few inconsiderable streams from this state, save the noble Wabash on the western boundary. I shall only mention the chief of these little streams, beginning on the eastern line. They are White Water, Laughery, Silver Creek, Black Creek, Indian Creek, Blue River, Andersen's Creek, and Pigeon Creek.

The Wabash is the great river of this state. It rises in the western part of Ohio, and runs first a north-west course; it then turns to the south-west, and pursues this course, until it reaches the western side of Indiana, receiving in that part of its course Little River, Eel, and Tippecanoe from the north; and the Salamanic, Mississinewa, Wild Cat, and Wea rivers, from the south-east. After reaching the vicinity of the western boundary of the state, the Wabash, a few miles above Covington, begins to pursue a course almost due south, until it reaches a point a few miles below Terre Haute; whence, pursuing the same direction, it becomes the boundary between Illinois and Indiana, to its junction with the Ohio. In this part of its course, it receives from the West the Vermillion, Embarras, Bon Pas, and Little Wabash; and from the east, Sugar Creek, Racoon Creek, White River, Patoka River, and Sligo Creek, with many other and smaller streams.

The White River drains all the central part of this state, and with its branches is invaluable, as a channel for trade. It has two great branches, viz.: East Fork, and West Fork. Each of these has several large confluents. The former has Graham's Fork, Sand, Clifty, and Flat Rock


Creeks, Blue River, &c. The latter has White Lick, Eel River, and many others.

In the northwestern part of the state, Pickamink and Kankakee rivers rise, and flow into the Illinois. Whilst on the north-east, the Maumee may be said to begin at port Wayne, at the junction of two branches, the St. Joseph's from Michigan, and the St Mary's which rises in Ohio. The branches unite at Fort Wayne, in Allen county; and the united stream, the Maumee, (or Miami of the Lake, as it is still called by many,) flows away northeastwardly through a part of Ohio, and falls into Lake Erie, within the limits of Michigan Territory.

The St. Joseph's River, (not the one just named) a considerable stream, enters this state on the north from Michigan Territory; and turning again towards the northwest, it falls into Lake Michigan, within the limits of the Territory in which it rises,

The Wabash is navigable for steamboats up to Lafayette, a distance of more than 370 miles from the Ohio. They have even ascended 25 miles further to Delphi. The White River has not yet been much navigated by steamboats. One or two have been up as high as Indianapolis. But hundreds of flat boats annually descend the Wabash and White Rivers. Probably no other river, of an equal size, in our country, drains so large and important a valley as the Wabash and its branches do. And certainly, no river of the same size, is navigable as great a distance by steam and flat boats, as this river is. The trade of this river is becoming immense. In 1831, during the period which elapsed from the 5th of March to the 16th of April, 54 steam-boats arrived and departed at and from Vincennes alone. It is also estimated, that at least one thousand flat boats entered the Ohio from the Wabash, in the same time. One-tenth of these flat boats, it is calculated, were loaded with pork, at the rate of 300 barrels to a boat. Another tenth are said to have been loaded with lard, cattle, horses, oats, corn meal, &c.; and the remainder


with corn in the ear. The value of produce and stock sent annually to market from the Valley of the Wabash by flat boats, all of which pass down this river, must be now near $1,000,000.

In February, March, and April of 1832, there were 60 arrivals of steam-boats at Lafayette!

Canals and Roads. — This state has undertaken to construct a canal, from the Wabash to the Maumee, called the Wabash and Erie Canal. This canal is now commenced.

In 1824 Congress made a donation of public lands to the state of Indiana, for the purpose of enabling that state to construct this canal. That donation being considered insufficient, Congress granted, on the 2d of March, 1827, each alternate section of the public lands within five miles of the proposed line, upon the condition that the work should be commenced within five, and completed within twenty years. This grant was accepted. The route was surveyed, and the canal located. The lands granted were surveyed and selected. A Board of Canal Commissioners has been appointed — and the work is now actually commenced.

The route of this canal is as follows: It commences on the Wabash at or near Lafayette, and continues along the banks of that river up to the entrance of the Little River, thence up that river to the Aboite River, across that stream, and up another branch of the Little River to its sources — thence across the summit, seven miles to the junction of the St. Joseph's and St. Mary's, at Fort Wayne. The water needed on the summit level, will be supplied by a feeder 14 miles long from the St. Joseph's. From Fort Wayne, the canal will descend along the Maumee to the town of Maumee, at the lower end of the rapids of that river. Should the Miami Canal in Ohio, be continued to the Maumee, as it is probable that it will be, it will intersect the Wabash and Erie Canal near Fort Defiance on the Maumee, about 50 miles above the rapids.

It will at once be perceived, that a part of the Wabash and Erie Canal will be within the state of Ohio. That state has not yet undertaken to make her part of this canal but will no doubt do so, as soon she has well advanced in her other and greater improvements.


This entire canal will be about 203 miles long, of which 127 are in Indiana, and 75 in Ohio. The expense of making the part within the limits of Indiana, including locks and feeders, was estimated by the United States' Engineer, at $1,081,970, or about $9,000 per mile.

That portion of the grant of public land for this canal, made by Congress, which lies in this state, being each alternate section of public land for five miles on each side, through which the canal passes, amounts to 355,200 acres. Of these 264,000 have been selected and set apart by the state, and 41,000 acres sold for $71,000. The remainder, 91,200 acres, are within the lands of the Miami Indians, and which will belong to the state as soon as their title to them shall have been extinguished by the government of the United States.

This canal must be completed within fifteen years, by the requirements of the act of Congress.

The importance of this canal is obvious to; and its construction will be remarkably easy, there being but few physical difficulties to be overcome.

The public lands granted to the state for this purpose, are valued at $756,750. The balance of the sum required, will be raised by loans; the first of which has recently been taken by eastern capitalists.

Roads. — A state road is now making from Indianapolis to Michigan Territory, called the Michigan road. It will terminate on the St. Joseph's.

An act has been passed to allow a company to make a railroad from Indianapolis to Louisville.

The national road will pass through Indianapolis from Columbus to St. Louis. When completed it will be of great advantage to this state.

Lines of stages are established during the summer, from Madison and Cincinnati to Indianapolis, and on several other roads. The roads in this state are good in summer, but bad in winter, on account of their being entirely of clay, except the corderoy roads, as they are called, that is, roads made over swampy ground by laying small round logs or saplings close to each other across the road, so as to form really a bridge. Such roads are always rough.

Productions. — The productions of this state are similar to those of Ohio. Corn, wheat, rye, buck-wheat, oats, flax,


&c. &c. are staples. The garden vegetables are the same as those of that state. Potatoes, common and sweet, turnips, beets, parsnips, cabbages, pumpkins, all sorts of melons; &c. grow abundantly here. Vast quantities of corn are raised in this state, and sent down the Ohio and Mississippi. Hogs are raised in great numbers, for a foreign market. Many thousands of cattle, hogs and horses are driven to the East from this state; and thousands of barrels of pork and beef are annually sent to New-Orleans. Bees-wax and feathers are sent in great quantities from this state to the East. Apples, pears, peaches, &c. are becoming abundant. The plum and other wild fruits are abundant here. Hemp and tobacco are cultivated to a considerable extent in this state. Large quantities of ginseng are dug and refined in this state, and sent to China by way of the eastern cities.

Towns. — INDIANAPOLIS is the capital of the state. It is situated on the left or east bank of White River, about a mile from the river. Twelve years ago the place where this beautiful town now stands was a forest, and the land belonged to the Indians. Even now the lofty forest, like a wall, surrounds the town at the distance of about a mile. The streets of this town are wide, and named after the different states of the Union. The site is almost perfectly level. Congress granted this state 2,560 acres for the seat of Government. The sale of a part of that land will enable the state to erect a splendid state house, together with the other requisite public buildings. There is a fine court house, for the courts of the county and of the state. There are several churches here. The population is now quite 1,400 and constantly increasing. Improvements are steadily going forward. The people are intelligent, moral and agreeable. Considering how recently this place has been settled, it is remarkable that it has so very pleasant a society. The same remark may be made respecting all the large towns of this state.

Along the Ohio are many beautiful villages and towns springing up, which are destined to become important places of business. The chief of them, are Lawrenceburg, Aurora, Vevay, Madison, Jeffersonville, Albany, Fredonia, Troy, Evansville and Mount Vernon.

LAWRENCEBURG is a place of a good deal of business.


It stands a short distance below the mouth of the Miami. Its situation is so low as to expose it to inundation when the spring floods are uncommonly high. Vevay is a pleasant town, and was founded by a colony of Swiss in 1804, who have successfully cultivated the grape. It has about 200 houses. Madison has a beautiful situation 90 miles by the river below Cincinnati, and 60 above Louisville. It has a population of about 1,500. The society here is pleasant, intelligent and moral. It is a place of much business, and is destined to be an important place. The public buildings are a court house, bank, three or four churches, &c. Jeffersonville stands opposite to Louisville. It is a pleasant little place of about 500 inhabitants. The State Prison is located here. Albany stands below the falls, and about five miles below Louisville. It is the largest town in the state, and bids fair to be the most important as a commercial and manufacturing place. It is here that many of the steam-boats on the Mississippi come to undergo repairs. Several steam-boats have been built here. Several of those manufactures which are connected with the building and repairing of steam-boats, are carried on at this place. The population of this town is near 5000.

On the Wabash are many flourishing towns growing up. I shall notice the most important, in their order, beginning at the mouth of that river.

NEW-HARMONY, on the left or eastern bank of the river 60 miles above its mouth, is surrounded by a fine rich and heavily timbered country, interspersed with small fertile prairies. It was settled in 1814 by a religious sect of Germans called Harmonites, under the guidance and control of George Rapp, in whose name all the property was held. They erected 100 large and substantial buildings, and converted the wilderness into a garden. In 1824 Robert Owen of New-Lanark, in Scotland, bought the entire place and lands connected with it for $190,000, and established a community upon his "social system," and "new views of society:" about 700 individuals joined him. But soon discord arose among the members, and the "social principle" was abandoned. The place is now nourishing upon the "individual principle." Vincennes is situated on the east bank of the Wabash, 142 miles


above the mouth. It was founded by the French in 1690 It is, next to Cahokia, Kaskaskia and Detroit, the oldest town in the Valley of the Mississippi. It is contiguous to prairies of considerable extent. The country around is level and of a light soil generally. It possesses much trade, and is probably increasing in population at present. It has been considered rather unhealthy for several years past. In this respect it is improving. The situation is one of great beauty. The houses are about 300 or 400 in number, and the population is near 2000. Terre Haute 120 miles by the river, above Vincennes, on the east bank of the river, is a nourishing place, and bids fair to be one of the most important on the river. Lafayette is 110 miles above Terre Haute, and on the same side of the river. It is a new and very flourishing town of 300 or 400 houses. Five years ago this region was a wilderness. It is now a place of great business. Delphi is 25 miles above Lafayette, on the same side of the river, a new and flourishing town. Logansport is 18 miles above Delphi, at the junction of the Wabash and Eel rivers. It is a growing place. I might mention several more towns which are springing up, as if by magic, along this beautiful river if the narrow limits of this work allowed it.

Throughout the whole state, beautiful and nourishing villages are growing up in every organized county.

Manufactures. The manufactures of this state are not numerous. The pursuits of the people are chiefly agricultural and mercantile. A few cotton factories have been erected along the principal rivers. A considerable number of steam sawmills and grist-mills have been erected, and are now erecting, in various parts of the state, and especially along the Ohio. But little iron and salt are yet manufactured in this state. A furnace which was once in operation on Driftwood fork of the East branch of White river, has ceased for some time.

Education. This state does not yet enjoy a system of common schools supported by public authority. The constitution of the state contains the following important provision respecting general education. "It shall be the duty of the general assembly, as soon as circumstances will permit, to provide by law, for a general system of education, ascending in regular gradation, from township


schools to a state University, wherein tuition shall be gratis, and equally open to all." In the absence of a public school system, the people of almost every neighbourhood of sufficient population have made efforts to have a school, have erected schoolhouses, and sustain a school during a part of a year. It is to be regretted, however, that the schools are often taught by incompetent teachers. But the public mind is awaking to the importance of this subject, and it will not be long, I trust, until this state will follow the noble example of Ohio.

One thirty-sixth part of the public lands in this state has been appropriated by Congress for common schools, amounting, (including the lands appropriated to schools in Clark's grant,) to 556,184 acres. Besides this, two townships, or 46,080 acres have been given for a college.

There are several good academies, male and female, established at Madison, Indianapolis, and other of the largest towns.

There is a College under the patronage of the state at Bloomington.

GENERAL REMARKS. — 1. No state in the west presents greater inducements to those who desire to emigrate to that part of our country than Indiana does. There are 12,699,096 acres of public land to which the Indian claim has been extinguished; and 3,681,040 acres to which the Indian title will soon be extinguished. This land may be purchased for the small sum of $1 25 per acre, and a vast proportion of it is of the richest quality. And many partially cultivated farms may be bought in the older settlements, at the rate of from 3 or 4 to 10 or 15 dollars, per acre, according to situation, extent cleared and fenced, and the value of the buildings on them.

This state is divided into six districts for the convenience of those who desire to purchase public land, viz. Jeffersonville, Vincennes, Indianapolis, Crawfordsville, Le Port, and Fort Wayne. The following is a statement of the names of the land offices, registers, and of the receivers of the public money.


Land Offices. Registers. Receivers.
Indianapolis, Arthur St. Clair, James P. Drake,
Fort Wayne, Thos. Breckenridge, John Spencer,
Vincennes, John Badollet, John D. Wolverton
Jeffersonville, William Lewis, Jas. G. Read,
Crawfordsville Samuel Milroy, James T. Pollock,
Le Port, David Robb, John M. Lemon.

2. Almost every part of this state is easy of access to emigrants who remove to it early in the spring or late in autumn, for then the Wabash is navigable by steam-boats up to Lafayette and Delphi, so that the emigrant may be readily carried into that part of the state which is continuous to the Wabash or Ohio without difficulty. Should the emigrant removing to this state, prefer going to it by land rather than by water conveyance, he will find the roads good in the latter part of spring, and generally during the whole of summer and autumn.

3. The climate of this state is salubrious. Along the wide and level alluvial bottoms, there is usually more or less of bilious fever, in sonic one or other of its varieties, during the autumnal months. But if emigrants would be careful of their health, they would not in general suffer much. There are several causes of sickness among new settlers in this and all other western states. 1. They generally have open and inconvenient houses during the first few years. They are often negligent on this point, preferring to clear off their ground, and put up a barn, before they erect a comfortable house. Often they are compelled, through the necessity of labouring hard to provide food for their families, to turn their attention away from providing a house, until a year or two passes away. In the meanwhile, living in a house which is open to the damp and unhealthy atmosphere of autumnal nights, and noxious exhalations by day, it would be miraculous if they escaped sickness. I have a thousand times wondered that they have as good health as they usually have. 2. They often live on food which is not of a wholesome kind, through difficulty of obtaining better. 3. They frequently


labour much harder, and expose themselves more, than they ought. I know they will plead the necessity of their circumstances. But it is very unwise, for the purpose of gaining a little at the present, to run the risk, by over-exertion, of losing health and perhaps life. 4. Emigrants when becoming unwell, and perhaps admonished for days of approaching sickness, often neglect to send for a physician, or perhaps find great difficulty in obtaining one in a new and sparse settlement, until the disease becomes seated in the system.

It is very far from being true that the majority of emigrants to this state from the East must pass through a period of sickness as a seasoning. The greater part of those who take proper care of their health, undergo no disease peculiar to this climate, more certainly than those who have long resided in the state.

4. It is most convenient and economical for the emigrant to arrive in this, and all the other states in the upper part of the Valley of the Mississippi, in the early part of the spring season. For by doing so, he may be able even if he settles down in the woods, to prepare and plant a few acres with corn, which will yield him in the fall, food for the winter and next summer, and by the fall he may have more land cleared and ready to be sown with wheat or rye. Besides, the ground which produced corn in the summer may be sown with winter grain, so that he is then very; sure of being able to go on well. For he may spend the first summer in taking care of his few acres of corn, which will give him but little trouble; in putting a fence around it; in building or rather finishing the house which he, with the help of his neighbours, put up during the first week after his arrival; and in clearing a few more acres of land. When his winter grain has been sown and the corn gathered in the autumn, he has but little to do in the winter, save taking his corn to mill, providing firewood and taking care of the two or three horses, five or six cows, and 10 or 15 hogs which he brought with him, or bought in the neighbourhood. Or he may deaden some of the forest trees around, and so prepare the way for further clearings. In this way he may plant the next year a large field of corn, which is the great and sure and most valuable production in this state, for bread stuffs, and he will have


a harvest of small grain, and an abundance of corn in the second autumn, together with a great increase of cattle hogs and poultry, if he chooses to have it so.

But if he arrives in the autumn he must come in the early portion of it, if he intends during that season to erect a house, clear a few acres, and sow a field of wheat. And then he must wait for his own bread-stuffs, until the succeeding mid-summer or rather autumn; living meanwhile on bought wheat or corn and oilier provisions. This is expensive, and what is more, the eastern emigrant who settles down on a piece of land in the woods, as I have just described, much more endangers his health by coming in the fall, than by arriving in very early spring. I have seldom seen families remove from Western Pennsylvania to Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, &c. &c. in the fall; but almost always in the spring. Most certainly, however, families which remove from the north of James river to the southern states of the Valley, should not think of going thither until late in autumn, whether convenient or not. For otherwise they will run a great risk of being sick during the first summer, and perhaps of losing life.

5. The greater part of the inhabitants of Indiana are emigrants from Ohio, Pennsylvania, and states north of Pennsylvania. A considerable portion of them came from Kentucky and Western Virginia. A large number of them came hither single young men, and first opened a little farm and built a house, and returned to their fathers, and married, and removed to the "new settlements," and took up their permanent abode: or they found wives among the settlers around them. This was perhaps the most common course. And although such women have not the refinement and education of eastern women, they are far better qualified to endure the very laborious and hard life of the wife of an emigrant who sets out in the world with about money enough to buy 80 acres of land, two horses, two or three cows, a few hogs and sheep, and a wagon, a plough, and a harrow, &c. &c, which will cost, in all, about 850 or 400 dollars, and which, excepting the land (if it be public or Congress land,) he may have to buy on a partial credit.

N. B. The reader must constantly remember that public lands can only be purchased for cash payments. It is


now $1,25 an acre, unless sold at auction; but there are no credits.

6. Good mechanics of almost all descriptions will find profitable employment in this state.

7. School Masters from the East, or young men who are qualified to teach schools, would do well to come to this state, as well as to Ohio and other western states. They would do good, lay up, in two or three years, money enough to buy a quarter, or half of a quarter of section of land, and commence farming. Or they will find it to be for their interest to teach school all their lives, which is, or ought to be, a most honourable business, and will not prevent them from carrying on farming to such an extent as to support a family.

8. The history of this state, down until the close of the last war in 1815, is a mournful chapter in the chronicles of our country. Many of its brave and enterprising people moistened its soil with their blood. The defeat of St. Clair in 1791, and the blood-bought but decisive victory of Wayne, in 1794, occurred on its eastern border; and, the battles of Tippecanoe and Missisinewa, within, its limits, took place at a more recent period. Their details are too fresh in the recollection of every reader of his country's history, to need repetition here. In 1816, this State was formally received into the Union of the states. Its prosperity, ever since, has been rapid.


Chapter XV. Michigan.

Map of Michigan.

MICHIGAN. The peninsula which is called by this name lies immediately north of Ohio and Indiana. It is bounded on the west, north, and east by lakes. A more minute description of its boundary would give Lake Michigan as constituting the western boundary for 260 miles; Huron on the north-east and east 250 miles; St. Clair river; Lake St. Clair, Detroit river, and Lake Erie on the east for 136 miles; the state of Ohio 80 and Indiana 110 miles, on the south.

This peninsula extends from N. lat. 41° 35', to N. lat. 45° 20'; and from 50 20' to 9° 53' W. lon. from Washington. Its area is 38,000 square miles, or 24,320,000 acres.

Wayne, s e 6,781 DETROIT CITY,  
Monroe, s e 3,187 Monroe, 36
Oakland, s e m 4,911 Pontiac 26
Lenawee, s m 1,491 Tecumseh, 63
McComb, e 2,413 Mount Clemens, 26
St. Clair, e m 1,114 St. Clair, 59
Washtenaw, s e m 4,042 Ann Arbor, 42
St. Joseph, s w 1,313 White Pigeon Prairie,  
Cass, s w 919 Edwardsburg, 169
Berrien, s w 325 Niles 174
Van Buren, s w 5    
Michilimackinaw, n 877 Mackinac, 321
Total,   27,378    


The following counties lie west of Lake Michigan, and in the District of Huron, which is attached, at present, to the Territory of Michigan:

Brown, n w 1,356 Menomonie,  
Crawford, w m 692 Prairie du Chien, 598
Chippewa, w m 636 Sault de Ste. Marie, 356
Iowa, w m 1,587 Helena.  

Total population of Michigan 31,639, of whom 32 are slaves.

The following new counties have been made since 1830:

Lapeer, e m  
Sanilac, n e  
Shiwassee, m Byron.
Saginaw, n m Saginaw.
Hillsdale, s m  
Jackson, s m Montcalm.
Ingham, s m  
Branch, s  
Calhoun, s w m  
Eaton, s w m  
Kalamazoo, w  
Barry, s w  
Allegan, s w  
Ottawa, s w  
Oceana, w  
Montcalm, w m  
Isabella, n w  
Gratiot, m  
Midland, n m  
Gladwin, n m  
Aranac, n e  
Kent, s w  
Ionia, m  
Clinton, m  


GOVERNMENT. — Governor, appointed by the President — salary, $2,000; Secretary, do. salary $1,000. The Legislative Council is elected by the people; they continue in office two years. Their present number is 13.

Judiciary. — There are four Judges, who hold courts in the several counties — salary of each, $1,200. They are appointed by the President with the consent of the Senate

DETROIT is the present Capital of this Territory.

In 1820, the population of Michigan, including the Huron District, was 8856; in 1830, including the same District; it was 31,639. But exclusive of Huron, the peninsula of Michigan, to which the name of Michigan is commonly confined, contained in 1830, 27,378 inhabitants. The number is now not short of 45,000; and it is rapidly increasing, by reason of the great tide of emigration which has been setting into that territory during the last two years.

Face of the Country. — The southern part of this territory is very level, or gently undulating. The northern part is more uneven. Along the shore of Huron there are, in places, very high bluffs; and along the east shore of Lake Michigan are, in many places, immense hills of pure sand of from fifty to several hundred feet in height, which have been blown up by the almost constant western winds, sweeping over the lake and the sandy margin on its eastern side,

There are some tracts of land in the south part of Michigan, which are covered with small lakes and marshes. Bill the extent of such land is wholly inconsiderable, when compared with that which is admirably fit for cultivation. Much of the land which now appears marshy will become dry and good land, when cleared of the heavy forests which now exclude the rays of the sun. And in many places the wet lands can be drained with but little trouble or expense. Parallel with Detroit River, and at a distance of a mile in some parts, there is swampy ground of considerable width, which it is believed may be drained.

It is far from being true, that there is much land in this territory which is of a dead level. It is almost invariably moderately uneven or undulating. The dividing table land, which extends from the south to the north, throughout its entire length, is more elevated and uneven than it has, by some, been represented to be. It is a most beautifully variegated part of the country. As to surface, this whole


table land, and I may say the entire interior, is much such country as one sees in passing from Philadelphia to Bristol or Trenton.

Soil — The soil of a very large portion of this territory is uncommonly fertile. In the southern half especially, the land is of a rich soil, and of astonishing depth in many parts.

To one who has seen only the comparatively shallow soil of New-England, it is matter of great surprise to see, in some of the southern counties of this peninsula, rich alluvial lands of great extent, whose exuberant, vegetable mould of a black appearance, is from three to six feet in depth, and which seems to be almost inexhaustible. And although there is far from being an equal extent of such rich soil in the northern half, in as much as it is more broken, and in some places rugged from large hills and bluffs, with deep intervening ravines, particularly on the margin of Lake Huron, and in others low and swampy yet there is a good proportion of fine land.

It is the testimony of gentlemen who have travelled much in this territory, that it is not surpassed, in point of fertility of soil, by any other portion of the West. One of the surveyors who have been employed by the general Government in surveying the public lands of Michigan, told me that after having seen by far the greater part of it, he was decidedly of opinion that it possesses a greater proportion of the very best land, than any other part of the West which he had seen. Mr. Cass also speaks of it as a country, taken as a whole, of surpassing fertility and beauty.

The prairies of this territory are of very limited extent, compared with those of Illinois. They are, however, very valuable; and in the summer are covered with grass of uncommon height. Almost the entire surface of this territory is covered with heavy forests of oak, walnut, sugar-maple, ash, poplar, hickory, beech, &c. similar to those of Ohio and Indiana, excepting that in the northern part there is a great abundance of pine, of a most valuable species for ship timber.

Rivers. — This peninsula abounds in rivers and small streams. From the limited extent of the country, it is impossible that any of these rivers can be very long. They rise from the considerably elevated, but comparatively level


middle land, and flow, in every direction, into the lakes which border this peninsula on three sides. Beginning on the southeast, and proceeding along the lakes, I shall mention the most important. The first is the Maumee, which rises, by some of its upper branches, in this territory, and by others, in Ohio — and, after having flowed the greater part of its course in the latter state, it falls into Lake Erie within this territory, by an expanded mouth, or rather gulf. This is a very important stream, on account of the facilities which it, in connexion with the Wabash, will afford for inland navigation, by means of an intervening canal. This river is navigable for steamboats up to the rapids, at Maumee and Perrysburg, in Ohio.

The next rivers which occur in order, are Raisin and Huron, both falling into the western end of Lake Erie, They are both navigable for boats, in the lower part of their courses. Their sources interlock with those of Grand River, which, flowing in an opposite course, falls into Lake Michigan. A few miles below Detroit, is the pleasant little stream Rouge. Clinton River is the only important one which falls into the Lake St. Clair. Into St. Clair River fall the Belle, Pine, and Black rivers. The Saginaw, a very considerable and important river running northward, falls into the large Saginaw Bay, which is a part of Lake Huron. Many other, but smaller streams, fall into the same lake, such as the Thunder, two Sandays, Sheboigon, &c. Those which fall into Lake Michigan, are Traverse, Ottawa, Betsey's, Manistic, Pentwater, White, Maskegon, Grand, Kallemazoo, and St. Joseph's. Of these, the last named three are by far the most important streams.

The Grand River is the largest on the peninsula. Its whole course is about 150 miles. For 50 miles from the lake, it is navigable for sloops and steamboats. At that point, there are rapids which interrupt the navigation. These rapids afford fine water power for manufacturing purposes. In their vicinity are salt springs, and gypsum in vast quantities, and of an excellent quality. At the foot of these falls is a town, which bids fair to become a place of much commerce. Above these rapids there is boat navigation for 50 miles more. There are not less than six or eight large branches to this river. The country through which it flows possesses great fertility. It is


believed that it will be an easy matter to make a canal from the sources of the Grand River to the Huron River, and unite Michigan and Erie Lakes.

The Kallemazoo is a considerable stream, which falls into Lake Michigan, to the south of Grand River.

The St. Joseph's River is a large stream, and empties into Lake Michigan in the southwestern angle of the territory, with a wide mouth. It is navigable for sloops to the rapids. Above these it has a still further extent of boat navigation. It flows through a very fertile region, variegated by prairies and high forests. The country on this river is not surpassed, in point of beauty and fertility, by any in the Union. The sources of this river interlock with those of the St. Joseph's of the Maumee. Newburyport is a flourishing town at the mouth of this river. Niles is a flourishing town also on this river. A steamboat trades regularly between it and Chicago, in Illinois.

Productions. — They are the same as those of Ohio and the state of New York generally. Corn grows most luxuriantly here. Wheat, rye, oats, barley, buckwheat, potatoes, pumpkins, melons, and all sorts of garden vegetables, which grow in the middle states, find a congenial soil here. The luxuriant growth of all kinds of the cultivated vegetables, and also of the grasses, is such as to astonish those who have seen only the productions of the eastern states.

Towns. — There are but few towns which have yet attained any considerable size.

DETROIT is the capital of the territory. It stands on Detroit River, 18 miles above its entrance into Lake Erie, and about 9 below Lake St. Clair. The site of this city is beautiful, being a level plain stretching out from the river to a great extent. Detroit was founded by the French in 1670. Its growth for a long period was slow, being chiefly a trading post. Since it came into the possession of the Americans in 1796, it has increased more rapidly, and especially within the last four or five years. Its population is now above 3000, of whom about one-third are of French origin.

There are five fine streets running parallel with the river, and six or eight others crossing them at right angles, running out from the river. As the Detroit River here runs towards the west, the city of course faces the south,


or rather the south-east. The public buildings are a State House, Market, Court House, Churches &c. This place is one of great and increasing trade, and will become large city.

The American population of this place, embraces a large number of very interesting families. I have seen few places which have a finer society.

The Detroit River, or Strait, (which the word Detroit means) is a beautiful sheet of water, of from one to three miles, wide, deep and running at the rate of two and a half miles an hour. The country along its banks is extremely beautiful. The French settlers on both sides occupy farms of narrow fronts and extending far back. Their houses stand near the road which runs along the river; so that being contiguous to each other, they have the appearance of one half of a continued street.

Mackinac. — This village of 100 houses stands on the south side of the island of Mackinac, or Michilimackinac, as it is commonly written, in the straits which lead from Lake Huron into Lake Michigan. The town stands in a beautiful cove, and possesses a good harbour. Above it, on an elevation of 150 feet, stands Fort Mackinac and on an eminence, still higher and further back is a battery. These fortifications are of great strength. And this island, which is 9 miles in circumference, is a place of great importance, as commanding the entrance into Lake Michigan.

Mackinac, like Detroit, is a place of great trade with the Indians. It is here that hundreds and thousands of them come annually to dispose of their peltry, and receive their annual payment from the United States, through the government agents. It is the centre of the operations of the north-west branch of the American Fur Company, There is here a flourishing Mission School, for the instruction of Indian children, supported by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Old Mackinac stood immediately south of the island on the extreme point of the peninsula.

Monroe and Frenchtown on the Raisin; Brownstown, near the mouth of Detroit River; Pontiac, Ann Arbor, Byron, Montcalm in the interior; and Niles, Newburyport, on the St. Joseph's of the lake, and many others


might be mentioned as growing and important towns and villages.

The settlements in this Territory are chiefly confined to the southeastern part of it. Of late, settlements have been made in the southwestern angle, on the St. Joseph's, Kallemazoo and Grand Rivers. Several new counties counties have been recently laid out, in that and the south part of the Territory.

Of the 24,320,000 acres of land in this peninsula, the Indian title to 16,393,420 had been extinguished, and their claim to 7,926,580 was not extinguished, June 30, 1828. It is expected that it will not be long until they will sell their remaining claims to the U. States, and remove to lands which will be assigned to them beyond the Mississippi. The Indians who live here are Ottawas, Miamis, Putawatomies, Wyandotts and Chippeways.

Education. — Congress has granted to this territory one-thirty-sixth part of the public lands, amounting to 543,893 acres, for common schools, and 46,080 for a University. Schools are established and maintained by private efforts, a part of the year, in almost all the neighbourhoods which have a sufficient population. Many Sunday Schools, with Libraries, have been established lately. It is expected that eventually there will be a good system of common schools established by public authority. There are a few Academies.

Congress has granted 10,000 acres of land for the erection of the government buildings of this territory.

GENERAL REMARKS. 1. No other country on earth has such admirable natural advantages for trade and commerce, as this peninsula possesses. In all directions, streams flow from it into the lakes, which almost surround it. Many of these streams, as we have seen, are navigable for boats. And canals can easily be made between their interlocking sources.

2. This territory, on account of the fertility of its soil, and the number and variety of its productions, as well as the facility with which they may be sent to market, is well worthy the attention of those who are about to emigrate to the West. It is a country of abundant fruits; orchards grow admirably. It is also the land for flocks and herds.


Cattle, hogs, sheep, horses, &c. are easily reared, and find a ready market.

3. The wild game of this territory is similar to that of Indiana, and the adjoining, unsettled parts of Ohio. Deer bears, beavers, otters, wolves, foxes, &c. are numerous. Geese, ducks, and other aquatic fowls, are exceedingly abundant. Wild turkies, pheasants, prairie-hens, &c. &c. are to be found in great numbers, and afford delicious food to the settlers in the autumn and winter.

4. There is a vast extent of public land for sale in this territory, which may be purchased at $1 25 an acre. There are two public Land Offices in this territory, viz:

Land Offices. Registers. Receivers.
Detroit John Biddle Jon'n Kearsley
White Pigeon Prairie Abraham Edwards Thos. C. Sheldon

5. The climate of this peninsula is very fine. It is that of the greater part of New-York and New-England as far north as the middle of Maine. Detroit is nearly on the same parallel with Boston, that is about 42° 20', and Mackinac the most extreme northern point, is in about 45° 48'. The climate of the southern part is like that of the southern and middle parts of New-York; while the northern part resembles, in its cold and protracted winters, the middle parts of Maine, and the northern parts of Vermont and New-York. The lakes which bound this peninsula on three sides exert much influence in moderating the extremes of heat and cold. The summers and autumns of this territory are delightful. The latter especially, are very mild and of long continuance. The springs are considerably later than those of Ohio and Indiana.

On some of the extended alluvial bottoms, which border the rivers in the southern part of this territory, in the latter part of summer, and in the autumn, bilious fevers sometimes prevail, as in the other western states. The emigrant must take care not to expose himself at those seasons, if he can avoid it, and live temperately and comfortably.

6. The extent of the lakes which are contiguous to this


peninsula is as follows. Lake Erie is 230 miles long, and 50 miles in its greatest width, but averaging more than 35 miles, and extending from S. W. to N. E. It is not so deep a lake as Ontario. Lake St. Clair is nearly circular, and is about 20 miles in diameter. It is connected, with Lake Erie by Detroit River, which is 27 miles long, and from one to three wide, and from 25 to 30 feet deep. Lake Huron is about 220 miles long, with an average width of 90. It is connected with Lake St. Clair by St. Clair River, which is 35 miles long, and from 25 to 30 feet jeep, and has a rapid current. Lake Michigan is 270 miles long, by about 50 in mean width. It is connected with Huron by a strait of about eight miles in width, through which a gentle current constantly sets into the latter lake. In the eastern entrance of that strait lies Michilimackinac Island.

It will be at once perceived, what great advantages this territory has in point of navigable facilities. There is now a considerable number of schooners and sloops on Lake Erie and the upper lakes. This number is probably about 120; whilst there are 21 steam-boats on Erie alone, some of which occasionally visit Lakes Huron and Michigan. Seven of these boats constitute a daily line from Buffalo in New-York to Detroit. A boat has been built recently for Lake Michigan, and a second is now building to constitute a line of packets from Buffalo in New-York, to Chicago in Illinois. In a few years there will be a dozen on that lake and Huron, and the merchandize from New-York, for the whole region on and beyond Michigan lake, will be brought in steam-boats from Buffalo and other places on Lake Erie. The Hudson and Erie canal, will greatly increase the trade of Michigan Territory. Even now vast quantities of pork, beef, flour, corn, feathers, beeswax, honey, skins, &c. &c. are shipped from this peninsula for New-York, and other eastern markets.

7. Emigrants from the East who desire to settle in Michigan will find it easy to remove to it, by taking a canal boat at Albany for Buffalo. This is a very economical mode of removing. From Buffalo they can go in a


steam-boat to Detroit, a voyage of 380 miles, and made usually in from 36 to 48 hours, for a small sum, if they take a deck passage. I have seen a family of four or five persons, and having two wagon loads of stuff, make this voyage for twenty dollars. The price in the cabin, at present, is eight dollars, for each grown person. Those emigrants who wish to remove to the southern and south western parts of Michigan, instead of going to Detroit ought to land at Sandusky, or the mouth of the Maumee River, and go then by land.

8. The history of this territory may be given in a few words. It was visited by French traders as early as 1640. Detroit was settled about 1670. In 1763 this country was ceded by France to Great Britain. In 1783 it was ceded by the latter power to the United States, but was not given up until 1796. The surrender of Detroit, and the defeat and massacre of our troops at the river Raisin, constitute a melancholy portion of the history of the war of 1812-'15. In 1805, a territorial government was organized, which still continues. In a year or two it will no doubt become a state.


Chapter XVI. Kentucky.

Map of Kentucky and Tennessee.

Map of Louisville, Kentucky.

Map of the Environs of Lexington, Kentucky.

KENTUCKY is bounded on the north by the Ohio river, which separates it from the states of Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; east by Western Virginia; south by Tennessee; and west by the Mississippi, which separates it from the state of Missouri. The greatest length is about 400 miles, and its area 40,500 square miles, or 25,920,000 acres.

It lies between N. lat. 36° 30', and 39° 08'; and W. long. 5°, and 12° 25'.

Adair, s m 8,217 Columbia, 91
Allen, s 6,485 Scottsville, 151
Anderson, m 4,520 Lawrenceburg, 12
Barren, s w m 15,079 Glasgow, 126
Bath, e m 8,799 Owingsville, 73
Boone, n 9,075 Burlington, 72
Bourbon, n e m 18,436 Paris, 43
Bracken, n 6,518 Augusta, 73
Breckenridge w m 7,345 Hardinsburg 118
Butler, s w m 3,058 Morgantown 141
Bullitt, n w m 5,642 Shepherdsville, 74
Caldwell, w 8,324 Princeton, 229
Callaway, sw 5,164 Wadesboro', 262
Campbell, n 9,883 Newport, 79
Casey, m 4,342 Liberty, 66
Christian, s w 12,684 Hopkinsville 206
Clarke, m 13,051 Winchester, 45
Clay, s e 3,548 Manchester, 115
Cumberland, s 8,624 Burkesville, 119
Daviess, w m 5,209 Owensboro', 150
Edmondson, s w m 2,642 Brownsville, 138
Estill, e m 4,618 Irvine, 71


(Table continued.)
Fayette, m 25,098 Lexington, 25
Fleming, n e 13,499 Flemingsburg, 79
Floyd, e 4,347 Prestonburg, 148
Franklin, w 9,254 FRANKFORT,  
Gallatin, n 6,674 Port William, 57
Garrard, m 11,871 Lancaster, 52
Grant, n m 2,986 Williamstown, 44
Graves, s w 2,504 May field, 284
Grayson, w m 3,880 Litchfield, 110
Greene, m 13,138 Greensburg, 90
Greenup, n e 5,853 Greenupsburg, 132
Hancock, n m 1,515 Hawsville, 130
Hardin, w m 12,849 Elizabethtown, 80
Harlan, s e 2,929 Mon't Pleasant, 168
Harrison, n m 13,234 Cynthiana, 38
Hart, s w m 5,191 Mumfordsville, 105
Henderson, w 6,659 Henderson, 180
Henry, n m 11,387 New Castle, 37
Hickman, s w 5,198 Columbus, 308
Hopkins, w 6,763 Madisonville, 200
Jefferson, n w m 23,979 Louisville, 52
Jessamine, m 9,960 Nicholasville, 37
Knox, s e 4,313 Barboursville, 122
Laurel, s e m 2,206 London, 102
Lawrence, e 3,900 Louisa, 127
Lewis, n e 5,229 Clarksburg, 96
Lincoln, m 11,002 Stanford, 51
Livingston, w 5,971 Salem, 245
Logan, s 13,012 Russelville, 171
Madison, m 18,751 Richmond, 50
Mason, n 16,919 Washington, 63
McCracken, w 1,297 Wilmington, 282
Meade, w m 4,131 Brandenburg, 90
Mercer, m 17,694 Harrodsburg, 30
Monroe, s 5,340 Tompkinsville, 144
Montgomery, m 10,240 Mount Sterling, 60
Morgan, e m 2,857 West Liberty, 107


(Table Continued.)
Muhlenburg, s w m 5,340 Greenville, 177
Nelson, w m 14,932 Bardstown, 55
Nicholas, n e m 8,834 Carlisle, 58
Ohio, w m 4,715 Hartford, 154
Oldham, n m 9,588 Westport, 44
Owen, n m 5,786 Owentown, 28
Pendleton, n 3,863 Falmouth, 60
Perry, s e 3,330 Perry C. H. 148
Pike, e 2,677 Pikeville, 165
Pulaski, s m 9,500 Somerset, 85
Rockcastle, s e m 2,865 Mount Vernon, 73
Russel, s m 3,879 Jamestown, 109
Scott, n m 14,677 Georgetown, 17
Shelby, n m 19,030 Shelbyville, 21
Simpson, s 5,813 Franklin, 165
Spencer, m 6,812 Taylorsville, 35
Todd, s 8,680 Elkton, 186
Trigg, s w 5,916 Cadiz, 226
Union, w 4,764 Morganfield, 205
Warren, s w m 10,949 Bowling Green, 145
Washington, m 19,017 Springfield, 50
Wayne, s 8,685 Monticello, 110
Whiteley, s e 3,806 Whiteley C. H. 130
Woodford, m 12,273 Versailles, 13
Total, 83 Counties, 687,917, of whom 165,213 are slaves, 4,917 free coloured persons, and 517,787 whites.
  Population.   Increase.
In 1790, about 73,677 From 1790 to 1800, 147,282
1800, ' 220,959 ' 1800 ' 1810, 185,552
1810, ' 406,511 ' 1810 ' 1820 157,806
1820, ' 564,317 ' 1820 ' 1830 123,600
1830, ' 687,917    

Executive Government. Governor, term of office four years — salary $2,000 per annum; Lieutenant Governor


$4 per day as president of the senate: Secretary of state $750; Auditor, Register, and Treasurer, each $1,500.

The Legislature consists of a Senate and House of Representatives, styled the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The members of the former are chosen for 4 years; those of the latter annually. The senate consists of 38 members; and the house of representatives of 100. The members of both houses receive $2,00 per day during the session of the legislature.

Judiciary. The court of Appeals consists of a Chief Justice and two other Judges: salary of each is $1,500. Circuit Courts. The state is divided into 16 judicial districts for holding circuit courts. There is a Judge for each circuit, who has jurisdiction of law cases over $50, and of chancery cases over 5Ł, and holds three terms a year in each county of his circuit. The salary of the Judges of the circuit courts is $1000 per annum. County Courts are also held by three or more justices of the peace, Their jurisdiction is over inferior suits. They hear appeals from the decision of single justices.

