Pictures and Illustrations.
Historical References for the Valley of the Mississippi.
As a descriptive catalogue of the principal books for the history of this valley may be desirable, I herewith submit such a catalogue, so far as materials are before me.
The aboriginal meaning of the name MISSISSIPPI is GREAT RIVER. The word sepe, or sepim, among the Algonquin Indians, means river, or running water. Marquette spells it "Mississipy," Hennepin makes it "Meschasipi;" Du Pratz says, "by some of the savages of the north it is called ‘Meact-chassipi;’" others have written "Mes-chasabe." After its discovery by Joliet and Marquette, count Frontinac called it Colbert, in honor of the French minister of Marine. La Salle named it St. Louis; but the original name has prevailed.
The O-hi-o, at its confluence with the Mississippi, for half a century, was called by the French Ouabache, [Wabash.] Above the mouth of the Wabash proper it obtained, amongst the early French explorers, the name of La Belle Riviere, the beautiful river; but amongst the English the Indian name Ohio was used. A trading post and mission station existed at Fort Massac as early as 1710, and probably as early as 1702. This post was then said to be on the Ouabache. The river now called the Wabash was one of the common routes from Canada to Louisiana in the olden time.
In noticing the authorities on the early history of the Mississippi valley, I purpose to arrange them in chronological order.
1. Hernando de Soto's Expedition into Florida, or, as more commonly but improperly entitled, "The Conquest of Florida," as North America was then called by the Spaniards. This was one of the wildest and most unsuccessful of Spanish enterprises. De Soto, and his army of some twelve hundred men and four hundred horses, landed in what we now call Florida, in May, 1539, and after various hardships, disasters, defeat and conquest, in penetrating the wilderness and engaging with hostile savages in Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee, they reached the Mississippi river in 1541, which they called Rio Grande, near the Lower Chickasaw Bluffs. The river and its scenery is described with tolerable accuracy. De Soto died of a fever in 1542, and was buried In the "Great river," near the mouth of Red river. His army, under Moscose, his successor, after exploring the "far west," and sustaining various disasters, and reduced to a mere fragment, reached Mexico.
There are two histories, or, as they are called, "Chronicles" of
263this expedition. One was written by a Portuguese soldier, of which an English translation was published in London, 1686. An abridgment may be found in Purchas' Pilgrims. The other was written by the Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, and was denominated "The Florida of the Inca, or the History of the Adalantado, Hernando de Soto, governor and captain-general of the kingdom of Florida, and of other heroic cavaliers, Spaniards and Indians." This chronicle was printed at Madrid in 1723, and is to be found incorporated nearly entire by Herrara, in his history of the Indies. No doubt there is much of fable and exaggeration in these accounts of de Soto's expedition, as there is of every Spanish expedition of that period; yet both internal and external proofs exist to show them to be substantially true.
Our readers will find a free translation of these chronicles by Theodore Irving, esq., in two volumes 12mo. published by Lea & Blanchard, Philadelphia, 1835. Dr. Bancroft, in his elaborate History of America, first volume, has given the substance of de Soto's ill-fated expedition.
2. The Journal of Joliet and Marquette — Joliet was a trader in Canada, and a man of daring enterprise. P. Marquette was a devoted Jesuit missionary. The French of Canada, about the year 1690, had learned from the Indians that a great river existed in the west, which they fancied terminated in the western ocean. To investigate this question, Joliet and Marquette were selected by M. Talon, the intendant of New France, as Canada was then called. They conducted an expedition, attended by five French boatmen and two Indians, up Greenbay and Fox river to the "Ouisconsing," and down that stream to the Mississippi, which they reached June 17th, 1673. They went down the Great river past the Missouri, which the Algonquin Indians called Pekitanoni, as far as the Akansas, and returned up the Illinois river, (called by Marquette, Illinese,) and by Chicago to Canada.
The regular journal of Joliet, the commander, was lost, but that of Marquette was published in France in 1681. A poor translation, given as an appendix to Hennepin's volumes, was printed in London, 1698. Jared Sparks, in his Library of American Biography, volume x., has furnished a full and correct account of this expedition, the substance of which is contained in the second edition of Butler's History of Kentucky.
3. An Account of the Expedition and Discoveries of M, de la Salle in North America; BY CHEVALIER TONTI. — We place this work next to that of Marquette, and in preference to Hennepin's journal, as historical authority, in point of accuracy.