Face of the country. The south-eastern portion of this state borders upon the Allegheny range of mountains, some of the spurs and detached ridges of which descend for a considerable distance into it. That part of the state is consequently of a mountainous character, with lofty eminences and deep ravines, and valleys between them, affording landscape views of uncommon boldness and picturesque-ness. Along the Ohio River, and extending from 10 to 20 miles in different places from it, are the "Ohio Hills," parallel with that beautiful stream. These hills are often high, generally gracefully rounded and conical, with narrow vales and bottoms around their bases. They give to that portion of the state, through which they extend, a very rough appearance. They are covered with lofty forests, and have often a good soil on their sides and summits. The alluvial bottoms between them and the Ohio, and along the streams which fall into that river, are of the richest kind.

But the great expanse of land in this state which stretches from north-east to the south-west, between the mountainous and hilly portions on the south-eastern, and north-western sides above described, is in general beautifully


undulating or rolling. In the southern part, on the waters of the Green and its branches, and towards the Tennessee boundary, this extended vale, if I may so term it, it is designated by the title of barrens, — a most deceptive word. For the country is far from being poor; it is generally second or third rate land, much of it has a productive soil. It is very thinly wooded, and covered in the summer season with high grass growing amid the sparse and short oak timber. But the country lying north-east of those barrens, and constituting the northern half of the wide and beautiful vale of Kentucky, and which is watered by the Licking, Kentucky, and Salt Rivers, and their numerous branches, is really the garden of this state. This tract of land is about 100 miles in one direction, by 50 in another, and exceeds in beauty, fertility of soil, and amenity of landscape, perhaps any other portion of the West of equal extent. The substratum of this section, and indeed of a great part of Kentucky, is limestone.

Black walnut, cherry, honey locust, buck eye, paw-paw, sugar tree, mulberry, elm, ash, hawthorn, coffee tree, yellow poplar, together with grape vines of an uncommon size, generally indicate that the soil is of a most prolific kind. Numerous streams flow through this region, and springs of water of great beauty are frequent. The cane brakes which existed throughout it as an underwood, when it was first settled, have disappeared, and are succeeded by grass and the may-apple, and other vegetables which grow on the richest soils. In this section of the state are hundreds of the finest farms, with stately and elegant mansions, the abodes of wealth, and intelligence.

Soil and Productions. There is a great extent of excellent land in this state, as I have already intimated. There is also a considerable portion of land on the Ohio hills on the west; the mountains on the east; and the "knobs" of the "barrens" which can never be cultivated, on account of its roughness of surface, and sterility of soil. The general fertility of this state is well known.

The productions are maize or Indian corn, wheat, rye, buckwheat, oats, hemp, tobacco, and all the vegetables of the middle states, in great abundance. Cotton is raised for domestic use in many of the southern counties but little for exportation.


Corn, wheat, hemp and tobacco, are grand staples in this state. Vast quantities of corn in the ear, and corn meal, flour, fruits, fresh and dried, whiskey, cider, cotton bagging and bale ropes, bacon, pickled pork, butter, cheese, honey, feathers, bees-wax, salted beef, &c. are annually sent to New Orleans and other towns in the southern part of the Valley, or in the steam-boats to the upper part of it.

Great numbers of cattle, hogs and horses are every year driven to the eastern and southern markets. I possess no recent data, by which to calculate the value, of these exportations. In 1828, there passed the turnpike gate at the Cumberland Gap, an amount of live stock valued at $1,167,303. In 1829, incomplete reports of the exports, gave the sum of $2,780,000.

Manufactures. — The manufactures of this state are rapidly increasing. Salt in considerable quantities is made. In 1830, there were $160,000 invested in this manufacture, and 137,350 bushels were made. Iron is manufactured in several counties. Hemp is manufactured into cotton bagging, bale ropes, cordage, &c. Many other articles are extensively manufactured. The domestic or family manufactures of this state are very valuable. Every farmer manufactures many of the articles of clothing worn by his family.

Rivers. — The Big Sandy, Little Sandy, Licking, Kentucky, Salt, Green, Cumberland, and Tennessee, are rivers which flow into the Ohio within the limits of this state. Of these the Licking is navigable for boats 70 or 80 miles.

The Kentucky is navigable for flat boats 150 miles, and for small steam-boats to Frankfort. It falls into the Ohio at Port William, 77 miles above Louisville. Salt River is navigable 100 miles, and is 100 yards wide at its mouth. Green River is boatable 200 miles, and is navigable by one of its branches — the Barren River — for steam-boats to Bowling Green. It has many branches. The Cumberland rises in the eastern part of the state, flows south into Tennessee, and returns again into this state, and empties into the Ohio, 59 miles above the junction of the latter with the Mississippi. It is 600 miles long, and navigable for boats 400 or 500. Steam-boats of the largest class run


up to Nashville during several months of the year. The Tennessee is a river of Tennessee state. It runs but a short distance in this state, and falls into the Ohio, eleven miles below the mouth of the Cumberland.

The rivers which flow from this state are generally rapid streams, running in deep channels, with perpendicular, and in many places, very high banks of rock. They are liable to great and sudden floods. The scenery on their banks is exceedingly picturesque.

The Ohio flows along the north and north-western line of this state for nearly 700 miles — and the Mississippi between 40 and 50.

Roads. — There are good roads leading to every important place in the state. And numerous lines of stages run in the summer from Lexington, as a centre, in every direction, — to Nashville, Cumberland Gap, and to the southern states; to Louisville, Cincinnati, Maysville, &c. &c. The facilities for travelling are abundant. A rail road is projected from Lexington to Louisville, and a fine turnpike from the same place to Maysville, is completed.

The only canal in the state is the important one around the falls in the Ohio at Louisville, which is about two miles long, sufficiently deep to admit the largest steamboats when the river is high enough for them to run; it has 4 locks, overcomes a fall of 22 feet, and cost about $730,000.

Towns. — FRANKFORT, the capital of the state, is situated in north latitude 38° 48', and west longitude 7° 48'. It stands on the right or northern bank of the Kentucky River, 60 miles above its entrance into the Ohio. It is situated on a beautiful bottom, surrounded by very elevated hills, which give the place a very picturesque appearance. The banks of the river are two or three hundred feet high, and almost perpendicular. A bridge connects South Frankfort with Frankfort. There are several factories for the manufacture of hemp and cotton here. Steam-boats run from this place to Louisville, Cincinnati, and other places on the Ohio, during the vernal and autumnal portions of the year, when the waters are high. The State House is one of the finest buildings of the kind in the United States. It is built of the most beautiful materials. The other public


buildings are the Penitentiary, which contains more than a hundred convicts, and is conducted on the most approved plan, — a Court House, and three or four Churches. The population is about 2,000; and the society of the place is polished, intelligent, and hospitable.

LEXINGTON is situated 35 miles south-east of Frankfort in one of the most beautiful regions on the globe. In every direction extends a very fertile country, covered with elegant villas, cultivated fields, and lofty forests. A branch of the Elkhorn runs through the suburbs. This town was named by some hunters, who were encamped on the spot when the report of the battle of Lexington, in its progress through the western wilds, reached their ears.

The streets of this town are wide and handsome, and, many of the houses are very beautiful. The public buildings are the Court House, Market, Univerity, Masonic Hall, United States' Bank, eleven Churches, and the State Lunatic Asylum, which contains many patients, under excellent treatment. There are three or four factories for spinning and weaving wool; five or six for cotton; and several for making machines. In 1830, 1,000,000 yards of cotton bagging, and 2,000,000 pounds of bale rope, and other cordage, were manufactured here.

The environs of this place are represented in an accompanying map of the town. The inhabitants of this place are distinguished for their elegant and cordial hospitality, their intelligence, and public spirit. The several learned professions here embrace much talent. Very many strangers from the lower part of the Valley of the Mississippi, here spend their summers; whilst many travellers from the East every year, spend much time at the excellent hotels of this place. The population is between six and seven thousand.

LOUISVILLE, at the head of the Falls or Rapids of the Ohio, is the great commercial emporium of this state. It is 132 (commonly said to be 150) miles, by the river, below Cincinnati; 52 miles from Frankfort, 74 from Lexington, 180 from Nashville; 1,448, by the river, above New-Orleans, and 590 miles from Washington City. It faces the north the Ohio running at this point nearly due west. It stands on a vast alluvial bottom, which, ascending from the lower bank, stretches out in every direction from the


river. The Bear Grass, a considerable stream, falls into the Ohio in the upper part of the city. There are several streets running parallel with the river, and others crossing them at right angles. A vast and increasing amount of business is done hero every year. Excepting when the river is frozen up, steam-boats arrive and depart daily on the upper Ohio, Shippingsport and Portland, two villages separated by the canal, and about two miles below Louisville, are really the port of this city below the falls. Hundreds of steam-boat arrivals and departures occur every rear. Before the canal was built, goods and passengers from the Mississippi and the lower Ohio, were landed at these villages, and brought up to the city by land. This caused an immense factory business to be done here. But now, all steam-boats which can run on the Ohio, may pass through the canal; so that boats will hereafter come up to the Louisville wharf and receive their freights, and on their return land their cargoes at the same place.

The public places here are the Court House, Market, 6 or 8 Churches, High School, United States' Bank, and a Marine Hospital. There is a Cotton Factory, Iron Foundry, and 5 or 6 Steam Mills. In 1800 there were 600 inhabitants; 1820, 4,012; and 1830, 10,336. At present it is more than 13,000. I know no place in the West which is increasing more rapidly than Louisville. It is a great thoroughfare for the Valley of the Ohio. Thousands of Hat boats arrive here every year from the rivers which flow into the upper Ohio. And hundreds of steam-boats arrive from every part of the Valley of the Mississippi. The vast amount of business done along the wharves of this city astonishes every traveller from the East.

The position of Louisville is about lat. 38° 18' north, and long. 8° 42' west from Washington. The surrounding region possesses great fertility. The climate is generally salubrious. In August and September, bilious fevers some-times prevail to a considerable degree. The accompanying map of Louisville and its environs, will give the reader a good idea of it.

MAYSVILLE, on the Ohio, 60 miles above Cincinnati, is a place of great business. It is a thoroughfare for the upper part of the state. Great quantities of merchandize arrive here by steam and other boats from the East; and exports


of flour, tobacco, corn, &c. &c. of great value, are made from this place for the upper and lower towns in the Valley The population is near 3000. A turnpike road has just been made from this place to Lexington, 75 miles distant.

Besides Louisville and Maysville, the other important towns on the Ohio, as one decends, are Greensburg, Augusta, Newport, and Covington, (opposite to Cincinnati) Port William, (at the mouth of the Kentucky,) Owenboro', Henderson, Smithland, (immediately below the entrance of the Cumberland,) and Paducah, at the entrance of the Tennessee river.

In the interior of the state, there are the following nourishing and important towns, most of which are county towns. Their distance from Frankfort is given in the list of counties in the beginning of this chapter. Commencing in the eastern part, and proceedings west, we find Flemingsburg, Washington, Paris, Georgetown, Harrodsburg, Versailles, Bardstown, Shelbyville, Russelville, Bowling Green, Princeton, Glasgow, Elizabethtown, &c. &c. Besides these, there are not less than 50 or 60 growing villages in different parts of the state, which are the centres of populous neighbourhoods.

Education. — There is no public system of common schools. Every neighbourhood has supported a school or not, at the option of the people. There are few neighbourhoods where schools have not been maintained some portion of time. But this important interest has been greatly neglected. At present, a much greater feeling is awaking. It was ascertained in 1830, that a very large number of children are not receiving an education. It is hoped that the Legislature of the state will soon devise a system of common school instruction, whose benefits will be felt in every part of the commonwealth. There are Academies in many of the important towns, in some of which the classics and mathematics are taught. Female schools, of a high character, are established in several places. There are also six Colleges in operation in this state.

Mineral Springs. — The Olympian Springs, 47 miles east of Lexington; Harrodsburg Spring; and Big Bone Lick Springs, 20 miles below Cincinnati, are much frequented by invalids every summer. They possess different medicinal qualities. And visitors at them enjoy fine accommodations for health and pleasure.


Curiosities. — There are numerous Caves in this state; some of which, as, for instance, what is called Mammoth Cave, in Edmondson county, are of great extent. Some of them have earth impregnated with nitre, from which, during the last war, it is said 400,000 pounds of saltpetre were manufactured. At the Big Bone Lick, bones of prodigious size have been found, which belonged to races of animals which are believed to be now extinct.

Many skeletons have been found in caves in this state. Many mounds, erected by the aboriginal inhabitants, are also found.

In some cases, streams of considerable size run wholly under ground, for some distance. Near to Bowling Green, there is a mill under an immense rock, just where a branch of the Barren River flows forth from its subterranean course. This state abounds in astonishing natural curiosities, and in the finest landscapes.

GENERAL REMARKS. — 1. As a general remark, it may be said that this state has a delightful climate, less warm in summer, and more cold in winter, than any one would suppose, who does not consider the great altitude of its middle and eastern parts.

2. There is much good land in this state which is not cultivated. A population of 5,000,000 might find abundant room within the limits of this state. Emigrants from the East may find much land for sale here, either in an uncultivated state, or already partially cultivated; and for very reasonable prices, varying according to circumstances from 3 or 4 dollars to 20 per acre.

3. This state is a delightful region for the traveller, who journeys for pleasure, to visit in the spring, summer, and fall seasons, especially in the two last. The roads, although not generally turnpikes, are then good; the scenery is fine; and the entertainment at the public houses is liberal, cordial, and often sumptuous,

4. The Kentucky character is a very peculiar one. It is a compound of high-mindedness, self-confidence bordering on boastfulness, enthusiastic ardour, courage, frankness, sincerity, and unbounded hospitality. Honour is every thing. Their admiration of their noble country, and all its productions, is excessive. No man is more fascinating than a well-bred, and noble-minded, virtuous Kentuckian.


5. Emigrants from New-England and states north of the Potomac who design to settle in Kentucky, will remove thither by way of the New-York canal, Lake Erie, Erie and Ohio canal, and then descend the Ohio River to such point as will be most convenient; or they will remove by the Pennsylvania canals and roads to Pittsburg or Wheeling, and thence descend the Ohio in boats. Those who remove from Virginia and North Carolina will enter Kentucky by the roads which lead into it from the East, of which there are several. Foreigners will come in the cheapest manner, by way of New Orleans, and thence up to Louisville, or such other point as they choose, by the steamboats.

6. The early history of this state is the most wonderful chapter in the annals of our nation. The adventures of Daniel Boone, Harrod, Logan, Ray, Butler, Johnson, and others, are unparalleled in the history of any other times. From 1770 to 1795, when the treaty at Greenville was made by General Wayne, the inhabitants of this state literally lived in the constant anticipation of Indian attacks. Many, very many of them, fell either in the field of battle, or in their corn-fields and houses, by the hands of savage foes.

7. The country now called Kentucky, once belonged by charter to Virginia. It was visited by a Mr. Finley, from North Carolina, in 1767; and again, by Daniel Boone, in 1769. The first permanent settlement was made in 1774, at Harrodsburg. In 1787, not a single Post-office had been established. The first newspaper printed in Kentucky, was issued August 28th, 1787, on a demi sheet, in Lexington, by Mr. John Bradford, and entitled the "Kentucky Gazette." No other paper was then printed nearer than 500 miles. Kentucky became a state in 1793, and is the oldest state in the West.

8. Boone was a man of temperate habits, erect, and vigorous in his movements, even in his latest years. About the year 1800, he removed to Missouri; and ended his long and eventful life, in September 1820, at the house of his son, Mr. Nathan Boone; and was buried beside the remains of his wife, on a bluff of Tuque Creek, Montgomery county, about two miles from the Missouri River.


Chapter XVII. Tennessee.

Map of Kentucky and Tennessee.

Map of the Environs of Nashville, Tennessee.

TENESSEE is bounded on the north by Kentucky and Virginia; east by North Carolina; south by Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi; and west by the Mississippi river, which separates it from Arkansas and Missouri; extending from N. lat. 35° to 36° 40'; and from W. lon. 4° 12' to 13° 14'. The mean length from east to west is about 400 miles, and its mean width is near 108; having an area of 40,200 miles, or 25,728,000 acres.

Anderson, n e m 5,310 Clinton, 195
Bledsoe, e 4,648 Pikeville, 109
Blount, s e 11,028 Maryville, 196
Claiborne, n 8,470 Tazewell, 243
Campbell, n 5,110 Jacksonville 215
Carter, n e 6414 Elizabethtown 316
Cocke, e 6,017 Newport, 247
Grainger, e m 10,066 Rutledge, 232
Greene, e 14,410 Greenville, 273
Hamilton, s e m 2,276 Hamilton, C. H., 148
Hawkins, n e 13,683 Rogersville, 264
Jefferson, e 11,801 Dandridge, 229
Knox, e n 14,498 Knoxville, 199
Marion, s 5,508 Jaspar, 114
Monroe, s e 13,708 Madisonville, 168
Morgan, n 2,582 Montgomery, 46
McMinn, s e m 14,469 Athens, 153
Rhea, e m 8,186 Washington, 129
Roane, e m 11,141 Kingston, 159
Sevier, e 5,717 Sevier, C. H. 225
Sullivan s e 10,073 Blountville, 306
Washington, e 10,994 Jonesborough, 298
Total, 22 Counties, 196,300, of whom 17,887 are slaves.


(Table continued.)
Bedford, m 30,386 Shelbyville, 52
Carroll, w 9,397 Huntingdon, 109
Davidson, m 28,122 NASHVILLE,  
Dickson, w m 7,265 Charlotte, 40
Dyer, w 1,904 Dyersburg, 168
Fayette, s m 8,652 Somerville, 184
Fentress, n 2,748 Jamestown, 131
Franklin, s 15,620 Winchester, 82
Giles, s 18,703 Pulaski, 77
Gibson, w 5,801 Trenton, 139
Hickman, m, 8,199 Vernon, 66
Hardeman, s w 11,655 Bolivar, 158
Hardin, s w 4,868 Savannah, 112
Haywood, w 5,334 Brownsville, 275
Henry, n w 12,249 Paris, 108
Henderson, w m 8,748 Lexington, 130
Humphreys, w m 6,187 Reynoldsburg, 77
Jackson, n 9,698 Gainesborough 79
Lincoln, s 22,075 Fayetteville, 73
Lawrence, s 5,411 Lawrenceburg, 75
Maury, m 27,665 Columbia, 42
Montgomery, n 14,349 Clarksville, 46
Madison, w 11,594 Jackson, 147
McNairy, s 5,697 Purdy, 128
Obion, n w 2,099 Troy, 161
Overton, n 8,242 Monroe, 109
Perry, w m 7,094 Shannonsville, 114
Rutherford, m 26,134 Murfreesborough, 33
Robertson, n 13,272 Springfield, 25
Shelby, s w 5,648 Memphis, 224
Smith, n 19,906 Carthage, 52
Sumner, n 20,569 Gallatin, 25
Stuart, n w 6,968 Dover, 81
Tipton, w 5,317 Covington, 197
Warren, m 15,210 McMinnville, 74
White, m 9,967 Sparta, 92
Williamson, n m 26,638 Franklin, 18
Wilson, n m 25,472 Lebanon, 31
Wayne, s 6,013 Waynesborough, 92
Weekly, n w 4,797 Dresden, 132
Total, 40 counties 485,603, of whom 123,716 are slaves,


  Population. Slaves.
West Tennessee 485,603 123,716
East Tennessee 196,300 17,889
Total of Tennessee 681,903 141,603
  Population.   Increase.
In 1800 105,602 From 1800 to 1810 156,125
' 1810 261,727 ' 1810 ' 1820 159,086
' 1830 420,813 ' 1820 ' 1830 261,090
' 1830 681,903    

GOVERNMENT. — Governor, — term of office two years, — salary $2,000 per annum.

The Legislature consists of a Senate and House of Representatives, styled the General Assembly of Tennessee. The former shall consist of a number never less than one-third, nor greater than one-half as many as there are members of the House of Representatives. The number of both depends upon that of the taxable inhabitants. At present there are 20 Senators and 60 Representatives: They are elected biennially. Their compensation is $4 a day during the session of the Legislature, which meets biennially on the third Monday in September, next following the election; and it may be called, if necessary, at other times, by the Governor.

The general election is once in two years, on the first Thursday and Friday in August.

JUDICIARY. — The Supreme Court of Errors and Appeals consists of three judges, — salary of each, $1,800 per annum. Two Chancellors — salary of each, $1,500.

There are eleven Circuits and as many judges: the salary of each, $1,300 per annum.

Surface of the Country. — The eastern part of this state is mountainous; the middle and western parts are moderately even in general, and in many places quite level. Some of the mountains, particularly the Cumberland range, have table lands of considerable extent and tolerably level. — Such land is of a light soil, but productive and good for the growing of the smaller kinds of grain. Between the mountain vallies of East Tennessee and the level lands of the western part of the state, there is a difference of elevation of probably 1,000 feet; a fact which must have a


great effect upon the temperature and productions of the two regions.

Soil. — As a whole, this state probably has less first rat soil than Kentucky. But it has, nevertheless, a large extent of most excellent and productive land. Many of the vallies of East Tennessee, and large portions of the middle counties, and of the Western District, as it is called, — that is, the portion of the state which lies west of the Tennessee river, and between that river and the Mississippi — have an uncommonly fertile soil.

Productions. — Corn is a great staple of this state. It grows luxuriantly in all parts of it. Cotton grows well also in this state, and large quantities are raised, especially in the middle and western counties. Tobacco and heron are also raised. Wheat, rye, oats, barley, and buck-wheat, grow well, especially in East Tennessee. All sorts of vegetables, including sweet-potatoes, &c. &c., grow finely in this state. Melons of all sorts find a congenial soil here.

It is good cotton land which will yield a bale, or bag, of 400 pounds per acre. Some lands will yield twice this quantity; but much in this state yields less than one bale an acre. Cotton, corn, hogs, horses, cattle, iron, tobacco, &c. &c. are the chief exports from this state.

Rivers. — The great rivers of this state are the Tennessee and Cumberland. The former rises in Virginia, and flowing down to the south, it cuts the Cumberland mountains, and sweeping into the northern part of Alabama, it turns to a north-western course across Tennessee into Kentucky, and falls into the Ohio, 48 miles above the junction of that river with the Mississippi. Its whole course is about 1200 miles; and is interrupted by the Muscle Shoals and other rapids. The latter rising in Kentucky sweeps down into this state, and finally enters the Ohio 11 miles above the mouth of the Tennessee. It is navigable to Nashville, and sometimes above, for the largest steamboats, when its waters are up — which occurs at intervals all the year through, and especially in the early spring and autumn. These rivers are very seldom frozen. Duck river, an important branch of the Tennessee, is navigable for boats during the fall and spring floods. And the Obion, Forked Deer, Big Hatchie, and Wolf, which flow into the


Mississippi from the Western District, afford considerable advantages to that part of the state, inasmuch as they are navigable for boats during the winter, spring and part of the autumn. Steam-boats run on the Hatchie and Wolf.

Manufactures. Iron is made in large quantities in East Tennessee, and along the Cumberland in the vicinity of Clarksville, below Nashville. Salt is manufactured to a very limited extent in this state. In 1830, there were $3,000 invested in this business, and 3,640 bushels made. There are several factories in this state for spinning cotton and soon the manufacture of that article will become established in this state. Several steam-boats have been recently built at Nashville and other places on the Cumberland.

EAST TENNESSEE. Whoever will take the trouble to inspect a map of this state, will at once discover, that it is divided into two great, unequal, and in many respects very dissimilar sections. I shall notice these divisions separately.

East Tennessee possesses a rhomboidal shape. Its northern line separates it from Western Virginia, and its southern divides it from Georgia and Alabama: while on the east is the everlasting barrier of the Unika or Smoky Mountain, which is a continuation of the Allegheny Ridge of the Allegheny system, running from northeast to south-west; and corresponding to it, runs, in a similar course, the Cumberland Mountain, on the west. This mountain separates East from West Tennessee. This whole region, which embraces 22 counties, and constitutes one-third part of the entire state, is very elevated. Even the vallies which lie between its mountains are from 800 to 1,000 feet above the alluvial lands in the western part of the state.

If any one supposes that East Tennessee is a vast plain having mountains only on the east, and west, and south, he is utterly mistaken; for it is greatly intersected, especially in the northern part of it, with mountainous ridges, of greater or less elevation, and having intervening vallies of varying widths, all pursuing, like the Unika and Cumberland, in the general, a course from N. E. to S. W.

The Tennessee, with its numerous confluents, — the Holston, French Broad, Clinch, Hiwassee, and their numerous


branches, — drains every valley in this entire region Several of these streams, such as the Nolechucy, French Broad, Little Tennessee — or Tennessee as it is commonly delineated on the maps, and which is far inferior to the Holston, although it gives name to the great recipient rise eastward of the Unika mountains, in North Carolina and in their course westward cut through it.

Many of these rivers are navigable for flat boats, during a considerable portion of the year. But owing to the numerous rapids and falls which exist in all of them it is almost, if not quite impossible to introduce steam-boats into these waters, with much hope of success. It is true indeed that the experiment is now making of running a steam-boat, the "Knoxville," from Knoxville to the Muscle Shoals; but unless some very considerable obstructions are removed, which may undoubtedly be done, the effort I fear, will not be very successful.

The valleys in East Tennessee are fertile. The productions are corn, wheat, rye, oats, potatoes, &c., in great abundance, especially corn, which grows remarkably well. Cotton is also much cultivated in the Hiwassee district. Fruits, such as apples, peaches, &c., are very abundant. I have never seen orchards more heavily loaded with fruit than those of East Tennessee. This region also abounds in honey. Almost every family along the roads on which I have passed, possess several, and some a large number of hives of bees, which yield a plentiful supply of one of the most wholesome articles of diet. Gold mines exist in the Unika Mountains, and also in the Hiwassee district.

The greatest obstacle to the more rapid increase of this country in wealth and population, is the great difficulty of exporting its productions to a market, and of importing such foreign articles as are needed. To boat them down the waters of the Tennessee, with all its difficulties, to New Orleans, is a tedious business, and subjects the trader to inconveniencies to which the trader from Ohio, and indeed from any other portion of the Valley of the Mississippi, is a stranger. And to wagon them across to Baltimore or Lynchburg, as is most frequently done, and to bring merchandise by the same mode of conveyance from those places, which is the only way now pursued, of obtaining it, is attended with enormous expense. At present


the inhabitants are greatly stirred up on the subject f having a rail road made from Knoxville to Lynchburg in Virginia. This it is proposed to do by continuing the rail road which the legislature of Virginia at a late session, authorized a company to make from Lynchburg to New River, which is the main branch of the Kanawha. Should that road ever be made, its continuation to Knoxville, or at least to the Boat Yard, or Kingsport, which is the highest point on the Holston to which boat navigation emends, will not be impracticable. On the other hand, the people of Charleston urge the importance of extending their Columbia and Augusta rail road, so as to enter East Tennessee by the valley of the Nolechucky, or the French Broad, or the Little Tennessee; or else cross the highlands of North Alabama, and reach the Tennessee River near the Muscle Shoals, and perhaps eventually reach to the Mississippi River. These are great projects, and should they ever be accomplished, they will confer great blessings upon this secluded, though valuable portion of our country.

There are many interesting towns and villages in East Tennessee, such as Blountville, Rogersville, Jonesboro' Greenville, Knoxville, Maryville, Athens, &c. Of all these, Knoxville is by far the most important. It is on the western bank of the Holston, on a hilly site, and near the centre of this section of the state. It has a population of about 3,000 inhabitants. There are three or four churches here. The college stands on an elevated hill, south of the town, and has a most commanding view of the whole country around, the town on the north, and the Holston, which meanders along amid lofty hills on the east.

East Tennessee, with its mountains and vallies, its rivers and lofty and grand scenery, is the Switzerland of the United States, and contains an active, industrious, frugal, and moral population.

The first settlements were made in this part of the state in 1757, when fort Loudon was built. From this period until 1796, there was an almost continued series of Indian wars, and the colonists suffered dreadfully. From 1784 to 1790 there were constant intestine difficulties, owing to the attempted formation of a new and separate government here, which was called the state of Frankland. In 1790


N. Carolina ceded the whole country to the United State and in 1796 the state was organized as such, and received into the Union. A full history of these events would ha interesting, but I cannot enter upon it.

WEST TENNESSEE. This portion of the state embraces about two-thirds of the territory, contains 40 counties and is separated from East Tennessse by the Cumberland Mountain. Its surface is scarcely any where very level but is generally undulating, and in many places, especially in the eastern part of it, hilly. In a state of nature it was covered (it is so still to a great extent) with a heavy forest of oak, walnut, poplar, ash, elm, cedar, &c. Corn grows abundantly, together with other small grains. Fruits, such as apples and peaches, are very abundant. Garden vegetables also grow finely. But cotton is the grand staple of West Tennessee. The rich alluvial lands of this portion of the state yield fine cotton. Tobacco and hemp are cultivated, to some extent.

Shelbyville, Gallatin, Clarksville, Sparta, M'Minville, Winchester, Columbia, Franklin, and Murfreesboro', are flourishing towns, and centres of fertile regions. Memphis, Randolph, and Bolivar, are important towns in the Western District, that is, the section of West Tennessee which lies west of the Tennessee river. There are 14 counties in this portion of the state, and several nourishing towns. Indeed Tennessee has a remarkably large number of flourishing towns and villages, which bid fair, in the course of time, to become important places.

But the chief town in West Tennessee, and indeed the capital of the state, is NASHVILLE. This important town, or rather city, for it is incorporated as such, stands on the south-western bank of the Cumberland River, which here flows a little to the west of north. It is 180 miles south of Louisville, Kentucky; 714 from Washington city; 199 west of Knoxville, 110 north of Florence; and 224 from Memphis on the Mississippi. Nashville was named in honour of the brave Gen. Nash, who was killed in the battle of Germantown. As early as 1767, the place where Nashville now stands was occupied as a station by French traders, and it was in its neighbourhood that many of the tragical events of the early Indian wars, which so long harrassed the first colonists of this state, occurred. But it


was not until 1784, that the town was founded. The site is far from being level. The town covers one entire hill together with its gently sloping sides, and extends westward upon another, and on the south it is reaching another in that direction, which is the gradually rising eminence upon which the College stands. The site is a very elevated one compared with the surface of the river, which flows by in a narrow and deep channel.

Nashville literally stands upon a rock; for a hard limestone rock lies but a few inches below the surface. Indeed, in many places, it is exposed to open view. The consequence is, that no cellar is here made but what is excavated by blasting, from the solid rock. The houses are almost all of brick, and that of a fine colour. I have never seen a town of the same size which contains as few mean houses, and as little in the general appearance that offends the eye. It is indeed a remarkably beautiful place. It contains more elegant mansions and pleasant seats, in and around it, than any other town, of equal size, in the United States, which I have seen. There is much wealth and active business here. It is the commercial emporium of the state. Eleven or twelve (perhaps more at times) steamboats, find business enough in the trade between this place and Louisville and New-Orleans, during that portion of the year when the Cumberland is navigable. And there is not only wealth here, but there is intelligence, refinement, benevolence and hospitality, to an almost unrivalled extent. The square around the court house and market is the great business part of the city. The population is at least 8,000.

The Market House, Court House, Baptist, Presbyterian, and Episcopal Churches, the Academy, and College, are public buildings which arrest the attention of the stranger. The market-house is a very fine one; and not only is the architecture of it, but also the care with which it is kept free from every thing offensive, very creditable to the inhabitants. The Episcopal Church is a beautiful building of the Gothic style of architecture. There is a new Penitentiary building within half a mile of the city. It encloses 4 acres, and is constructed upon the most approved plan. It is designed to hold about 900 convicts. It is on the plan of the Prison at Weathersfield. The Water Works, by which the city is supplied with water from the Cumberland, are


a noble monument of the liberality and enterprise of the citizens.

There are several Classical schools in Nashville, where youth prepare for the college. There are also several most excellent female seminaries, the principal of which is the public one under the superintendence of the Rev. Mr. Hume, which has upwards of a hundred pupils. No town in our country is better supplied with schools of a higher grade, than Nashville.

Education. — This state has recently made some efforts to secure a more general establishment of common schools. A large fund, derived from the sales of the lands in the Hiwassee district in East Tennessee, which were granted to the state by the general government, has been accumulated, and its interest distributed. But the sum which is granted to each school district, is too inconsiderable to do much good. As the school fund amounts now to more than $1,000,000, if that sum were increased by the addition of its interest, until it becomes upwards of $2,000,000, and then the proceeds so given to the people in each county, as to require their active co-operation in raising a further amount by taxation, so as to secure the establishment and maintenance of schools, as the New-York system does, it would be a great blessing.

There are four colleges in this state, of which I shall speak in another part of this work. There are several academies and schools of an elevated character, both male and female, in the state. But there is need of many more.

Curiosities. — This state abounds in natural curiosities and relics of antiquity. Caves, rocks bearing unknown characters and signs, tumuli, mounds and forts; graves containing bones of men of an uncommonly small size, in White county; salt-petre caverns, &c. &c., are very numerous, and objects worthy of the attention of the curious traveller. Mr. Rafinesque has given much interesting information respecting such matters, not only those relating to this state, but to those of the whole Valley.

GENERAL REMARKS. — 1. There is a great quantity of excellent land in this state for sale at a low price, either partially cultivated, or wholly uncultivated.

2. The climate of this state is very fine, being midway between the extreme cold of the north, and the oppressive


heat of the further south. It is in general a healthy climate. Indeed this may be affirmed without hesitation, excepting the low alluvial lands bordering on the Mississippi. The inhabitants of no other parts of our country have finer health than those of East Tennessee.

3. The whole state of Tennessee, and particularly the western part of it, has increased very rapidly in population during the last twenty or thirty years. In 1790, there were 35,691 inhabitants; in 1800, 105,602; in 1810, 261,727; in 1820, 420,813; and in 1830, there were 681,903; of whom 535,745 are whites, 4,555 free blacks, and 141,603 slaves. This rapid increase will continue for a long time. It is somewhat remarkable, that the increase of the population of this state should have been 261,090, during the last ten years, for she has sent forth thousands of emigrants to other and more western states.

4. On the 5th of November 1791, was brought into Tennessee the first printing press. Soon after was issued the first Tennessee newspaper, called the "Knoxville Gazette." In 1809, a solitary barge of sixty tons and thirty-five men, wound its laborious way up the Cumberland, and arrived at Nashville, to the joy and astonishment of the inhabitants. The people from all the adjacent parts of the country flocked together to see the "barge." The important event was formally announced in the newspapers, and the whole country rang with the intelligence. There are now ten or eleven steam-boats, and some of them of the largest class, employed in the Nashville trade. There are also several on the Tennessee river, and one or two small ones on the Hatchie.

5. Iron and salt are products of Tennessee, as are gypsum, nitrous earth, beautiful marbles, and some other fossils. Iron and gypsum are the most plentiful and valuable of the mineral bodies in the state. In its natural state, Tennessee was covered with a most dense and diversified forest, which, added to its cultivated vegetables, and metallic and fossil wealth, give great variety and value to the staple commodities, which are again indefinitely augmented by domestic animals. Provisions of all kinds, and horses, cattle, and hogs, are exported to a great amount annually.

6. From its structure it results, that whilst the western


part admits the profitable culture of cotton, the eastern is suitable for the small grains; whilst its roost fertile river valleys, it is supposed by many, are the most favourable to the developement of Indian corn, of any places found in the United States. Much flour is imported into the cotton-growing parts of this state, from Ohio and other states. The cotton of the western part of this state, particularly of the Western District, is both abundant, and of a fine quality.

7. This is an interesting part of the country for the traveller to visit. Whether he pursues his way amid the mountains and vallies of East Tennessee, with all their grand and picturesque scenery and pleasant villages, and fertile fields; or visits the fertile regions of middle and western Tennessee, covered with noble forests, variegated by numerous and deep channelled rivers, and partakes of the generous and polite hospitality of the people, he will find rich and constant enjoyment.

There is a regular line of stages, which, coming from Washington City and Richmond, and passing through a part of Western Virginia, traverses East Tennessee, passing through Blountville, Kingsport, Knoxville, Kingston, &c. It thence crosses the Cumberland Mountain by a safe turnpike; and, passing through Sparta, continues to M'Minnville. From that place the line branches into two, one goes south through Winchester to Huntsville, Tuscaloosa, &c., the other passes through Murfreesboro' to Nashville.

There is a daily line of stages between Nashville and Louisville, and tri-weekly lines from Nashville to Memphis, and to Florence, at the foot of the rapids, or "Muscle Shoals" of Tennessee. Besides, there are many other lines which run to the various towns throughout the state. The distances of these places from Nashville, are given, with sufficient accuracy in the table of counties and county-towns, in the beginning of the chapter.

8. Emigrants to this state will pursue the course mentioned in the chapter relating to Kentucky. The route and modes of removing to this state are similar, or rather the same as those mentioned in that chapter. Most of the foreign emigrants to this state, will go to it by way of


New-Orleans, and the steam-boats which run up the Mississippi, Tennessee and Cumberland rivers.

9. The following information, contained in a letter, written by Mr. M. Rhea, of Columbia, Maury county, and dated June 29th, 1832, was received just as this chapter (in the first edition) was going to press. It contains some interesting facts. It answers several queries, in order, which I had propounded to Mr. Rhea. I ought to add, that Mr. R. is the author of the excellent map of Tennessee, recently published; and is, perhaps, better acquainted with that state, than any other man in it.

1. "Manufactories of Salt. — This article has been manufactured at two places, in Hawkins and White counties — but in very small quantities. They are at present scarcely worthy of attention, owing to the weakness of the water.

"2. Coal is found in almost all parts of the state, except west of Tennessee River. The principal deposits are, however, found on both sides of Cumberland Mountain, between the foot and top. The deposits seem generally to have nearly the same elevation. Bituminous entirely.

"3. Metals. — Iron is found and manufactured every where east of Tennessee River. Gold is found in Monroe, M'Minn, Blount, and Sevier. Lead has been found in several places. No works for smelting that metal have yet been constructed. These are the only metals which have attracted any attention heretofore.

"4. Relics of Antiquity abound every where through the state, particularly in West Tennessee. They are presented either in the form of clay-walled towns, with houses and graves in the interior, or as high and large mounds of earth and shapeless stones. The towns are always situated near a good spring or stream of water; the walls extending to, or enclosing part of the water. The graves are seldom deeper than one and a half or 2 feet, lined with flat stones at the bottom, sides, ends and top. The body seems generally to have been placed in a sitting posture. No gigantic skeletons have been found in this country. The remains, and sometimes the whole, of earthern vessels, are found in the graves; these seem to have been water vessels. Small stone hatchets, and other edge tools of the same material, are frequently found in these cemeteries and towns. No implements, nor ornaments of metal, are


seen. No conjecture can be formed of the purpose de signed in the construction of the mounds or pyramids. They are, generally, round and conical. I have seen some flat and regular on the top, and bounded by straight sides; and right-angled corners. These piles have been frequently penetrated, but no remains have been discovered in the interior. There are many of these relics of antiquity in this (Maury) and the adjoining counties.

"5. Fort Loudon is the only ancient fortification of European construction known in this state. The remains are only discernible, it having been a hastily constructed fort. It stands immediately above and between the junction of Tennessee and Tellico Rivers.

"6. Rail Roads and Canals. — It is difficult, in the present state of things, to determine which of these modes of internal improvement will be best adapted to the country. On account of the very reduced stage of water in West Tennessee in the summer season, it is probable that the canalling system cannot be made useful here. No important objection exists against the other mode. All the materials for rail-roads abound, and are cheap, in every part of the state,"


Chapter XVIII. Illinois.

Map of Illinois and Missouri.

Map of the Lead Regions.

Illinois is bounded on the north by Huron District, attached to Michigan Territory at present; north-east by Lake Michigan; east by Indiana; south-east by the Ohio, which separates it from Kentucky; west and south-west by the Upper Mississippi River, which separates it from Missouri and the Sioux District. It extends from N. lat. 37°, to 42° 30'; and from W. long. 10° 8.5' to 14° 25'.

From the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi to the northern boundary, Illinois is 382 miles long; its area is 57,900 square miles, or 37,056,000 acres.

Adams, w 2,186 Quincy, 193
Alexander, s 1,390 America, 181
Bond, w m 3,124 Greenville, 20
Calhoun, w 1,092 Gilead, 126
Clarke, e 3,940 Clarke C. H. 86
Clay, e m 755 Maysville, 46
Clinton, s m 2,330 Carlyle, 30
Crawford, e 3,117 Palestine, 118
Edwards, e 1,649 Albion, 92
Edgar, e 4,071 Paris, 106
Fayette, m 2,704 VANDALIA,  
Franklin, s 4,083 Frankfort, 102
Fulton, m 1,841 Fulton C. H. 133
Gallatio, s e 7,405 Equality, 137
Greene, w 7,674 Carrolton, 106
Hamilton, s e 2,616 McLeanboro', 93
Hancock, w 483 Venus, 133
Henry, n 41 Middletown,  


(Table Continued.)
Jackson, s w 1,828 Brownsville, 127
Jefferson, s m 2,555 Mount Vernon, 65
Johnson, s 1,596 Vienna, 167
Joe-Daviess, n w 2,111 Galena, 326
Knox, n m 274 Knox C. H. 188
Lawrence, e 3,668 Lawrenceville, 55
Macon, n m 1,122 Decatur, 70
Macaupin, m 1,990 Carlinville, 95
Madison, w 6,221 Edwardsville, 55
Marion, s m 2,125 Salem, 26
Mercer, n w 26    
Montgomery, m 2,958 Hillsborough, 28
Monroe, w 2,000 Waterloo, 99
Morgan, w m 12,714 Jacksonville, 90
Perry, s m 1,215 Pinckneyville, 129
Pike, w 2,396 Atlas, 148
Pope, s e 3,316 Golconda, 160
Peoria, n m   Peoria, 43
Putnam, n 1,310 Hennepin,  
Randolph, s w 4,429 Kaskaskia, 95
Sangamon, m 12,960 Springfield, 79
Shelby, m 2,972 Shelbyville, 40
St. Clair, w 7,078 Belleville, 71
Schuyler, w m   Rushville, 142
M'Donough, w m 2,959 Macomb,  
Tazewell, m 4,716 Mackinaw, 149
Union, s w 3,239 Jonesborough, 154
Vermillion, e 5,836 Danville, 150
Warren, n w 308 Warren,  
Wabash, e 2,710 Mount Carmel, 109
Washington, s m 1,675 Nashville,  
Wayne, s e 2,553 Fairfield, 69
White, s em 6,091 Carmi, 94
Total, 51 Counties. 157,455, of whom 747 are slaves.


The following new counties have been made since the census of 1830 was taken.

Coles, e Charleston.
Cook, n e Chicago.
LaSalle, n Ottawa.
McLean, n m Bloomington.
Rock Island, n w  
Jasper, s e  
Effingham, m  
  Population.   Increase.
In 1810, 12,282 From 1810 to 1820, 42,929
1820, 55,211 ' 1820 ' 1830, 102,234
1830, 157,44    

Illinois was admitted into the Union in 1818, and contained that year, by enumeration, 35,220 inhabitants.

OUTLINES OF THE CONSTITUTION. The Legislative authority is vested in a General Assembly, consisting of a Senate, the members of which are elected for four years; and of a House of Representatives, elected biennially. Their number depends on circumstances designated in the constitution. At present there are 18 Senators, and 30 Representatives. The pay of each is $3 a day. The General Assembly meets every other year (at Vandalia, the capital of the state,) on the 1st Monday in December next following the election; and the Governor is authorized to convene it, on extraordinary occasions, at other times.

GOVERNMENT. The Governor is elected for four years; his salary is $1000 per annum. There is a Lieutenant Governor who is president of the senate.

JUDICIARY. The Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and three Associate Judges; Their salaries are $1000 each. They hold circuit courts also. There is another Judge for the circuit, north of the Illinois river.

The "County Commissioners' Court" levies taxes, and is composed of three commissioners elected every two years. Justices of the peace are elected every four years by the people. Their jurisdiction is over inferior cases.


There is a Judge of Probate in each county who grants letters of administration, receives probate of wills, and before whom all business relating to estates of those who deceased without having made wills, is transacted.

Imprisonment for debt is disallowed except in case of fraud, or the refusal of the debtor to deliver up his property for the benefit of his creditors. Slavery is not allowed to be introduced otherwise than as a punishment of crime, since the adoption of the constitution. There are no laws against usury.

Surface of the Country. The northern and southern parts of this state are broken, and slightly hilly, but as a whole this state is more level than perhaps any other in the Valley of the Mississippi. When examined minutely, it is found that there are several varieties in the surface of this state, which will be very briefly specified.

1. The alluvial bottoms which stretch along the Mississippi, Wabash, Illinois, Kaskaskia, Rock, and all the other streams. These bottoms are of various widths, in some places a mile, and in others six or eight. The American bottom, as it is called, reaches along the Mississippi from the mouth of the Kaskaskia to Alton, or a little above the entrance of the Missouri; a distance of near 90 miles. The soil of these bottoms is alluvial, of astonishing fertility, often embedding trees and other vegetable remains.

These bottoms along the margin of the rivers are covered with a heavy forest. But more remote from the rivers, they are covered with prairies of various sizes, commonly narrow and interrupted by forests. As the surface declines from the river bank, it often happens that a portion of the bottoms is covered with stagnant waters, a part of the year, which were left by the overflowing of the rivers. They might be easily drained. Owing to the stagnant water and the decay of immense quantities of vegetable productions, they are often unhealthy.

2. Prairies. A large part, probably more than one half of the surface of this state, is covered with prairies. In the southern part, — that is south of the national road from Terre Haute to St. Louis, — the prairies are comparatively small, varying in size from those which are several


miles in circumference, to those which contain only a few acres. But in the middle and northern parts of the state, they become very extensive, and stretch out in some directions so that the eye perceives with difficulty the bounding forests. In general however they are narrow and of an irregular shape; at one place projecting into the forests; at others, the forests make inroads into them, and points of woods reach nearly into their centres. Often, insulated clumps of trees stand like an island in the midst of the prairie. The prospect, to one passing through these prairies in the spring season, is delightful. The scene is forever changing, always picturesque, and beautiful.

The prairies are generally undulating, seldom exactly level, often slightly concave, so that, in some cases, they have stagnant waters over their central surface in the spring. Their soil is various but fertile. From May to October, they are covered with tall grass and flower-producing weeds. In June and July, these prairies seem like an ocean of flowers, of various hues, and waving to the breezes which sweep over them. The heliotrope or sunflower, and other splendid vegetables which grow luxuriantly over these plains, present a striking and delightful appearance. A considerable portion of the prairies along the streams, and some of those which are more elevated, are incapable of being cultivated, on account of the inundation to which they are subjected during a large part of the spring and summer.

As to the origin of these prairies it would be useless to speculate much. They were probably formed, as they certainly are perpetuated, by annual fires, which sweep over them every autumn. Along the streams, and in other places where vegetation does not suffer from the drought of the latter part of summer and early autumn, and of course becomes sear and combustible less soon than it does in the plains which are drier, the fire does not encroach much: consequently the forests prevail there, and probably gradually encroach in some places upon the prairies.


Wherever the fire is kept out of the prairies, they soon become covered with a dense and rapidly growing forest.

3. Barrens. — These are a species of country of a mixed character, uniting forest and prairie. They are covered with sparse, stinted oaks, &c. and grass. The fire sweeps over them in the fall, but is not powerful enough, from want of abundant fuel, to destroy the timber. They soon become covered with thick forests, when the fire is excluded. They are not poor land, as their title, given ignorantly by the early settlers, would seem to indicate. They are generally second-rate land, productive, healthy more rolling than the prairies, and abounding in good springs. Parts of this state, a large portion of Kentucky south of Green River, and some parts of the other western states, are of this description.

4. Along the rivers, and beyond the bottoms where there are any, are often elevated bluffs, conical, and insulated, rather than of the form of connected ridges, and of from one to three hundred feet high. The knobs are stony, and often rocky at or near their summits. They are found along the rivers in some parts of this state. The ravines which separate them, are often deep.

The prairies are often intersected by ravines, which lead down to the streams. Sink-holes are found in some parts of the state, which are sometimes wide and deep. Frequently they no longer drain off the waters, but are filling up gradually. Their existence shows, that the substratum is secondary limestone, abounding in subterraneous cavities.

There is, in this state, but little stony ground, in the sense in which that expression is used in the east, — denoting loose stories scattered through the surface. Quarries of stone are found in the bluffs, and in the banks of the streams and ravines.

The soil of this state is generally very fine, and exceedingly productive. The prairies are difficult to plough, on account of the firm grassy sward which covers them. But when subdued, they become fine arable lands.

The kinds of timber most abundant are cotton-wood, sycamore, hickory, ash, sugar-maple, beech; black, white red, post, and jack oak; black and white walnut; blue and white ash; sweet and sour or black gum; red and water


elm; black and honey locust; linden, buck-eye, peccan, hackberry, catalpa, mulberry, box elder, wild cherry, willow, dogwood, sassafras, persimmon, with smaller underwood of sumach, plum, crab apple, grape vines, paw-paw, hazle, &c. &c. The sycamore and cotton wood grow along the streams. In the southern end, on the streams which flow into the Ohio and Mississippi towards their junction, the cypress grows. The trees in this state exhibit a very luxuriant growth, and are often of enormous size.

Productions. — The staple productions of Illinois are Indian corn, wheat, Irish and sweet potatoes, beef, pork, horses, tobacco, and lead. The castor bean, or Palma Christi, is raised in considerable and increasing quantities. It grows well here. Wine is made, but not to a great extent. Cotton is raised in considerable quantities for domestic, use, and is manufactured extensively, in the families of farmers, into coarse fabrics. Hemp, flax, and silkworms, succeed well. Apples, peaches, pears, plums, cherries, grapes, gooseberries and currants, arrive at great perfection. The wild fruits are grapes, plums, cherries, gooseberries, mulberries, crab apples, persimmons, blackberries, raspberries, and strawberries.

All the cultivated grasses, such as timothy, clover, &c. grow well here. The prairies are covered with a species of rough grass, which affords a fine pasturage, and good hay.

The wild animals of this state are deer, brown bears, grey, black and prairie wolves, foxes, racoons, squirrels, opossums, gophers, panthers, rabbits, turkies, &c. The deer are abundant in many parts of the state. Their skins are often dressed and worn by hunters and farmers. The prairie wolf is a small species of wolf, and exceedingly mischievous. He is the jackall of the West. The gopher is about as large as a squirrel, and injures the prairie lands by his burrowing, and throwing up numerous little hills. Wild horses of a small size exist in this state. They are of the same species as the Indian ponies, and are the offspring of the horses which were brought here by the early French settlers, and suffered to run at large.

Horses, cattle, hogs, sheep, and poultry of every kind, are raised with greatest ease in the state. The prairies


afford abundant pasturage and hay for cattle, horses and sheep. No country in the world has greater advantages for raising live stock. Hogs are raised with little trouble and expense. The fruits of the forest, the must of the oak, beech, walnut, &c. are fine food for them. And in the fall they become well prepared for slaughtering after being fed for a short time on corn; or are fit for it without having been thus fed. A few dollars will purchase a few breeding swine; and, in a short time, every farmer has a large stock of hogs around him. The same thing may be said of cattle and horses. Many farmers, in ordinary circumstances, raise annually several hundreds of hogs, a hundred head, or twice that number of cattle, and ten or twenty horses. Tens of thousands of cattle and hogs are annually driven to an eastern market from this state. And more, perhaps, are slaughtered, salted, and sent to New Orleans by boats. The value of the salted beef, pork, tallow, lard, butter, hides, and cheese, which are thus exported, cannot be accurately estimated.

The fowls of the state, both wild and tame, are numerous. Wild geese and ducks frequent, in great numbers, the rivers, lakes and ponds. The "prairie hen," is very abundant. Partridges (the quails of New England,) are very numerous. Domestic geese, ducks, &c. are easily and abundantly raised. Geese feathers are exported to the East, and find a good market.

Honey is a valuable product of this state, as well as of all the neighbouring states. Both wild and domesticated bees are found throughout the state. Almost every family has a number of hives in the vicinity of the house, — whilst the frontier men spend much of their leisure time in the fall, in taking the wild bees. Honey sells for fifty cents a gallon, by the barrel; whilst beeswax always finds a ready sale.

The mineral products of this state are lead, copper, iron, salt, &c. Lead is found in the greatest abundance in the north-western angle of this state, and the region around on both sides of the Mississippi, from the Rock River to the Ouisconsin. The entire extent of this lead region, is probably near 200 miles in length, by 100 in breadth. Galena is the centre of the lead business in this state. It is eleven years since these mines began to be


wrought. There are now many "diggings." The ore is inexhaustible, and very rich, yielding from 50 to 80 per centum. The total amount of lead made here until September 30, 1830, was 40,088,860 lbs. It was only in 1827, that these mines began to be wrought very extensively. In that year 5,182,180 pounds were made; in 1828, 11,105,810 pounds were made; in 1829, 13,343,150, in 1830, 8,323,998. In 1831, a large amount was made. But in 1832, desolation pervaded this entire region, on account of the Indian war.

Bituminous coal is found abundantly in all parts of this state, in the bluffs, and the banks of the water courses. On the Illinois, and opposite to St. Louis, in St. Clair county, it is very abundant. And many thousands of bushels are sent to St. Louis annually, and sold at the rate of from ten to twelve and a half cents per bushel.

Iron ore is found in the southern end of the state; and it is said to exist near the rapids of the Illinois.

Native copper, in small quantities, has been found in Jackson and Monroe counties, in the southern part of the state. But in the lead region, between the Rock and Ouisconsin rivers, there is a district of twenty miles by 5 or 6, which contains much copper ore. It will soon be a valuable product.

Silver mines are supposed to exist in the southern part of this state. Cornelian stones, topaz, jasper, agate, opal, and quartz, are found in this state.

Salt is manufactured on Saline river, in Gallatin county, 12 miles from Shawneetown. About 130,000 bushels are made here annually. Salt is also made in the neighbourhood of Brownsville, on Muddy Creek, in Jackson county, about 12 miles from the Mississippi; on some of the streams of the Sangamon; in the neighbourhood of Carlyle, on the Kaskaskia; in Madison county; and, probably in other parts of the state.

In 1829, there were $53,000 invested in the manufacture of salt in this state, and 138,000 bushels were made that year. The business has greatly increased since that period.

Manufactures. — Salt, as I have already remarked, is made in several places in this state. The manufacture of this important article will annually increase. Salt water


is abundant in this state, and there is no want of coal or wood as fuel, by which it may be evaporated. Salt-works open a fine market to the farmers around them for their corn, beef, pork, potatoes, fruits, vegetables, and manufactures. Salt sells at these works at the rate of one bushel for two of corn, four bushels of salt for one hundred pounds of beef, or a hundred of flour, &c.; or from thirty-seven and a half to fifty cents per bushel of fifty pounds.

There are between ten and twenty steam grist and saw mills in the state. Large quantities of flour are now manufactured here, and exported. Mills propelled by steam, water, and horse power, or by oxen or horses on an inclined plane, are constantly increasing. Steam mills will become numerous, on account of the comparative want of good sites for water mills, and of the abundance and cheapness of fuel. A good steam saw mill, with two saws, can be built for $1500. And a steam flour mill, having three pair of stones, elevators, &c. may be built for from $3,503 to $5,000. Such a mill will make from 30 to 50 barrels of flour in 24 hours. The number of horse mills, tread mills, and water mills, in this state, is already great.

Considerable quanties of castor oil are manufactured in this state from the palma christi, or castor bean. This vegetable growns finely in this soil. And the process of expressing the oil, is as simple as that of making cider. It is a much more difficult task to clarify the oil, when it is expressed. One bushel of castor beans will make near two gallons of oil. The price of the beans and the oil has diminished greatly, on account of the increased competition within two or three years. There are six or eight castor oil presses in the state. Mr. Adams of Edwardsville made in 1825, 500 gallons, which he sold at the rate of $2 50, per gallon. In 1826 he made 800 gallons: in 1827 1,000 gals: in 1828, 1,800 gals: in 1829, 521 gals: 1830, 10,000 gals: in 1831, 12,500 gals: at present castor oil sells for about seventy five cents per gallon.

There area few factories for the making of cotton yarn. The prospect is that they will increase. There is also a number of cotton gins. But little iron is yet manufactured in this state. There is also a number of cotton gins.

But little iron is yet manufactured in this state. There


is a furnace in Wabash county. This species of manufacture will speedily increase.

I have already spoken of the manufacture of lead. It has been very extensive during the last few years. It is sold at Galena at prices varying from two or three cents per pound.

There is in this state, as in all the other western states, a vast amount of domestic manufactures made by families. All the trades which are needed in this new state are springing into being. Every town and county has carpenters, shoe makers, blacksmiths, wagon makers, weavers, &c.

Steam boats will soon be added to the list of articles manufactured in this state. Indeed I believe that already one has been commenced at Alton, 22 miles above St. Louis.

Rivers. This state has great navigable facilities. It has the Mississippi flowing along its south-western border 540 miles: Michigan washes a shore of 57 miles on the north-east. The Wabash is a boundary on the east 120 miles; and the Ohio adds 130 miles on the south-east: whilst in the interior, to say nothing of smaller streams, the Kaskaskia gives 150, the Illinois 300, and the Rock River 150 miles of boat navigation,

The Illinois is a beautiful stream; and during a large portion of the year it is navigable for steam-boats to Peoria, 160 miles above the mouth, and even to the rapids, which are 230 miles. It has many large and boatable confluents, such as the Macaupin, Apple Creek, Crooked Creek, Sangamon, Spoon, Mackinac, Vennillion, Fox, Pickamink and Plane. These streams are boatable during the high waters for many miles, and flow through very fertile regions. No part of this state exceeds the country along the Sangamon in excellent soil.

Rock River rises in Huron district. It has many branches, and flows with a rapid current over a sandy bottom, and enters the Mississippi at Rock Island; a beautiful and romantic spot, 298 miles above St. Louis. The Kaskaskia has also many branches, and irrigates the middle of the southern half of the state. It is a beautiful stream, and flows through a fertile region.

The little Wabash, Embarrass and Vermillion, are


important and beatable streams, which flow into the Wabash on the eastern side of the state; whilst Muddy Creek Cahokia, Henderson's Creek, Edward's Creek, Plum Creek, Apple and Fever Rivers, &c. are streams which flow into the Mississippi, and most of them boatable at periods of high water: the last three named, flow from the lead region above Rock River.

The great advantages of this state for navigation and commerce, will be perceived by an inspection of a map of the state. It enjoys between 3000 and 4000 miles of boat navigation, and its citizens may send the products of their industry to New-Orleans or New-York.

A route for a canal from the Illinois to Chicago on Lake Michigan, has been surveyed. Its length will be about 70 miles. The general government has made a donation of each alternate section for the space of five miles on each side of the proposed canal, throughout its entire length, upon conditions similar to those upon which grants were made to the canals in Ohio and Indiana. The quantity of land granted to this state, for these internal improvements, is 480,000 acres. This canal has not yet been undertaken. Much greater difficulties than were at first anticipated Have been ascertained to exist in the nature of the ground, from the Plane river to Chicago, a distance of about 20 miles; there being a sub-stratum of solid limestone a few feet below the surface.

On this account the idea of obtaining water for the summit level from the lake will probably be relinquished; and if a feeder cannot be made from the Calumick river, — a stream which flows into the southern extremity of the lake — a rail-road for this intervening distance of 20 miles roust be resorted to. There can be no doubt but that soon a canal or rail-road will open up admirable facilities for the transportation of merchandize from Lake Michigan to St. Louis and this entire region.

All the larger rivers of this state are similar to the Mississippi in having bluffs on one side or the other, with forests and prairies intervening in many places between them and the river; whilst on the opposite side stretches out a level or moderately undulating country.

Towns. VANDALIA is the capital of the state. It is situated on the right or western bank of the Kaskaskia, at


N. lat. 38° 57' and W. long. 11° 58'. It is in the centre of a beautiful and fertile country. The public buildings are only temporary. The population is about 1000. The national road from Cumberland through Columbus in Ohio, Indianapolis and Terre Haute in Indiana, to St. Louis, is to pass through this new and growing town. Vandalia is about 70 miles from St. Louis and 781 miles from Washington city. Congress has appropriated 2560 acres to this state, for the seat of government; the sales of which will erect the public buildings of the state.

EDWARDSVILLE on Cahokia Creek, 20 miles north-east from St. Louis, is a pleasant and growing village. Until within a few years, it was the seat of government, which had bean transferred from Kaskaskia to that place.

BELLEVILLE in St. Clair county, 14 miles south-east of St. Louis; Carrolton in Green county: Carlyle on the river bank of the Kaskaskia, in Clinton county; Albion in Edwards county, on the eastern side of the state, and near Bon-Pas creek; Jacksonville in Morgan county; Springfield in Sangamon county; Brownsville on Muddy creek, in Jackson county; and many more might be mentioned as delightful towns in the interior of the state, and centres of fertile regions.

Along the Ohio stand America, Golconda, Shawneetown and other and smaller places. Shawneetown is the chief of them. It is 9 miles below the mouth of the Wabash, and 110 miles south east of Vandalia. It is the largest town in the state, and has considerable trade. Its situation is low and liable to partial inundations at extremely high floods. There is an office here for the entry of purchases of public land. Trinity is a village of a few houses on the Ohio, six miles above the junction of that river with the Mississippi. It is a noted landing place for steam-boats. Oxford, Carmi, Palmyra and Palestine, are new towns on different streams of the Wahash.

KASKASKIA is the county town of Randolph county. It is situated on the right bank of the Kaskaskia river, 6 miles from its mouth. It is in the midst of a beautiful country. It was founded the year after Philadelphia was. It had, when in the possession of the French, 7000 inhabitants; at present, it has about 1000. There is a Land Office here.


Alton stands on the Mississippi, one mile above the mouth of the Missouri, sixteen miles below the entrance of the Illinois, twenty-two above St. Louis, and sixty west of Vandalia. There are two neighbouring villages, called Upper and Lower Alton. The prospect is, that Alton will become a place of great business. The population is between 500 and 1000. This will be an important station for building steam and other boats. Vast numbers of hogs and cattle, are here slaughtered for the New Orleans market.

GALENA is on Fever River, a short distance above its entrance into the Mississippi, in the north-western corner of the state. It is the seat of justice for Joe-Daviess county, and the centre of the lead region in this portion of the state. It has a population of 1200 inhabitants. There have been as many as 99 arrivals of steam-boats at this place in a year! The population of the lead region is about 10,000.

CHICAGO is the principal port on Lake Michigan, within the limits of this state. It stands at the entrance of the Chicago River, into the lake. It is a growing place. It will, from its favourable situation, become a place of a great commission business. A line of packets is established between this place and Detroit and Buffalo. There is also a steam-boat trading between it and Newburyport, on the St. Joseph's, in Michigan Territory.

Along the Illinois River are several towns rapidly growing up, at which many stream-boats arrive annually from St. Louis: such as Beardstown, Peoria, &c.

Education. — In most of the denser settlements, common schools are maintained during a part of each year. It is to be regretted, that many of the teachers are but poorly qualified for the office of teaching a school. A greater interest is, however, awaking on this subject. Congress has granted to this state one-thirty-sixth part of all the public land, or one section in every township, — in all 977,457 acres, — for common schools: besides three per cent on all the sales of public lands in this state, excepting a sixth part of this sum which is to go to the establishment of a College. The fund growing out of this reservation from the sales of public land, now amounts to more than $40,000, Besides, two townships, or 46,080 acres, are granted for a Seminary of learning, or College. The value of all these lands considerably


exceeds, even at the rate at which the public land is sold, $1,200,000. At some future, and no very distant day it is hoped, a liberal and efficient common school system will be established in this state. A number of Academies, — at Belleville, Kaskaskia, Rock Spring, &c. have been established. Female schools, of an elevated character, are commencing under good auspices.

The saline reservations in this state, which have been given to the state by the general government, are 206,128 acres.

GENERAL REMARKS. This state proffers many inducements to those who are emigrating to the West.

1. It is easy of access, by the most convenient and cheap modes of removal. On the north is Lake Michigan, by which emigrants from New-England and New-York, as well as foreigners, are constantly entering the fertile plains of the northern end of the state. On the south, the steamboats from New-Orleans, are constantly carrying hundreds and thousands of emigrants up the Mississippi, Illinois, Rock River, Ohio, and Wabash. Whilst by the same mode, emigrants from Western Pennsylvania and Virginia, Ohio and Kentucky, are constantly arriving. Indeed, a majority of the people of this state have emigrated from Kentucky and Tennessee, who removed either by water, or more commonly by land in their wagons, carrying with them much of their furniture, their farming utensils, and their live stock — which it was easy to do, on account of the shortness of the distance. The expence of removing a family from Buffalo, Pittsburg, or New-Orleans, and all places in their general vicinity, by steam-boat, to any parts of Illinois, which are within 100 miles of the Mississippi, Illinois, Ohio, and Wabash rivers, or of Lake Michigan, (and this will include every part) is far from being expensive, as I shall show in another place.

2. There are 28,237,859 acres of public land in this state to which the Indian title has been extinguished, yet to be sold; and 3,158,110 still belonging to the Indians, which will soon be in the market. For a treaty has very recently been proposed to the tribes in this state, by which they will probably sell their lands. The price of public land is $1 25 per acre. No credit is allowed.


The names of places where Land Offices are opened, Registers, and Receivers of moneys arising from the sales of public lands, are as follows:

Land Offices. Registers. Receivers.
Shawneetown, James C. Stoo, John Caldwell,
Springfield, William L. May, John Taylor,
Vandalia, Charles Prentiss, William Linn,
Edwardsville, Wm. P. McKee, Benj. F. Edwards,
Kaskaskia, Miles Hotchkiss, Edward Humphreys,
Palestine, Joseph Ketchell, Guy W. Smith,
Danville, Francis Prince, Samuel M'Roberts,
Quincy, Sam'l Alexander, Thomas Carlin.

3. Farms, considerably cultivated, may be purchased from the early settlers who desire to purchase government lands again, at prices varying from $2 50 to $8 per acre.

4. In no part of our country is it possible to convert an uncultivated piece of land into a good farm, sooner than in this state. Let an emigrant purchase, as he may do in thousands of places, a quarter of a section (160 acres) of land, or the half of it, or a section, if he is able, on the borders of a fertile prairie, so that one half of his purchase may be wood-land and the other half prairie, or whatever other proportion he chooses. And let him fence the larger part of his prairie land, and retain the wood-land to furnish timber, and in a short time he may have an excellent farm under cultivation. He may soon raise as many cattle, hogs, horses, &c. as he may desire, or has corn and hay to feed them with in the winter. And there need be no want of these things, if he has two or three hands to help him to cultivate his fields and mow his prairie. The prairie and woodland will afford range enough for his cattle, hogs, and horses in the spring, summer, fall, and early winter.

The larger prairies, which are sometimes several miles across, are like the lakes in New York and other parts of our country, public property; and all who live around their borders, have a common right to send as many cattle into them as they choose. The prairie, when turned into fields, is difficult, for two or three years, to subdue


completely. This is owing to the unyielding grassy sward with which they are covered; and to plough which requires a strong team of horses or oxen.

5. An emigrant, after having selected and purchased the tract of ground which pleases him, — and in doing this he ought always to prefer a healthy region of moderate fertility to exuberant lands where sickness prevails, — has to select a site for a house. This ought, if possible, to be elevated, accessible to the breezes, near to a good spring, and remote from swamps and marshes. The immediate bank of the river is better than the low partially inundated land more remote from the river, and near the bluffs: ravines, coves, and all confined places are to be avoided.

6. In settling upon uncultivated lands, and having but little money beyond what they need to purchase that land, emigrants cannot expect to have costly houses for a few years. They must erect cabins, made of unhewn logs, with roofs made of clap-boards, that is, of large undressed shingles, not nailed on, but kept in their places by large saplings or pieces of timber laid on them. The floor, where boards cannot be obtained, is made of puncheons, that is, logs split into thick plank and hewn. Such a house ought to have a good chimney, the crevices between the logs well closed and daubed, and sufficient ventilation by doors and windows. It costs but a few dollars to erect such a cabin, or a double one, and have a sort of porch around of eight or ten feet in width. A kitchen, a meat or smoke house, spring or milk-house, a corn-crib, and log-barn, with a wagon-shed, will be all the building needed for a while; and they may be made, where there is industry and ingenuity, for a small amount. At a future day, a good framed or brick house, a framed barn, &c. may be erected. But however plain a cabin may be, it ought to be comfortable, dry, and warm in winter; not always leaking, smoky, and damp from a floor resting on the ground.

Mr. Peck supposes that if an emigrant should purchase 320 acres of land, and pay for all the improvements, the amount would be as follows:


160 acres of prairie at $1 25 per acre, $200
Fencing it, in four fields of 40 acres each, with a Virginia fence eight rails high, 160
Breaking up, with the plough, these 160 acres at $2 per acre, 320
To this add the cost of cabins, stables, corn-cribs, &c., say, 200
Eighty acres of timbered land, and eighty of prairie, adjoining it, for timber, pasture, &c. 200
Making the cost of a farm of 320 acres, and improvements to be $1,080

Of course, smaller farms would cost less. But few emigrants, however, purchase every thing in this way. By their own labour they do much that would cost a great deal, if purchased or hired. An emigrant needs two or three horses, a few cows, hogs, and sheep; two or three ploughs, harrows, wagons, &c. If he cannot take all these with him, and it is not convenient for emigrants from the East to do so, he can purchase them here. His ploughs, harrows, and many other things, he will perhaps be able to make himself after the first year or two.


7. The climate of Illinois is delightful, and unquestionably healthy. If emigrants will choose favourable situations, and be careful to have comfortable houses as soon as possible, and dress warmly when sudden changes from hot to cold weather are occurring, and not expose themselves to inclement weather, they will have good health. The summers and autumns are generally dry and warm, — more so than in the Atlantic states. The diseases which prevail are those which are common in the western states in the same parallels of latitude. Bilious fever, in its various types, is the most noted. By timely attention, it is generally a manageable disease. It is far from being the case that even emigrants from the East, generally have a seasoning of sickness before they become accustomed to the climate.

8. Taken as a whole, this state is one of great fertility of soil, and capable of sustaining a vast population. It has the finest situation of all the western states. It is sufficiently remote from the mountains which bound each side of the Valley, to have a climate little affected by them. It has milder winters than those states which border the mountainous ranges. This is a country of vast and beautiful plains, with noble streams.

9. There is a great demand in this state for good teachers of every gradation, from the infant school instructer, to the teacher of an academy or high school. And although their wages may not be as high as in the East, yet it is to be considered that their expenses are far less.

10. The eastern emigrant will find warm-hearted friends in every neighbourhood in this state. The people of the West have much plain and blunt, but sincere hospitality. And any emigrant who comes among them with a disposition to be pleased with the country and its inhabitants, —


to partake of their hospitality cheerfully, — to make no invidious comparisons, — to assume no airs of distinction — and in a word, to feel at home in this region, where, of course, every thing is very different from what he has been accustomed to, will be truly welcome. Fastidious and reserved manners, a disposition to be forever unfavourably contrasting the West with the East, and to find fault with every thing around him, will speedily render any emigrant an object of dislike and neglect.

11. At the late census the population of this state was 157,445. As that enumeration took place two years ago, and there has been two years' emigration added since, it would be safe to estimate the present population at near 200,000.

12. The history of this state may be very briefly given. In the year 1673, the country along the Mississippi and Illinois was discovered by Marquette and Joliette, who had been sent to explore it by M. Talon, the Governor of Canada. In 1683, Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and other villages were built. The French retained this country until 1763, when it was ceded to Great Britain. In 1783, it became a part of the United States, and formed a portion of the territory of Virginia. In 1787, it was included with Indiana and Ohio, under the title of the Territory N. W. of the Ohio. In 1801, it was included with Indiana as a part of that territory. In 1809, it was organized as a separate territory. And in 1818, Illinois became one of the United States. .


Chapter XIX. Missouri.

Map of Illinois and Missouri.

Map of the Environs of St. Louis.

MISSOURI is bounded north by the Sioux District; east by the Mississippi river, which separates it from Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee; south by Arkansas Territory; and west by the Osage and Sioux Districts, which are unorganized portions of the territory of the United States.

It extends from N. lat. 36° to 40° 36'; and from W. long. 11° 47' to 17° 32'. Its area is 65,500 square miles, or 41,920,000 acres.

The Mississippi River runs 550 miles along the eastern border of this state; whilst the Missouri River flows 384 miles through it, and enters the Mississippi.

The western line of this state is the meridian which passes through the point of junction of the Kansas and the Missouri.

Jefferson City, on the Missouri river, is the capital of the state.

Boone, m 8,859 Columbia, 56
Callaway, m 6,159 Fulton, 32
Chariton, n m 1,780 Chariton, 79
Clay, n w 5,338 Liberty, 190
Cole, m 3,023 JEFFERSON CITY.  
Cooper, m 5,904 Booneville, 51
Cape Girardeau, s e 7,445 Jackson, 208
Crawford, 1,721 Little Piney, 98
Franklin, e m 3,484 Union 79
Gasconade, m 1,545 Gasconade 47
Howard, m 10,854 Fayette, 65
Jackson w 2,823 Independence, 177
Jefferson, e 2,592 Herculaneum, 164
La Fayette, w 2,912 Lexington, 138
Lincoln, e 4,059 Troy, 97
Madison,   2,371 Fredericktown 170


(Table Continued)
Marion, n e 4,837 Palmyra, 190
Montgomery, e m 3,903 Lewistown, 67
New Madrid, s e 2,350 New Madrid, 278
Perry e 3,349 Perryville, 187
Pike, n e 6,129 Bowling Green, 132
Ralls, n e 4,375 New London, 167
Randolph, n m 2,942 Randolph, 96
Ray, n 2,657 Richmond, 149
St. Charles, e 4,320 St. Charles, 123
St. Louis, e 14,125 St. Louis, 134
St. Genevieve, e 2,186 St. Genevieve, 168
St. Francois, s e m 2,366 Farmington, 152
Saline, n m 2,873 Walnut Farm, 85
Scott, s e 2,136 Benton, 236
Washington e m 6,784 Potosi, 127
Wayne, s 3,264 Greenville, 200
Total, 32 Counties, 140,455 inhabitants, of whom 25,091 are slaves, 569 free coloured people, and 114,795 whites.
The following new counties have been made since the census of 1830:
Counties. Situation. County Towns.
Audrain e m  
Clarke, n e  
Lewis, n e LaGrange.
Monroe, n e m Paris.
Ripley, s w  
Stoddard, s e  
  Population.   Increase.
In 1810, - 19,833 From 1810 to 1820, 46,753
' 1820, - 66,586 ' 1820 ' 1830, 73,869
' 1830, - 140,455    

GOVERNMENT. Governor—term of office four years— salary $1,500 per annum. Lieutenant Governor is President of the Senate.

LEGISLATURE. The legislative power is vested in a General Assembly, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. The members of the former body are


elected for four years; the members of the latter, for two years. Every county is entitled to one representative; — but the whole number can never exceed 100 members. — The senators are chosen by districts. The constitutional number is not less than 14 nor more than 33. The present number of senators is 18 and of representatives 49.

The elections for senators and representatives are held biennially, and for governor and lieutenant governor once in four years, on the first Monday in August.

The Legislature meets every second year (at the City of Jefferson,) on the first Monday in November.

JUDICIARY. The judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court, Circuit Courts, and such other inferior tribunals as the General Assembly may, from time to time, establish.

The Judges are appointed by the governor, by and with the consent of the senate; and they hold their offices during good behaviour, but not beyond the age of 65 years.

The Supreme Court consists of a presiding judge and two associate judges, the salary of each $1,100 per annum.

There are five Circuit Courts and as many Judges. — The salary of each is $1,000 per annum.

The Constitution of this state was formed at St. Louis in 1820.

Surface of the Country. — The surface of this state is greatly diversified. The alluvial bottoms are level. In the middle part rises a hilly region, extending from St. Genevive south-westward into Arkansas, and is the commencement of the Ozark or Masserne Mountains of that territory. The northern part is undulating, but no where approaching what may, with propriety, be called mountainous. Extensive prairies stretch out in the western and northern parts of this state. Even the St. Genevive hills are marked with this character, and have the appearance, in places, of extensive uncultivated fields. The mine region, which lies about 70 miles south-west of St. Louis is hilly, and a considerable portion of the state lying south of the Missouri and Osage rivers, is of the same character, and is in many places, marked with flint knobs of considerable


elevation. The country between the Mississippi and Missouri rivers is delightfully undulating and variegated. The prairies, which are of variable widths, are generally fertile. The Mississippi is skirted with many rich alluvial prairies, as well as extensive tracts of heavily timbered land.

Soil. — There is a great extent of very fertile land in this state. The alluvial bottoms, and much of the upland whether timbered or prairie, is of the very finest quality. Whilst much that is second rate is admirably fit for cultivation, and produces abundantly. There is also much surface in this state, on the highest hills, and the flinty knobs in the south-western part, and a considerable extent of swampy land which commences on the Mississippi a few miles below Cape Girardeau and stretches down into Arkansas, along some of the head branches of the St. Francis, which is not susceptible of cultivation. But as a whole, this state has a vast quantity of very fertile and productive land. The soil is loamy, friable, and easily cultivated, partaking much of a sandy nature moderated with the richest vegetable mould.

Productions. — The forests of this state embrace the Oak of several species, black and white walnut, yellow poplar, which here attains its largest size, ash, elm, hackberry, hickory, peccan, sycamore and cotton wood along the streams, sugar tree, cypress in the south-eastern angle, yellow pine, and cedar on the flint-hills, with an undergrowth of dogwood, paw-paw, grape vines, &c. &c. These forests, as well as those of Illinois, and of the extended territory beyond, abound with game of various kinds — deer, bears, panthers, wolves, wild turkies, &c. &c., which give employment and sustenance to a semi-barbarian population, which is constantly pressing on the heels of the retreating savages. These hunters settle either on the United States' or Indian lands, and cultivating a little spot of ground, continue there, until the game has disappeared, or the proper claimant of the land comes and "warns them off." I have seen some of these men who could spend hour after hour in detailing their achievements with the "rifle." One of them who lives amid the Genevieve hills, told me that he came from "Old Kentuck," many years since, and that he had killed his sixteen hundred deer, three hundred bears,


a hundred buffaloes, and turkies and other less important game in great numbers. When these men settle down upon the public lands, they are called, in the language of this country, "Squatters." As it regards religion and moral culture, they are most deplorably ignorant, and have little concern about a future existence.

The cultivated productions of this state are corn, wheat, rye, barley, buckwheat, tobacco, hemp, cotton in the southern counties, potatoes common and sweet, and garden vegetable of all sorts, which grow in the middle and southern states. No soil is more favourable for gardens; corn and wheat grow finely in this state. Tobacco is a staple here. Cotton grows well in the southern part, but is exported only in very small quantities.

Peaches, pears, cherries, apricots, apples, gooseberries &c. grow well in this state. Grapes may be cultivated to great advantage in this state; for the vine here finds a congenial climate. Palma christi, poppy, rhubarb, and other medicinal plants grow well here.

The fruits of the forest are here abundant, such as hickory-nuts, walnuts, peccans, plums, crab apples, hazlenuts, pawpaws, mulberries, persimons, &c.

Minerals. — This state is rich in valuable minerals. Lead is found in great abundance in Washington county, and the region drained by the Maramec and Gasconade rivers, and by the upper streams of the White river. But the principal "diggings" are included in an extent of thirty miles in one direction, by fifteen in another. The centre of this district is about 70 miles south-west from St. Louis. This lead region is hilly, and watered by numerous streams which flow into the rivers just named. Some of these, hills have a fertile soil; but many of them are covered with flint rocks, and are barren knobs. The valleys intervening possess much fertility.

The lead ore is found in detached masses, and not in veins, or in situ, as mineralogists term it. The business of digging is therefore very much of a lottery. The ore is of that species which is called galena, and yields from 75 to 80 per cent. About 3,000,000 pounds are annually made, giving employment to 1200 hands. The lead is hauled chiefly to Herculaneum, and St. Genevieve on the Mississippi


river, and thence shipped on board steam boats to various distant places.

Many shot towers have been erected on the high bluffs along the Mississippi, in the neighbourhood of the towns above named, where large quantities of shot are manufactured. Recently, sheet lead has been manufactured. The manufacture of white lead will probably be soon attempted.

In this lead region are found copper, zinc, manganese antimony, iron, calamine, cobalt, &c. These lead mines were wrought by the French 100 years ago. This region could furnish lead enough for the whole of the United States.

Salt is made at Boone's Lick, and several other places in the state.

Coal of a bituminous kind is found abundantly in this state, especially along the Missouri, and will be invaluable as a fuel, in this region of prairies. Gypsum, marble, chalk, ochres of various colours, nitre, pumice stone, and barytes, are found in this state.

Iron is manufactured in several places. Iron ore is very abundant throughout the state. The exports of this state are lead, flour, corn, hides, buffalo skins and tongues, furs, lumber, salted beef, pork, venison, &c. &c.

Deer, bears, wolves, and panthers are common. The buffalo and elk have retired to the region lying beyond this state. Water fowls are abundant, such as geese, ducks, swans, &c. Prairie hens, partridges, pigeons, turkies, &c. are numerous.

This is the country for raising cattle, horses, hogs, and sheep. Vast herds of cattle are raised on the western borders of the state; and thousands are there slaughtered and the meat salted, and exported by way of New-Orleans to the eastern states, or to the West Indies. Whilst the tallow, and the hides preserved in a dried state, are sent to the tanneries in the upper part of the Valley, or to the eastern cities. The extensive prairies of this entire region, will make it always the land of great pastoral wealth. From this part of our country, the markets of Philadelphia and Baltimore, and other Atlantic cities, will derive many of their supplies; whilst our shipping will here receive its salted and jerked beef.

Rivers. — No other state in our country has as many


noble rivers as Missouri. The Mississippi rolls along its border more than 500 miles. The great Missouri intersects it. The Osage and Maramec increase its navigable facilities; whilst the St. Francis and White rivers rise in its southern part.

The Missouri rises within the ridges of the Oregon mountains, through a distance of several degrees of latitude The highest branches are Jefferson, Madison, and Gallatin rivers, which flow almost due north within these mountains. After their junction, the Missouri still flows north receiving Dearborn and other small rivers. It then tun towards the east, and receives Maria's river from the north. Above the entrance of that stream, are stupendous falls the Missouri. For the distance of 17 miles the river descends most rapidly. There are several perpendicular cataracts; the first of 98 feet; the second 19 feet; the third 47; and the fourth 26. After receiving Maria's river, its course is a little north of east until it receives the Little Missouri. In the upper part of its course, it receives more than 20 considerable streams, the largest of which is the Yellow Stone, which is nearly as large as the Missouri and rises in the same region. Its length is several hundred miles. It flows through a fertile and heavily timbered country.

After the junction of the Missouri and the White Earth River, the general course of the Missouri is south-east until it reaches the western boundary of this state at the junction of the Kansas. The number of the confluent which it receives in this distance is great. Some of the tributaries are very large. The Platte is reckoned to be 2000 miles long, and the Kansas 1200. The great number of these branches come in from the west. Those which flow from the east, are generally short and small streams.

The immense length of the Missouri may be readily believed, when we learn that the mouth of the Yellow Stone is 1800 miles above the junction of the Missouri with the Mississippi. At the junction of the Yellow Stone and the Missouri is a fort, which is one of the centres of the operations of the Western Branch of the American Fur Company's business.

Within this state, the Missouri River pursues a course


somewhat south of east, and enters the Mississippi, almost at right angles, about 200 miles above the junction of the latter with the Ohio. The Osage, Gasconade, and Mine rivers, are the principal streams which enter the Missouri from the south, within the limits of this state; whilst rom the north its main confluents are Grand, Chariton, Tyber, and Rock rivers.

Besides the Missouri, the Mississippi receives in this state a large number of tributaries, which are generally small. The most considerable are the Maramec, which is 200 miles long, Cuivre, Salt River, Fabius, Wyaconda, and Des Moines.

It is remarkable that the Missouri, although it receives so many and large tributaries, is, during a large part of the year, a comparatively shallow stream, scarcely affording water enough, in some places, for safe steam-boat navigation. The causes of this fact are, first, its running through a great extent of country destitute of timber, which occasions during summer a constant and great evaporation — and, second, a large portion of its waters are absorbed by its extensive alluvial and porous banks.

The Missouri is a remarkable river in every respect. It has a powerful current. Its waters are always muddy. It is constantly changing its channel. Its whole course is a regular succession of great bends, or meanderings. Its waters are wholesome; and, it is said, are more easily preserved cool and fit to drink, than other waters are.