LA SALLE was a man of uncommon enterprise and perseverance. Having formed the project of a trading and exploring expedition on the waters of the "Great river," and having obtained the sanction of the king of France, he set out from Frontenac in 1678, accompanied by Tonti, his lieutenant, father Louis Hennepin, a Franciscan, and thirty or forty men. He reached the "river of the Miamis" [Chicago] in November, 1679, passed over to the waters of the Illinois, built a fort and established a trading house not far from the present site of Peoria. In 1683, as our references show, (or in 1682, according to Bancroft,) La Salle went down the Mississippi to its mouth, set up the cross, and took possession of the country in the name of the king of France, and called it Louisiana.
On his return, he established trading posts at Kaskaskia and Cahokia. Subsequently La Salle went to France, fitted out an expedition to form a colony on the lower Mississippi, but could not find the river. He sailed along the gulf of Mexico, and finally established his colony on the bay of St. Bernard, in Texas. From this point he commenced an overland journey to Illinois, but was barbarously assassinated by two of his own men near the mouth of Red river.
Tonti communicated to the court of France the facts of the history to which this article refers. It is quite doubtful whether he wrote it in its present form. There is some evidence that he denied being its proper author. The probability is, his communications and journals were compiled and worked up in the present form by some French writer and published in Tonti's name. The general accuracy has not been questioned, and its credibility has been confirmed by Charlevoix and other authorities. Tonti's work was published at Paris in January, 1697, and was translated and published in London in 1698. This English translation may be found in the second volume of the "Collections of the New York Historical Society," first series, 1814.
4. A New Discovery of a Large Country in North America, extending about four thousand miles; By Father Louis Hennepin. — An English translation of this work may be found in the "Archaeologia Americana" or the "Transactions and Collections of the American Antiquarian Society," vol. i. 1820.
We hesitate not to say that Hennepin's journals are exceedingly incorrect, and portions are of very doubtful authority.
In all the Spanish and French expeditions, whether of war, discovery, or trade, the Catholic missionary or priest accompanied the enterprise. Hennepin, a Franciscan friar of the Recollet order, commanded no expedition, and had no secular authority whatever. He accompanied La Salle in the capacity of priest alone.
In 1680, while La Salle was conducting his trade at fort Crevecoeur on the Illinois river, he projected an exploring expedition up the Mississippi. M. Dacan was appointed commandant, with four Frenchmen, two Indians, and father Louis Hennepin as chaplain. They started February 28th, descended the Illinois to the Mississippi, ascended that river to the falls of St. Anthony, to which they gave this name. Here the party were taken prisoners by the Issati (Sioux) and detained till August, when by means of some French traders they obtained their liberty and returned to Canada.
Soon after Hennepin went to France, and, in 1683, published his "Description of Louisiana," the adventures of La Salle, and of his own expedition up the Mississippi and capture by the Indians. Nothing is said in this work about a voyage down the Great river. In 1697, he published at Utrecht the same account substantially, with additions containing an account of a voyage down the Mississippi to its mouth. This is called "A New Discovery," &c. The reason he gives why he did not publish this voyage in his former work, is the benevolent wish that La Salle might have all the honor of that discovery, and that he violated his orders in going down the river! The truth is, this voyage down the Great river is a constructive one, and was first published ten years after the death of La Salle, and several months alter La Salle's expedition by Tonti had appeared in Paris. Hennepin had been conversant with La Salle and Tonti, and their men, after their expedition down the Mississippi in 1683, and it is likely had access to Tonti's journal, and most likely saw it in print before his "New Discovery," as this last work was called, came out. But there is satisfactory internal evidence that his "New Discovery" was made in part out of La Salle's exploration. There are a number of remarkable coincidences in the two journals. Hennepin stops at the same places, meets the same Indians, and narrates the same incidents as are found in the work ascribed to Tonti. But taking his own account of this voyage, himself and two men paddled a canoe up the Mississippi at the rate of eighteen miles an hour for sixty hours in succession! But where was captain Dacan all this time? Did he disobey orders and go down the Mississippi? The truth is, Hennepin never commanded any expedition. He was merely the chaplain of Dacan and his party up the Mississippi to the falls of St. Anthony, where they were made prisoners by the Sioux, from whence he went to Canada, by the way of Wisconsin, and to France, and published a tolerably correct but somewhat exaggerated account of the various explorations and discoveries on the Mississippi, with a map of the country. In 1697, after the book ascribed to Tonti came
266out, he worked up his "Louisiane" into his "New Discovery," to which he added his constructive voyage down the Mississippi, and various other fictions.