Towns. — The capital of the state is the CITY OF JEFFERSON, which stands on the right or south bank of the Missouri, a few miles above the entrance of the Osage, 134 miles west of St. Louis, and 990 west of Washington City. It is a small town, and no way remarkable, excepting as the seat of government for the state — to which honour it prefers no other claim than that it is central. Congress has granted to this state 2449 acres for the seat of government. The sale of this land will erect the public buildings of the state.

Numerous villages and towns are springing up along the banks of the Mississippi, in its whole course in this state, and on the Missouri, and their principal tributaries. Some of these I shall mention. Along the Mississippi, and in its vicinity, stand New Madrid, Cape Girardeau, Jackson,


Perryville, St. Genevieve, Herculaneum, Vide Poche, St. Louis; Alexandria, New London, Palmyra, Hannibal, Wyaconda, &c.; and on the Missouri and near it, are St. Charles, Florissant, Jefferson City, Franklin, Booneville Chariton, Lexington, Bluffton, Liberty, &c.

In ascending the Mississippi River from the mouth the Ohio, several towns are seen in succession, on each side of the river, after having passed 50 miles.

CAPE GIRARDEAU is the first town on the Missouri side. It is a small place, but will eventually be one much importance. It is situated on a bluff of considerable elevation, and a rich country spreads out from it. It 50 miles from the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi The next place of consequence, is St. Genevieve, one hundred and twenty miles above the mouth of the Ohio. This town stands a mile from the river, on one of the in beautiful alluvial bottoms in the West. This bottom land is cultivated, and contains several thousand acres. The river is at present encroaching upon it every year. It already washed away about five hundred acres. St. Genevieve is an old French town, and is settled almost entirely by French, who came originally from Canada. The to presents a very singular appearance, from the unusual structure of the houses, they being chiefly of wood, low and almost surrounded with porches. The population is about twelve hundred. The next important town is Heculaneum, which is on a small alluvial bottom, environed by high bluffs, the tops of which are surmounted with shot towers, where vast quantities of shot are manufactured. It is from this place and St. Genevieve, that the lead which is made at the lead mines in Washington county, about thirty-five miles west or south-west from this point, is exported by the steam and other boats. Herculaneum is very small place. It is thirty miles below St. Louis.

The next place which arrests the attention of the traveller, is Jefferson Barracks, ten miles below St. Louis. The Arsenal is still nearer to that city. This is the most important military post in the West. It is immediately on the bank of the river. The buildings are all of stone, and sufficient to accommodate from five hundred to seven hundred men.

The next place which one would notice on the right or


western bank, is a French town called Carondelet on the maps, but here caned universally, Vide Poche ( Empty Pocket.) It contains many small houses, and is inhabited by French, or rather a mixture of French and Indian, called by boatmen of this region, Gumbo French. They have their gardens, and live by selling vegetables, wood, &c. to the people of St. Louis. Nearly opposite, on the Illinois side, stands Cahokia, next to Detroit the oldest French settlement in this region.

But ST. LOUIS is by far the most important place in all this part of the Valley of the Mississippi. This city is 1,300 miles by the course of the river above New Orleans, and is next to that city, the largest and most commercial town on the Mississippi. It is 630 miles by water, and 267 by land, from Louisville, 350 by land from Cincinnati, 856 from Washington City, and 134 from the seat of government of the state. It stands on the western side of the Mississippi, near two hundred miles from its junction with the Ohio, eighteen miles below the Missouri, and thirty-eight below the mouth of the Illinois. This city is growing rapidly in. importance. Situated on an elevated bank, it is above the overflow of the river, and must prove a healthy place, especially as the small ponds in its vicinity are becoming drained. Two streets parallel with the river are on the first bank; the rest of the city stands upon the second bank, which spreads out into a vast plain to the west. The streets in the old part of the city are rather too narrow for convenience. But it is altogether a place of great business. It is the centre of trade for the states of Missouri and Illinois, and indeed for the Valleys of the upper Mississippi and Missouri, and it is nearly in the centre of the entire Valley of the Mississippi. The houses which have been built by the American part of the population, which greatly predominates over the French, and is now more than two-thirds of the whole, are principally of brick. The present population is about seven thousand. The French population is Catholic. They have a large brick Cathedral. The Methodist and Presbyterian churches are flourishing. Those of the Episcopalians and Baptists are smaller, but very respectable. The latter have a church of coloured people also.


The Court House, Market, College, Academy, Churches, &c., are the chief public buildings of this city.

One of the greatest curiosities here is the American Fur Company's Establishment, where thousands of skins may be seen at once, such as buffalo; deer, &c. &c. brought down the Mississippi and Missouri. They employ at present about one thousand men in this branch of the company, as hunters, trappers, &c. Their principal post on the Missouri is at the mouth of the Yellow Stone, 1,800 miles above this place. In the summer of 1831, their steam-boat, the Yellow Stone, returned from a trip up the Missouri, up which she went 1,400 miles, (but could not reach the Yellow Stone, as contemplated, on account of the low state of the river,) bringing a great number of skins, and about nine thousand buffalo tongues, dried of course, and in a fine state of preservation. What a sacrifice of that noble animal there must have been, and only, or chiefly, for their hides and tongues! This branch of the American Fur Company is managed by Mr. Choteau. The American Fur Company has its head quarters at New-York, and was founded by John Jacob Astor and others many years ago. Mackinaw is the centre of the operations for the northern branch; as St. Louis is for those of the western.

Last summer the American Fur Company's steam-boats ascended to the mouth of the Yellow-Stone River; and this year (1833,) they have ascended 2100 miles from the mouth of Missouri, being three hundred miles above the entrance of the Yellow-Stone. In very high waters, it is ascertained, they may go even higher up this noble river,

This city was founded in 1764, by Pierre Laclade, Maxan, and Company. For a long period it was only a trading post; it is now flourishing greatly.

I have seen no place in the West, save New-Orleans, that bids fairer to become an immense city than St. Louis does. When the vallies of the Upper Mississippi and Missouri become populous, — and they will in less than 50 years, — and when the canals are made which will one day connect, at various points, the Mississippi with the lakes, this city must be a very large one. There is no want of room on the elevated and level alluvial and secondary


bottoms upon which it so beautifully stands. And it is always accessible to steam-boats, with the exception of from four to six weeks in the winter, when the Mississippi is commonly frozen over.

A traveller will find a greater variety of character in this city than in any other in the Valley of the Mississippi, excepting the city of New Orleans. Americans, from all the states, French, Germans, Spaniards, and Indians of various tribes, are to be seen here. A great moral change is going forward here. The influence of pure religion is gaining ground; there is a large number of good men here. The savage custom of duelling is disappearing, although there have been one or two tragical scenes of this sort within two or three years. I know not a more pleasant city in the West than St. Louis, and it will soon be a very large one.

The amount of business done here is very great. As this is the emporium of trade for an immense region, and the depot of the merchandize and productions received at it, and exported from it, there must be a great number of boats employed here. Besides the flat and keel boats, which are very numerous, I have seen twenty steam-boats lying along the wharves of this city at once. Steam-boats from every part of the Valley of the Mississippi visit this place, besides those boats which may be called regular traders or packets, between this place and various others, — of which the following is a brief enumeration.

Last summer, there were 6 steam-boats regularly employed between St. Louis and New-Orleans, besides many others which occasionally ran between these places. A trip from one place to the other and back again, usually occupies 24 days. The shortest time in which one was ever made, was 18 days. The usual fare for cabin passengers descending, is $20; ascending, $25; for deck passengers, $5, either way. Freight, per 100 lbs. descending, 37 1/2 cents; ascending, 62 1/2 cents.

From St. Louis to Louisville, 630 miles, at least 10 steam-boats run regularly, besides a far greater number which run occasionally. Usual time of a trip, 10 or 11 days — the passage each way being somewhat more than three days — depending, of course, on circumstances, speed


of the boat, state of the water, &c. The fare of the cabin passengers is now $12, either way ; deck passengers $4. Freight about 25 cents per 100 lbs. Some of these boats run up regularly to Cincinnati, commonly reckoned 150 miles above Louisville.

From St. Louis to Fever River, about 480 miles, (according to the boatmen,) there run as many as 3 or 4 steam-boats regularly, and many occasionally. Time occupied by a trip, about 10 days. Fare for cabin passengers, ascending, $12 — descending $9. The route of some of the boats extends occasionally up to St. Peter's River and St. Anthony's Falls, 400 miles further.

Several boats run up the Missouri to Franklin, 200 miles; and to Fort Leavenworth, 200 miles further. Freight to Franklin, from 50 to 75 cents per 100 lbs.; and to Fort Leavenworth from $1 00 to $1 50; from Franklin down, 25 cents per 100 lbs. A steam-boat belonging to the American Fur Company has been built, for the purpose of running up to the mouth of the Yellow Stone.

There are several steam-boats which run regularly, and many occasionally, from St. Louis to various places, — Beardstown, Pekin, Peoria, &c. — on the Illinois River.

It is not an uncommon thing now to see more than 20 steam-boats advertised at St. Louis at one time, to start for various places throughout the Valley of the Mississippi.

The exports from this city to the various places with which it trades, are merchandize of all kinds, lead, furs, skins, bread stuffs of all sorts; &c. &c. The value of these exports is immense; but I have no means of ascertaining it accurately.

NEW MADRID, on the Mississippi, 65 miles below the mouth of the Ohio, is a small place, but well known as a place where boats stop on their way down the river. It was injured by earthquakes in 1811-12.

ST. CHARLES, on the Missouri, twenty miles from its mouth, and the same distance north-west from St. Louis, is a considerable town.

Education. — There is no public system of common schools established in this state. Congress has appropriated 1,086,639 acres for this purpose; besides 46,080 acres for Colleges, Universities, &c. to be disposed of by


the Legislature of the state. The saline reservations which Congress has given to this state, amount to 46,080 acres, which will probably be devoted to education.

Common schools are maintained to a greater or less extent, in every neighborhood of sufficient population. There are several Catholic Seminaries for youth of both sexes in this state, and two or three Academies, which are well conducted — and the number is increasing. There are two Colleges in this state, which I shall notice hereafter.

GENERAL REMARKS. — Many of the remarks which were made in reference to the state of Illinois, are applicable to Missouri. The climate, soil, and productions of both states are so similar, that they may be rightly considered identical.

1. The population of Missouri is rapidly increasing. — The emigrants are chiefly from Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia and North Carolina; but one may also find here the natives of almost every state. The settlements extend along the principal rivers, and back into the country to a considerable distance.

2. The exuberance of the soil, — the pleasantness of the climate, — and the great facilities for trade by means of its numerous navigable streams, will render this state a most desirable residence for those who wish to emigrate to the West. Those who resolve to remove from the southern states, will probably prefer this state to any other of the western states; inasmuch as the climate is similar in many respects to that to which they have been accustomed. And as slavery is at present tolerated here, many will be induced to remove from the South to this state, because they can carry their slaves with them.

3. There are in this state 34,547,152 acres of public land, to which the Indian claim has been extinguished; and 3,744,000 acres to which that title is not yet extinguished, but which will probably be so, at no distant day. From this statement the reader will perceive what a vast amount of land in this state is for sale at the low price of one dollar and a quarter per acre, — the rate at which public land may now be obtained.


The following is a list of the public land offices, with the names of the Registers and Receivers of the public moneys —

Places where opened. Registers. Receivers.
St. Louis William Christy Samuel Morry
Fayette Hampton L. Boon Uriel Sebree
Jackson George Bullett John Hays
Palmyra Wm. Wright Wm. Blakey
Lexington Finis Edwing Edw. M. Ryland

Partially cultivated lands may be purchased in this state, as in all other western states, for very reasonable prices.

4. Manufactories of various kinds are springing up in this state, and will afford encouragement to mechanics to remove to this portion of our country. There is an iron foundry at St. Louis, and a marine railway for the repairing of steam boats. The building of steam boats, and the making of machinery, will soon give employment to many artizans who are acquainted with that business.

5. There is a decided moral change going on throughout this state, which will render it a desirable residence for virtuous and intelligent emigrants from the East. It was to be expected, that at first many persons of a reckless character would resort to this new and remote country, to escape from the restraints of civilization and religion. But owing to the increase of the number of good men, and the efforts which are successfully making by the friends of religion and knowledge, of every name, bad influence is counteracted by that of another sort. An interest is awaking on the subject of education. The legislature of the state will probably soon lay the foundation of a school fund, by the sales of public land.

6. The French settlements along the Mississippi and Missouri, in this state, have a population of a very peculiar character. The French here are an amiable, quiet, unenterprising people. They are generally poor, simple in their manners, contented and frugal. They retain their own language, save that it is somewhat corrupted from their intercourse with Americans. They are all Roman Catholics. Many of the men are employed by the


American Fur Company, as hunters and trappers. This is a mode of life which their fathers pursued in this wide and then wild region; and it is one in which they themselves find equal delight. It is not uncommon for those who go on hunting excursions to the Oregon mountains, to be absent from their friends several years, living in the meanwhile among the buffalos, the elks, the bears and the Indians.

7. Emigrants from the East, as well as from Europe, will generally go to this state by steam boats from Pittsburg and other places on the Ohio, or from New Orleans. When the Mississippi becomes connected with Lake Michigan by the Illinois and Michigan canal and rail-road, thousands of emigrants will remove to this state by the Lakes.

8. Missouri formerly made a part of the country of Louisiana, which was purchased from France in 1803. In 1804 Louisiana was divided by an act of Congress: the portion lying south of the 33d degree of N. lat. was styled the "Territory of Orleans," and the residue, the "District of Louisiana." In 1805, the District of Louisiana was erected into a territorial government, under the name of the "Territory of Louisiana;" and in 1812, its name was changed to the "Territory of Missouri." In 1821, a part of this territory was admitted into the Union as an independent state, under the name of Missouri.

During the year 1811, this country suffered much through sickness, as it has occasionally done, to a far more limited extent, since. The late war with Great Britain, and the gloomy years of depression in business from 1817 to 1824, retarded the increase of this state for a while. But now prosperity has beamed upon this state for several years, and health and plenty exist throughout its borders.

Next to Virginia, it is the largest state in the Union. And it is destined to become exceedingly populous, rich, and powerful.

9. I cannot forbear to add, that strong hopes are entertained, that at no very distant day, and in a way perfectly consistent with the rights which are secured to individuals by the Constitution under which we live, slavery will come to an end in this state, and also in Kentucky and Tennessee.


Chapter XX. Mississippi River, Etc.

The Mississippi River and its Scenery. — Captain Shreve's Snag Boat. — Arkansas. — The Regions which lie North of Illinois and Missouri and West of Missouri and Arkansas.

Map of the Lead Regions.

FROM the mouth of the Missouri, to its entrance into the Gulf of Mexico, the Mississippi runs about 1250 miles. The width varies from a mile and a half to three quarters of a mile, which may be said to be its average width. Its current is rapid for nearly 900 miles of that distance, and only becomes less so as it approaches the vicinity of Natchez. No person, who has not seen it, can have a correct idea of the whirling, boiling motion of its waters, occasioned by their immense volume meeting with some obstruction in the bottom or sides of the channel. Its bends are uniform, and on a large scale. And whilst they add to its length, they increase its beauty, and diminish the force of its current, which is a great obstacle to ascending boats.

From the entrance of the Missouri to that of the Ohio, is a distance of about 200 miles. The scenery along this portion of the Mississippi is highly interesting. The immediate vale through which the river flows, is, on an average, nearly 8 miles in width, and is bounded on each side by high bluffs, generally of secondary limestone. The river runs generally near to one line of bluffs or the other, and leaves on the opposite side an extensive alluvial bottom of the richest soil, covered with lofty forests on the margin of the river, and near the bluffs skirted with prairies. The channel of the river is chiefly along the western bluffs during this entire distance. The appearance of these bluffs is often singular and sublime. They often seem to shoot up towards the heavens like the lofty battlements and pinnacles of an ancient city, exhibiting along the river a perpendicular mass of hoary rocks of two or three hundred feet in height. These bluffs, especially in the vicinity of St. Genevieve and Herculaneum, are objects of deep interest to the traveller,


as he passes in a steam boat. In one place, one of these bluffs raises his lofty head in the midst of the waves of the Father of Waters, in the shape and under the appropriate designation of the Grand Tower.

About thirty miles above the mouth of the Ohio, these bluffs disappear from the view of the voyager, on account of their remoteness from the Mississippi.

From the entrance of the Ohio to the gulf of Mexico, the vale through which the Mississippi runs becomes wider and wider, from fifty to a hundred and fifty miles. As far as the eye can see, in the greater part of this distance, not a hill or bluff can be seen rising above the level, uninterrupted alluvial bottom, covered with cotton wood, sycamore, cypress, gum, &c. &c. which spreads out on each side, save where the river occasionally seems to wander over to the base of the "Chickasaw Bluffs," in West Tennessee, and the "Walnut Hills," in the state of Mississippi, on the eastern side.

From the mouth of the Missouri to the entrance of the Yazoo, there are, at long intervals, small towns and villages on the banks of this river which interrupt the otherwise continued forests which border this great stream. From the Yazoo to St. Francisville, towns and villages, with cultivated fields and beautiful villas, begin to appear frequently along the banks. But from St. Francisville, to a considerable distance below New Orleans, the banks are covered with a succession of cotton and sugar plantations, with their villas and "quarters" of negroes, &c. like a continued street divided by the magnificent volume of this immense river.

The general government has employed Captain Shreve, with a large number of men, for several years, in removing the snags, and other similar obstructions to navigation, in the rivers of the West. For the purpose of removing the snags, (which are trees, many of them very large, sunk in the river with their tops down stream, and their roots imbedded in the mud at the bottom) he has constructed a machine which answers the purpose admirably in many respects. He has put two steamboats, constructed for this purpose, together, by means of large and strong timbers between them, from 10 to 15 feet long. The front beam between them is about three or four feet above the water,


and is very strong. The boats are low, small, strong, and have engines of great power. The boatmen, who have some strange name for almost every object, call this "Uncle Sam's Toothpuller." When they attack a snag, they do it in this way. This double boat marches up the stream with a tremendous pressure of steam, and takes the visible part of the snag (which is the top of the tree) between her bows, and by the strong cross beam, lifts it up, and as the boat urges her way onward, the snag is raised up, until the whole tree almost stands on its end. Then the boat stops, holds it there, while the hands cut it in pieces of twenty or thirty feet, and let them float away. It sometimes happens that some of these snags, when really trees of four or five feet in diameter at the lower end, and with immense roots anchored fast in the bottom, are immoveable by Uncle Sam's steam boat. In that case as much is cut away as can be. As the stumps, or the lower parts, cannot always be removed, (for it would require the strength often steam boats to move some of the largest, that have been for years imbedded in mud) the cutting off of the upper part, which is invisible when the water is low, creates some danger. For when the water becomes low, and yet these stumps are invisible, they prove dangerous to steam boats. I am informed that one or two boats have been injured by this cause.

The captain has removed a vast number of snags from the lower Mississippi and the Ohio; and is now at work in the upper Mississippi, between the mouth of the Ohio and St. Louis. His machine can do nothing, however, save when the rivers are very low. During a large portion of the year, the Heliopolis is laid by, to rest from her tremendous exertions. When not employed with the boat, these men are engaged in cutting down the trees which stand on the banks, upon which the Mississippi is encroaching, in order that they may not be carried away by the water in an entire state, and so go to form new snags, and also to keep the bank from being washed away rapidly; for when the river encroaches upon a bank, and partly undermines large trees, their falling in carries away a large extent of the bank. Besides doing this, they have, in some instances, cut small channels across the isthmuses of some of the great bends in the lower Mississippi. The consequence is, that in high water, part of the stream runs down


these channels, and soon wears a deep and wide bed, and so the length of the river is shortened several miles. In the winter of 1830-31 eighteen miles were saved by a cut-off, in the great bend opposite the mouth of Red River. I have sometimes, however, doubted the expediency of doing this work. The Mississippi is rapid enough now, in all reason, and these improvements as they are called, are adding greatly to its rapidity, by throwing the fall that is in many miles into half a mile, in some cases. Any one can see what must be the consequence. The Steamboats certainly do not gain much; as they lose by the increased difficulty in ascending, what they gain by the diminution of the distance and the rapidity of descent. And as to making the Mississippi much straighter, and consequently shorter, it is all a vain attempt. It will run in a serpentine course (I believe that it can be demonstrated that every river without tides invariably does so) and although the efforts of man, and indeed its own, may occasionally make a cut-off, yet it is daily forming new bends, or increasing old ones. Much has been said about the bends in the Ohio and Mississippi, and other western rivers; but they exist in every river on earth, above the influence of strong tides, or where the banks are not so rocky that they cannot be washed away. Look at the Savannah, and all southern rivers. And even several of those in New-England, with their granite banks, have numerous and regular bends.

From the mouth of the Ohio to New Orleans, there are 125 islands in the Mississippi river, some of which are of considerable size; but they are generally too low and subject to inundation, to be very valuable for cultivation. They are the abodes of the passing boatmen, and of the land animals and water fowls of this region.

From the entrance of the Missouri to the mouth of the Mississippi, sixty rivers and creeks fall into this great recipient. The most important are the Maramec, Kaskaskia, Muddy Creek, Ohio, Obion, Forked Deer, Big Hatchie, Wolf, St. Francis, White, Arkansas, Yazoo, Big Black, Homochitto, and Red River.

And within the same distance, the principal cities and towns are St. Louis, Vide Poche, Herculaneum, St. Genevieve, Columbus, New Madrid, Randolph, Memphis,


Vicksburg, Rodney, Natchez, St. Francisville, Baton Rouge, Ibberville, Donaldsonville, and New Orleans.

Having given the preceding description of the Mississippi River and its scenery, I now proceed to take a brief notice of Arkansas Territory.



This Territory is bounded on the north by Missouri; — east by the Mississippi river, separating it from Tennessee, and Mississippi state; south by Louisiana; and west by a line drawn from the south-western corner of Missouri to Fort Smith on the Arkansas river, — and thence by a meridian line to the Red River, — down Red River to the point where the western limit of the U. States from the Sabine to Red River intersects that stream, — and thence down that line to the 33d degree of N. lat. Its southern line is the 33d degree of N. lat.; and northern 36° 30'. The number of square miles is 60,700, or 38,848,000 acres. It was erected into a Territorial Government in 1819. The population, according to the recent census, is 30,888.

Arkansas, e 1,426 Arkansas, 114
Clarke, e m 1,369 Clarke C. H. 87
Conway, e m 982 Lewisburg, 40
Chicot, s e 1,165 Villemont, 184
Crawford, m 2,440 Crawford C.H. 136
Crittenden, n e 1,272 Greenock, [H. 168
Hempstead, s 2,512 Hempstead C. 130
Hotspring, m 458 Warm Spring, 60
Independence n 2,031 Batesville 102
Izard, n 1,266 Izard C. H. 172
Jackson, n e 333 Litchfield,  
Jefferson, s e m 772 Pine Bluffs,  
La Fayette, s n e 748 Lafayette C.H 182
Lawrence, n e 2,806 Jackson, 152
Miller, s e 356 Miller C. H. 228
Monroe e 461 Monroe C. H. 84
Phillips, e 1,152 Helena, 124
Pope, n m 1,483 Scotia, 81


(Table continued.)
Pulaski, m 2,395 LITTLE ROCK,  
Sevier, s w 634 Paraclifta, 168
St. Francis, n e 1,505 Franklin,  
Union, s 640 Corea Fabre,  
Washington, n w 2,182 Fayetteville 217
Total, 23 counties, 30,388 inhabitants, of whom 4,576 are slaves, 141 free blacks, and 25,671 whites.

GOVERNMENT — The Governor is appointed by the President, by and with the consent of the Senate, — salary, $2,000 per annum; Secretary, do. — salary $1,000 per annum.

There is a Legislative Council consisting of five members; and a House of Representatives comprising twenty-three members, who are elected biennially, on the first Monday in August; and they meet in the following October.

JUDICIARY. — There are four Judges, appointed by the President, with the consent of the Senate. They hold Circuit Courts throughout the Territory. The salary of each is $1,500. There is an Attorney and a Marshal for the United States.

Surface of the Country. — This Territory possesses many remarkable features in its physical geography. In the eastern part, along the Mississippi river, it is level, often overflown by that noble river and its large confluents which have their course through this territory; in the middle part it is undulating and broken, and in the western part almost mountainous — the Masserne and Ozark mountains, lying partly within this territory. There is, however, a large extent of level and moderately uneven land in the middle and western portions of the Territory.

Rivers. The great river of this territory is the Arkansas which flows down from the Oregon mountains. Its length has been estimated (probably without sufficient evidence,) to be 2,500 miles. It receives no large tributary within


this territory. It flows nearly through the central part of it. St. Francis and White rivers, which rise in Missouri, flow through the northern part of the territory; whilst the Ouachitta rises in the southern part and flows to the south. The Red river flows through the south-western angle of this territory. This territory possesses fine navigable streams, and extraordinary advantages for commerce. — Every portion of it has a most direct and easy communication with New-Orleans, the great emporium of trade for the whole Valley.

Soil. — The general features of this region are not well explored. There is much land of astonishing fertility in this territory, and the column of emigration has begun to move in this direction. It will one day, unquestionably, be a populous region. The Masserne mountains are prolific in minerals. Salt in abundance will be made in the western part. In 1829-30, more than 10,000 bushels were manufactured in this territory.

Productions. — Cotton is the staple of this territory. Corn and sweet-potatoes grow well. Wheat and other small grain have not been cultivated to a great extent. The apple does not flourish as well as the peach, which is remarkably fine here. The wild fruits, grapes, plums, &c. are abundant.

Towns. The settlements are principally upon the White River; along the Arkansas; and on the head streams of Ouachitta, or, as it is pronounced, Washita. There are several little villages along the Mississippi, the chief of which are Helena and point Chicot, or Villemont, as it is called on the maps.

The Post of Arkansas, or Arkansas, as it is called, stands on the northern bank of the Arkansas river, 50 miles from its mouth. It was built a long time ago, and is inhabited by about 600 people, mostly of French origin.

LITTLE ROCK is the capital of the territory. It stands on a bluff on the south or right bank of the Arkansas river, about 350 miles above its mouth, and 1068 miles from Washington City. It is a small but pleasant town, and has some fine society. It was a few years ago, as all this country was, often a scene of shocking violence and fatal rencontres between hostile individuals and parties. But at


present, the morals of this place and of the whole territory are improving.

There are several small villages in different parts of the territory, but which are no way specially deserving a notice in this work. Around the court-house of each county a little village is rising up, and at favourable points along the rivers little towns are forming, which will at some future day become important places.

Curiosities. These are, 1. Sea shells in great quantities dispersed in the soil of extensive tracts of this territory. 2. The hot springs near the Ouachitta River. 3. The quarry of oil stones near these springs. There are also relics of antiquity found here similar to those which exist in other parts of the Valley of the Mississippi.

GENERAL REMARKS. — 1. This country contains much fertile land; and also much, which, on account of its swampy or its rocky and hilly surface, cannot be cultivated. The tide of emigration is setting into this territory, from Kentucky and Tennessee, and other western states. It is a new country, and by no means well known. The quantity of public land, to which the Indian title has been extinguished, is 31,912,381 acres; and there are 288,000 acres, to which the Indian title has not been extinguished.

Land Offices. Registers Receivers
Batesville Townsend Dickinson Caleb S. Manly
Little Rock Bernard Smith B. S. Chambers
Fayetteville Wm. M'Kenna Mathew Leiper
Washington Sam P. Rutherford Dan. T. Wilter

2. There is a decided moral improvement going on in this territory. There is a considerable number of congregations formed by the labours of Methodists, Baptists, Cumberland Presbyterians, Catholics, &c., and a healthful influence is beginning to be created in many neighbourhoods. Congress has appropriated 950,258 acres of the public lands in this territory for the promotion of common schools, and 46,080 acres for colleges.

3. Those who emigrate to this Territory will generally prefer to go to it by steam-boats, ascending the Arkansas to Little Rock, if they prefer to settle in the interior; or


landing on the banks of the Mississippi river, if they prefer the eastern part.

The Regions which lie North of Illinois and Missouri, and West of Missouri and Arkansas.

This immense part of the territory of the United States, within the Valley of the Mississippi, has been divided by geographers into five great districts, viz: —

Huron District, which lies north of the state of Illinois and the Mississippi River, and reaches to Lake Superior and the northern limit of the U.S. It embraces 120,975 square miles. It is, at present, attached to Michigan.

Sioux District, which lies between the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers, and north of the state of Missouri, and embraces 162,385 square miles.

Mandan District lies along the Missouri River, extending from the Sioux District north-westward to the sources of that river, and embraces an area of 295,203 square miles.

Ozark District lies immediately west of Arkansas territory, and contains 83,350 square miles.

Osage District lies west of the state of Missouri, and embraces an area of 91,980 square miles. Making a total of 753,893 square miles, which is much more than one half of the entire area of the Valley of the Mississippi.

Respecting the character of these districts, as it regards soil, &c., it is impossible to speak with much accuracy. The country which lies west of Arkansas territory, to the distance of about 200 miles, has much fine land. This is the country to which the government is removing the Indians, placing the Choctaws between the Red River and the Canadian Fort of Arkansas River; the Cherokees, between the Canadian and Arkansas Rivers; and the Creeks, north of the Arkansas, and in immediate contiguity with the Osages. A large portion of the country which lies west of the zone of 200 miles in width which I have just named, is sterile prairies, with very narrow timbered alluvial bottom lands along the water courses.

A large portion of Huron District, especially the region


on the Ouisconsin, is fertile, and possesses great beauty and many advantages as to navigable facilities, climate, &c. The same may be said of a considerable portion of the country which lies between the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. There is room enough in the region lying along the Upper Mississippi, above Illinois and Missouri, to form three or four states as large as Virginia.

It is said that there are some tracts of fine country on the Yellow Stone and other of the upper branches of the Missouri. But it is believed that a great extent of the country along the Missouri, beginning 100 miles west of the state of Missouri, is incapable of a dense population, on account of the vast extent of the prairies. This will probably be the case, at least for a long time to come. Still, if these prairies should be found to be fertile (for this country has been very imperfectly explored, excepting along the banks of the Missouri and Arkansas Rivers,) at a future day they will have a great population. Let the fires be kept out of any portions of them, and these portions will soon be covered with forests; or it will be found there, as in some other countries, that a vast amount of timber is not absolutely necessary where abundance of coal for fuel exists, and where modes of agriculture or grazing may be pursued, which will not require much fencing, especially when something else may be substituted. This will be the region of flocks of sheep, and herds of cattle and horses; and here will be the abodes of shepherds and herdsmen, like those of the oriental countries, from time immemorial.


Chapter XXI. Mississippi.

Map of Louisiana and Mississippi.

THE state of Mississippi is bounded on the north by Tennessee; east by Alabama; south by the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana; and west by Louisiana and Arkansas, from which it is separated by the Mississippi River. The Pearl River forms a portion of its western line, dividing it from Louisiana, from the Rigolets to the 31st degree of north latitude, — a distance of 60 miles. This state has a line of coast of eighty miles along the Gulf of Mexico.

Mississippi extends. From N. lat. 30° 08' to 35°; and from W. long. 11° 05 to; 14° 26'. Its area is 47,680 square miles or 30,515,200 acres.

Adams, s w 14,937 Natchez, 112
Amite, s w 7,934 Liberty, 122
Claiborne, w 9,787 Port Gibson, 67
Copiah, s w m 7,001 Gallatin, 53
Covington, s m 2,551 Williamsburg, 83
Franklin, s w 4,622 Meadville, 105
Greene, s e 1,854 Leaksville, 171
Hancock, s 1,962 Pearlington, 200
Hinds, m 8,645 JACKSON,  
Jackson, s e 1,792 Jackson C. H. 213
Jefferson, s w 9,755 Fayette, 93
Jones s m 1,471 Ellisville, 134
Lawrence, s m 5,293 Monticello, 88
Lowndes, n e m 3,173 Columbus, 134
Madison, e 4,973 Livingston, 31
Marion, e 3,691 Columbia, 120
Monroe, e 3,861 Hamilton, 150


(Table Continued)
Perry, s e 2,300 Augusta, 137
Pike, e 5,402 Holmesville, 151
Rankin, w 2,083 Brandon, 16
Simpson, s m 2,680 Westville, 56
Warren, w 7,861 Vicksburg, 54
Washington, w 1,976 Princeton, 119
Wayne, e 2,781 Winchester, 165
Wilkinson, s w 11,686 Woodville, 148
Yazoo, w 6,550 Benton, 64
Total, 26 counties. 136,621 inhabitants, of whom 65,659 are slaves, 519 free blacks, and 70,443 whites.

GOVERNMENT. The governor is elected for two years — salary $2,500 per annum. Lieutenant Governor receives t6 a day during the session of the legislature. The Secretary of State, Treasurer, and Auditor receive each $1,200 per annum; and the Attorney General $1,000.

The Legislative power is vested in a Senate and House of Representatives, styled the General Assembly of the State of Mississippi. The members of the senate are elected for three years, and the representatives annually. The number of the representatives cannot be less than 37, nor more than 100, as soon as the free population shall amount to 80,000. The senate cannot consist of less than one fourth, nor more than one third, as many as there are representatives. The general election for the state takes place on the first Monday and Tuesday of August. The general assembly meets (at Jackson) annually on the first Monday in November.

JUDICIARY. The Court of Chancery. Chancellor's salary $2,000.

The Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and four associate Judges — the salary of each $2,000. The state is divided into five districts, in which the Judges of the Supreme Court severally hold circuit courts. These courts have original jurisdiction in cases where the sum in dispute


exceeds $50; and appellate jurisdiction from the courts of justices of the peace, where the sum exceeds $20. They have also criminal jurisdiction. The county of Adams has a separate criminal court, whose jurisdiction, however does not supersede that of the circuit court.

Every county has a probate court, and a county court held by three Judges, of which the Probate Judge is the presiding justice. This court takes cognizance of offences committed by slaves, &c. The Judges hold their offices during good behaviour, but not beyond the age of 65 years.

Imprisonment for debt is not allowed in this state, except in cases of a debtor who fraudulently withholds his property from his creditors.

Surface of the Country. — Along the Mississippi River, at various distances, there is a line of bluffs, in this state, of from 50 to 150 feet in height, in some cases, still higher. In some places these bluffs are washed by the river; in other places they stand several miles from it. The portions which are contiguous to the river, are called by different names, such as Walnut Hills, Grand Gulf Bluffs, Natchez Bluffs, White Cliffs, and Loftus' Heights, &c.

The country beyond these bluffs spreads out into a high, beautiful, and fertile table land, gently undulating and productive. There is a zone of such land commencing in Louisiana and extending through this state, parallel with the Mississippi, into the state of Tennessee, interrupted only by the streams which run through it. Its width is from 10 to 30 or 40 miles.

Beyond this fertile belt of land, there stretches from south to north, and reaches eastward to the Alabama line, an extensive district of country, of various soil, but possessing much that is alluvial and fertile, contrasted with much that is light and covered with pine. As a whole, however, it possesses a great quantity of excellent land.

The southern, middle, and northern parts of this state may be said to be beautifully undulating, with numerous ravines and streams.

In its natural state, in which almost the entire state still is, it was covered with a vast forest of oak, hickory, magnolia, sweet gum, ash, maple, yellow poplar, cypress in the swampy alluvial Mississippi bottoms, pine, holley, &c.


&c. with a great variety of underwood, grape vines, paw-paw, spice wood, &c.

The magnolia is frequently a tree of three feet in diameter in the south-western part of this state. The cypress and swamp gum, are large in the swampy lands. Vast quantities of cypress are floated down to New-Orleans from this state. They are cut when the waters are high, by the negroes in canoes, who cut them above their cone-like like buttresses.

Productions. In the early settlements near Natchez, tobacco, indigo and cotton were successively staples. The last named production has however prevailed for the last 30 years. Corn is also produced, and would be abundant, if it were as valuable a crop as cotton. Peaches are abundant. Sugar cane is cultivated in the southern part of the state, but with only moderate success. The peach is abundant. The orange grows here, but is often injured by the climate. The fig also grows in the southern part.

This is an admirable country for the growth of garden vegetables of almost all sorts.

The chief article for exportation from this state is cotton, which is raised in great abundance. Corn is also exported, for it here grows abundantly. Wheat is but little cultivated. This country is favourable for the raising of cattle, horses and hogs. But in as much as cotton is found to be more profitable as an article of cultivation than the raising of any thing else, it absorbs almost the whole attention of those who live on farms or plantations which possess a soil suitable for its production.

Rivers. The great Mississippi River flows along the western boundary of this state, a distance of 530 miles. A large portion of its bank in this state is for a very considerable width an inundated swamp, covered with cypress, and inhabited only at intervals, by those who cut wood for the passing steam-boats. To a traveller who only sees this state whilst passing along the Mississippi River, it presents the most dreary and forbidding aspect, excepting along the elevated and settled points of the bluffs which; immediately border the river.

Into the Missisippi River there flow, from this state, the following named considerable streams. I shall mention them in order, beginning at the northern end of the state.


The Yazoo rises in the northern part of the state, and some of its eastern head streams interlock with the sources of the Tombigbee. In its course towards the south-west, it receives a number of considerable streams Yalo Busha, Buffalo Creek, Cold Water, &c. It falls into the Mississippi twelve miles above Vicksburg, by a mouth of 100 yards wide. Its whole length is more than 200 miles; about 50 of which it is navigable for large boats. It flows through an elevated and pleasant and healthy country. This river is distinguished for giving name to the famous Yazoo speculation, which in its end was so disastrous to the fortunes of many who were deceived by it.

The next river is the Big Black, which rises in the eastern part of the state, and falls into the Mississippi by a mouth 40 yards wide, just above the Grand Gulf. It is near 200 miles long by its course, and is navigable fifty miles. Bayou Pierre is a small river which falls into the Mississippi above Bruinsburg. There is a fertile country bordering on this stream. The Homochitto is a small, but pleasant stream, which falls into the Mississippi 43 miles below Natchez. Below it, enters Buffalo Creek, nine miles above Fort Adams, in the south western angle of the state.

The Amite flows down from this state, through a broken country, into Ibberville outlet, or Boyou Manshac, as it is often called, 40 miles above Lake Maurepas. The Pearl River rises in the southern part of the state, and flows by a course of 150 or 200 miles, into the Rigolets or outlet from Lake Ponchartrain into Borgne. There is a fine healthy country, covered with pine and abounding with springs, along this river. It forms a part of the western boundary of this state. Still, further east, flows the Pascagoula, parallel with the Pearl River on the west, and the Tombigbee on the east. It is a stream of 200 miles in length, having many branches, and navigable for boats 50 or 60 miles. It falls into the Gulf of Mexico by several mouths.

The Tombigbee rises in the north-eastern part of this state, and having drained a large, fertile, and beautiful region, it flows into the state of Alabama, and finally unites with the Alabama River, in forming the Mobile River.


By these various streams a boat navigation is opened into the whole interior of the state, by which, in the winter and spring, many thousands of bales of cotton, besides other products, are sent to the great emporium of the Valley of the Mississippi.

TOWNS. — Jackson is the capital of the state. It stands on the right or western bank of the Pearl River, 112 miles north east from Natchez, and 1,035 from Washington city. It is on the road from Natchez to Washington city. It is a small but pleasant place, and improving in size and wealth. Congress has granted 1,280 acres for the seat of government.

NATCHEZ is the most important town in this state. It is situated on an elevated series of hills, about half a mile from the Mississippi river, in north lat. 31 deg. 33 min. The site of the town is undulating, and 200 or 300 feet above the river. The population is somewhat more than 3,000. It is a place of great wealth and business. The society is good. Here are churches of Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists, and Catholics. Along the margin of the river and below the bluff upon which the principal town stands, is what is called Natchez-below-the-hill, — a collection of warehouses, boat stores, grogshops, &c. This town was the first place in the state which was settled by white men. It was founded by the French in 1716, but was destroyed by the Indians in 1729.

The city of Natchez is one of the most beautiful places in the Valley of the Mississippi. The principal part of the city is more than two hundred feet above the Mississippi, and an extensive region spreads out on the east, north and south. The streets are wide, and adorned with the China tree. The houses of the wealthier inhabitants are widely separated, each seeming to occupy a square, surrounded with orange trees, palmetto, and other beautiful shrubbery. The public buildings are, the court-house, churches, academy, &c. The inhabitants are distinguished for their intelligence, refinement and hospitality. Many of the wealthy planters of this region live a large portion of their time in this city. It is in general healthy, but has been occasionally visited by the yellow fever, when that disease has visited New Orleans.

The prospect from the elevated site of this city over


the noble river, with its long line of flat boats, and its steam boats constantly arriving or departing, the village of Concordia opposite, and the vast country beyond, is enchanting beyond almost any other which I have ever witnessed.

Natchez is 1,146 miles from the seat of government of the United States; and 297 miles by the river above New Orleans.

Monticello, Port Gibson on Bayou Pierre, Shieldsboro' on the west side of the bay of St. Louis, Greenville, Woodville, Winchester, and Washington, are pleasant and growing towns. Vicksburg, on the Mississippi, at the foot of the Walnut Hills, and 100 miles above Natchez, is a town of great business, which has sprung up within seven years. Vast quantities of cotton are here shipped on board steam-boats for New Orleans. The town rises from the river up the sides of the Walnut Hills, in the most romantic manner. Warrenton is nine or ten miles below Vicksburg, on the bank of the Mississippi.

Besides these, there is a large number of pleasant villages springing up in this state.

Education. — This state has no common school system established by law. But much interest is felt on the subject of education. A fund is now accumulating from "escheats, confiscations, fines," &c., the interest of which is to be devoted to the education of poor children. Congress has appropriated 685,884 acres of the public land in this state to the promotion of common schools; besides 46,080 acres for a college. There are several academies, and two colleges in this state.

GENERAL REMARKS. — 1. The climate of this state may be said, in the general, to be salubrious. Along the swampy, alluvial, bottoms of the Mississippi River, it is of course unhealthy, except to those who have become acclimated, by having lived there from their childhood. But the interior of the state, especially in the elevated and broken parts of it, and the piney region in the south-eastern part, whose pure clear streams flow through a sandy soil, are decidedly healthy. The heat of summer is long sustained, and sometimes intense. The autumns, winters, and springs, are fine seasons here. The bilious fever, in its various forms, is the most prevalent disease of this


country. It requires much care on the part of emigrants, who are not accustomed to a southern climate, to live in this state with entire impunity, except in the most healthy portions of it, during the summer.

2. The pursuits of the people are chiefly agricultural. And although in this state, corn, tobacco, figs, sweet potatoes, rice, indigo, squashes, melons, plums, peaches, grapes of many sorts, and various other vegetables and fruits, come to full perfection, yet they attract but little attention compared with cotton. The orange is cultivated in the southern part. But cotton is almost the only article cultivated for exportation. And although the price of this article has diminished from 25 and 30 cents per pound to ten or fifteen cents, yet it is a profitable crop, and the cultivators of it are doing well.

3. There are 21,211,465 acres of public land now for sale in this state. There are also 6,529,280 acres, to which the Indian title had not been unconditionally extinguished on the 2d of April, 1832, but which will be, in the course of a year or two, it is expected. Making a total of 27,740,745 acres of public land now for sale, or about to be soon. It will be perceived from this statement that a very small portion of the land in this state is owned by individuals; and, as all the Choctaws and Chickasaws are expected to remove during this summer and next, we may expect that this state will soon become settled by emigrants from the Atlantic and other portions of our country, especially from the southern part of it.

Land Offices Registers Receivers
Mount Salus, Thos. L. Sumerall, Hanson Alsburg,
Choctaw, Gideon Fitz, George Crutcher,
Washington, B. L. C. Wailes, Thomas Lewis,

4. The cultivation of cotton is by no means a difficult operation. It is planted very much as corn is planted, in March, and the early part of April, (depending of course upon the relative northern or southern situation of the land) and kept free from weeds through the summer, by constant ploughing and hoeing. In its early stages it resembles, when seen at a little distance, what are called bunch beans growing in hills or rows. In the fall it is picked out of


the opening pods, by slaves, who go along with a basket and gather all that they can pick out. This is a tedious mode of getting the cotton from the husk or pod that contains it. When it is gathered into the cotton house, then comes the work of cleaning it of the seeds, by means of the gin. This is a simple operation. The cotton passes between a revolving cylinder, (with teeth in circular rims of iron,) and a grate, by which the seeds are separated from the fine fibres of the cotton. It is next pressed into bales by a machine somewhat like a cider-press, and is then ready for market. A few good hands will cultivate several acres. From one to two bales, sometimes three, is the produce of an acre of good land in this state. The price of cotton lands is various, — from $10 or $20 to $40 per acre, according to quality, situation, buildings and machinery on the premises.

5. The subject of internal improvement awakens considerable attention in this state. A fund for this purpose is accumulating from the reservation of five per cent. on the sales of the public lands within this state. Three-fifths of which may be laid out in constructing canals, roads, improving rivers, &c., within the state.

6. The early history of this state is interesting, but cannot be given in detail in a work like this.

The first French colony was planted here in 1716 or 1718. In 1729 it was massacred by the Indians. In 1763 the land was ceded to the British; in 1783 it was ceded to the United States, but was held by the Spaniards until 1798. In 1800, what is now Mississippi and Alabama was constituted the territory of Mississippi — and in 1817, the state of Mississippi was organised.


Chapter XXII. Louisiana.

Map of Louisiana and Mississippi.

Map of New Orleans, Louisiana.

THIS State is bounded on the north by Arkansas territory, and Mississippi State; on the east by the same State; on the south by the Gulf of Mexico; and on the west by the Mexican dominions. The 33d deg. of N. latitude is the northern boundary west of the Mississippi River, and 31st deg. on the east of that river; the Pearl River is its extreme eastern boundary, and the Sabine its western. It extends from N. lat. 28° 56' to 33°; and from W. long. 11° 36' to 17° 16'. It contains 49,300 square miles, or 31,553,000 acres.

Ascension, s e m 5,426 Donaldson, 75
Assumption, s e m 5,669 Assumption C. H. 90
East Baton Rouge, m 6,698 Concordia,  
West Baton Rouge, m 3,084 Baton Rouge, 117
Concordia, n e 4,662    
E. Feliciana, e m 8,247 Jackson, 158
W. Feliciana, e m 8,629 St. Francisville, 149
Ibberville, s e m 7,049 Ibberville, 98
Jefferson, s e 6,846 Coqville, 202
Lafourche Interior, s 5,503 Thibadeauxville 108
Orleans, s e 49,826 NEW ORLEANS,  
Plaquimines, s e 4,489 Fort Jackson, 75
Pt. Coupee m 5,936 Point Coupee, 154
Bernard s e m 3,356    


(Table Continued.)
St. Charles, s e m 5,147    
St. Helena, e m 4,028 St. Helena, 98
St. James, s e m 7,846 Bringier's 60
St. John, Baptiste, s e m 5,677 Bonnet Carre, 36
St. Tammany, e 2,864 Covington, 44
Terre Bonne, s 2,121 Williamsburg,
Washington, e 2,286 Franklin,  
Total 155,399  
Avoyelles, m 3,484 Marksville, 240
Catahoula, n m 2,581 Harrisonburg, 251
Claiborne,   1,764 Russellville, 441
Lafayette, s 5,653 Vermillionville 192
Natchitoches, n w 7,903 Natchitoches, 354
Rapides, m 7,575 Alexandria, 272
St. Landry, s w 12,591 Opelousas, 192
St. Martin's, s 7,205 St. Martinsville 176
St. Mary's, s 6,442 Franklin, 141
Washita, n 5,140 Monroe, 323
Total 60,340  
Eastern District 155,399
Western District 60,340
Total of Louisiana 215,739 Inhabitants. Of whom 109,588 are slaves, 16,710 free blacks, and 89,441 whites.
  Population.   Increase.
In 1810, 76,556 From 1810 to 1820, 76,851
1820, 153,407 ' 1820 ' 1830, 62,332
1830, 215,739    


The population of the French Colony of Louisiana, in 1763 was 11,496.

The Population of New Orleans, in 1802, was about 10,000; in 1810, 17,242; in 1820, 27,165; in 1830, 46,310.

The seat of government is, at present, New Orleans.

The Constitution was formed in 1812.

GOVERNMENT. — Governor — term of office four years — salary $7,500 per annum. Secretary, Treasurer, Attorney General, and Surveyor General.

LEGISLATURE. — The Legislative authority is vested in a Senate and a House of Representatives, styled the General Assembly of the State of Louisiana. The senators are elected for four years; their number is 17. The representatives are elected for two years. Their number is at present 50. The elections are held on the first Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday of July. The General Assembly elect by joint ballot, for governor, one of the two who have received the highest number of the votes of the people.

JUDICIARY. The Supreme Court consists of three judges, who are appointed by the governor, with the advice and Consent of the Senate. This court has only appellate jurisdiction. It sits in New-Orleans for the Eastern District, during the months of November, December, January, February, March, April, May, June and July. And for the Western District, at Opelousas and Attakapas, during the months of August, September, and October.

The Criminal Court of New Orleans has one Judge.

There are eight District Courts, and nine Judges. The District Courts, with the exception of the first, hold in each parish, two sessions a year.

The Parish Courts hold a regular session in each parish on the first Monday in every month.

The courts in the first district, viz. the Parish, District, Criminal and Probate Courts, are in session the whole year, excepting the months of July, August, September and October, in which months they hold special courts if necessary.

Surface of the Country. — There are three very distinct districts in this state, as it regards soil and surface. 1. The north-eastern part, or the country lying east of the Mississippi and north of Ponchartrain, Maurepas, and Ibberville outlet, embracing the Parishes of East and West Feliciana, East Baton Rouge, Washington, St. Helena, and


St. Tammany, is hilly, of a sandy soil, covered with pine possessing fine springs and a salubrious climate. The north-western portion of the state is also generally elevated some of it very much so. 2. The south-western part, in the Opelousas country, is covered with extensive prairies of great fertility and generally level, or gently undulating. 3. The whole delta, or country lying between the Atchafalaya (Chaffalio) outlet on the west, and the Ibberville outlet with its continuation in lakes Maurepas, Ponchartrain and Borgne, on the east, is a dead level, and excepting the margins of the numerous rivers and streams, and which are from a mile to a mile and a quarter in width, is chiefly continuous swamps, covered with cypress, swamp oak, gum, &c. This is the character of much of the country bordering the lower parts of the Red river, and the Ouachitta, the Courtableau, and other streams.

The whole southern line is a low marshy country, scarcely rising above the level of the ocean, and often overflown by the tides. Rising in the most gradual manner, the north-western part even reaches the aspect of a mountainous character. The coast is lined with low and sandy islands separated from the main land by shallow bayous, or stagnant inlets, and covered with stinted live-oaks.

Soil. — This State has an astonishing diversity of soil. Within its limits are all the varieties, from the recent, and still periodically submerged alluvial lands, to hills almost approaching to the magnitude of mountains. Here is to be, found soil of astonishing fertility, and some of great sterility; unwooded plains, and the most dense forests which can be found in our country. But as a general remark it may be truly said that the soil of this state is astonishingly fertile. In the northern part, bordering on Arkansas, there is a considerable extent of hilly, flinty, barren land. The parishes north of Ponchartrain are generally not fertile.

Productions. — Sugar and rice are staples of this state, generally below lat. 31, and cotton above that line. The latter is, however, cultivated in every section of the state, and sugar, partially to the northern boundary. Corn grows finely, but is little cultivated, because less profitable than sugar and cotton. It is obtained, as well as flour and


bread stuffs generally, from Kentucky, Ohio, and other states in the upper part of the Valley. The apple grows in the northern parishes, whilst the peach is every where excellent; and the fig, of several species, grows over all the state. The orange and pomegranate grow pretty well wherever attempted; and olives and bananas, but the latter not so well as the former. Most garden vegetables would grow admirably well, if cultivated. The great staples are, however, sugar and cotton. In 1829, there were 725 sugar plantations in this state. There are probably now about 800; many of them, however, are new and not yet very productive, as it requires four or five years to bring a sugar plantation into a perfect and profitable condition.

The settlements in this state are totally dissimilar to those of any other state in our country, and are such as can hardly be conceived of by those who have not seen them. They also may be considered as having peculiarities occasioned by the different and distinctive features of the country, described above. The inhabitants in the elevated and hilly portions in the north-east and north-west portions of the state live in more detached and scattered settlements, and spread over the country as in all other states in the Valley of the Mississippi, if you except Arkansas and some parts of Mississippi state. The settlements along the rivers are confined to the margins, which are higher than the woody swamps which lie back of them. Nothing can exceed the beauty of these settlements. Each plantation (for cotton or sugar) extends along the river from a quarter to half of a mile, and back often a mile or more. The plantation house stands near the river, with the "quarter" of houses for the slaves, and the cotton or sugar mills, &c. extending on each side, forming a considerable village. These villages nearly reach to each other, and so form an almost continuous series of towns or villages as far as the eye can reach. If the reader will conceive of this, he will form some idea of the settlements along the banks of the Mississippi from above St. Francisville to below New-Orleans; also along the Red River, and many other streams.

The settlements in the prairie regions are also remarkable. They resemble those which I have just described, for they are on the woodland margin of the prairie, and


seem when viewed by one standing in the midst of a prarie, like the beautiful settlements which border some of the lakes in the state of New-York. The inhabitants of the settlements around the prairies pursue agriculture to but a limited extent compared with the raising of cattle, horses, and mules. Some of these graziers have an immense number of live stock. A few years since three of these numbered 15,000 head of horned cattle, and 2,000 horses and mules!

The Attakapas prairie contains, it is stated, 5,000 square miles; the Opelousas 8,000 square miles. The inhabitants around the prairies, as well as along the rivers, and indeed throughout the state are mostly French. Along the prairies, and in the country generally, they live in great rural simplicity.

Rivers. — The principal river is the Mississippi, which runs nearly 600 miles along and within the limits of this state, and empties its waters into the Gulf by several mouths, or passes, as they are called. The large river, called Red River, with its large, confluent, the Ouachitta, comes flowing down from the north, and falls into the Mississippi, in N. latitude 31°. Both these rivers have innumerable lakes and bayous; parallel with their main streams, and are lined by extensive cypress swamps in some parts of their courses. A few miles below the mouth of Red River, is seen the first outlet, by which a portion of the waters of the Mississippi leave the main channel, and flow to the Gulf by their own separate course. This is the Atchafalaya, commonly called Chaffalio, which after receiving the Courtableau, Teche, and a few other small streams, flows into the Gulf, 150 miles west of the Mississippi. At the village of Ibberville, the Placquemine outlet occurs, and flows into the Chaffalio. At Donaldsonville, the outlet or bayou, La Fourche, occurs, and flows into the Gulf, 50 miles westward of the Mississippi. And on the eastern side of the Mississippi river, the small outlet called Ibberville outlet, or bayou Manshac, flows to the eastward, and after receiving the Amite, and several other streams, expands into the small lake of Maurepas. An outlet connects this lake with Lake Ponchartrain, which is again connected with Lake Borgne, by the outlet called the Rigolets, into which Pearl River flows. Lake Borgne is nothing more


than a large bay belonging to the Gulf of Mexico. The Ibberville outlet and the lakes just mentioned, together with the Mississippi River, form the important island of Orleans.

The Red River is navigable for steam-boats 90 miles above Nachitoches. At that point are what are called the "rafts," which prevent the passage of boats, although there are more than 500 miles of fine steam-boat navigation above the rafts, in a good stage of the waters. At the rafts there is a vast expansion of the river into bayous and shallow lakes to the width of many miles, and for a distance of 50 or 60 miles. This expansion is covered greatly with floating timber, overspread in many places with weeds and small trees.

The Red River rises in the region of Santa Fe, in Mexico. It is almost as long as the Arkansas. It receives as its branches, above this state, the Kimichie, Vasseux, and Little River; and within this state it receives the Bodcau, Datache, Black Lake, Saline, Little River, and Ouachitta. There is much fertile land on the Red River. Its waters are of a dark reddish appearance, strongly impregnated with salt. Lake Bistineau, is connected with it at the "rafts."

The small streams which flow from this state into the Gulf of Mexico, west of the Mississippi and its mouths, are, the Vermiillon, Mermentou, Calcasiu, and Sabine. They all have lakes connected with them.

Cities and Towns. — NEW-ORLEANS is the great emporium of trade, not only for this state, but for the whole Valley of the Mississippi. It stands on the left bank of the Mississippi, in N. lat. 30°, and W. long. 13° 6', and is 105 miles above the mouth of the river. It was founded in 1719, by Bienville, who succeeded his brother M. D'lbberville in the government of the French colony in Louisiana. The course of the Mississippi below Natchez is south-east. It makes, at this place, one of those bends which are so characteristic of all the rivers south of the Susquehanna. Running towards the east just above the city, it turns to the north, then east, and then south. The old part of the city stands at the centre of this bend, and consequently faces the south; the upper part, of course, faces the east, and the lower the west. The extent of the


city along the river is three or four miles, and its width varies a quarter of a mile on the extremities to nearly a mile in the center. The levee which commences on each side of the river 160 miles above New-Orleans, and is continued below it, forms what may be called the wharf of the city. It is near 30 feet wide generally. It serves not only for a wharf where vast quantities of merchandise and "up country" productions are landed from ships and boats, but also for a market, and a sort of exchange, or place where extensive sales, transfers, &c. of commodities are constantly taking place. Those streets which may be said to run along the river, or parallel to it, are somewhat in the shape of an Indian's bow, except that the extremes form large angles, instead of curves, at the junction with the central parts. Those streets which run out from the river toward the woods or swamps in the rear of the city, may be said to be at right angles with the section of the river from which they commence. Of course there are some strange squares — not indeed, like that which a worthy Hibernian found in the lower part of Philadelphia, that is, round — but somewhat in the shape of a wedge.

The portions of the city which have been built by the Americans resemble other American cities. The houses are of brick, and mostly two or three stories high. But that portion which was built by the French and Spaniards is very different. The houses are low, surrounded by a narrow porch, and are covered with stucco of a white or yellow colour. In the central part of the city the houses are contiguous; but in the suburbs, or Fauxbourgs, they are separated generally by intervening gardens, of orange, olive, fig, and lemon trees, &c. The wooden buildings are giving place gradually to those of brick; and great efforts are making to improve the streets with good pavements, stone sewers, &c.

The principal public buildings are, the Cathedral, College, Ursuline Convent, Presbyterian, Episcopal, French Protestant, and Mariners' churches, Charity Hospital, Town House, Banks, Theatres, &c. The Charity Hospital is one of the most useful charities of the city. New Orleans is peculiarly exposed to disease and want. In this hospital every thing is done for the sick and destitute.


stranger that could be done. In it more miserable beings have been sheltered, from it more have been dismissed cured, and more have been dismissed cured, and more have been carried to their long homes, than from any other hospital in our country!

In the back part of the city, and at a distance of less than half of a mile from the Mississippi, is a basin for shipping, connected by a canal with the Bayou St. John's, which empties itself into Lake Ponchartrain, six miles north of the city. Through this canal, the trade of the country bordering on Lakes Ponchartrain and Borgne, and of all the coast along the northern part of the Golf of Mexico as far as Florida, comes to the city. Quite a considerable fleet of sloops, &c. may be seen at all times in this basin. A rail-road, of about four miles and a half in length, now connects the city with Lake Ponchartrain. This will probably supersede the use of the canal and its basin. A harbour will be formed in Lake Ponchartrain, at the termination of the rail-road, where a considerable village is now growing up.

Nothing can be more interesting to a stranger than to walk along Levee-street and survey the flat boats which line the bank upon the upper part of the city, filled with all kinds of productions from the "up-country." As many as 1,500 such boats are here sometimes to be counted at once.

Opposite to the centre of the city, he may sometimes see 40 steam-boats, while every hour, almost, some arrive and others depart on their long voyages; whilst below lies the shipping, which is increased or diminished daily by the arrival or departure of the powerful steam tow-boats which escort the ships down to the mouth of the river, and see them over the bar, and then bring others up, frequently one boat marching up with two or three ships, two or three brigs, and two or three sloops, &c.! And if he passes through the market he will see such a scene as he never before witnessed. Babel itself could not have exceeded it. He will hear the French, Spanish, English, and sometimes German, languages, spoken by negroes, mulattoes, quartre unes, and whites. The words "piccayune," (6 1.4 cents) and "bit" — (12 1-2 cts.) fall upon the ear at every step as one passes through the trafficking crowd.

The population has increased rapidly. In 1810, it was


17,242; in 1820, it was 27,156; and in 1830, it was 46,310. This is the stationary or fixed population. In the season of business, that is, the winter, 20 or 25,000 more may be added. As to the trade, a person may have some idea of it from the fact that this year about 100,000 hogsheads of sugar, probably 5,000,000 gallons of molasses, 40,000 hogsheads of tobacco, and 400,000 bales of cotton will be exported; besides immense quantities of flour, whisky, lead, salted beef and pork, lard, hides, peltry, furs, &c.

This is one of the most wonderful places in the, world. Let the reader take a little turn with me on the levee; and first survey the river. As far as he can see almost, up and down, the margin is lined with flat-boats, come from above, from every part of the Valley of the Mississippi. Some are laden with flour, others with corn, others with meat of various kinds, others with live stock, cattle, hogs, horses, or mules. Some have travelling stores: occasionally, some are to be found which are full of negroes; and some full of what is infinitely worse, "Old Monongahela" whiskey. Along the lower part, he will see a forest of masts; higher up, he may see 20 or 30 steam-boats, with their bows up against the levee, or else projecting over an "up country" flat-boat. Every day some come from above and others depart, on excursions of one or two thousand miles, to St. Louis, or Louisville, or Nashville, or Pittsburg, or hundreds of other places. For distance is no longer thought of in this region — it is almost annihilated by steam. And if he casts his eye down the river, he may see a whole fleet, sometimes, coining up without a sail stretched, or an oar manned — all carried along, and that pot at a slow rate, by a steam tow-boat, of tremendous power. I was perfectly amazed the first time I saw this spectacle. It was the Grampus tow-boat, marching up, having two large ships grappled to her sides, two or three brigs at a cable's length behind, and still further in the rear, one or two schooners and two or three sloops! all moving along very reluctantly, and not unlike a number of rogues escorted by High Constable Blaney, or Hays, to a court of Justice, who march along, because they cannot help it.

And if he turns his back to the river, he will see


wonderful "sights" In one place he will see the busy and anxious-looking merchant, receiving from the steam-boat or putting on board the ship, his cotton, his sugar, his molasses, tobacco, coffee, boxes of goods, &c., which cover the levee far and wide. A long the whole line are the owners of the flat-boats trading with the citizen, merchant, and shop-keeper. Whole rows of Englishmen and Americans are to be seen peddling those valuable little stores which one can move about in a hand-barrow, or carry in a basket. And then such crowds (especially along that part of the levee which is opposite the market-house,) of Negresses and Quatre-unes, (written Quadroons by those who do not understand French) carrying on their bandaned heads, and with solemn pace, a whole table — or platform as large as a table — covered with goodies, such as cakes, and apples, and oranges, and figs, and bananas, and pine-apples, and cocoa-nuts, &c., which it would be too tedious for me fully to enumerate.

And then if the reader will go through the city he may look at the steam saw-mills, steam cotton-compressing machines, the market-house, the state-house of ancient appearance, the hotels, the theatres if he likes, the Cathedral, the Calaboos (called Calabozo by the Spanish) or jail, the Charitable Hospital, and lastly, as the terminating point to us all, the place where repose, in the stillness of the tomb, those who once inhabited this city now so full of life, activity and mirth. There is nothing in New Orleans, more interesting to a reflecting man, than the Catholic and Protestant Cemeteries, which are areas covered with beautiful white mausoleums, some of several feet in height, some standing solitary, and others crowded, together. It was with mingled emotions that I stood by that of the eloquent and youthful Larned, bearing, as the most fit epitaph, the simple name of him whose ashes are resting there. And there too rests De Fernex, cut down at a time when, so far as human eye can see, his usefulness was commencing.

The population of this place is exceedingly various. A large portion speaks the French language; some, but the number is not great, the Spanish; some, the German; and the remainder, the English. Those that speak the French are generally Catholics, and are, through all their


conditions and complexions, a polite, agreeable and interesting people; honest, frugal and inoffensive. Too many of the Americans who reside here, and more especially those who make but a transient stay, are devoted to the exclusive object of acquiring wealth, and are so immersed in business as to neglect, it is to be feared, generally, the interests of the immortal spirit.

Much has been said concerning the wickedness of this city, and it is not to be denied that there is much wickedness here; much gambling, great disregard and desecration of the Sabbath, and a general indifference to religion.

Still there is progress made in the diffusion of evangelical religion, and an increase of its practice. There are several Protestant churches; 2 Presbyterian; 1 Episcopal; 1 Baptist; 1 Methodist, and 1 French Protestant, and about ten Sunday schools. There are also several Catholic churches.

Upon the whole, whilst there is much to be done in this city, there are some things encouraging. It has its wickedness, as has every city. Of the permanent population much that is favorable might be said. There is much intelligence among them. Here are five daily papers, three of which are partly in French and partly in English, and all are conducted with ability. The French are an amiable people, very sober in their habits, and inoffensive, good citizens. There is but little drunkenness among them, be it said to their honour. And the most of the intemperance to be found here (for it is not a drunken city, far from it, it is better in this respect than Philadelphia or New York) is to be found among the half-horse, half-alligator characters that come down the river; and even they are greatly reformed — yes, reformed by steam. For since the introduction of steam-boats with their crowds of respectable passengers, the noisy, drinking, swearing boatmen, have been made to see and feel a little of the influence of civilization, and they are becoming ashamed of their own vileness. Besides, it is now not so easy as it once was, for such men to find employment.

This is the most remarkable city, in some respects, of our country. It is the great commercial mart of the Valley of the Mississippi, and situated on the first favourable site for a city. Receiving from above the productions that


grow along a hundred noble streams, which pour their waters into the grand recipient upon whose banks it stands — and from below, the productions of every clime, wafted to it by every wind that blows, — it increases rapidly in wealth and population, and is destined to be the second, if not the first, city of our Union. Where on earth can another city be found whose situation is so favorable, in regard to the extent of country, whose productions, as it were, naturally tend to this great centre of trade; almost like material substances on the earth's surface to the centre of gravitation? Above it are more than 1,300,000 square miles of the most fertile country, taken as a whole, that the earth affords in equal extent; a country which will one day, and that not very distant, contain a population of 100,000,000 of immortal beings, blest with intelligence and virtue, and happy under a delightful and just government, established and maintained by a virtuous people; or else rent into factions, distracted into opposing communities, suffering all the evils that anarchy and irreligion can bring upon a people.

Five miles below the centre of New Orleans, and almost in its lowest suburb, is the battle ground, on which the British were signally defeated on the 8th of January, 1815. It has long been a noble sugar plantation. Lately, I understand, it has been divided into lots and sold.

There are several beautiful villages and towns along the Mississippi above New Orleans, such as Baton Rouge and St. Francisville on the east side, and Donaldsonville and Ibberville on the west. On the Red River stand Alexandria, 102 miles above the mouth, and Natchitoches, 84 miles above Alexandria, both on the south side, and considerable places. Jackson, Covington and Madisonville, are north of Lake Ponchartrain.

Climate. — Mr. Darby contends that the seasons of Louisiana are colder by at least two degrees of latitude than are those of a similar latitude on the Atlantic coast. And he has the same opinion respecting the whole Valley of the Mississippi. Mr. Jefferson held a directly opposite opinion, judging from the fact that the reed cane, and the Species of birds called Paroquets, are found farther to the north in the Valley of the Mississippi than on the Atlantic coast. I suppose that Mr. Darby is nearer the truth than


Mr. Jefferson, if we may depend upon thermometrical observations. Besides, it is a well known fact that the sweet orange and sugar cane do not succeed well here, much to the north of the 31st degree of latitude. The live oak also does not grow in the Valley as far north as it does in the Atlantic states. It grows, for instance, in the neighbourhood of Camden, S.C. in lat. 34 deg. 15 min. There is but little of it north of the 31st deg. in the Valley of the Mississippi. Still it would seem that there can be but little difference in temperature, save what is occasioned by elevation, between Louisiana and the corresponding parts of Georgia and Florida. The real elevation of Louisiana is unquestionably from 50 to 80 feet greater on the coast than that of South Carolina, if the Gulf of Mexico off the mouths of the Mississippi is really higher, as we have reason to believe, than the Atlantic Ocean off the Carolina coast.

A large portion of this state is unhealthy to those who are not acclimated. Those who were born here have good health all the year. The parishes north of lake Ponchartrain, and those on the upper part of Red River, are decidedly healthy.

Education. — The legislature of this state appropriates the sum of nearly $40,000 annually to educate the children of the poor. Owing to the sparseness of the population, there is much difficulty in supporting schools in many parts.

Congress has appropriated 873,973 acres of the public land, or one thirty-sixth part of it, to common schools; besides 46,080 acres for colleges, &c. There is no state in the West where there is a greater disposition, on the part of the public authorities, to promote education, and I doubt not that an effective and liberal public school system will be established in this state.

GENERAL REMARKS. — There are in this state 25,198,234 acres of public land: consequently only 6,353,766 acres are the property of individuals. From this it appears, that, making a due allowance for uninhabitable swamps and prairies, there is a vast extent of land fit to be cultivated, which will one day be sold to individuals.


Land Offices. Registers. Receivers.
New Orleans Hilary B. Cenas William L. Robeson
Opelousas Valentine King Benjamin B. Rogers
Washita J.M.A. Hamblin Joseph Friend
Saint Helena Thos. G. Davidson Alex. G. Penn

2. Much has been done to levee or embank the Mississippi River. And I have no doubt that at a future day, and that not distant, the public authorities of this state will carry on this improvement much further, and leave the banks of all the rivers and bayous in this state which need it, and so reclaim some thousands, or rather millions, of acres from the overflow which renders them now unfit for cultivation. These swamps are covered with impervious forests of cypress, swamp gum, &c. and are the favorite abode of the alligator and moccasin snake.

Would it not be well for the general government to give up to this state all the public land in it, upon the condition that the proceeds of its sales, should be devoted to this, and similar works of improvement! It would be difficult, I think, to conceive how the country could be more benefitted by the amount which may accrue from the sales of this part of the public domain.

3. The manufacture of sugar has gradually increased in this state from 1783 to the present. A duty of 2 1-2 cents per pound on foreign sugar from 1803 up to 1816, and of 3 cents until recently, and now 21-2; and of 10 cents a gallon on molasses until last year, and at present 5 cents, has been the occasion of this advance in the culture of the sugar cane. It is estimated that 150,000,000 lbs. of sugar are annually consumed in this country. And that 100,000,000 lbs. are now made in Louisiana, Florida and Georgia; but by far the greatest part in Louisiana.

There are now about $50,000,000 invested in the sugar business, in lands, slaves, steam engines, and other property, in this state. The number of slaves employed is about 33,000.

The following statement is extracted from a report of a committee of "The Agricultural Society of Baton Rouge" in 1829.

"The gross product of one land, on a well regulated sugar estate, is put down at the cultivation of five acres,


producing 5,000 lbs. of sugar, and 125 gallons of molasses the former valued, on the spot, at 5 1-2 cents per pound and the latter at 18 cents per gallon, — together $297 50.

"The annual expenses of each hand, including wages paid, horses, mules, and oxen, physician's bills, &c. is $105. An estate with 80 negroes, annually costs $8,330. The items are as follows: salt meat, spirits, $830; clothing of all sorts, $1,200; medical attendance and medicines, $400; Indian corn, $1,000; overseer's and sugar maker's salary, $1,000; taxes, $300; annual loss on a capital of $50,000 in negroes, at 2 1-2 per cent. $1,250; horses and oxen, $1,500; repairs of boilers, $550; do. of ploughs, carts, &c. $300. Total $8,330.

"Fifteen acres are required for each hand, five for cultivation in cane, five in fallow, or rest, and five in wood-land. The annual consumption of wood, on an estate worked by 80 negroes, is 800 cords. Two crops of cane are generally made in succession on the same land, one of plant cane, the other of ratoon; it then lies fallow two years, or is planted in corn or peas. One hand will tend 5 acres, besides cutting his proportion of wood and ploughing 2 1.2 acres of fallow ground.

"The capital vested in 1,200 acres of land, with its stock of slaves, horses, mules, and working oxen, is estimated at $147,200. One-third, or 400 acres, being cultivated in cane, yields 400,000 pounds, at 5 1-2 cents, and 10,000 gallons of molasses at 18 cents, — together $23,800; deduct annual expenses as before, $8,330, leaving an apparent profit of $15,470, or 10 3-7 per ct. as interest on the investment."

In the report of the same Society, dated in September 1830, they state that they estimated the profit in their preceding report, at too high a rate, and that it does not exceed, on an average, 6 per cent.

The following statement on the same subject, is derived from the Appendix to a letter addressed by the lamented Honourable Mr. Johnston, to the late Secretary of the Treasury.

"The capital invested in a plantation capable of producing, by the best management, 400,000 lbs. of sugar, and 10,000 gallons of molasses, worth on the plantation 23,000 dollars, must consist as follows:


1,500 acres of land, at $50 per acre $75,000
90 hands, at 600 dollars each 54,000
40 pair of working oxen, at 50 dollars 2,000
40 horses, at 100 dollars 4,000
Horizontal sugar mill 4,000
2 sets of boilers, at 1500 dollars each 3,000
Buildings of all descriptions 25,000
12 carts 1,200
30 ploughs 300
All other utensils, such as timber wheels, hoes, spades, axes, scythes, &c. 1,500

"The annual expenses on the above plantation cost 10,700 dollars, in the following items:

Provisions of all kinds 3,500
Clothing of all sorts 1,500
Medical attendance and Medicine 500
Annual losses in negroes 1,500
Taxes $500
Horses and oxen 1,200
Repairs of buildings 700
Ploughs, carts, &c. 300
Overseer 1,000

"Two crops of cane are generally made in succession on the same land, one of plant cane, the other of the second year's growth; it then lies fallow two years or is planted in corn and beans.

Gross proceeds $23,000
Expenses 10,700
Net proceeds 12,300

Being about 7 per cent. on the capital invested."

The preceding facts, subject to the rule adopted above, might be used to bring out many important results. We shall only take one — the amount of provisions annually purchased by the sugar planters.

"As 400 hhds. of sugar are to 3,500 dollars paid for provisions, so are 100,000 hhds. to 875,000 dollars, annually paid for pork, corn and other supplies, chiefly furnished by Kentucky, Ohio, &c. And it should be observed that the


supplies of clothing, mills, boilers, carts, ploughs, and other utensils, and of horses and oxen, as well as of slaves, are all derived from other states of the union. We say all — for the foreign products or manufactures which enter into the consumption of the Louisiana sugar planters, are of small importance or value.

"The statement just given has reference to one of the best managed estates in Louisiana. With sugar at 5 cents per lb. on the plantation, its late price, it is stated that the capital employed does not yield six per cent. per annum."

The present consumption of sugar in the United States may be put down at 150 millions of pounds — one third of which is imported. In 1840 it is estimated that 200,000 hogsheads of home made sugar will be required, employing or subsisting about 75,000 slaves, and that it will go on to increase, if the production be protected. Mr. Johnston says that Louisiania, alone, can supply the whole demand for sugar in the United States for 25 years to come. But there are large tracts of land fitted for its cultivation in Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia and Florida — especially the latter.

4. In 1829, the following articles were sent by boats to New Orleans, from the Valley of the Mississippi; 2,868 hhds. of bacon: 13,472 pieces of bagging: 3,995 kegs of butter: 5,405 barrels of beef: 795 barrels of beeswax: 15, 210 lbs. of Buffalo skins or robes: 269,571 bales of cotton: 5,557 bales of cotton stock: 6,849 barrels of corn meal: 91,882 barrels of corn in ears: 157,323 barrels of flour: 110,206 kegs of lard: 146,203 pigs of lead: 2,940 barrels of linseed oil: 6,215 packs of deer skins: 159 packs of bearskins: 29,732 hhds. of tobacco: 4,239 bales of tobacco stock.

5. In the year ending 30th of September, 1831, the value of imports at New Orleans from foreign countries, was $9,761,588. Of exports there were shipped from that city, during that year, abroad $15,752,029, and coastwise, $11, 418,622 — total $27,170,651.

There were exported that year, of tobacco 36,132 hhds; cotton, 170,541,259 lbs: and sugar, 55,351,420 lbs., exclusive of what was sent up the Valley. The amount of sugar sent up the Valley, equalled almost what was shipped to the Atlantic states, and abroad.


6. Those who remove to this state will go to it either by ship, and arriving at New Orleans, choose such a part of it for future residence as they prefer; or by steam boat descend the Mississipi river from the upper country.

7. The history of this country which I shall here give is very brief. The French commenced the settlement of this country in 1699. In 1762, it was ceded to Spain. In 1802 Spain receded it to France, and in 1803 it was ceded to the United States. In 1804, what is now Louisiana was erected into a Territory, called Orleans. In 1812 it became an independent state.

Note. The best short topographical description of this state which I have seen, is to be found in the Preliminary chapter of Judge Martin's History of Louisiana.


Chapter XXIII. Alabama.

Map of Georgia and Alabama.

Map of Mobile, Alabama.

ALABAMA is bounded on the north by Tennessee; east by Georgia; south by West Florida, and the Gulf of Mexico; and west by Mississippi. It has a line of coast, from the Perdido to the east boundary of Mississippi of 60 miles. It extends from N. lat. 30° 10' to 35°; and from W. long. 8° 05' to 11° 30'. Its mean length is 336 miles, and its width near 200. Its area is 52,900 square miles, or 33, 856,000 acres.

Blount, n m 4,233 Blountsville, 110
Franklin, n w 11,078 Russellville, 127
Jackson, n e 12,700 Bellefonte, 172
Jefferson, m 6,855 Elyton, 59
Lauderdale, n w 14,984 Florence, 146
Lawrence, n, 14,984 Moulton, 102
Limestone, n 14,807 Athens, 130
Marion, n w 4,058 Pikeville, 118
Madison, n 27,990 Huntsville, 155
Morgan, n 9,062 Somerville, 135
St. Clair, n e m 5,975 Ashville, 129
Walker, n m 2,202 Walker C. H. 47
Total 125,725


Antigua, m 11,874 Washington, 129
Baldwin, a 2,324 Blakely, 228
Bibb, m 6,306 Centreville, 39
Butler, n m 5,650 Greenville. 143
Clarke, s m 7,593 Clarkesville, 146
Conecuh, s 7,444 Sparta, 205
Covington, s 1,522 Montezuma, 187
Dale, s 2,031 Dale C. H. 242
Dallas, m 14,017 Cahawba, 96
Fayette, n m 3,547 Fayette C. H. 50
Greene, w m 15,026 Erie, 47
Henry, s e 4,024 Columbia, 260
Lowndes,   9,410 Lowndes C.H. 138
Marengo, s m 7,700 Linden, 78
Mobile, s w 6,267 Mobile City, 226
Monroe, s w 8,782 Claiborne, 157
Montgomery, s m 12,695 Montgomery, 119
Perry, m 11,490 Perry C. H. 61
Pickens, w 6,622 Pickens, 48
Pike, s e 7,108 Pike C. H. 179
Shelby, M 5,704 Shelbyville, 73
Tuscaloosa, m 13,646 TUSCALOOSA.  
Washington, s w 3,474 Washington C. H. 146
Wilcox, s m 9,548, Canton 113
Total 183,802  
Northern Alabama 125,725
Southern Alabama 183,802
Total, — 36 counties, 309,527 Inhabitants. Of whom 117,549 are slaves, 1,572 free blacks, and 190,406 whites.
  Population. Increase.
In 1810, less than 10,000 181,626
1820, " 127,901
1830, " 309,527


GOVERNMENT. — The Governor is elected for two years; salary $2,000. Secretary of State, Treasurer, and Comptroller of Public Accounts; — salary of each $1,000.

LEGISLATURE. — The legislative power is vested in two branches, a Senate and House of Representatives, which together are styled, the General Assembly of the State of Alabama.

The representatives are elected annually, and are apportioned among the different counties in proportion to the white population; the whole number cannot exceed 100, nor fall short of 60. The senators are elected for three years, and one-third of them are chosen every year. Their number cannot be more than one-third, nor less than one-fourth of the number of the representatives.

The general elections are held every year on the first Monday and Tuesday in August. And the General Assembly meets annually (at Tuscaloosa) on the fourth Monday in October.

JUDICIARY. — The judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court, in Circuit Courts, and such inferior courts as the General Assembly may; from time to time, direct or establish. The judges, after November in 1833, are to be elected by a joint of both Houses of the General Assembly, every six years.

The Supreme Court consists of seven Judges; and the state is divided into seven Circuits, in each of which a judge of the Supreme Court presides as a circuit judge. The salary of each of these judges is $1,750.

Surface of the Country, Soil, &c. — Alabama is divided into two very unequal portions. On the north the Tennessee River, making a large bend towards the south, dips down into the state. The section drained by that river and by the numerous little streams that flow into it, is called North Alabama, and embraces at present twelve organized counties. This is also often called the Valley of the Tennessee. An elevated ridge of hills, which may almost be termed mountains, stretching from west to east, and constituting in reality the south-western extremity of the Allegheny System, separates this portion of the state from what is called Middle and Southern Alabama, or commonly South Alabama. The two portions of the state differ exceedingly in soil, climate, and natural productions.


The north part is uneven and hilly; while the south is either monotonously level, or moderately rolling. In the north, the forests are composed of oak, hickory, ash, poplar, elm, cedar, &c. while in the middle part of the state, these species of trees are much interspersed with pine; and in the south the long leaved pine, together with cypress, gum, swamp oak, holly and live oak along the water-courses, constitute the immense forests which still exist there. I have never seen in any other part of our country such dense and high cane "brakes," as they are called, as I have seen on the Mobile River, and its two great confluents, the Alabama and Tombigbee. The long-leaved pine may be said to be the prevailing species of timber in the southern half of this state. The soil, wherever pine prevails, is not even second rate, excepting along the streams. It will produce a few crops very well; after which, it must be constantly renewed by manuring. The alluvial bottoms are fine cotton, and corn-lands. The grape would grow well in this state. The alluvial lands in this state are extensive.

Productions. — Cotton and corn, particularly the former, are the staples of this state. Other grains as well as well as all kinds of fruits, would grow well if cultivated. Wheat is raised in very small quantities, and is confined to the northern end. Gold mines exist in the N. E. angle of the state. The increase of cotton in this state, within the last 15 years, is truly astonishing. It is believed that the exports from this state, by the Mobile and Chattahooche, the grand outlets of the southern portion of the state, will exceed 100,000 bales this year. Whilst, by the Tennessee, many thousands more will find their way to New Orleans. The cultivation of sugar-cane is increasing along the southern zone of this state. The alluvial bottoms of the Escatappa, Mobile, Perdido, Conecuh, Pea, Choctawhatchee, and Chattahooche, produce the sugar-cane, and especially the first-named three, on the lower parts of their courses, which are within this state. Rice also grows well along the alluvial bottoms near to the Gulf. Indigo was formerly cultivated in considerable quantities.

Rivers. — Alabama has fine navigable facilities. On the north is the Tennessee, as has been already remarked. While the great southern slope is drained by the Alabama


and its two noble branches, — the eastern one of which is composed of the Tallapoosa, Coosa, and Cahawba; and the western is formed by the Tombigbee and Black Warrior. These streams are navigable by boats during a large portion of the year. There are now 15 steam-boats which trade on these rivers, carrying the productions of the country to Mobile, the great commercial depot of the southern part of the state, whilst not less than ten or twelve very large ones carry the productions of north Alabama to New Orleans, or other points on the Mississippi.

Besides these rivers, the Chattahooche, which rises in Georgia and is the boundary between that state and Alabama a distance of 160 miles by the river, affords great commercial facilities to the eastern part of the state, which will speedily become populous, in as much as the Creek Indians have sold their lands, — which lay in that part of the state. Where this river unites with the Flint River from Georgia, it assumes the name of Appalachicola, which it retains, from that point to its entrance into the Gulf of Mexico. There are several steam-boats now running on this river between Columbus in Georgia and its mouth; whence the products of this region are shipped to Mobile and New-Orleans. The Choctawhatchee, Yellow Water, Escambia or Conecuh, and Perdido, are valuable streams which rise in this state, and flow into the Gulf of Mexico, between the Appalachicola and Mobile Rivers.