For a more full examination of this subject, our readers are referred to Martin's History of Louisiana, vol. i. p. 94.; Stoddard's Sketches of Louisiana, pp. 16-19; Spark's Life of Marquette; North American Review, vol xlvii. p.5., vol. xlviii. p. 63., idem p. 258; and Democratic Review for April, 1839.
5. La Houtan's Voyages to North America. — La Houtan was born in Gascony, France; went to Canada as a soldier, at sixteen years old, in 1683, where he continued ten years; became a commandant, during which period he wrote a series of letters to an ancient relative in France. Under count Frontenac, in 1688-9, he commanded an expedition up the lakes, Greenbay, and Wisconsin to the Mississippi; thence up Long river, some distance above the Wisconsin. This he describes as coming from the west, its mouth full of "bull-rushes," channel narrow, alternate groves of timber and prairies. He describes villages of Indians which he visited, consisting of many thousands, as the Eokoves, Essanapes, and Gracsitares, and several lakes through which he passed. Of these tribes of Indians he professes to have gained much information of other great nations, far to the west, over the mountains, as the Tahuglauk, Mozeemlek, and others, and of a great salt lake. The "long river" must have been the St. Peter's, and the account an inflated and exaggerated description of what was probably a small affair. This voyage was in the winter, but they were incommoded with ice. It must have been a singularly mild winter.
On the 2d of March, 1689, they reached the Mississippi, down which they proceeded past the Moingona, (Des Moines,) and the "Riviere de Missouris." Up the strong current of this river they rowed, stopping at Indian villages, until they reached the "Riviere des Osages," where they encamped. Here they wantonly set fire to an Indian village, "which put the women and children in such consternation, that they run from place to place, calling out for mercy." This was the first voyage by Europeans up the Missouri river. From the Osage river, La Houtan and his party returned to the Mississippi, and down that river to the mouth of the Ouabuch, (Ohio) where they spent two days. From thence they returned and went up the Illinese river, and at fort Crevecoeur met with Tonti and thirty coureurs de Bois, trading with the Illinese Indians. On the 24th of April the party arrived at Chekakou. At the mouth of the Oumamis (St. Joseph?) they met a war party of four hundred Illinese
267"employed in burning three Iroguese." La Houtan, having reached Canada, returned to France, and formed a project to subdue the Iroquese (Five Nations) with whom the French were at war. The "project," it seems, did not meet with sufficient encouragement from the ministry, but its projector received the appointment of lieutenant of Newfoundland, where, upon his arrival, he had a quarrel with the governor, was disgraced, returned to Europe, and spent some years in Portugal, Denmark, and England.
His "Travels in North America" were first published in French, at Amsterdam, in two volumes, 12mo., 1705, but subsequently translated, enlarged, and republished in London, 1735. His accounts of the "customs, commerce, religion and strange opinions of the savages of that country," are copious and interesting; to which is appended vocabularies of several languages, with some sketches of the natural history of the country.
6. Histoire et Description Generale de la Nouvelle France; By F. X. Charlevoix, a Jesuit missionary, was completed and published in three volumes, 4to., 1744. It has since been republished in various forms. Portions of his work were a series of letters addressed to the duchess Lesdiguieres, and were translated into English and published, in two volumes, London, 1761. The date of these letters commence June 30th, 1720, at Rochefort, as the author was about to sail for Quebec, and close on his return to Rouen, January 5th, 1723. They are entitled, "Journal of a Voyage to North America, undertaken by order of the French king, containing the Geographical Description and Natural History of that country, called Canada, together with an account of the customs, character, religion, manners, and traditions of the original inhabitants."
The author landed at Quebec, passed up the lakes to Mackinaw, and thence up Lake Michigan to the St. Joseph's, thence to the "Theakiki," (now Kankakee,) down that into the Illinois to Pimitiouy, (Peoria,) and thence to Kaskasquias. He describes the village of "Caoquias and Tamarouas," where was a Jesuit mission station; the "mines of the river Marameg;" the mission to the Kaskasquiras, Fort Chartres, and the "colony of Illinois." From the Illinois country, Charlevoix went down to the "Natchez," and gives a description of their country and several Indian villages; from thence to New Orleans, Biloxi, the West Indies, and home to France.