Internal Improvements. — The spirit of internal improvement has recently been greatly excited in this state also. It is obvious to any one who will examine the map of the state, that it must be of vast importance to connect the waters of the Tennessee with those of the Alabama, if it be practicable. The necessary examination of the intervening region has been made by a very competent topographical engineer, who has explored the valley of the Coosa and the dividing ridge between it and the Tennessee. I have learned from him that the project of making a canal across this region will probably be abandoned, on account of the difficulty of obtaining sufficient water to supply feeders. He has no doubt of the practicability of constructing a rail-road across, which will probably be done. Indeed any one who will examine that portion of the Valley of the Mississippi which lies east of the Ohio


and Mississippi Rivers, from North Alabama to Pittsburg, must be convinced of the difficulty of constructing canals in it. The channels of the rivers are very deep, and cut through solid rocks in many places, so that it will be almost impossible to supply water, in the low stages of the streams, for the summits. All these streams become very low in the summer, and the small ones on the elevated districts would fail of answering the purpose of feeders in the dry season. Rail-roads must therefore be almost the only mode of artificial communication in this region.

By an act of Congress of March 2, 1819, it was provided that 5 per cent. of the net proceeds of all the sales of public lands in this state should be reserved for making public lands and canals, and improving the navigation of rivers. Three fifths of this amount were directed to be applied to these objects within the state, and two-fifths to the making of a road or roads leading to the state, under the direction of Congress. This act gave rise to what is commonly called the "Three per Cent. Fund," vested in the bank of the state of Alabama, and which amounted three years ago to nearly $100,000. In January 1830, a Board of Internal Improvement, to consist of six Commissioners, was established by the legislature of the state, under whose superintendance the income of this fund is to be appropriated to objects of public utility, as roads, canals, &c.

On the 23d of May, 1838, Congress made a grant to this State of 400,000 acres of unappropriated lands, for improving the navigation of the Muscle Shoals and Colbert's Shoals, in the Tennessee River; and likewise for improving the navigation of the Coosa, Cahawba, and Black Warrior Rivers.

Cities and Towns. — The great commercial emporium of Alabama is MOBILE, situated on the west side of the Mobile river, 32 miles from tile Gulf. It is 1033 miles from Washington city; 160 from New Orleans, and 226 from Tuscaloosa. The river is here 12 miles wide, embosoming several low and sterile islands. Blakely stands opposite. Mobile is built on a beautiful and slightly elevated spot, and presents a very fine appearance. It early suffered by being overflown, and has often been nearly destroyed by fire. The wooden buildings are fast giving way to large brick buildings, protected from the ravages of fire. The


streets are wide and beautiful. The inhabitants are now becoming well supplied with water, brought by pipes from a spring several miles west from the city. The Presbyterians, Methodists, Episcopalians, and Catholics have places of worship here. A splendid Cathedral is about to be built here. Mobile is the seat of a Catholic Bishoprick.

The China tree, or "Pride of China," as it is sometimes called — the beautiful ornamental tree of the southern cities and towns from New Orleans and Natchez, to Norfolk and Richmond — line the sides of the streets, and greatly increase the pleasantness of this city. The health of the place since the streets have become better paved, has greatly improved. It has often been visited with yellow fever. Mobile is an older town than New Orleans, having been founded in 1702. Alternately under French, Spanish and English dominion, and long oppressed with the evils of colonial vassalage, it bids fair now, enjoying the benefits of our free institutions, and especially as the whole state will soon be densely populated, to become a large city. The amount of trade which is carried on here is very great. It is believed that more than 100,000 bales of cotton will be shipped from Mobile this year, so that more than half a million of bales, will be the product of what I have described, in the third chapter, as the Valley of the Mississippi; which is more than the production of Georgia and the Carolinas. The population of Mobile is probably not quite 4,000.

There is a daily communication between this city and New Orleans, by a line of stages to the Pascagoula, 40 miles, and steam boats thence by way of Lakes Borgne and Ponchartrain to the termination of the New Orleans railroad on the last named lake, 5 miles from that city.

The country around Mobile possesses generally a light soil — excepting the alluvial bottoms — and covered with long-leaved pine. The marshes or swamps lying back of the city have occasioned the sickness which has afflicted this place. They will soon, it is hoped, be entirely removed by draining. Spring Hill, immediately west of the city, is a healthy and pleasant spot, and the retreat of the inhabitants during the extreme hot weather of the summer.

Blakely — Stands opposite to Mobile, distant 12 miles. A steam boat runs several times a day betwen them. This town has fine advantages as it regards a harbour, springs


of water, site, &c. But it has not increased as rapidly as was expected. It has not the capital which its rival possesses, and consequently has not its trade.

Along the Alabama, Tombigbee, and their branches, many beautiful and prosperous towns are springing up. On the former are Claiborne, Canton, Cahawba, Selma, Vernon, Washington, Montgomery, and Coosauda; on the latter and Black Warrior, are St. Stephen's, Coffeeville, Tuscaloosa, and many others.

Montgomery — is a flourishing town which has sprung up within a few years, on the left or south-eastern bank of the Alabama river, 190 miles by land, and nearly 400 by the river, from Mobile. It is a place of much business. Steamboats run up to this place during moderate stages of the river. Vast quantities of cotton, &c. are sent from this place by steam and other boats to Mobile. It is 300 miles from this place to Augusta in Georgia, and 119 miles to Tuscaloosa. The population of this place is about 1,500, and rapidly increasing. The country around is fertile and many wealthy planters from Georgia and the Carolinas have settled here. This town stands opposite a great bend in the river.

TUSCALOOSA — is the Capital of the State, and stands on a beautiful site, on the south or left bank of the Black Warrior. It is a flourishing place, and healthy. The public buildings are a fine State House, University, Market, Churches belonging to the Presbyterians, Methodists, Episcopalians and Baptists. The country around this place is fertile and becoming settled rapidly. Congress granted to this state 1,620 acres of land for the seat of Government.

Tuscaloosa is 858 miles from Washington City, 155 from Huntsville, 146 from Florence, and 226 from Mobile.

In the northern part of the state are several towns, the chief of which are Florence, Tuscumbia and Huntsville.

Florence — stands on the north side of the Tennessee, at the lower end of the Muscle Shoals, and about a mile from the river. Directly opposite on the southern side of the river, and at the distance of near two miles from it, is the town of Tuscumbia. Both these places will, one day, be large and important, for they stand at the head of steamboat navigation on the lower Tennessee. A rail road is


now making from Tuscumbia, to the Tennessee, and it is contemplated to make another from Tuscumbia to some point on the Tennessee, about 10 miles above the Shoals, This rail road will be about 40 miles in length. This work is now in progress. At the same time it is contemplated to make a canal on the northern side of the Muscle Shoals.

The Muscle Shoals are a remarkable expansion in the Tennessee river. Their length is thirty miles, and their width varies from half a mile to three miles. In some places the water is very deep, in others very shallow. There are several rapids or falls in it, so great as to render navigation very difficult and dangerous.

Besides Florence and Tuscumbia, there is Huntsville in this section of the state, situated ten miles north of the Tennessee river, and in a very fertile region. I have never seen more beautiful cotton plantations than I have seen in the neighbourhood of Huntsville. The country south of the Tennessee, and through which one passes in going from Huntsville to Tuscumbia, is a most beautiful and fertile one. There are several other towns, but of less consequence, in this part of the state.

Minerals. — Coal is found in abundance near Tuscaloosa, and in other parts of the state. Salt is beginning to be made in this state. In 1829, there were $3,000 invested in this manufacture, and 4000 bushels were made that year. It has greatly increased since. Iron is found, I believe, abundantly, in the northern part of this state; but I know not to what extent it is yet manufactured.

Education. — There is no public system of common schools supported by law. Congress has granted to this state one thirty-sixth part of the public land for common schools — in all 732,090 acres; besides 46,080 acres for a University. The saline reservations granted also to this state are 23,040 acres, which will probably be devoted to education.

In some townships the common school lands have been sold, and the money invested in the State Bank, and the interest applied to the object. But in most, the lands are unoccupied and useless. There are three colleges in this state, and several academies at Tuscaloosa, Huntsville, &c.

GENERAL REMARKS. 1. There are in this state


20,167,725 acres of public land to which the Indian claims have been extinguished, and 7,760,890 acres which belong still to the Indians, (chiefly to the Cherokees) who it is expected will sell their claims before long, and remove west of the Mississippi. The reader will at once perceive how extensive the country is here which is yet to be occupied.

Land Offices. Registers. Receivers.
Montgomery, John H. Somerville, Nimrod E. Benson,
Huntsville, Benjamin S. Pope, Samuel Cruse,
Cahawba, Alanson Saltmarsh Uriah G. Mitchell,
Tuscaloosa, J.H. Vincent, William G. Parish,
Sparta, Wade H. Greening, John S. Hunter,
St. Stephens, John B. Hazard, John H. Owen.
Montevallo, Jacob T. Bradford, Joab Lawler,

2. The climate of this state, excepting on the low and swampy lands, is a salubrious one. The summers are long and the heat sustained, but not so intense as many would suppose. The northern part, being at least 1,000 feet above the southern, has a climate, as it has a soil and productions, widely different.

The spring commences early in the southern part of the state. Corn is planted early in March, and even in February; cotton somewhat later. Strawberries are ripe by the first of May.

The chief disease of this state, in the summer and fall, is bilious fever, in its several varieties.

3. This state, on account of its extent of unoccupied land, its productive soil, and its generally pleasant and salubrious climate, presents many inducements to emigrants, especially to those from the southern states of the same parallels. And thousands have availed themselves of these advantages, and have left the comparatively poor lands of Georgia and the Carolinas, for the fertile regions of this state. Its population has increased most rapidly within a few years.

4. Emigrants who remove to this state have the choice of three ways of reaching it. 1. To enter it from the north through Tennessee. There are two main roads leading


through Huntsville, and Tuscumbia. 2. To enter it from Georgia, on the east, by the road from Augusta through Macon, Columbus, to Montgomery. 3. To enter it by the south, through Mobile. Many foreign emigrants remove by ship to that port, and thence go up in steam boats into the interior of the state.

5. This state was attached to the Territory of Mississippi until 1817. In 1820, it was received into the Union as an independent state. It contained but few civilized inhabitants before 1810. In this state some of the most important battles with the Indians were fought during the last war.


Chapter XXIV. Florida.

Map of the Environs of Pensacola, Florida.

WHAT was formerly called West Florida, and a large portion of East Florida, border on the Gulf of Mexico. I shall, therefore, in the brief description which follows, take a general survey of the whole Territory of Florida.

Florida is bounded on the north, by Alabama and Georgia; east, by the Atlantic ocean; south, by the Cuba Channel, and the Gulf of Mexico; and west by the same Gulf, and the state of Alabama, from which it is separated, in that portion of its boundary, by the Perdido River. It is of a very irregular shape. Its entire length from north to south is near 500 miles, and greatest width, across the northern part, is not less than 600; whilst its mean width is not more than 90 miles.

It extends from N. lat. 24° 40' to 31°; and from W. long. 3° to 10° 30'. Its area is 55,680 square miles, or 35,635,200 acres.

Florida has an outline on the Atlantic Ocean of 550, and on the Gulf of Mexico of 600 miles. From the southern extremity extends a line of numerous small islands to the south-west, called the Tortugas.

Escambia, n w   Pensacola, 242
Jackson, n w   Marianna, 77
Walton, n w   Allaqua, 161
Washington n w   Holmes' Valley, 121
  Total 9,478    


(Table continued.)
Gadsden, n w 4,855 Quincy, 23
Hamilton, n m 553 Miccotown,  
Jefferson, n w 3,312 Monticello, 29
Leon, n w 6,494 TALLAHASSEE,  
Madison, n w 525 Hickstown,  
  Total, 15,779
Alachua, m 2,204 Deal's, 178
Duval, n e 1,970 Jacksonville,  
Mosquito, e 733 Tomoka,  
Nassau, n e 1,511 Fernandina, 313
St. Johns, e 2,538 St. Augustine, 292
  Total, 8,956
Monroe, s 517 Key West,  

Total, 15 Counties, 34,730 inhabitants, of whom 15,501 are slaves, 844 free blacks, and 18,385 whites.

GOVERNMENT. — The Governor is appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate; salary, $2,500 per annum. Secretary — salary, $1,500.

The Legislative Council consists of 16 members, and meets annually (at Tallahassee) on the first Monday in January.

JUDICIARY. — There are four Judges, appointed by the President and Senate — one for each of the four districts which have been named. The salary of each, $1,500.

Surface of the Country. — It may be said in general, that the zone of country which lies across the northern end of Florida, extending from the Perdido in the west to the Atlantic ocean off St. Augustine, is rolling or undulating, not exactly hilly, much less mountainous, but moderately


broken, excepting on the immediate Gulf shore, where it is level. The peninsular part is remarkably level, low, and much of it swampy. Portions of it, in places, are similar to land supported by an unsubstantial foundation, spongy, sometimes resting on alluvial matter, and sometimes on sand, and dangerous for cattle and horses. Numerous small streams and lakes collect the waters, and drain them off gradually into the Atlantic or the Gulf.

A large portion of the country, in the northern part covered with forests, the trees standing a considerable distance apart, without underbrush; whilst the surface of ground presents a carpet of verdant grass and flowers, most of the year. The alluvial bottoms, and the interval, and the hammock lands, are covered with dense forests of pine, oak, magnolia, loblolly, Florida mahogany, cedar, cypress cabbage palm, live oak, pawpaw, grape-vines of a most luxuriant growth, the hybiscus, titi, &c. There are also numerous, and some of them extensive, savannas or prairies, covered with tall grass.

The principal rocks of this country are lime-stone, (which may be said to be the vast basis of this whole region) soap-stone and sand-stone. In the region of the Appalachicola, fine burr millstone is found. The entire coast marked by numerous bays, bayous, lagoons, &c.; whilst the interior abounds in lakes.

Productions, Soil, &c. — In that part of Florida, which lies west of the Suwannee River, and which Gen. Jackson designated as West Florida, when he was governor of the country in 1821, there are about 10,560,000 acres. If we deduct one-fourth part for bays, lakes, rivers, &c. there will remain 7,920,000. Of this quantity, two-thirds, 5,280,000 acres, may be considered as covered with pine barrens; 800,000 with tillable upland; 600,000 with hammock or interval land; 500,000 with swamp; and 400,000 with marsh.

Of the peninsular part, it might perhaps be said, that the proportion of good and tillable land is not greater than in West Florida. But although the proportion of untillable land, consisting of pine barrens, sterile savannas swamps, and marshes, is very great, yet there is a very considerable extent, in all, of very productive land. It is however, so much dispersed along the rivers and lakes that the population will never be very dense. There is an


almost boundless extent of range for cattle, horses, hogs &c., in this country, and it will always be, as it is now in many places, a land of graziers, and of pastoral wealth. Many graziers and farmers can count, not only hundreds but also thousands of heads of cattle.

The agricultural productions of Florida are not numerous. Cotton is the chief staple. Three kinds are cultivated, sea island, Mexican, and green seed. The first grows only in the vicinity of the sea, and under the influences of the sea breezes. It is a fine species of cotton grows sometimes to the height of fifteen feet, throws off extensive branches, and bears a yellow flower. It is planted in wide rows, and in the months of February and March. The seed is extricated by passing the cotton between two small wooden cylinders. This is the best species of cotton. It is uncertain whether it is indigenous to America or not. Its cultivation is limited, for want of suitable soil, but it is a very profitable crop.

The green seed is more cultivated. It has a short staple. The Mexican has a longer staple, and is an intermediate kind between the green seed and the sea island.

Rice is a profitable crop here. It grows well on marsh, hammock, and upland, and even pine barrens, when they are well trodden, or cowpenned, as it is termed. It is a mistake to suppose that rice will only grow where it can be overflown with water. If the weeds are subdued by the hoe, it will grow well on the uplands of Florida, as is well known by those who have made the experiment. Uplands produce here seventy bushels per acre; whilst the more rich bottoms yield eighty bushels; and even the piney land will produce sixty bushels. Rice sells here for 75 cents a bushel in market, or from three to four dollars per hundred when cleaned.

Sugarcane grows finely on the good lands in Florida. The Otaheite cane is principally cultivated. The Philippine or ribband cane is rapidly supplanting this species of cane in Louisiana, and will probably do so here. The growing of sugar cane has greatly increased within a few years, and much is now made in West Florida; where as many as 3,000 pounds have been made on an acre.

The sweet potatoe grows admirably in this Territory, even in the pine barrens. It is greatly cultivated, and excellent. The Irish potatoe is raised, but does not last


so well as those raised in the north. Tobacco is a native of this country, and was introduced into Europe from this country, in 1560. One species still grows wild on the hammock lands.

Indigo was formerly raised for exportation. When the English possessed Florida, 40,000 pounds sterling we paid in one year, in London, for Florida indigo. At present, none is raised for exportation, but farmers cultivate it for family use. It is easily raised. It is indeed a native of this region, and grows wild in the barrens. It is astonishing that it is not cultivated for exportation from the Territory.

The small grains are but little attended to, excepting corn, which grows well, in many places. Rye grows well on uplands, wheat, does not near the coast. It is thought that barley would grow well if cultivated, The Palma Christi, and the benne plant produce profitable crops. Peas and beans grow well here. Pumpkins, water-melons, muskmelons and cucumbers are raised with great ease and great perfection. Squashes, beets, onions and parsnips are raised with some difficulty. Lettuce, radishes, cabbage and carrots do well, particularly the two former. But the eggplant and the tomato grow admirably, and are more generally used than most other garden vegetables, during the summer season.

Various grasses grow spontaneously and abundantly here.

The fig, both the large black and the small yellow coeleste, grows finely, and any quantity might be raised. Two, and sometimes three, crops are produced in a year. The sweet, sour, and bitter sweet, are three species of oranges which grow well in this Territory. The first named needs much care. Some orange trees here are believed to be 150 years old. Florida could furnish oranges enough for the consumption of the whole country, if navigable facilities were opened into every part of it. About 1,200,000 oranges are gathered at St. Augustine annual and in its vicinity 300,000 more. The pomegranate grows finely here. The pear tolerably, and the apple poorly. Peaches do well. Strawberries grow finely here, as do dewberries, blackberries, &c.

The exports are cotton, cedar logs, live oak timber,


boards, staves, deer skins and horns, beeswax, tallow, hides, peltry and bricks. Salt will be a manufacture of Territory. It is believed that soon from 500,000 to 800,000 bushels will be made at the ponds which have been formed at Key West.

There is a great abundance of game, such as deer, turkies, geese, ducks, and other water fowls of great variety in this Territory. The vegetable kingdom is as rich as animal; but the mineral is far more limited.

Rivers. — The St. John's is a remarkable river, rising in the middle of Florida, and flowing northward it falls into the Atlantic Ocean, north of St. Augustine. It is navigable to Lake Monroe in the centre of the peninsula. For the last 100 miles of its course it is from 2 to 5 miles wide, and it is also 8 to 10 feet deep. Several small rivers flow from the peninsula, such as Indian, St. Lucie, Charlotte, Hillsboro', and a vast number of smaller streams. The Suwannee, Ocklockonne, Appalachicola, Choctawhatchee, Yellow-water, Black-water, Escambia and Perdido, flow down from Georgia and Alabama into the Gulf of Mexico. The Appalachicola is navigable for steamboats several hundred miles. This Territory has great number boatable streams. Most of the rivers have, however, shallow bars at their mouths. There is a great number of bays and sounds along the coast. By a little effort and expense, a fine steam-boat navigation could be opened along the main land, and between it and the island from Mobile Bay to the Ocklockonne Bay; and also from St. Mary's to the mouth of on the eastern side to the southern extremity, and even to Key West, which is on one of the Tortuga Islands.

Towns. Pensacola stands on the north-west bank of the bay of Pensacola, in N. lat. 30° 23' and long. 10° 05'. It is an ancient, pleasant, and very healthy place. During the first century after it was founded it flourished but slowly. When it fell into the hands of the English in 1763, it began to grow rapidly. The public places are the Court House, Catholic Church, Market House, Custom House and Public Store. The shape of the city is oblong. The bay affords the best harbour on the Gulf shore. The Government has established a naval station and depot here.


The health of this place is excellent. The climate is pleasant, though warm. The extent of white sand banks in its vicinity gives the bay shore a singular, and to the eye, in clear days, a distressing appearance. The population is nearly 3000. It is 243 miles from Tallahassee, 63 from Mobile, and 1050 from Washington.

TALLAHASSEE is the seat of Government for this Territory. It stands 22 miles north by west from St. Marks, on an elevated situation, in a picturesque region, and is about midway between the eastern and western boundaries. It is 896 miles from Washington city. It is now a beautiful and growing place, and has about 1,000 inhabitants. The public buildings are the Court House, State House, several Churches, Market, Masonic Hall or lodge, &c. The region around is beautiful and fertile. A fine stream flows on the eastern side of the city. Several large springs, and particularly the one which is at the sources of the Wakulla, in the vicinity of this place, are objects of curiosity.

ST. AUGUSTINE is the largest town or city in Florida. It stands on a beautiful bay, which is connected with the sound that separates Anastatia Island from the main land. The city stands opposite to the inlet, and two miles from the Atlantic ocean. It is protected by a strong fort, called Fort St. John. The city is oblong, and has a very beautiful appearance. The houses are generally built of a peculiar kind of stone of this region — a concrete of sea-shells.

The population is near 4,000. The climate is delightful. This is probably the most salubrious place for invalids from the north, in all the southern part of our country. Oranges, limes, lemons, &c. grow finely here. It is 841 miles from Washington city.

KEY-WEST stands on Thompson's Island, one of the Tortugas, off the south-western point of the Florida Peninsula. It is a naval station of much importance. Several other small places might be mentioned, if there was space for it.

It is expected that a ship canal will be made across the northern part of the peninsula of Florida. There can be no doubt about the practicability of the work, and still less about its vast national importance.


Climate. — The climate of Florida is in general healthy in all situations which are remote from the marshes and swamps. It enjoys daily the most delightful seabreezes, From October to June is the most pleasant portion of the year in this region.

Education. — Congress has appropriated 877,484 acres of public land for common schools in this territory, besides 46,080 acres for a college, and 1,120 for a seat of government. Education is much neglected here. And it will be so, it is to be feared, for some years.

GENERAL REMARKS. — 1. The purchase of this territory was of vast importance to our country. The land is found to be much more valuable than was anticipated. It yields abundantly most of the tropical fruits. It is believed that coffee and the cocoa-nut tree will flourish here. Besides, the possession of this territory gives increased protection to the whole country.

2. This country abounds in curiosities, such as remarkable springs, caves, &c. and also in relics of the first Spanish settlements here. In some places are to be seen the ruins of ancient towns and villages. Groves of oranges, limes, lemons, peach-trees, &c. are to be seen, which were originally planted by European settlers.

3. This country was early settled by the Spanish, after many contests with the Indians, and their neighbours the English on the one side, and the French on the other. In 1763, they ceded it to England. In 1781, they regained it, and retained it by the treaty of 1783. In 1821, it was ceded to this country for the consideration of $5,000,000, allowed by the Spanish government to ours, for claims for spoliations.

4. There are remnants of several tribes of Indians in this territory, the chief of which are the Seminoles, who, it is expected, will remove with the Creeks west of the Mississippi.

5. Emigrants who remove to this terrritory from Georgia, the Carolinas or Virginia, will generally enter it by the roads which lead to it from Georgia and Alabama. Those who remove to this territory from the middle and northern states, or from foreign countries, will go to it by ship.

6. There are 30,194,070 acres of public land in Florida,


belonging to the general government; and 5,166,500, to which the Indian title was not extinguished on the 1st of January 1832.

Land Offices Registers Receivers
Tallahassee, Geo. W. Ward, Rich. K. Call,
St. Augustine, Charles S. Downing, Wm. H. Allen.

NOTE. Including Florida, the amount of unsold public land in the States and Territories in the Valley of the Mississippi, the geographical description of which I have now completed, was, on the first of January, 1832, — 227,293,884 acres, exclusive of 113,577,869 acres, to which the Indian title was not then extinguished. In the same States and Territories, 2,187,665 acres have been appropriated for Internal Improvements; 508,000 for colleges, universities, &c.; 7,952,538 for common schools; 89,605 for charitable and religious institutions, including 23,040 acres in Florida, for the Deaf and Dumb Asylum at Danville, Kentucky, and 23,040 in Alabama, for the Deaf and Dumb Asylum at Hartford, Connecticut; 21,589 for seats of government; and 298,288 of saline reservations, given up to the states in which they are situated; for their use,


Chapter XXV. The Colleges, Universities, &c. of the West.

HAVING given a geographical description of each State and Territory in the Valley of the Mississippi, I now proceed to give an account of the Colleges, Universities, Medical Schools, Theological Seminaries, and Deaf and Dumb Asylums of that portion of our country. In doing this I shall survey the states in the same order in which I have already mentioned them.

WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA. — There are the following Literary Institutions in Western Pennsylvania.

1. JEFFERSON COLLEGE, at Canonsburg. This institution is located on the road from Pittsburg to Wheeling, and is eighteen miles from the former place. It has been, in a remarkable degree, successful. It has grown up gradually out of the first Grammar School established west of the Allegheny Mountains. It was incorporated as a college, in 1802. The number of its alumni is about 600. The present number of under graduates is 200, besides nearly thirty in the preparatory school connected with the college. There is a Medical School in Philadelphia connected with this college, containing about one hundred and fifty students. There are 2,500 volumes in the libraries of the college. There are three Professors in the institution. The Rev. Matthew Brown, D. D. is the President. A farm has been purchased, for the purpose of connecting manual labour with the institution. The general fund given by the State and by individuals to this institution, amounts to $9,000; and a fund by legacy, for the support of pious young men who have the ministry in view, amounts to six thousand dollars. The first president of this institution was the Rev. John Watson, M. A., one of the most distinguished young men, as it regards talents and piety, that this country has ever produced.

2. WASHINGTON COLLEGE, at Washington. This institution was founded in 1806. After flourishing nearly twenty years, it declined, and finally suspended operations


for two years. It has, however, re-commenced, under favourable auspices. The number of students this session is about 140. A professorship of English literature has been established, with the view, more especially, of educating and preparing young men for taking charge of common schools. John L. Gow, Esq. has been appointed Professor of that department. The legislatur of the State have appropriated $500 per annum, for five years, to aid the institution in carrying this design into effect. The Rev. Mr. M'Connaughy is the President. The town of Washington is beautifully situated on the National Road from Cumberland to the West, and is about midway between Brownsville and Wheeling, and also between Pittsburg and Wheeling; and is not far from being 25 miles distant from each of the three places.

3. ALLEGHENY COLLEGE, at Meadville. This institution was established by the Rev. Timothy Alden. The college edifice is spacious, and is named Bentley Hall, in honour of the Rev. Dr. Bentley, of Salem, Mass., a distinguished benefactor of the institution. I believe that this edifice is not completed. The institution has a valuable library of 8000 volumes, principally the donation of Dr. Bentley. The Pittsburg Conference of the Methodist Episcopal church has obtained this college, and have appointed the Rev. Martin Ruter, D. D. President. Its prospects are flattering. The college which the Conference had at Uniontown, called Madison College, has been given up.

4. WESTERN UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA, at Pittsburg. This institution was founded in 1820. The Rev. Dr. R. Bruce is the president. The number of instructors is four; of graduates fifty; of undergraduates in all the departments, 70. A very beautiful edifice has recently been erected in the western part of Pittsburg for this institution.

5. WESTERN THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, at Alleghenytown. Alleghenytown is immediately opposite to Pittsburg, on the north side of the Allegheny river, and is connected with Pittsburg by a bridge. A building was commenced in 1839, and will be completed during this summer. It stands on a beautiful insulated hill, in the form of a ridge, which rises one hundred feet higher than


The waters of the Allegheny River. The central edifice is sixty feet in length, fifty in breadth, and four stories high, having at each of its ends a portico projecting eight feet from the building itself, adorned with Corinthian columns, and to be finished in a corresponding manner, and with a cupola in the centre. On the sides of the main building are two wings, each extending in length fifty feet from the centre edifice, forty-five in breadth, and three stories high. The exterior walls are constructed of brick, and all the interior ones of stone, taken from the excavated site of the institution. This entire building has besides an oratory, or chapel, 45 by 25 feet, and containing a gallery, with shelves, sufficient to hold an extensive library; a dining hall; suites of rooms for the Professors, and others for the accommodation of a steward; and from 70 to 80 rooms, chiefly single, or for one occupant, for the use of the students of the seminary. The prospect from the building, over the city of Pittsburg, with its bridges, manufactories, rivers, canals, steam-boats, &c. is delightful.

This institution is at one of the great central places of influence in our country. In October 1829, the Rev. Luther Halsey, D. D. was inaugurated as Professor of Theology, and the Rev. John W. Nevin appointed Teacher of Oriental and Biblical Literature. In May 1833, the Rev. Ezra Fisk, D. D. was appointed professor of Ecclesiastical History, &c. An excellent library, of about 3000 volumes, belongs to the institution, a large part of which was collected by the Rev. A. D. Campbell, on his late visit to Great Britain, on its behalf. During the last session there were thirty students. Board can be obtained here for $1,00 per week.

6. There is a Theological School at Canonsburg, belonging to the Associate Church. The Rev. Dr. Ramsay is the Professor of Theology. There are several students attending it.

7. There is a Theological School, lately established at Pittsburg, belonging to the Associate Reformed Church. The Rev. Mr. Pressley of South Carolina has been appointed Professor of Theology, and has entered upon the duties of his office.

A successful effort is now making to establish a manual labor academy at Zelinople, about twenty-five miles from


Pittsburg. A suitable farm has been purchased for the purpose.

WESTERN VIRGINIA. — There is no college established in this part of Virginia.

OHIO, — 1. MIAMI UNIVERSITY. This flourishing institution is established at Oxford, Butler county, 27 miles from Cincinnati, and 12 west of the Miami canal. It is endowed by the state, and possesses the township of land in which it is established, yielding an annual income of between $4,000 and $5,000. It has two spacious buildings of brick, containing a chapel, libraries, philosophical apparatus, and 48 rooms for students. The libraries amount to 2,000 volumes. The whole number of students, in all the departments is about 160. There is an English Scientific department, containing about 20 students. The Hebrew Scriptures form a part of the regular course of studies. The Rev. Robert H. Bishop, D. D. is President.

2. UNIVERSITY OF OHIO at Athens. Athens is forty-one miles west of Marietta, 52 east of Chillicothe, and 37 from, the Ohio river. It is situated on an elevated peninsula, formed by a bond of the Hockhocking, which meanders around the town. The location is elevated, and the prospect extensive. The University was founded in 1802. The Rev. Robert G. Wilson, D. D. is the President. The number of students is about ninety. It is endowed with 46, 080 acres of land, which yield about $2,300 dollars annually. A college edifice of brick, large and elegant, was erected in 1817.

3. WESTERN RESERVE COLLEGE, at Hudson. This institution is situated in Portage county, in the northeastern division of the state. It was founded by the Western Reserve Synod, in 1826. It has now about 80 students. Between 20,000 and 30,000 dollars have been subscribed to its funds, principally in New York and Philadelphia. More than 19,000 dollars have been subscribed in Ohio. The Western Reserve has now more than 100,000 inhabitants. It is capable of sustaining 1,500,000 inhabitants. It is supposed that it will eventually furnish 200 students to this college. There is a considerable number of students in the preparatory department.

The manual labour plan has been adopted to some


extent. About one half of the students are members of the Mechanical Society.

4. KENYON COLLEGE, at Gambier. This institution is Episcopal, and was lately under the Presidency of the Rt. Rev. Bishop Chase. The Rev. Charles P. M'Ilvaine, D. D. is now the Rector of this College, as well as Bishop of the state of Ohio. Gambler is in Knox county, five miles from Mount Vernon, and in the centre of the State. The location is elevated and beautiful. The college was established in 1828. A part of the college buildings are completed sufficient to accommodate one hundred students, which is not more than a fourth of what the entire plan contemplates. The building for the grammar school, just completed, will accommodate seventy students. There are 150 students at present in the college and grammar school. There are five professors in the college, and three teachers in the grammar school. The institution derived very valuable aid from the agency which Bishop Chase performed in England. It has six or eight thousand acres of land. A Diocesan Theological Seminary is connected with this institution.

5. NEW ATHENS COLLEGE, is in the village of New Athens, in Harrison county, (in the eastern part of the state) 30 miles south-west of Steubenville, and ten miles northwest of St. Clairsvile. It was incorporated five or six years since. It has one brick building of three stories, which will accommodate fifty students, which is the number of students in all the departments of this institution.

6. LANE SEMINARY, at Cincinnati. The object of this institution is to promote Theological education. It was commenced at the instance of Messrs. E. & W. A. Lane, merchants, of New Orleans, who made a very liberal offer of aid. The location of this institution is peculiarly auspicious in its bearing upon the whole western region. It is accessible from almost every part of the Valley by steamboat and canal navigation. Buildings, towards which the people of Cincinnati have subscribed nearly $20,000, are erected upon the Walnut Hills, about two miles from the city. The site is one of great beauty, overlooking the city of Cincinnati, and the delightful valley, in the form of a vast amphitheatre, in which it stands. There is a manual labour academy connected with this institution, which has gone into operation. Instruction in the Theological department commenced in 1833. Successful efforts have


been made to endow three professorships, and secure Professors of distinguished talents. About fifty thousand dollars have been subscribed in Philadelphia, New York and New England to endow these professorships. The Rev. Dr. Beecher of Boston, the Rev. Mr. Biggs of the vicinity of Philadelphia, and the Rev. Calvin E. Stowe, of Dartmouth college, have been appointed Professors, and have entered upon the duties of their offices.

7. MEDICAL COLLEGE OF CINCINNATI, has eight Professors, and upwards of one hundred students. Lectures commence on the first Monday of November, annually, and continue until the last of February.

8. There was a CINCINNATI COLLEGE incorporated in 1819, but it has suspended its operations. But a Catholic College under the name of the Athenaeum, has lately been established in that city.

9. A College has been recently incorporated at Ripley.

10. A THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL, has been commenced at Columbus, by a Minister of the Gospel belonging to the Lutheran Church.

11. There is a DEAF AND DUMB ASYLUM, established at Columbus, which has about 30 pupils, and promises to do well. It has been aided by the Legislature of the State.

At Marietta, there is what is termed THE INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION. It contains four Departments: infant school, primary school, high school, and young ladies' school. A most important object of this institution is to prepare teachers. A college is about to be established here.

An establishment of a somewhat similar character exists at Chillicothe.

INDIANA. — 1. INDIANA COLLEGE AT Bloomington — This College was chartered in 1825, but did not commence its operations until 1828. The Rev. Andrew Wylie, D. D. is President. It has several Professors. A year ago this rising institution had 51 students. It bids fair to become one of the most distinguished seminaries of learning in the West. The situation of the place is highly salubrious. Board, washing, fuel, &c. cost but $1 37 1-2 cents per week.

2. HANOVER ACADEMY, or Theological Institution. — This institution was established in 1827, at Hanover,


Jefferson county, 6 miles below the town of Madison, and near the Ohio River. It is principally intended for theological instruction, and is under the care of the Synod of Indiana. The Rev. John Matthews, D. D. late of Shepherdstown, Va. is professor of theology. A professor of the oriental languages and biblical literature has been appointed. There are one hundred students at present in this flourishing institution, one half of whom have the ministry in view. Manual labour is connected with study in this institution. For this purpose, a valuable farm has been given to this academy. The price of boarding, including washing and light, &c. is about 75 cents per week. And it is expected that, in a short time, the whole expense of a student, for board, will not exceed $30 per annum, exclusive of two or three hours' labour daily. The Rev. James Blythe, D. D. of Lexington, Ky. has become President of this institution, and Professors of Mathematics, Languages, &c. have been appointed, and have entered upon their duties.

MICHIGAN — There is no College established in Michigan. Congress has appropriated 46,080 acres of land to establish one at a proper time.

KENTUCKY. — 1. TRANSYLVANIA UNIVERSITY, at Lexington. This institution was chartered in 1798. It has a good library, and a respectable philosophical and chemical apparatus. It is delightfully situated in a region of great resources and fertility. Last year the number of its students, in the academical department, was eighty-one, and its instructors, six: The number of ifs medical students each winter is usually about two hundred, and its law students twenty. There are six professors in the medical department. In May, 1829, the principal building of this University was destroyed by fire, which loss, together with the books consumed, was estimated at $38,000. There was an insurance on the property to the amount of $10,000. The Rev. Alva Woods, D. D. the late President of this institution, has become the President of the University of Alabama; and the Rev. B. O. Peers has been appointed his successor.

New and valuable buildings are now in progress, and will soon be completed.

2. CENTRE COLLEGE, at Danville. This College was


founded by the Synod of Kentucky, in 1822. The Rev. J. C. Young, M. A. is the President. It is represented as in a highly prosperous condition. Connected with the college are a hundred and twelve acres of land, furnishing excellent conveniencies for manual labour. The principal building is of brick, and will accommodate about sixty students. This rising institution is under the instruction of an able and enterprising faculty. It has about one hundred students, and their number is constantly increasing. A theological department was connected with the college by the Synod, a few years since, but it has not gone into operation.

3. GEORGETOWN COLLEGE, at Georgetown, twelve miles from Lexington, on the Cincinnati road. The Rev. Luther Rice is the President, assisted by three professors and one tutor, besides the teacher of the grammar school. This institution has just commenced its operations. It has now about ninety students. It has a well selected library and a considerable chemical and philosophical apparatus.

4. AUGUSTA COLLEGE. — This institution is in the town of Augusta on the Ohio river, in Bracken County, about 40 miles above Cincinnati. It was established as an academy in 1822. Its first commencement was held in August 1829. Connected with the college is an academical department under three instructors. The college edifice is three stories high, eighty feet by forty, and well finished. The Rev. Mr. Tomlinson is the President. There are several professors, men of talents and well qualified for their offices. There are more than one hundred students, I understand, in the collegiate department, and the number is constantly increasing. The library contains 2,000 volumes. This flourishing institution is under the care of the Methodists.

5. CUMBERLAND COLLEGE at Princeton. — This institution is under the care of the Cumberland Presbyterians. It was founded in 1825. The Rev. F. R. Cossitt is the President. It had, in 1831, one hundred and twenty students in all the departments, sixty of whom were professors of religion. Its library has one thousand volumes. A college building, one hundred feet long, forty-five wide, and three stories


high, has been erected. This institution is in a flourishing condition.

6. CATHOLIC SEMINARY, at Bardstown, in Nelson County. As I have not visited this institution, I can only state what I have learned from others. The college at this place has two hundred students, and there is an ecclesiastical seminary with twenty or thirty. Another institution of the kind also exists. Seven priests are engaged in instruction. The second wing of the college cost more than $7,000. The Bishop of Bardstown is constituted perpetual rector. The legislature has incorporated it, with all desired privileges. Three female religious orders have been formed: the "Lovers of Mary," the "Sisters of Charity," and the "Dominican Nuns." More than two hundred young women in these institutions, are devoted to the education of persons of their own sex. "In our two seminaries," says Bishop Flaget, two or three years since, "we have one tonsured, eleven minorities, four sub-deacons, and three deacons, with seventeen or eighteen young persons more, who have been studying two or three years for the priesthood."

7. There is a Deaf and Dumb Asylum established at Danville, which is doing well. Congress has made a donation of a township of public land (23,040 acres) in Florida, to this important institution.

There are several schools at Lexington of great excellence — one for boys, embracing much of the Pestalozzian system.

There is an Indian school under the superintendence of Colonel R. M. Johnson, in Scott County, which has one hundred scholars, from the Choctaws, Creeks, Putawatomies, and Miamies, and supported chiefly by their own funds. This interesting school was established at the house of Col. Johnson by the Choctaws some years ago. It is very nourishing and will do good.

TENNESSEE. — 1. The UNIVERSITY of NASHVILLE, which is an institution of vast importance to the state of Tennessee, stands on the brow of a hill on the south of the city, and has a commanding view of the place and of the surrounding region. This institution, though chartered in 1806, did not assume a regular college organization until 1825. In 1827, the name was changed, by an act of the


legislature, from "Cumberland College," to the "University of Nashville," and corresponding rights were conferred. The main building and one of the wings, together with the laboratory, have been built since 1825, when the institution was resuscitated. The laboratory is one of the finest in our country. The chemical and philosophical apparatus was imported from London at great expense, and is every thing that can be desired. The mineralogical Cabinet is certainly next to that of Yale College, and not inferior to it as it respects the purposes which it subserves. It is a very valuable and extensive collection. This department, as well as every other in the college, is superintended with much talent. There is no college in our country that can afford advantages superior to those of this institution. The Rev. Philip Lindsley, D. D. is the President. He is assisted by Professors every way qualified for the work. The number of students is about 100, which is the largest number it has ever had. The number has been steadily increasing every year, audit will be far greater when the institution becomes better known, for it is yet in its infancy.

2. GREENVILLE COLLEGE. — This institution is at Greenville in East Tennessee. It has no lands, but funds to the amount of about $5,600. It is entirely indebted to private bounty for its existence. It was incorporated in 1794. It has about 30 students. Henry Hoss, Esq. is the President.

3. KNOXVILLE COLLEGE. — This institution is also in East Tennessee, and is under the care of the Rev. Dr. Coffin. The number of students is about 35.

4. WASHINGTON COLLEGE, nine miles from Jonesboro, in East Tennessee. This institution has about 30 students. The Rev. Mr. Maclin is the President. This college was established by the Rev. Samuel Doak, D. D. who was the father of literature in East Tennessee.

5. SOUTHERN AND WESTERN THEOLOGICAL INSTITUTION at Maryville. — This institution is in East Tennessee, and is both literary and theological. The whole number of students a few months since, was 55; 22 of whom were in the theological, and 33 in the literary department. Manual labour on a farm constitutes part of their exercise. This seminary was established in 1819, by the Synod of


Tennessee. The Rev. Isaac Anderson, D. D. is the principal instructor. The library contains 5,550 volumes.

A Manual Labour Academy has been established in the vicinity of Columbia, in West Tennessee, under the care of the Rev. R. Hardin, D. D.

ILLINOIS. — 1. ILLINOIS COLLEGE, at Jacksonville. This institution was founded in 1829. Funds were obtained two years ago, for it to the amount of $13,000. More than thirty students have joined the institution, and its prospects are very encouraging. Manual labour, in agriculture, &c. is connected with this college. Efforts are now making to raise funds in the eastern cities and towns, to secure permanence to this rising institution; and the prospect is that $36,000 will be raised in Philadelphia, New-York and New-England. The Rev. Edward Beecher, late pastor of the Park-street church, Boston, is the President He has the assistance of able professors.

2. ROCK SPRING THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL. — Rock Spring is a small village, eighteen miles east of St. Louis, on the principal stage-road to Vincennes. The general plan of the studies is accommodated to the circumstances of the preachers of the Gospel, and to the wants of the country. Ministers who have families, and those who are somewhat advanced in life, may attend the institution as long as may suit their convenience. It is established on liberal principles, though under the particular control of the Baptist denomination. There are two departments. 1st. A high school, conducted on the plan of a New-England academy 2d. A theological department, designed for preachers of the Gospel of any age. As soon as circumstances which allow, a regular Classical and Theological education will be pursued. The whole expenses for an individual, for a year, allowing the tuition to be gratuitous, including clothing, is about $50. The Rev. John M. Peck is Professor of Christian Theology. There are 1,200 volumes in the library of the institution. The number of students is about fifty. There are three sessions in the year, one fifteen weeks, and two of fourteen each.

MISSOURI. — There are two colleges in this state. 1. The CATHOLIC COLLEGE at St. Louis, which has several Professors, and 120 students, and is very flourishing. It is under the management of the Jesuits. 2. A new college


under the control of Presbyterians, is commencing operations at or near Palmyra, in Marion county.

The Catholics have several schools and academies in this state.

1. A female seminary, at Florissant, about twenty miles above St. Louis, where there is a large number of young ladies receiving their education.

2. A charity school, of about forty scholars, in St. Louis, taught by two or three Sisters.

3. There is a seminary in Perry county, at Perryville, about eighty-five miles south of St. Louis, which has three departments, — one for boys, in which are nearly 100 youth, many of them from the West Indies and Louisiana, receiving an education; another for girls, where there is a large number; and a third for young men, who are preparing for the priesthood. In January last, there were twenty-four such young men. There are seven priests here engaged in giving instruction, besides other teachers. The whole is under the superintendence of the Bishop of St. Louis.

4. In the lower part of the same county, (Perry) on Apple Creek, a new female seminary is about to be established.

ARKANSAS. — There is no college established in Arkansas. Congress has appropriated 46,080 acres for this purpose.

MISSISSIPPI. — Mississippi has two colleges. 1. JEFFERSON COLLEGE, at Washington, six miles from Natchez. This institution has done but little hitherto. It is now reorganized, and under the care of Captain Partridge and a gentlemen from West Point, who have a flourishing school. They have a large number of scholars. 2. A new college in the neighbourhood of Port Gibson. This institution is under the control of the Presbytery of Mississippi. It has received another charter. It bids fair to become a valuable institution. The Rev. Jeremiah Chamberlin, D.D. is the President.

LOUISIANA. — 1. COLLEGE at Jackson, in the eastern part of the state. This is the only Protestant college in the state. It is at present under the management of a gentleman who received his education at West Point. What its


present condition is, I know not. It is amply supported by the state.

2. There is a nourishing Catholic college at New Orleans.

ALABAMA. — There are three colleges in Alabama. 1. One at La Grange, a small town on the road from Tuscumbia to Tuscaloosa, and about ten miles from the former. It is flourishing. Efforts are making to enlarge the departments of study, and introduce an extended course. There are about 100 scholars in classes of all gradations. The Rev. Mr. Payne is the President, assisted by several other teachers. This college is under the direction of the Methodists.

2. Bishop Portier, who is the Catholic Bishop of the Diocese of Mobile, has established a college near Mobile, which has about 120 youth in it, taught by several teachers.

3. But the most important institution in this state, if we may judge from the advantages which it possesses in point of funds, is the UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA, located at Tuscaloosa. Some description of this institution may not be unacceptable to the reader. By an act of Congress of March 2d, 1819, one section of land (640 acres) was granted to the inhabitants of each township for the use of schools, and 72 sections or two townships, for the support of a seminary of learning. On the 22d of March, 1828, the trustees of the University of Alabama, having been previously appointed by the legislature, selected as the site of the institution the place known as Mair's Spring, on the road towards Huntsville, and about a mile and a half from the town of Tuscaloosa. The town of Tuscaloosa stands on the south bank of the Black Warrior, and the road just mentioned pursues an eastern direction from the town, and the University stands on the north side of the road, facing the south. An area of 630 by 600 feet borders on the road. On the east and west sides of this area, it is contemplated to erect on each side, three buildings for dormitories; the central one on each side will be 150 feet long; and three stories high, having six rooms for study and twelve for sleeping, in each story; the other two buildings on each side of the area are to be 100 feet long each, of three stories, and containing four rooms for


study, and eight for sleeping, in each story. Only two of these buildings have been completed, one on each side at the northern extremity. What is to constitute the centre building on the east side of the area is now in progress, and the others will be built in the course of a year or two, and before they will be needed. On the northern side stand three buildings, the central one of which is the Laboratory, containing the Chemical and Philosophical Apparatus, Museum, Cabinet of Minerals, and Lecture Rooms, &c. The other two, one on each side of the Labaratory, are double houses, each sufficient to contain two families of the professors, and having a lecture room between each conjoined edifice. On the right and left, at the extremities of the line upon which these houses stand, are two buildings for Refectories or dining halls. And in the centre of the area above mentioned stands the Rotunda, circular as its name imports, surmounted with an elegant dome, and surrounded by lofty columns. This building is seventy feet in diameter in the inside. The lower story is high and has a gallery supported by columns. This spacious and elegant hall is for prayers, and the commencements, and other public exercises. The second story is appropriated to the library.

About half of the two townships, (or 46,080 acres) given by Congress, have been sold, and the avails, (such as have not been used in erecting buildings) have been invested in the stock of the state Bank of Alabama. The amount so invested is more than $100,000, and it is constantly increasing from debts due for the land sold, and from the sale of other lands.

This Institution went into operation two years ago, and has more than 100 students at this time. The Rev. Alva Woods, D. D. is the President. There are several other Professors.

I have now completed the survey of the literary institutions in the Valley of the Mississippi. A summary of the whole is, that there are in actual operation (of all gradations) thirty Colleges; ten Theological Seminaries, exclusive of the provision made for Theological instruction in two or three colleges, but inclusive of several academies, (such as that at Hanover, Indiana,) of a mixed character; three Medical Schools; one Law School; and two Asylums


for the instruction of the deaf and dumb. The number of academies and high schools I do not know with sufficient accuracy to attempt to state it. As to academies and common schools, I have already said much. I will not here repeat what I have said in previous chapters.

To the preceding account of the colleges, &c. in the Valley of the Mississippi, I would subjoin the following very brief statement respecting the periodical literature of that interesting portion of our country.

There are from 280 to 300 newspapers published every week in the Valley of the Mississippi. Of these, 10 or 12 are religious papers, and several more are partly so. Many of the newspapers of the West have but a limited circulation, being confined chiefly to the counties in which they are published.

In Cincinnati there are four daily, and two semi-weekly papers, besides several which are weekly. There are also three monthly, two semi-monthly, one quarterly (Medical,) Review. In Louisville there are two, in New Orleans five, in Nashville one, in Mobile two, St. Louis one, and Pittsburg one, daily papers. In most of these places, semi-weekly papers are also published.

A valuable medical work called "The Transylvania Medical Journal," conducted by members of the Medical Faculty of Transylvania University, is published at Lexington, Kentucky.

The periodical press in many places in the West enlists much talent. I could mention several newspapers which rival the best of those which are published in the East.

I suppose that upon an average the western newspapers circulate 800 copies each: which, estimating the number at 280, would give 224,000 copies. This I believe to be a reasonable calculation. The number of families in the West is about 675,000. From this it would appear that about one-third of the families receive a newspaper; which is probably the case. The whole number of newspapers in the United States is about 1,000, of which 720 are published in the Atlantic states.

The limited nature of this work will not allow me to say more on this important subject. Truly important it must appear to every thinking man. For if our liberties are to be maintained, they must be maintained, under God, greatly


through the influence of an honest, independent, and intelligent press. No man has it in his power to do more for his country than a capable and virtuous editor of a newspaper.

Chapter XXVI. Religious Denominations and Sects.

HAVING completed the survey of the Colleges, &c. of the West, I shall now give a sketch of the Religious Denominations in that great section of our country, and the number of ministers, churches, members, &c. of each, as far as the means which I possess will enable me to do it. I am aware that no statements of this kind are likely to be entirely accurate, for it is impossible to obtain the requisite materials. Any defect which may be perceived by any one, in what I am about to state, will be attributed, I trust, to a want of full information on my part. And if what I am about to write, should only lead to a more perfect statement derived from those who are more competent to give it, I shall not labour in vain.

1. Baptists, The following statement is made from the Baptist Annual Register for 1833. It is probable that it is not exactly correct, and yet I trust there is no material error.

  Churches. Ministers. Communicants.
Western Penn. 51 23 2,383
Western Va. 50 26 1,776
Ohio 280 142 10,493
Michigan 16 10 703
Kentucky 484 236 33,724
Indiana 299 152 11,334
Illinois 154 107 4,492
Missouri 146 86 4,972
Tennessee 413 219 20,472
Arkansas 17 7 181
Mississippi 84 34 3,199
Louisiana 16 12 278
Alabama 250 109 11,408
Total 2,260 1,163 132,915


It would no doubt be safe to estimate the number of Baptist churches in the West at 2,300; ministers at 1,200 and members at 140,000, including the Campbellites and all others that are called by the name of Baptists.

2. Methodists. According to the Minutes of the several Annual Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church for the year 1832, there were in the Valley of the Mississippi,

Conferences. Members. Travelling Ministers.
Pittsburg 26,061 107
Ohio 44,879 135
Missouri 5,205 44
Illinois 27,553 95
Kentucky 26,107 93
Tennessee 26,911 122
Holston 21,576 52
Mississippi 19,432 80
Total 197,724 728

Probably there are now nearly 220,000 members belonging to that denomination, and 750 travelling ministers, The number of stationed ministers I have no means at hand of ascertaining.

Reformed Methodists. This is becoming a numerous body of Christians in some portions of the West. They have large churches in Pittsburg and Cincinnati, and publish a respectable religious journal at the former place. I do not know their numbers. It is but a few years since they were organized into a distinct denomination.

3. Presbyterians. There are 11 Synods, 43 Presbyteries, about 950 ministers, 1000 congregations, and 75,000 communicants, or members.

4. Cumberland Presbyterians. This denomination began to exist in 1810. They are found principally in Tennessee and Kentucky. They originated from the secessions of several ministers in Tennessee and Kentucky from the regular Presbyterian church, on account of some difference of views on the subject of the necessity of literary attainments in the ministry, and also on account of some doctrinal differences. They have now a General Assembly, 4 Synods, about 20 Presbyteries, 200 ministers, and are rapidly increasing. They have a flourishing college at


Princeton, Ky. I do not know the precise number of the members of this denomination, but believe it to be about 50,000. It is said to be increasing, and is spreading in Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois, and other states.

5. Protestant Episcopal Church. This church has four dioceses in the Valley of the Mississippi, exclusive of Western Pennsylvania and Virginia, which belong to the dioceses of those states. 1st, Diocese of Ohio, Rev. Chas. P. McIlvaine, D. D. bishop, about 20 inferior clergy, and nearly twice as many churches. 2d, Diocese of Kentucky, Rev. B. B. Smith, D. D. bishop, 10 or 12 ministers, and about 20 churches. 3d, Diocese of Tennessee, four or five ministers, and twice as many churches. 4th, Diocese of Mississippi, four or five ministers. There are two Episcopal ministers in Louisiana, two in Michigan territory, one in Arkansas, two in Missouri, two in Florida, and five or six in West Pennsylvania, and as many in West Virginia; in all between sixty and seventy ministers, and many vacant churches in the West. The prospects of this church in the Valley of the Mississippi are evidently encouraging. The Literary and Theological Institution at Gambier, Ohio, is destined to exert a most happy influence upon the interests of that church, and will, I trust, supply her altars with a learned and devoted ministry.

6. Lutheran Church. — There are probably from thirty to forty ministers of the Gospel of this denomination in the West, a part of whom belong to the synod of West Pennsylvania, and a part to the synod of Ohio.

7. German Reformed Church. — There are probably about as many ministers of this church as of the Lutheran in the Valley of the Mississippi. They have each near one hundred churches. Most of their ministers in the West preach to five or six congregations.

8. Emancipators. — This is a sect of the Baptists which originated in 1805. They are opposed to negro slavery, both in principle and practice. They and all other sects of Baptists are included in the enumeration of the Baptists; which has been given.

9. Tunkers. — This sect has existed in this country since 1719. They have probably forty or fifty churches, principally in Pennsylvania and the western states.


10. Shakers. — This sect has churches in several places in Kentucky and Ohio. Union village and Watervleit in the latter, and Pleasant Hill and South Union in the former, are the principal. I do not know their number.

11. Christians or New Lights. — This sect arose about twenty-five years ago, in Kentucky. Stone, Dunlavy, and others, were the founders. Kincaid is now one of their leading ministers and authors. They are generally, but not universally, Unitarians in their theology. Their number is considerable, and increasing in Kentucky and Ohio. They are to be found also in Indiana and other states.

12. Covenanters. — There are several churches of this denomination in the West, and perhaps twenty or thirty ministers.

13. Associate Church, or Seceders, as they are commonly called. Their number is greater than that of the Covenanters. They have a theological school at Canonsburg, under the instruction of the Rev. Dr. Ramsay, Professor of Hebrew in Jefferson college.

14. Associate Reformed Church. — A few years since, the General Synod of this denomination voted to unite with the General Assembly of the Presbyterian church. The whole of the western synod as well as other parts of that church, in New-York, Pennsylvania, and other sections of the country, did not accede to the union. The western synod embraces a considerable number of churches, and had, a short time since, a theological school, under the instruction of the late Rev. Dr. Riddle, of West Pennsylvania, which has been transferred to Pittsburg, and the Rev. Mr. Pressley has been appointed professor of Theology. I do not know the precise number of their ministers in the Valley, but believe that it is larger than that of the Associate Church.

15. Roman Catholics. The number of Papal dioceses in this region is six. 1. Mobile, comprehending Alabama and West Florida. 2. New Orleans, including Mississippi and Louisiana. 3. St. Louis, comprehending Missouri and Arkansas. 4. Bardstown, including Kentucky, Tennessee, and Illinois. 5. Cincinnati, including Ohio. 6. Detroit, embracing the territory of Michigan.

1. Mobile. — A splendid cathedral is about to be erected in this place. Bishop Portier has recently established a


college here, which has now about 120 students. Several priests from Europe have lately joined him. 2. New Orleans. — The mass of the population in Louisiana is Catholic. There are about twenty ecclesiastical parishes, most of which are provided with priests. There is a Catholic college at New Orleans, said to be flourishing. Numerous convents and seminaries are established in various parts of the state. 3. St. Louis. — About one-third of the inhabitants of this city are Catholics. There is a Catholic college, under the control of the Jesuits here, with 160 students. The superintendent of all the Jesuits in the Valley of the Mississippi, resides at St. Louis. The Catholics have a school, either male or female, and in some cases both, at St. Charles, St. Genevieve, Florissant, St. Louis, Peryville, &c. In the dioceses of New Orleans, and St. Louis, they have 100 priests, two colleges, two theological seminaries, ten convents, and 600 pupils in their seminaries. 4. Bardstown. — There are said to be 20 priests and 30 congregations in Kentucky. In the other states in this diocese there are few organized Catholic Congregations. 5. Cincinnati. — A large Cathedral has been built in this city, and at least 12 churches have been built in this diocese, and many more are in prospect. A literary institution has been commenced in Cincinnati, under the auspices and control of the Bishop, called the Athenaeum. The late Bishop Fenwick commenced his labours a few years since at Cincinnati, with five members, and four years ago, he had 300 members in his church. The Catholics state, that their number is rapidly increasing, not only in that city, but throughout the state of Ohio, both by the arrival of foreigners and by actual conversions. 6. Detroit. In this diocese there are six Catholic churches. The Catholics reckon that they have 7,000 members in Michigan territory, including fur traders. They have a Chapel at Mackinaw, and 300 members in the Ottawa tribe of Indians, 45 miles from Mackinaw.

16. In the Valley of the Mississippi there are about 34,000 members of the Society of Friends, chiefly settled in the states of Ohio and Indiana. They hold two yearly meetings, one at Mount Pleasant, Ohio, and one at Richmond in Indiana, comprising a large number of Quarterly, Monthly and other meetings. Some of this denomination have recently settled in Michigan territory.


In this general survey of the religious denominations in the West, I do not reckon several small bodies, such as the Seventh Day Baptist, &c. nor several minor sects of errorists, such as the Pilgrims, (now nearly extinct,) the famous Mormonites, &c. The Valley of the Mississippi, like all new countries, is a wide and fertile field for the propagation of error of every sort. Ignorance and credulity are every where fit materials for the plastic hands of impostors and heresiarchs of every description.

The whole population of the Valley of the Mississippi, may be estimated, at 4,200,000. A general distribution may be made, with tolerable accuracy, of the people, according to profession or preference, in the following manner:

Denomination. Population.
Methodist, 800,000
Baptist, 700,000
Presbyterian, 550,000
Papal, 500,000
Protestant Episcopal, 50,000
Cumberland Presbyterians, 100,000
Friends, 34,000
Several smaller sects, 100,000
Total, 2,834,000

Leaving about 1,366,000 who are not attached to any sect.

The various Religious Benevolent Societies of our country, are doing much in the Valley of the Mississippi. The American Home Missionary Society, and the Board of Missions of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian church have sent near 500 Ministers of the Gospel, within a few years, to destitute congregations of that denomination in the Valley of the Mississippi. A Baptist Home Missionary has been formed recently, with special reference to this portion of our country. Other denominations are doing much to establish and sustain churches, wherever the people prefer their doctrines and modes of worship. The American Tract Society, and the American Bible Society, have circulated vast numbers of Tracts and Bibles in the West. Whilst the American Sunday School Union is labouring to establish a Sunday School and library in every


neighbourhood, leaving it to the people to conduct them as they choose. They have established more than 4000 schools within the last three years. And the Colonization Society is extending its influence also into the West, and has formed many auxiliaries.

These facts are mentioned here to show that much is doing to promote religion, and religious institutions, in the West.


Chapter XXVII. The Steam—boats of the West.

THIS chapter will be occupied with an account of the Steam-boats, and Steam-boat scenes, of the Valley of the Mississippi: —

The first steam-boat built in the Valley of the Missippi, was the New Orleans, which was launched at Pittsburg in the year 1811. Consequently, twenty-two years have elapsed since the greatest improvement in river navigation which the world has ever seen, was introduced into this western region. Few steam-boats however were built before the year 1817. Since that period the number has annually and rapidly increased, until it has become astonishingly great. From documents in my possession, and which I believe are very accurate, I learn that, at the commencement of the year 1831, the number of three hundred and forty-eight had been running on these waters, and all, excepting a very few which were brought round from the East, were built in the West. During 1833, about eighty steam-boats were built, and nearly an equal number have been built, or are building, this year. So that there have been not less, probably, than 500 steamboats built in the West, about one half of which are now in existence.

It is a fact, that the steam-boats in the West are far less durable than those in the East. One reason of this may be, that the wood of which they are made seems to be of a more rapid growth, and consequently of a less solid and firm fibre. Another reason is, that they are hastily put together, and of materials little seasoned. And perhaps a greater is, that they suffer much harder usage, from the powerful application of steam, and more than all, from being so often run against rocks, sand-bars and logs. Whatever may be the causes, they seldom are worth


much after running five or six years. Some have run seven or eight; but this number is small. A few which were built of live oak have lasted nearly ten years.

It has been asserted that the cost of a steam-boat in the West is about $100 per ton. This estimate as a general one, is, I am persuaded, too high. The relative cost of steam-boats in the West, as every where else, is inversely proportional to their size. A steam-boat of fifty tons costs more, proportionally, than one of a hundred tons, or five hundred tons. At present a boat of from seventy-five to one hundred tons may be completely finished and prepared, in every respect, for running, for about eighty dollars per ton; or at the highest, when most expensively finished, for one hundred dollars per ton; whilst a plain boat of five hundred tons can be built for perhaps sixty dollars per ton. For instance, the Uncle Sam, of five hundred tons, cost about $29,500; and the Henry Clay, a splendid boat of five hundred tons, cost near $43,000. Some idea of the large amount of capital invested in steam-boats in the West, may be obtained, from the above statement. The eighty steam-boats which were built last year, some of them being of the largest class, cost on an average from $12,000 to $15,000 each, in all from $960,000, to $1,200,000.

It has been said, that steam-boats in the West usually clear their prime cost during the first year's running, and after that, the proceeds — deducting of course the repairs and other expenses — are a net profit to the owners. I am confident that this is not true as a general fact. Whilst some boats which run very well, and are managed by capable and careful officers and hands, and supported by the indefatigable efforts of enterprising owners, and numerous agents in the various ports from Pittsburg to New Orleans, do quite, and sometimes more than, pay their original cost during the first year, and afterwards for three or four years are a source of great profit to their owners, many do not clear their first cost in two or three years, and some never. It is considered well if they do so in two or three years. Even then, they prove in the end, very valuable stock.

Steam-boats of the largest class in the West are estimated at five hundred tons, or rather at four hundred and


fifty and upwards. To this class belong the Uncle Sam Mohawk, Baltic, Henry Clay; Mediterranean, Philadelphia, Belfast, &c. The medium size embraces those of three hundred tons. To this class belongs the Hibernia. Those which are calculated for low water and have a draught of from twenty inches to four feet of water, according to the amount of freight which they carry, are boats of one hundred tons or rather less. To this class belong such boats as the Peruvian, Versailles, Banner, Waverly, Friend, Don Juan, Magnolia, Sylph, Lady Byron, Citizen, Cleopatra. There is a large number of this size. And there are some smaller, and calculated to run in very shallow water and in small rivers, — such, for instance, are the Odd Fellow, Scout, Traveller, and Hatchie. There are some boats of one hundred and fifty, and two hundred tons; such are the Argus, Abeona, Napoleon, &c.

During thee months of July, August, September, and sometimes October, a large number of the boats, especially those of the larger classes, do not run, on account of the low water. But from October to July, all are in motion. If in any portion of that period they are excluded from the rivers in the northern part of the Valley, by reason of the ice, they go down into the "lower trade," on the lower Mississippi, and the Cumberland, Tennessee, Arkansas and Red Rivers, where the navigation is never impeded by ice. The summer of 1832, was a remarkable one for the keeping up of the rivers in the West, especially the Ohio. On this account an unusually large number of steam-boats were running. Yet more than a hundred were laid up, and received such repairs as were necessary for the coming business of the fall and winter. I saw four or five lying at Nashville, 15 or 20 at St. Louis, three or four at Trinity, 30 or 40 at New-Albany and Shippingport, a number at Cincinnati, and several at various other places on the Ohio above that city.

Much has been said respecting the comparative elegance of the eastern and western steam-boats.

Non nostrum tantas componere lites.

The most careless observer, however, cannot but notice a great difference between them in a variety of respects.


The eastern boats have not generally any cabins above deck, but always in the hold, if I may so speak. But in the western boats this arrangement is scarcely ever seen. Their holds, or that part which in an eastern boat is occupied by the fore and aft cabins, and the machinery, is the place for stowing away the heavy freight, &c. The boilers are placed not in the centre, but on the bow of the boat, and from them to the stern runs a deck or story, including, or rather enclosing the machinery, which reaches somewhat beyond the middle of the boat, and having in some cases a gentlemen's cabin, (and sometimes a ladies' also); in the stern. Above this deck is another, which extends from the stern to the fore part of the boat, and runs wholly over the boilers. In many boats that part of this deck which is in the stern of the boat, is occupied as a ladies' cabin, whilst all the rest is for what are called deck passengers; in others, the whole of it is occupied by deck passengers; and in others, both the gentlemen's and ladies' cabin are in this part of the boat, and what are usually called deck-passengers occupy the deck below, astern of the machinery. Such boats are always advertised as having "upper cabins." The part of this deck immediately over the boilers, and through which the pipes that conduct the smoke from the fires below pass, is called the boiler deck. There are a few boats which have even a third deck or story. From this description, the reader will readily conceive that the western boats having deck upon deck, on their midships and stern, must have a very different appearance from those on the eastern waters. And although in their bows or forward part they have an unfinished appearance, and have a less ship-like aspect than the eastern boats, yet they move very gracefully through the water, and seem to one viewing them, like floating castles. As they stand so much out of the water, they resemble at a distance the dismantled seventy-fours at the Navy-Yard at Brooklyn, only they are much smaller. Searcely any sight can be more beautiful than that of the approach, or departure from port, of such a boat as the Abeona, or Caledonia, when viewed from a distant and elevated point.

In regard to the elegance of interior, I think many of the western boats can well compare with the eastern.


Although they have not mahogany, yet they have the curled maple and other beautiful woods of this region, which are scarcely inferior. I doubt much whether there is a boat on the eastern waters which has a cabin surpassing in beauty that of the Henry Clay, or George Washington. And the style of living on board the western boats generally far surpasses that of the eastern. I have travelled extensively in the United States, and I have never seen such tables set forth in any other steam-boats. Every necessary article, and every luxury too of diet, which the West affords, is to be found on the tables of the best steamboats in the Valley of the Mississippi.

The common opinion among mechanics, engineers and captains in the West is, that engines constructed on the high pressure principle, are preferable for boats in this region, to those upon the low pressure principle. There are some boats indeed upon the low pressure principle, such as the Ben Franklin, Amulet, Robert Fulton, Philadelphia, Waverly, Magnolia, Farmer, &c. The owners and all interested in the low pressure boats, are probably advocates for low pressure engines. But, as I have already remarked, the general opinion is, that the low pressure boats are not adapted to these western rivers, with their long courses and rapid and powerful currents. Several reasons may be assigned for this preference: 1. High pressure engines are much less heavy. 2. They are much more simple in their construction, as every one knows who knows any thing about steam-engines. A consequence of their simplicity is, that they are much more easily understood, kept in order, and repaired when out of order. Both of these considerations are important in boats that make long voyages. And 3. They can work off all the steam which they generate, if the valves connected with their cylinders are large enough; so that there is no limit to their power, except the strength of the boilers and cylinders. But in the low pressure boats no more steam can be used than can be worked off by a condenser, so that there is a limit, (and usually the limit is far below what the machinery will bear,) to the application of the steam which they can generate. The consequence is, that where great power is sometimes needed, in difficult


rapids, the engine cannot give it, because the steam must not be generated faster than the condenser can work it off, otherwise an explosion would speedily occur. On the other hand, the high pressure engines have no limits as to the power which they can afford, save the strength of the boilers and cylinders. And if a sufficient amount of water is kept in the boilers, and the boat is fully under way, there is but little danger resulting from raising steam very high. For in that case, however rapidly the steam is generated, (if it be not converted into gas, which is not likely to be done if a sufficient amount of water is in the boilers,) it is carried off instantaneously by the action of the piston in the cylinder.

Much has been said respecting the many and fatal accidents which have occurred on steam-boats in the West. It must indeed be admitted that many, too many, such accidents have occurred. Many boats have been destroyed by snags, others by fire; some have been run down by other boats, and some have been injured, and many lives lost, by the bursting of boilers. I believe that many, if not most, of these accidents have occurred through very culpable carelessness, especially those of the last mentioned class, the bursting of the boilers. That accidents should happen to boats running on these rivers, possessing currents of great rapidity, constantly changing more or less their channels, and rendered dangerous in low water, by innumerable sand-bars, rocks and snags, is surely not a subject of marvel. And when we remember the great number of boats running (now upwards of two hundred and forty,) and the length of their voyages, ofttimes — our wonder will be still less. It is comparatively nothing for a steam-boat to run from New York to Albany, New Haven,


Providence, or New Brunswick; or from Philadel to Trenton; or from Baltimore to Norfolk; where there: no natural obstructions to navigation, and where the voyage can be accomplished in a few hours. But the case is far different, when a boat sets out from New Orleans for St. Louis, or Cincinnati, or Pittsburg; distances many hundreds of miles; where snags, rocks, and sandbars, are to be guarded against every hour, especially when the water is low; and where the boilers are scarcely allowed to become cold during the whole voyage!

Most of the accidents, which have resulted from the bursting of boilers, have taken place, when the boat was leaving port. Two general reasons may be assigned for this fact; 1. The very improper practice of accumulating steam, while the boat is stopping to land, or receive freight, passengers, so as to start with an immense pressure of steam. This practice arises from a desire to make the voyage in a very short period, or to excel some other boat which is just before or behind. 2. The other cause is the keeling over, as it is called in the West, of the boat, that is, inclining to one side, occasioned by the turning of the boat as it leaves port. By this turning up of one side of boat, the water in the uppermost boiler is greatly diminished, and the steam that is in it, is very likely then to converted into the two gases of which water is composed and one of which is very expansive. To understand my meaning, the reader must keep in mind the fact, that almost all the steam-boats in the West have from two to nine boilers, all lying side by side, in the same bed or furnace, and connected with each other by intervening pipes. Now if we suppose that a boat has five, or seven, or more boilers, we shall readily see that it will require no great inflation of the boat, to diminish very greatly the water in the boiler which may be on the elevated side. An explosion of that boiler is to be considered a very probable event, especially if the water in all the boilers was low at time of starting.

It has also been noticed that boilers have most frequently burst just after there have been a few strokes of the piston starting. This probably results from the fact, that as soon as the steam is diminished in the boilers, by the action of the piston in the cylinder, the water rises in the


boilers, and — supposing that, at this moment, the boat has keeled considerably, and the fires are burning intensely, and the water is very low, — as the water rises (upon the diminution of the pressure of the steam) it comes in contract with the sides of the boiler, which may possibly be nearly red hot; instantaneously a greater quantity of steam is generated than can be worked off by the action of the piston, which is yet too slow to carry off much steam. Or the water is decomposed, and the hydrogen gas immediately causes an explosion.

The captains of the western steam-boats, are in general well qualified for their stations. There are indeed exceptions; there are those who are uncivil, profane in their language, and disagreeable. And such there are among the captains of the eastern steam-boats. But I have travelled in many of the steam-boats in the Valley of the Mississippi, and I have almost uniformly found their commanders urbane, attentive, patient, vigilant, and disposed to do every thing that could be done to render the voyage, often long and tedious, and demanding uncommon patience in the master of the vessel, — pleasant to the passengers.

The pilots on these boats, are generally men who are well acquainted with the rivers. Many of them have spent years on board flat and keel boats, and during perhaps some forty or fifty voyages up and down, have acquired a very minute acquaintance with the difficult places in the rivers. But such are the unceasing changes which are made in the channels, particularly in the Mississippi river, that no human foresight or experience can guard against all accidents, resulting from sand-bars, rocks, and snags. The post of a pilot is by far the most difficult on board a western steamboat. And the skill of many of those whom I have seen is truly astonishing.

The engineers are generally attentive to their duties. But few of them know much about the science of steam engines. They usually go a few voyages with an old engineer before they set up for themselves. Their knowledge is very limited, and wholly practical. There are, however, some noble exceptions. If a competent man were an engineer on board the Uncle Sam, Henry Clay, or some other boat, and would undertake to teach a


school, for the purpose of preparing engineers, I mean by instructing several at a time during a few voyages, he would render a great service to the Valley of the Mississppi. It is however an encouraging fact, that many men who were trained up in the shops for making steam engines and their machinery, at Pittsburg and Cincinnati are becoming engineers on board the steam-boats. Better engineers could not be found, inasmuch as they are familiar with the entire structure and principles of steam-engines. So that the prospect is that there will be fewer accidents from bursting of boilers, although I am persuaded that the danger of such accidents is now greatly exaggerated in the imagination of the community.

The introduction of steamboats into the Valley of the Mississippi, has effected a complete revolution in the inter-navigation of that region. Merchandize of all kinds is now carried between the extremest points for a very small amount. It is said that goods can be shipped from New York to New Orleans, and then carried by steamboat to Cincinnati, for 1 cent per pound! A single fact will convince any one of the advantage of steam-boats in a commercial point of view. In the summer of 1830, when the Ohio was too low, for months, for steamboats to run, it was necessary to carry the merchandize descending that river Pittsburg, to Cincinnati and Louisville, in flat and keel boats. A captain of a steamboat, engaged in that trade, has told me that he at that time purchased three keel boats at six hundred dollars, loaded them with 50 or 60 tons and when he arrived at Louisville sold the boats for three hundred dollars, and yet after defraying all the other expenses of the trip, including high wages for five or six hands on each boat, made a handsome sum of money. Then freight was a dollar or two per hundred. But when the boats commenced running, it was carried for 20 or 30 cents per hundred for precisely the same distance.

By a recent law of the General Government, all steam-boats in the West, as well as elsewhere, are required to be enrolled and licensed by the Collectors of the Customs; they must have their names painted on them, and the names of the places where they are owned, and pay twenty cents a month out of the wages of every hand, excepting apprentices and slaves, for the Hospital Fund. Steam boats are


registered at Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Louisville, St. Louis and New Orleans.

The facilities for travelling which steam boats furnish in the West, are inconceivable to our Atlantic people, or any one who did not travel here in the "olden time." Then it was a journey, on horseback, of several months, to go up from New Orleans to Pittsburg; now it can be done with ease in three weeks, in almost any steam boat, and allow much time for stopping at the intermediate places. When steam-boats first began to run, $125 and even $150 were cheerfully paid for a passage from New Orleans to Louisville! And when the charges were so diminished as to be only $100, from New Orleans to Pittsburg, which is 650 miles further, and in all more than 2000 miles, it was thought truly astonishing. But now one can go from New Orleans to Pittsburg as a cabin passenger, for from $35 to $45, and fare sumptuously every day! And if he chooses to go as a deck passenger he can do it for perhaps $10 or $12! Consequently astonishing facilities are afforded to families removing to distant parts of the entire Valley. The passengers are denominated either "cabin" or "deck" passengers from the different parts of the boat which they occupy. Those in the cabin pay a much higher price, and have every thing furnished. The deck passengers occupy either the upper deck, or the one immediately astern of the machinery, as I have already mentioned, and find their own provisions. Their part of the boat is not generally finished with much particularity, and is indeed rather an uncomfortable place in cold weather.

Although the steam boats of the West are generally designed for carrying freight as well as passengers, yet it is astonishing what a number of persons one of them can carry. Even a boat of 100 tons often carries 50 cabin passengers; as many more, or perhaps twice as many, on deck; and withal 75 or 80 tons of freight! And a boat of 500 tons, such as the Uncle Sam, or the Red Rover, or Belfast, has often carried 100 passengers in the cabin, 500 on dock, and 400 tons of freight, and withal marched up the mighty Mississippi at the rate of six or eight miles an hour! Immense numbers of passengers are carried from one part of the Valley to another by these boats. Those boats which come up from New Orleans bring, besides merchants and


other inhabitants or strangers, who occupy the cabin, hundreds of Germans, Irish, and other foreign emigrants who land at that port, and are seeking a home in the interior of the Valley of the Mississippi. On the other hand those which descend from Pittsburg carry hundreds of travellers and emigrants from the East, as well as from foreign lands.

One of these large boats, filled with passengers, is almost a world in miniature. In the cabin you will find ladies and gentlemen of various claims to merit; on the forward part of the boat are the sailors, deck hands, and those sons of Vulcan — the firemen — possessing striking traits of character, and full of noise, and song, and too often of whiskey; whilst above, in the deck cabin, there is every thing that may be called human, — all sorts of men and women, of all trades, from all parts of the world, of all possible manners and habits. There is the half-horse and: half-alligator Kentucky boatman, swaggering, and boasting of his prowess, his rifle, his horse, and his wife. One is sawing away on his wretched old fiddle all day long; another is grinding a knife or razor; hero is a party playing cards; and in yonder corner is a dance to the sound of the Jew's harp; whilst a few are trying to demean themselves soberly, by sitting in silence or reading a book. But it is almost impossible — the wondrous tale and horrible Indian story are telling; the bottle and the jug are freely circulating; and the boisterous and deafening laugh is incessantly raised, sufficient to banish every vestige of seriousness, and thought, and sense. A friend of mine, some time ago, went down from Cincinnati to New Orleans on board the steam-boat, which carried fifty cabin passengers, one or two hundred deck passengers; one negro-driver with his gang of negroes; a part of a company of soldiers; a menagerie of wild beasts; a whole circus; and a company of play actors!

When a traveller from the East enters a crowded steamboat at Pittsburg or Cincinnati, and takes his passage for New Orleans, he very soon perceives a manifest contrast, between western and eastern manners, and western and eastern steam-boats. He soon discovers that the western people have much more equality in their intercourse; are remarkably sociable, unceremonious, and independent.


He will be very likely to consider them too forward and indifferent to the opinions of others. But he will find upon better acquaintance with them, that their apparent rudeness and incivility of manners soon disappear, and that they are truly courteous, respectful, and kind to those who display similar traits of character. They are candid and independent, and but little disposed to yield arrogated deference to any persons, no matter how high a standing in society, birth or wealth may have given them.

I am truly sorry to say that the serious traveller will very often be grieved with the profaneness which is so common on board western steam-boats. And the practice is not confined to the officers and hands, but exists, to a most disagreeable extent, among otherwise respectable passengers. It is a lamentable fact that this vice is extremely common throughout the Valley of the Mississippi, and more especially in the southern part of it. So much so, that many gentlemen, and clever men in other respects, are in the habit of using profane language, when they are scarcely aware of it, and consequently restrain themselves but little in any sort of company.

Another practice too prevalent on board the western steamboats is that of playing at cards. It is true that it is generally for amusement; for the well regulated boats profess not to tolerate gambling. But to say the least, it is greatly to be regretted that a better mode of spending time is not pursued. I know indeed that it is difficult for persons who are not in the habit of reading much at any time, to do so on board a crowded steamboat. But I am far from saying this with a view of palliating an amusement of the most dangerous and seductive character. Its great prevalence shows not only a want of taste for more useful modes of spending time, but also a want of a correct knowledge of moral principles, on the part of those who are addicted to it. And although gambling is not professedly tolerated, yet it is a fact that it exists on many steamboats in the West, and that too not only among ordinary passengers, merchants and other men of business, and travellers, but also among gangs of professional gamblers, who infest the principal towns and cities from Pittsburg to New-Orleans, and who are constantly traversing these rivers to make a prey of the young and the unwary. It is


due to truth, to say, and I do it with real pleasure, that no captains of well regulated steam-boats in the Valley of the Mississippi will for a moment allow such men to play with their passengers, or indeed to play at all. And yet I much fear that there are few captains in the West who would as one of the eastern captains recently did, put a company of gamblers on shore, who refused to desist from playing! Yet there are some who would do it; indeed it has been done already, if I have been correctly informed.

The hardening and chilling effects of gambling upon the heart, may be learned from one or two anecdotes which I select from hundreds, and which I received from unquestionable sources.

During one of the cold and cloudy days of 1831, December, the steam-boat M——— stopped for freight at a port in Kentucky, on her way down the river. Whilst there, a Mr. ——- came on board, bringing with him his young, interesting, and beautiful, but dying wife, seeking a southern climate for her declining health. It was with some difficulty that she was brought on board, she was so feeble. The ladies, in the cabin, though strangers, received her with deep sympathy, and with her maid servant, ministered unremittingly to her wants. Her husband came but seldom to her cabin; would sit a few minutes by her couch, and then hurry away from her longing and tearful eyes. And vhere was he spending his time? Where was he who had sworn before God and man to "honour, love and protect her, until death should them part?" He was in the gentlemen's cabin gambling, day and night! The boat continued her voyage, and in two or three days arrived at, the place of her destination, where the poor lady soon afterwards died at a boarding house. The husband, if husband he could be called, stayed a day or two to see her buried, and then embarked for New-Orleans, gambling lay and night, all the way!

Take another instance, which was told to me by the captain of the boat on which the case occurred. A few years since, the large steamboat M——- set out from New-Orleans on an upward voyage, having on board much freight and many passengers. Among them were several merchants who had large amounts of sugar, molasses, coffee, &c. Soon after the boat started they commenced gambling, and


continued without intermission until after 10 o'clock at night. The captain then informed them, that it was contrary to the rules of the boat that they should play in the cabin after that hour. They demurred protested, and entreated. But he was inflexible. At length he consented to their going to a small private room; but enjoined it upon them that there must be no fighting. Four of them renewed the game with excited interest. The captain having occasion to be up all night, went, about three o'clock, into their room. To his surprise he found them just on the point of fighting. Pistols and dirks were drawn! At his interposition and command, these weapons were put up. The cause of the quarrel was this: One merchant had lost all the money which he had with him, and all his large and valuable cargo on board. The loser desired his merchandize to be estimated at the retail price at ——, where he resided, and to which place the boat was bound. But the marble-hearted winner insisted upon the New Orleans price as the basis of the calculation, and which would have left the loser in his debt to a large amount, for which he demanded a due bill! At the remonstrance of the captain, he ceased to insist upon this, and the bill of lading having been transferred in due form to the winner, the miserable loser went home without a dollar to pay even his passage, to tell (if he could do it) to his wife and children the story of his folly, and to become a bankrupt! Alas! How many men in this western country, and on these rivers, have not only lost their fortunes, but, it is to be feared, their souls also, by gambling.

Another species of wickedness has existed on board some western steam boats — not countenanced nor willingly tolerated by any respectable-captains; but which results from allowing persons of improper character to be on board.


Scenes of shocking depravity have occurred on some boats from this cause. But I cannot believe that many such boats are now running; and I am sure that the good sense and virtue of the western people will frown the masters of such boats out of the pale of respectable society. Propriety for bids any thing more than a mere allusion to a subject so disgusting to every virtuous mind, and I turn at once from the odious topic, to a more pleasing theme.

To a good man, there is no want of an opportunity of doing good on board a western steam boat, while he is pursuing a journey, which duty calls him to make in that region, if he possesses a good portion of that humility patience, love to God, and sympathy for dying men, which his Master possessed. He will, if he is properly acquainted with human nature, endeavour to conciliate the esteem and confidence of his fellow-passengers, by exhibiting a polite and Christian deportment. And if he wisely avails himself of every opportunity, and seeks such opportunities, he may converse with almost every individual on board, on the momentous concerns of a better world. He will probably have to bear many things, especially at first, of an unpleasant nature. In some circumstances, he will find it prudent to endure in silence the profaneness and other evil practices of the company, rather than reprove openly. But if he perseveres with a heart bent upon doing good, (and every Christian ought to make this a primary object in all his journies, whether on business, or pleasure in other respects), his hallowed influence will pervade the boat, and produce a lasting impression. If he is a minister of the Gospel, he will not find it wise to force religious services upon the passengers; but he can, by a polite request, generally secure for such services, at a proper season, attention and approbation. I have known ministers who, by abruptly attempting the performance of religious services, without consulting the rest of the passengers, lost all their influence during the remainder of the voyage. But if a minister, instead of this, is kind, courteous, communicative, and anxious to avail himself of every opportunity of doing good by conversation, he will soon be much respected, and perhaps invited to preach the Gospel to the passengers. He will need great patience and meekness, and a disposition to weep over the follies


and wickedness of men, and pray for them, and to consider every profane expression, and other instances of wickedness, as an offence against his Heavenly Father, and not an insult towards himself. Truth alone, urged with persuasion and love, can avail for western steamboats. They afford a fine field for doing good, to men of hearts warm and tender with the love of the Saviour, and who are well acquainted with the springs which influence human nature. The western people are the last people on earth to be forced into religion, and many of them have but little reverence for the mere office of the ministry. One of them told me, not long since, that he had "a great respect for religion, but none at all for its professors" — that is, the fact that they were professors of religion, did not of itself, constitute, in his opinion, any valid claim to his regard.

There is so much both to interest and amuse an intelligent traveller, that I know not how a voyage from New-Orleans to Pittsburg, or between any other extreme points in the Valley of the Mississippi, can appear long or very unpleasant. If he has a taste for reading, and is furnished as he ought to be, with valuable books, he can spend many of his hours in increasing his knowledge in that way. Or he may converse with his fellow passengers from morning until night, and thus acquire much important information respecting every portion of the country; or communicate what may benefit them.

If the weather is pleasant, he may spend much time in viewing the banks of the river, covered with lofty forests, or cultivated fields, with numerous villages and towns springing up and adding new beauty to the scene. A passing steam-boat gives, ever and anon, variety to the events of the day, and is a pleasing incident in the chronicle of the voyage. A thousand objects, on the winding shores, seen from the decks, arrest attention, and prevent him from feeling the evils of ennui. Or he may even take a seat, as I have done a hundred times, on the boiler deck, and look down upon the movements of the firemen, who are generally coloured men, and listen to their rude, but frequently real wit, and their songs, when rousing up their fires, or bringing on board a fresh supply of wood, and especially when they are approaching or leaving ports. In these musical fetes, some one acts as the leader,


himself oftentimes no mean maker of verses, and the rest join with all their might in the chorus, which generally constitutes every second line of the song. These chorusses are usually an unmeaning string of words, such as "Ohio, Ohio, Oh-i-o;" or "O hang, boys, hang;" or "O stormy, stormy," &c. When tired with the insipid gabble of the card-table in the cabin, or disinclined to converse with any one, I have spent hours in listening to the boat songs of these men.

In conclusion, I would remark that it is the testimony of the captains with whom I have conversed, that the temperance reform is making gradual progress on board the steam boats of the West. On board the boat on which this chapter was written, no ardent spirits are drunk by either officers or men. Still, much remains to be done.

But I must close this long, but still imperfect, account of the steam boats in the Valley of the Mississippi.


Chapter XXVIII. Hints to Emigrants, Etc.

Hints to Emigrants on the modes of removing to the West. — Stage and Steamboat Routes. — Expenses of removing, and of travelling, &c. &c.

I PROPOSE to give, in this chapter, such information as I am able, which may be useful to emigrants and travellers, respecting the various modes of going to the Valley of the Mississippi, and the expenses which must be encountered by those who travel, or remove, to that part of our country.

There are three general and grand routes, some one of which must be pursued by every one who visits the Valley of the Mississippi, from the states which lie east of the Allegheny Mountains: —

I. By the Lakes on the north. This is the route which emigrants and travellers from New England and the state of New York will pursue. There are two points which all of the first named class will aim at, viz.: Albany and Buffalo. The major part of the New York column of emigration will have only the latter named place to pass.

As it regards Albany, it is approached from New England by five or six grand routes by land, which lead to it from Vermont, Boston, Hartford, New Haven, &c., as well as by the great natural highway, the Hudson River, on which from 10 to 15 elegant steam boats are running daily. The approach to Buffalo is by stage or wagon on the great western road from Albany to that place, or by the grand canal, called the Erie and Hudson Canal, which extends from the Hudson at Albany to Lake Erie at Buffalo. The following tables give the places and distances on these routes.

From Albany to Buffalo. Miles
Schenectady   15
Amsterdam 15 30
Caughnawaga 10 40
Palatine Bridge 12 52
Little Falls 21 73
Herkimer 7 80
UTICA 16 96
Manchester 9 105
Vernon 8 113


Oneida 5 118
Lenox 7 125
Sullivan 5 130
Manlius 6 136
Jamesville 5 141
Onondaga Hill 7 148
Marcellus 8 156
Skaneateles 6 162
Auburn 7 169
Cayuga Bridge 9 178
Seneca Falls 3 181
Waterloo 4 185
Geneva 7 192
Canandaigua 16 208
East Bloomfield 9 217
West Bloomfield 5 222
Lima 4 226
Avon (East Village) 5 231
Avon Post-Office 2 233
Caledonia 8 241
Le Roy 6 247
Batavia 11 258
Pembroke 14 272
Clarence 8 280
Williamsville 8 288
BUFFALO 10 298
Albany to Niagara Falls
Canandaigua   208
Mendon 16 224
Pittsford 6 230
Rochester 8 238
Clarkson 18 256
Oak Orchard 22 27
Lewiston 40 318
Niagara Falls 7 325
From Albany to Rochester via Cherry Valley.
Guilderland   14
State Bridge 12 26
Cherry Valley 26 52
Little Lakes 10 62
Bridgewater 20 82
Madison 14 96
Cazenovia 12 108
Manlius 12 120
Syracuse 7 127
Elbridge 15 142
Weeds Port 6 148
Montezuma 9 157
Lyons 17 174
Palmyra 14 188
Pittsford 15 203
Rochester 8 211
Rochester to Buffalo.
Batavia   36
Buffalo 40 76

There is also a route commencing on the Hudson river at Catskill, and passing through the south-western counties, and through the villages of Ithaca, Bath, Canisteo, Angelica, Ellicottville and Mayville, terminates at Portland Harbor on Lake Erie.

Albany 0
Troy 7
Junction 9
Schenectady 30
Amsterdam 46
Schoharie Creek 53
Caughnawaga 57
Spraker's Basin 66
Conajoharie 69
Bowman's Creek 72


Little Falls 88
Herkimer 95
Frankfort 100
Utica 110
Whitesborough 114
Oriskany 117
Rome 125
Smith's 132
Loomis' 138
Oneida Creek 141
Canastota 146
New Boston 150
Chittenango 154
Manlius 162
Orville 165
Syracuse 171
Liverpool 173
Nine-mile Creek 179
Canton 185
Jordan 191
Weed's Port 197
Port Byron 200
Montezuma 206
Clyde 217
Lyons 226
Newark 233
Palymyra 241
Fullom's Basin 254
Pittsford 260
Rochester 270
Ogden 282
Adams' Basin 285
Brockport 290
Holley 295
Newport 305
Portville 309
Oak Orchard 314
Medina 315
Middleport 321
Lockport 333
Pendleton 340
Tonawanta 352
Black Rock 360
Buffalo 363

There are now in operation on the Erie Canal, between Albany and Buffalo, six transportation lines, numbering 120 boats; and two lines, that ply between Troy and Buffalo with 53 boats. There is also a line of boats plying between Albany, Syracuse, and Oswego. Besides these, there is a vast number of boats, belonging to individuals.

There are, also, several lines of PACKET BOATS on the Erie Canal.

The number of boats that are daily, and almost hourly, leaving Albany for Buffalo, affords abundant facilities to emigrants, who can thus be conveyed, with their families and property, to any point they may choose to designate, at a very trifling expense.

Having arrived at the beautiful and flourishing city of


Buffalo, the emigrant, or traveller may go up Lake Erie in a stream-boat, (of which there is a regular line, which leaves that place every morning at 9 o'clock, besides those which sail at other times) and stop at the following places viz.: Dunkirk, 45 miles from Buffalo — Portland, 60 — Erie 90 — Salem, 120 — Ashtabula, 135 — Grand River, 165 — Cleveland, 195 — Huron, 245 — Sandusky, 260 — Detroit, 330 — Mackinaw, 600 — Green Bay, 750 — Chicago, 900.

The price of a cabin passage from Buffalo to Detroit is at present $8. A deck passage is $4. A considerable family — say five or six persons — and having a wagon load of furniture, &c., may go on deck, and in a comfortable manner in the summer season, for $20. To the intermediate, and also to the more remote places mentioned, the price is proportionate, excepting, perhaps, a little higher relatively, to Mackinaw, Chicago, &c., in as much as there is less trade in that quarter, and but few boats visit there at present.

It is 90 miles from Buffalo to Erie by land, and 188 to Cleveland. It is 220 from Buffalo to Pittsburg by way of Erie. From Cleveland to Columbus it is 140 miles, and to Cincinnati, via Columbus, it is 250 miles. From Sandusky city to Cincinnati, by way of Springfield, Dayton, &c., it is 215 miles. Stages run also regularly, in the summer, from Buffalo to Erie, Cleveland, &c. on to Detroit; and from Detroit to Chicago; and from Chicago to St. Louis. The entire distance from Buffalo to St. Louis by this route, is about 900 miles. Stages run also regularly from Erie to Pittsburg; from Cleveland to Pittsburg; from Cleveland to Columbus and Cincinnati; and from Sandusky city to Cincinnati.

II. By the various roads which lead to that country from the East, beginning in the state of New York, and extending in parallel lines down to the Gulf of Mexico. The number of the most important of these roads, some of which are turnpikes, is about 15. There are several leading from New York into West Pennsylvania — one along Lake Erie, already mentioned, reaching to Meadville — another further south. There are four or five through Pennsylvania and Maryland — one leading from Harrisburg through Bellefonte out to Erie; another from the same starting point, through Lewistown, Huntingdon,


to Pittsburg; a third leads from Philadelphia through Harrisburg, Carlisle, Chambersburg, and Bedford, to Pittsburg; and a fourth is from Baltimore, through Cumberland in Maryland, to Wheeling. There are two roads in Virginia — one leading from Washington city through the Valley of Virginia into East Tennessee; the other from Richmond through Staunton, (intersecting that which I have just named,) to Charleston on the Kanawha, and ends at Guyandot on the Ohio. From North Carolina, three roads lead into Tennessee — one from Wilkesboro,' westward to Greenville; another from Rutherford through Asheville to the same point; and a third further south from Pendleton in South Carolina, across the southwestern angle of North Carolina, into Tennessee, along the course of the Hiwassee, — called the Unika turnpike. From Georgia, a road leads up into East Tennessee; and several into Alabama, the chief of which is that from Augusta through Milledgeville, Macon, and Columbus on the Chattahooche, to Montgomery, and thence to Tuscaloosa, and also to Mobile. There is also a road fom Darien through St. Mary's, and St. Augustine, to Tallahassee, Pensacola, Mobile and New Orleans. On all these roads, I believe that there are lines of stages, many of which run three times a week, and several every day. There are besides these, several roads which cross the mountains, and are a good deal travelled, but less important to emigrants and travellers, at present, than those named. One of these roads runs from Montrose, in Pennsylvania, across the northern tier of counties in that state, to Erie and Meadville. There are two or three such roads in Virginia, and as many in North Carolina.

One of the most important of the lines of communication between the eastern and western parts of our country is the Pennsylvania Canal and Rail Road, extending from Philadelphia to Pittsburg. This communication is by the canal from Philadelphia up the Schuylkill to Reading, thence across to the Swatara, down the banks of that stream to the Susquehanna, up that river to the Juniata, along the Juniata to Holidaysburg, on the eastern side of the Allegheny mountain; thence by a Rail Road of 36 3/4 to Johnstown, on the western side; thence down the Conemaugh and Kiskiminitas to the Allegheny river, and along that river to


Pittsburg. A vast amount of business is now doing (1833) on this canal, although the Rail Road is not completed across the mountain. It is calculated that the tolls will this year be $200,000 on this canal. In the course of a few months that road will be finished, and also the Rail Road from Philadelphia to Columbia, on the Susquehanna, 17 1/4 miles below the mouth of the Swatara, between which points there is a canal, which thus connects the Rail Road with the Pennsylvania Canal. There will then be two lines of communication (the canal and railroad) between Philadelphia and the Susquehanna.

The amount of business on this great channal of trade and intercourse will be immense. The price of freight from Philadelphia to Pittsburg is now $1 50 per hundred lbs. Next year it will be at the rate of one dollar per hundred lbs. I will add that it is contemplated to extend this line of communication from Pittsburg by a Rail Road, through Ohio, to a point on the Erie and Ohio Canal. Commissioners have been appointed to survey the route; and there is no doubt that this work will soon be accomplished. When this is done a line of communication from Philadelphia into the great state of Ohio will be opened. Emigrants removing from the East to Pittsburg and that region, and even to the great country to the west of that city, will prefer this route.

I subjoin a table of the distances by the Columbia Rail Road.

FROM PHILADELPHIA TO PITTSBURG, commencing at Vine and Broad streets.
From Philadelphia to Columbia, 81 3/4 miles.
Fair Mount Water Works,   1
Lemon Hill, 1/2 1 1/2
Viaduct over the Schuylkill River, 1 1/2 3
Buck Tavern, 8 11
Spread Eagle, 5 16
Paoli, 4 1/2 20 1/2
Warren, 1 1/2 22
Valley Creek, 7 29
Downingstown, 3 32
Coatesville, 8 40
Buck Run, 4 1/2 44 1/2
Gap Tavern, 7 51 1/2
Mine Ridge, 1 52 1/2
Mill Creek, 5 57 1/2
Soudersburg, 3 60 1/2
Conestoga Creek, 7 67 1/2
Lancaster, 2 69 1/2
Mount Pleasant, 7 76 1/2
Columbia, 4 1/4 81 1/4


From Columbia to Hollidaysburg, via Canal, 171 3/4 miles.
Columbia as above,   81 3/4
Marietta, 3 81 3/4
Bainbridge, 6 1/2 91 1/4
Falmouth, 3 1/2 94 3/4
Middletown, 4 1/4 99
Highspire, 3 102
Harrisburg, 6 108
Blue Mountain Gap, 5 113
Port Dauphin, 2 1/2 115 1/2
Duncan's Island, 9 124 1/2
Beelen's, 5 1/2 130
Newport, 5 135
Lower Aqueduct, 6 141
Thompsontown, 5 146
Mexico, 7 153
Mifflintown, 4 157
Lewistown, 14 171
Waynesburg, 14 185
Aughwick Falls, 12 197
Jack's Mountain, 6 203
Mill Creek, 6 209
Huntington, 5 214
Petersburg, 7 221
Alexandria, 7 228
Williamsburg, 12 240
Frankstown, 10 1/2 250 1/2
Hollidaysburg, 3 1/2 253 1/2
From Hollidaysburg to Johnstown by the Allegheny Portage Rail Road, 36 3/4 miles
Hollidaysburg as above   253 1/2
Walker's Point, 1 1/2 255
Inclined Plane, W. 10, 3 1/4 257 1/4
Inclined Plane, W. 7, 6 1/2 263 3/4
Mountain Branch, 9 272 3/4
Ebensburg Branch, 3 275 3/4
Staple Bend, 10 285 3/4
Johnstown, 4 1/2 290 1/4
From Johnstown to Pittsburg by the Western Division of Pennsyvania Canal, 104 miles.
Johnstown as above   290 1/2
Laurel Hill, 6 3/4 297
Lockport, 10 307
Chesnut Hill, 5 312
Blairsville, 8 320
Saltzburg, 16 336
Salt Works, 7 343
Warrentown, 5 348
Leechburg, 10 358
Aqueduct over the Allegheny, 3 361
Freeport, 2 363
Logan's Ferry, 13 376
Pine Creek, 12 388
Pittsburg, 6 1/4 394 1/4


III. By ship, round to Mobile and New-Orleans. To those who are removing from the sea-ports on the Atlantic to a southern point in the Valley, this route is the most economical, and very convenient, inasmuch as it allows them to take much household property with them at little expense.

After reaching the West, it will be found most economical, pleasant, expeditious and safe, to take a steam-boat to such a point as will be most convenient for a journey by land to the new place of residence, unless the emigrant chooses a situation on a navigable river, upon which steamboats are running. The emigrants who enter the Valley of the Mississippi by way of the Lakes, will find it cheapest to embark at the nearest point, on board of a boat on the Ohio, Wabash, or Illinois, if they are proceeding to the middle or southern parts of the Valley. But if they are going to settle in a part of the country contiguous, or within one or two hundred miles of the Lakes, they will go by wagons or stages from the Lakes to the places which they have selected.

Farmers, who remove to the West from the middle and southern states, and I might say, from the states of New-York and Connecticut, and who have good horses and wagons, will find it still most economical to remove in their own wagons, and carry with them as many of their tools and implements, which are not too bulky or heavy, as possible. Very good furniture, which can be sent by water, or even carried in their own wagons, they had better take with them. For, although they can obtain such articles in the West, yet they are dearer than in the East; and, to the increase of cost must be added, often, the sacrifice of articles sold by emigrants, who possess them, but do not carry them with them. The coarser and heavier, or more bulky articles, can be purchased to greater advantage in the West, than carried there by emigrants. Beds, common tables, chairs, &c. might be mentioned as being articles of this description. But very fine articles of cabinet ware, as well as clothing, kitchen and table furniture, tools of various descriptions, should be taken along by every farmer, where it is not too inconvenient and expensive to do so.

But professional men, and, in a word, all those who remove to towns and villages, and possess little more than


the furniture of their houses, need not take any thing more than the most valuable and easily transported articles, except in extraordinary cases, with them to the West. For they will find it most convenient, and perhaps economical, to purchase these articles in the large towns of the West.

As to the expense of transporting household property, goods, &c. by the three routes which I have already indicated, I can only speak generally, although I am confident that I shall not err much.

By the first route, viz., through the Canal in New-York, and the Lakes, I suppose, judging from what I can learn, that the price of freight from New York, or any where; on the North River, by this route would not exceed from one and a half to two dollars a hundred, to any point within a hundred miles from the Lakes, nor even to Cincinnati, and the country in that region. The same may be said soon of St. Louis. Emigrants may calculate what it is likely to cost them to remove from New-York or New-England, by this route to the West; and have what household and other property they may choose to take with them, transported by canal boats, steam boats or sloops on the Lakes, and wagons from the Lakes to the point to which they design going.

As to the second general route, viz., by the several roads which, between the Lakes and the Gulf of Mexico, lead from the East to the West, the price of transportation from the Atlantic cities to the corresponding points on the rivers in the West, from which steam-boats and flat-boats run, is various, being less in the northern part than in the southern. For instance, freight is now carried at the rate of from $1 to $1,50 per hundred, from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, and from Baltimore to Wheeling. From Baltimore and Richmond to Guyandot on the Ohio, or Charleston on the Kanawha, or to Knoxville in East Tennessee, the price of freight is from $4 to $5, sometimes a little less, per hundred. From Savannah and Augusta, to Montgomery in Alabama, freight is probably about $3,50 or $4 per hundred at present.

As to the third route mentioned, viz., by ship from Boston, New-York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Richmond, Charleston, &c., to New-Orleans or Mobile, the price of


freight varies very much, according to the state of trade and other circumstances. But it is from 50 to 65 cents usually, per hundred, for articles which are estimated in that way, or more commonly at from 10 to 12 cts. for a cubic foot of almost any sort of thing which can be sent in boxes. The voyage is usually about 10 or 15 days from New York or Philadelphia, and from 15 to 20 from Boston to New-Orleans.

The price of freight from New Orleans to St. Louis, is about 62 1/2 cents per hundred. From New Orleans to Nashville and Louisville, it is about the same as to St. Louis: to Cincinnati, it is from 50 to 70 cents more per hundred, when the boats cannot pass through the canal at Louisville. And to Pittsburg, from New Orleans, it is from seventy-five cents to one dollar per hundred. But these prices vary so much, — according to the stage of the water, and the number of steam boats running, that it is impossible to be exactly and minutely accurate. Merchandize has been brought to Cincinnati, from Philadelphia via New Orleans, for a cent a pound, or a dollar per hundred, and to Pittsburg, for a dollar and a half per hundred, exclusive of insurance. I believe that the merchants of Pittsburg would receive their goods from Philadelphia and New-York, via New-Orleans, if it were not for the risks at sea, and more especially for the delay which they must undergo, which would seldom be less than six weeks. Indeed they do now get their crates of crockery ware, and some other articles, almost entirely by this mode of conveyance.

The prices of freight from Pittsburg to Cincinnati and Louisville, is 30 cents per hundred on dry goods, and $3,50 per ton on iron &c., when the steam boats are running: but a dollar or two when the waters are too low for any thing but keel and flat boats to run. And from the same place to New-Orleans, it is usually from 40 to 50 cents per hundred on dry goods, and from $5,00 to $7,00 per ton on Pittsburg manufactures of iron &c., when the waters are in a proper stage for the steam-boats to run. From Cincinnati, Louisville, Nashville, and St. Louis to New Orleans, the price of freight is, of course, somewhat less, but not proportionably to the diminished distance.

As in shipping household goods, from eastern cities to


New Orleans, so it is in shipping them from Pittsburg, and any other place to another, in the Valley of the Mississippi — the whole is often taken in the lump, at a stipulated price. This is much cheaper than to pay at the rate of the ordinary prices per hundred.

The following extract from Judge Hall's Illinois Monthly Magazine, gives much valuable information for emigrants, who are about to remove to Illinois, Indiana, and Missouri. Indeed many of the remarks here made, are applicable to the whole Valley of the Mississippi.

"In pursuance of our design of making our work useful to persons who are about to emigrate to our state, we propose to answer a few of the questions which are sometimes put to us by such individuals.

"What season is most favourable for those who come from the Atlantic States, must depend upon the mode of conveyance which they intend to adopt. In the spring, from the time of the breaking up of the frost until warm weather, all the natural roads, west of the mountains, are bad, and the artificial, or turnpike roads, are so few, as to afford but little assistance in a long journey. The emigrant, therefore, should throw the latter out of his calculations, and lay his plan in reference to the former. In the spring the bottomlands on the margins of our rivers are overflowed, the channels of all streams are full, and the travelling in any direction is impeded, and sometimes wholly stopped, by high waters. The roads, generally speaking, are new; because the great channels of trade and intercourse are not yet settled. Population is rapidly increasing, and trade fluctuating from point to point; the courses of roads are consequently often changed, before a permanent route is adopted.

Few roads, therefore, have become so fixed, as to their location, as to have been beaten by travel, and improved by art; and the traveller who ventures out in the spring, may expect to be obliged to wade through mire and water, ancle deep, knee deep, and peradventure deeper than that. But the spring is, for the same reason, the most eligible season for travelling by water. The streams are then swollen. The largest rivers rise from thirty to fifty feet above low water mark; rocks, snags, sawyers, and sandbars, those formidable obstacles to navigation, are now all, buried far below the surface; the steam-boat glides without


interruption from port to port, ascends even the smallest rivers, and finds her way to places far distant from the ordinary channels of navigation. Business is now active; the number of boats are increased, to meet the demand for transportation; and the traveller by water meets with no delay; while the hapless wight, who bestrides an unlucky nag, is wading through ponds and quagmires, enjoying the delights of log bridges and wooden causeways, and vainly invoking the name of M'Adam, as he plunges deeper and deeper into mire and misfortune. Early in May the waters begin to subside, the roads begin to get good, and a short interval occurs when the traveller may proceed comfortably by land or water. But it is a season in which no confidence can be placed, and not to be relied on, except by such as are on the ground, ready to take advantage of its propitious moments. It is like a cessation of arms in war, or a calm in the political world, when the demons of discord are on the fence, ready to pounce down upon the unsuspecting public, upon either side. If the spring has been wet, the roads are still miry, and the traveller who has been allured by the bright sun, and the brilliant flowers, to forsake the steam-boat, will find, to his great discomfiture, the effects of winter "lingering in the lap of May." Should the spring, on the other hand, have been unusually dry, the waters subside earlier than common, and the travelling by steam-boat becomes precarious.

"In the autumn there is ordinarily but little rain, west of the mountains. The weather is mild, and subject to few changes. The roads become dry and good. Many of the smaller streams are entirely exhausted, and their beds dry, while others are so much diminished as to be easily crossed at their fording places. But few of the rivers can be now navigated by steam-boat-boats, while all of the roads are passable, and many of them excellent. This, too, is the season of plenty; the crops are ripe, the cattle fat, and travelling rendered cheap by the abundance of food.

"Those, therefore, who expect to travel by water, should come to our country in the spring, while those who prefer the stages, or who use their own horses, should defer the journey until September. Midsummer is objectionable for a reason which will apply equally to the dead of winter,


— namely, the inclemency of the weather. And here an idea occurs which is worthy of consideration. In the extreme western states, taverns are not numerous. Good houses of entertainment are only found in the large villages, and along a few of the most public roads. The traveller is often obliged to make long stages, and to stop at uncomfortable houses; sometimes at log cabins, where a single apartment must accommodate the family of the owner and his guests, and sometimes at houses which are unfinished, and open to the air. This is not so much the case as ignorant or ill-tempered travellers represent. It is an evil which may be in a great measure avoided, by care in selecting the proper roads, and in finding out the best houses of entertainment. Still it is an evil to be guarded against, by persons who have been accustomed to the comforts and luxuries of life. They will be unavoidaby subjected on such a journey, to a greater degree of exposure to fatigue and weather than they have been accustomed to; and hence the propriety of adapting the season and mode of conveyance to each other. In the summer, or in the winter, long continued exposure to the extremes of heat and cold, while actually travelling, would be severely felt, and the hours of rest would not bring their proper refreshment at uncomfortable stopping places. In the spring this exposure would be small, because most of the journey would be prosecuted in the cabin of a steam boat; in the fall it would be little felt, because the air would be mild and salubrious.

"As to the best season to emigrate to Illinois, in reference to health, we have but little to add to what we have already said. We consider the climate of Illinois decidedly healthy. We think it even more salubrious than that of most other parts of the United States, and decidedly superior to that of any part of the seaboard. Emigrants, however, are liable to disease on their arrival, from two or three causes: —

1. From exposure to hardships, and extremity of climate on their journey.

2. From the want of comfortable habitations, at their first settlement.

3 From change of food.

Fatigue, when long continued and excessive, most generally


enfeebles the body, and predisposes it to disease. Heat, cold, or sudden and frequent transitions from the one to the other, when endured for a length of time, have a similar tendency. Bad food, and loss of sleep, are also sometimes added to the discomfort of the traveller; and he thus arrives in the country debilitated, and prepared to fall an easy victim to the first assault of disease.

"The number of houses in a new country is barely sufficient to accommodate the inhabitants; and in the infancy of society, but few dwellings contain superfluous apartments. The new comers must, therefore, either be crowded into the houses of the settlers, which are already filled with inmates, or they must erect buildings, which, in the first instance, are merely temporary. In either case they are subjected to inconveniences to which they are not accustomed, to much exposure to the atmosphere, and to the entire abandonment, for a time, of their regular domestic economy. These circumstances, with the change of food and air, throw the emigrant into a new state of being, which affects his constitution for good or for evil; sometimes restoring the invalid to complete health, and as often prostrating the energies of the sound in body.

"From these remarks, a judicious man, with a knowledge of his own means, will be able to draw the proper conclusions. Should he be disposed to travel by land, he should come in the autumn, but should, by all means, so make his arrangements, as to arrive in this country long enough before the setting in of the winter, to provide for that season. Houses can seldom be had for rent. Markets are not yet established in our villages. Some time, therefore, is requisite to build, or procure winter quarters, and to lay in a stock of provisions and fuel.

"Taking every thing into consideration, we should prefer a conveyance by water. The rapidity with which the trip is performed, is one great advantage in favour of this mode of travelling. The avoidance of fatigue and exposure is another, and not an unimportant one and the opportunity which it affords of transporting a number of articles of furniture and clothing, and a variety of farming utensils, or mechanic's tools, all of which are a vast deal dearer here than at the eastward, renders it much the most eligible. The advantage of arriving in the spring,


rather than the autumn, is very great, so far as health and comfort are concerned. In the spring, the new settler can, at once, commence building and making preparations for living, without being exposed at the same time to extremity of weather.

"As to the choice of routes, a person in any of the eastern cities can obtain sufficient information to enable him to make his own election. The most rapid conveyance is from Boston to Providence, or New Haven, by stage; thence to New-York, by steam-boat; thence to Philadelphia, by stage or steam-boat; thence to Baltimore, by steam-boat; thence to Wheeling, by stage; thence to Louisville, by steam-boat; and from the latter place either to Vandalia, by stage ; or to Shawneetown or St. Louis, by steam-boat. The route by the New-York canal and Lake Erie will be more circuitous, but may now be travelled nearly all the way by water, and is preferable for those who bring heavy articles. If water carriage all the way be desirable, a voyage to New Orleans, and thence up the Mississippi, will afford that convenience.

"The expenses on the route by the New-York canal, will be nearly as follows:

From New-York to Albany, including every thing $2 50
From Albany to Buffalo, by packet boats, or in the line boats, about $10 00 14 50
From Buffalo to Erie, by steam-boat, 2 00
Or from Buffalo to Ashtabula, by steam-boat, 4 50
Or from Buffalo to Cleveland, by steam-boat, 6 00
From Erie to Beaver, by stage, including every thing, 5 50
From Beaver to Cincinnati, by steam-boat, 10 00
From Cincinnati to Louisville, by steam-boat, 3 00
From Louisville to Shawneetown, by steam-boat, 6 00
From Louisville to St. Louis, by steam-boat, 12 00

"The routes from Cleveland, or Ashtabula, to Cincinnati, or any other point on the Ohio, as well as the distances, may be ascertained from the traveller's maps [in this work,] which are accurate enough for practicable purposes. The expenses will be from 4 1-2 to 6 cents per mile.

"The expense of travelling, for one person, by stage and


steam boat, from Philadelphia to St. Louis, is about $55, including every thing.

From New Orleans to St. Louis, by steam boat, $25 00
From St. Louis to Beardstown, Illinois, 6 00
From St. Louis to Quincy, Illinois, 6 00
From St. Louis to Galena, Illinois, 12 00

"All the above prices refer to the best and most expensive modes of travelling, namely, in the public stages, and the cabins of steam boats, and the price of a passage in a western boat always includes food and lodging. Those who cannot afford to take what is called a cabin passage in a steam-boat, may be accommodated with what is called a deck passage. The deck, for the use of such passengers, is protected from the weather, but has no other convenience. Passengers on deck furnish their own beds and provisions. Many respectable emigrants find it to their advantage to travel in this way.

"A deck passage from Beaver to Louisville would cost, $4 00
From Wheeling to Louisville, 4 00
From Louisville to St. Louis, 3 00
From New Orleans to St. Louis, 8 00
From St. Louis to Beardstown, 2 00
From St. Louis to Quincy, 2 00
From St. Louis to Galena, 3 00

"On reaching Louisville, several routes to Illinois are presented. A stage runs from that place, by Vincennes, directly to Vandalia, thence to Springfield, in Sangamon county, and from Springfield north to Galena, or west to Jacksonville. Should the traveller wish to visit any of the eastern parts of the state, lying along the Wabash, he may take the stage as far as Vincennes, from which place, in the spring, he can ascend or descend the Wabash; or he may embark at Louisville, in a steam boat for a place on that river. For the southern part of the state, he may land it Shawneetown, or Kaskaskia, where he may hire horses; but in neither place will he find stages, to carry him into the interior. For the western or north-western parts of Illinois, he proper point to make is St. Louis. From that place steam-boats depart almost every day, for all the towns in Illinois which lie on the shores of the Mississippi and Illinois rivers. Stages run from this place three times a week


to Vincennes, through Belleville, Lebanon, Carlyle, Maysville and Lawrenceville; once a week to Vandalia through Edwardsville and Greenville; and once a week to Galena, through Edwardsville, Springfield and Peoria."

A letter from an emigrant, who removed to Illinois last fall, states his expenses to have been as follows; from Boston to Pittsburg, by way of Albany, Buffalo, and Erie, $48, 85. From Pittsburg to Jacksonville, $53 84. Total $101, 19. This was for himself and his wife, and includes the expenses of one day at Erie, and two at Wheeling. From Wheeling to Louisville he took a deck passage, which is economical, but ought not to be calculated upon by those who regard health or comfort. He thinks that the route which he took is the best. From Albany to Buffalo he went by the canal, and from Wheeling to St. Louis by steam boat. The necessary expenses must of course vary; somewhat, as prices change and delays are uncertain.

To the above statements, I subjoin a few other items of information which may be of use to travellers.

  Miles Expense
From Philadelphia to Pittsburg by stage 300 $15 00
Baltimore to Wheeling 271 12 00
Philadelphia via Baltimore to Wheeling 402 14 00
Pittsburg to Wheeling 59 4 50
Wheeling to Columbus 140 8 00
Columbus to Cleveland 177 10 50
Columbus to Chillicothe 45 2 00
Chillicothe to Cincinnati 94 5 50
Columbus to Cincinnati (direct) 110 6 50
Cincinnati to Indianapolis 112 5 75
Indianapolis to Madison 86 4 00
Cincinnati to Lexington 76 4 50
Lexington to Louisville 75 4 50
Louisville to St. Louis, via Vincennes 267 15 50
Louisville to Nashville 180 12 00
Richmond to Cincinnati, via Staunton, Lewisburg, Charleston on the Kanawha, and Guyandot, (by steam boat from the last named place 155 miles) 515 28 00
Richmond to Knoxville, via Lynchburg, Abingdon, Kingsport, &c 444 28 50


Baltimore to Richmond, via Norfolk, by steamboat 378 $10 00
Knoxville to Nashville, via McMinville 199 12 50
Nashville to Memphis 224 15 00
Nashville to Florence 110 8 25
Huntsville to Tuscaloosa 155 10 00
Florence to Tuscaloosa 146 9 00
Tuscaloosa to Montgomery 119 8 00
Tuscaloosa to Mobile by steam boat (about 450 miles by the river and 226 by land)   12 00
Augusta to Montgomery, via Milledgeville, Macon, Columbus, &c. 300 18 50
Montgomery to Mobile by steam boat (about) 400 12 00
Do. by stage 180 12 00
Mobile to New Orleans 160 12 00
St. Augustine to Mobile about 600 35 00
From Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Richmond to New Orleans by a packet ship from   $60 to 65

The above statements are not in every instance precisely accurate, but are nearly so. The prices vary some what every year. They are probably below rather than above the estimates which I have given.



1. Particularly in the New York Observer, and the Sunday School Journal; the former published in New York, the latter in this city.

2. It is high time that the question of boundary on the north-west from the Oregon Mountains to the Pacific Ocean should be settled. As the territory to which it relates, is now comparatively unimportant to any one, the question may be much more easily settled than at a future day, when it will appear more valuable in consequence of the proximity of population, and growing interests on each side. The difficulties in Maine would probably have been prevented, had suitable attempts been made to settle the N. E. boundary in 1816, or '18.

3. View of the United States.

4. Exclusive of the parts of those states which lie in the West.

5. Commonly pronounced Chaf-fal-i'o.

6. See North American Review, Vol. XVI. p. 60.

7. View of the United States, Chap. VIII. from which the greater part of the information contained in the present Chapter is derived; and frequently is given in the language, slightly changed, of that author.

8. The reader will find in Chapter VIII. ample information respecting the climate and diseases of the Valley of the Mississippi.

9. Darby's View of the United States, Vol. l. p. 313, 314.

10. See Flint's Geography of the Western States, Vol. I. p. 46-75, from which much of the information contained in this chapter has been derived.

11. See the very able and interesting Memoir of Sebastian Cabot, written n American gentleman, (Richard Biddle, Esq. of the Pittsburgh bar), and recently published. It is a work which does great credit to the author as well as to his country.

12. There are twenty-five steam-boats on Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence above Montreal, and several more are building.

13. A mode of propelling a boat up a stream by pulling the branches of the trees which overhang the water.

14. Even this has been since outdone.

15. This is quite too high. See the Chapter, in this work, which relates to the steam-boats of the West.

16. To give the reader an idea of the effect of steam-boats in diminishing distance, in the estimation of the western people, I would state, that Mrs. General Clarke, of St. Louis, told me, not long since, that a few years ago, she, together with a party of gentlemen and ladies, took a little excursion of pleasure, (for the purpose of spending a fourth of July,) in a steam-boat, up to the falls of St. Anthony, a distance of only about eight hundred miles from St. Louis!

17. In 1830, the sales of public land in the West amounted to $2,329,356, and in 1831, to $3,000,000.

18. Exclusive of Florida and Michigan.

19. For a more full account of the antiquities of the West, the reader is referred to the interesting communications made to the American Antiquarian Society, by Caleb Atwater, Esq. Of Circleville, Ohio, and found in Vol. I. of their transactions; Brackenridge's View of Louisiana, Schoolcraft's Travels, Lewis and Clarke's Expedition, Major Long's Expeditions, &c. &c.

20. Marshall's History of the American Colonies, Chapters X-XII.

21. For a full recount of this insurrection, the reader is referred to the history of it, written by the late Hon. Mr. Findlay, of Westmoreland county.

22. It is estimated that about $7,000,000 are invested in the manufacture of salt in the United States. In 1829, 4,444,929 bushels of salt were manufactured in the United States, one half of which were made in the Valley of the Mississippi, and 5,901,157 bushels were imported. Before good roads were made across the Alleghenies, salt sold in the West as high as $12 per bushel, equal to 24 bushels of wheat! And even after good roads were made, but before it was manufactured in the West, it sold from $3 to $5 per bushel! Now it costs from 37 1/2 to 50 cents per bushel.

23. Some idea, although a very imperfect one, of the vast quantity and value of the exports of this state, may be obtained from the following statement.
From the 1st of April to the 1st July 1829, there were transported on the Miami Canal to Cincinnati — And from the 4th of March to the 4th of April 1831. There passed along this Canal —
Of Flour, 21,485 bbls Flour 37,642 bbls.
Whisky, 9,822 do. Whiskey, 4,582 do.
Pork, 3834 do. Pork 10,384 do.
Lard, 2,593 kegs. Lard 15,549 kgs.
Corn, 11,095 bush's. and 273 bbs.
    Bacon, 38 1/2 hds.
    and in bulk, 1,072,910 lbs.

24. See the late Report (made to the U. S. Senate, April 16,1832,) by the Committee on Manufactures.

25. It is to be regretted that two rivers should be called by the name of St. Joseph's, which rise in the same part of Michigan Territory, The one flowing south enters the Maumee — and the other west, and enters Lake Michigan.

26. St. Clair Lake is shallow, and does not admit vessels drawing more than nine feet water.

27. See the Constitution of the State.

28. Doubtless many of the prairies were formed by inundations. This opinion is strengthened by facts as well as by their general position as it regards relative elevation. But this is a point which I cannot here discuss.

29. The following is a sketch (not perfect of course) of the present prices of articles and of labour in this state: — Brick, from $3 50 to $4 00 per thousand; pine boards, seasoned, from $20 to $30 per thousand feet; unseasoned, and from the rafts in the rivers, from $12 50 to $15; flooring boards, at the saw-mills, 1 1/2 inch thick, $1 25 per hundred feet; weather boards, from 80 to 100 cents; walnut, for ceiling, &c. $1 00 to $1 50; linden, $1 25; roofing, 75 cents. Nails, by the keg, 10 cents per pound; glass, 5 or 6 dollars per hundred square feet. Carpenters' and joiners' work is estimated by the day, the job, or the square, — that is, one hundred square feet. Common workmen receive usually $1 00 a day and board. Framing, when the timber is hewn, $1 00 per square; roofing, $1 50, when the materials are prepared; laying floors, $4 00 per sqare, including dressing the plank; making doors, 50 cents per pannel; window sash, 6 cents a light; laying brick, $2 00 per thousand; putting on three coats of plaster when materials are found, including hands to carry the mortar, and board, 12 1/2 cents per square yard; oil costs by the barrel, 75 cents a gallon; white lead, ground in oil, in kegs of 28 pounds, from $3 50 to $4 00 per keg; the usual wages of mechanics is $1 00 per day and board ; master-workmen, mill-wrights, and some others, charge higher; scientific mill-wrights and machinists will command from $2 00 to $3 00 per day; common labourers receive $10 per month, or fifty cents a day; men who can handle the broad axe, saw or plane, though they are not carpenters, receive 75 cents per day. There is great encouragement to good mechanics in the denser settlements of the state. Many mechanics are farmers also.

The preceding statement is taken from Mr. Peck's Guide to emigrants. I would add that these, prices are substantially the same as those of Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Missouri. They are the prices which prevail in the interior, and smaller towns. Those of the large towns and cities, are, of course, considerably higher, as it respects many items above named.

30. In some portions of the preceding account of Illinois, the author has derived much aid from Mr. Peck's very valuable work, entitled, — "A Guide to Emigrants." &c. This work relates chiefly to Illinois and Missouri.

31. One-half of the Senators are elected at each general election, which occurs biennially.

32. Since the above was written, Congress has passed an act to make further purchases of the Indian claims in Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Ohio.

33. From a memorandum in my possession, and which was obtained from a good source, I find that out of the one hundred and eighty-two steam-boats, which were not in existence in July, 1831, sixty-six were worn out; thirty-seven were snagged; sixteen were burnt; three were run down by other boats; four or five were stove by ice or sand-bars, rocks, &c.; and thirty destroyed by causes not exactly known. Some of the most calamitous accidents have been occasioned by snags, rocks, and fires.

During the last year, an unusually large number of boats have been destroyed, and many of them by fire.

34. I deem it right to say that many eastern and northern men, when travelling in the Valley of the Mississippi, or on visits to New Orleans and other cities in the Valley, who are of good character at home, do engage in gambling, to the grief of good men in this region. Even some from whom such things would least have boon expected, have done so! A gentleman in New Orleans mentioned to me more than one such instance of men who reside in a city not a hundred miles from New York, who when on a visit to New Orleans not very long since, became much addicted to card-playing. Our southern Christians have difficulties enough to encounter without such millstone discouragements.

35. The price of passage in a packet boat is about 4 cents per mile, that is, $14 50 from Albany to Buffalo. In the common boats, or line boats, it is from 2 to 2 1-2 cents per mile. Families generally pay much less in proportion.