So far as his statements depend on his personal observation, Charlevoix is mainly correct; but some of his statements, obtained from others, are doubtful.
7. Lettres Edifiantes et Curienses, or, Curious and Edifying Letters.
268These are selections from the correspondence of the Jesuit missionaries from all parts of the world for more than two hundred years. The publication was commenced about 1702, and extended to twenty-eight volumes. The Lyons edition in French, of 1819, contains fifteen octavo volumes, with letters continued to about the middle of the eighteenth century. Volumes iv. and v. of this edition contain their "Lettres" from Canada and the Mississippi valley. They disclose many incidents and facts of the early history of those regions, especially of the numbers and circumstances of the various tribes of Indians.
8. Historical Memoirs of Louisiana; BY M. DUMONT, 2 vols. octavo, Paris, 1753. — M. Dumont was a military officer, and lived in the Mississippi country for twenty-five years. He describes the vegetable productions, and other portions of its natural history, with many historical facts and anecdotes. We are not informed whether this work has ever received an English dress.
9. History of the Five Nations; BY CADWALLADER GOLDEN, surveyor-general of New York, one volume, 8vo., London, 1750. This is a scarce and valuable work, and gives the history of the Five Nations, that is, Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas. The Tuscaroras joined them from North Carolina in 1712, making six nations. Colden has given the history of the Five Nations from their earliest intercourse with the French in Canada, 1603, to the commencement of the eighteenth century. The volume contains a number of official documents and a variety of Indian speeches. The principal historical facts may be found in Stone's Life of Brandt.
10. History of Louisiana; BY M. LE PAGE DU PRATZ. — This work contains a description of the country, a journey through it, the natural history, manners, customs and religion of the people, and the natives, &c. It is put up rather clumsily, without much order or taste, with copious extracts from the work of Dumont.
It was first published in Paris, in 3 vols. 12mo., 1759. The edition before us is an English translation from, the French, somewhat abridged, and published in a large octavo volume, London, 1774.
11. Journal of La Harpe. — Amongst the early authorities for the history of Louisiana, is the manuscript journal of Bernard de la Harpe. Stoddard, in his "Sketches of Louisiana," says, "he had access to the manuscript journal of this gentleman. It comprehended the history of Louisiana from its first discovery to 1722." La Harpe commanded a corps of troops. He ascended Red river, and took possession of a post occupied by the Spanish authorities; traversed the country to the Arkansas river; explored and surveyed the bay of
269St. Bernard, and repossessed that country, which had been deserted after the death of La Salle.
We think this "Journal" has been published amongst the volumes of the American State Papers.
12. Carver's Travels. — Captain Jonathan Carver set out from Boston, Mass., June, 1766, by way of Albany, Niagara, and the upper lakes to Mackinaw; from thence by Greenbay, Fox river, and Wisconsin to the Mississippi, thence to lake Pepin and the falls of St. Anthony. He spent more than two years amongst the Nandowessies (Sioux,) Winnebagoes, and other Indians, and has written largely and particularly on the origin, customs, religion, and languages of the Indians, with descriptions of the geography and topography of the country, its natural history and productions.
13. There is a work by captain Pitman, who was commandant at Fort Chartres subsequently to the cession of Canada and Illinois to the English. It is said to contain a variety of particulars concerning the French villages and population of that period. It was published about 1770.
(Continued from page 269.)
14. Conquest of Illinois by Colonel George Rogers Clark, in 1778. — This was one of the most daring and chivalrous exploits of the American Revolution. The original documents of this expedition are the journals of colonel Clark, copies of which were sent to the governor of Virginia; the original papers are in the depository of the Historical Society of Kentucky, at Louisville. There is also a journal by major Bowman in the same depository.
The principal facts of Clark's expedition may be found in Butler's History of Kentucky. In 1840, the writer of this article prepared and delivered a discourse on the 4th of July, in Belleville, Ill., containing the outlines of this "conquest." This discourse has been published in several newspapers, and other periodicals.
15. A Topographical Description of the Western Territory of North America; BY GEORGE IMLAY. — This author was a captain in the American army during the Revolutionary war, and, as he styles himself, "commissioner for laying out lands in the back settlements." He spent several years in Kentucky, during which the main body of the work now before us was written in a series of letters to a correspondent in England. We have not the means of determining when the first edition was published, but think it must have been sometime between 1785 and 1788. The second edition, the one in our possession, was published in London, in octavo form, four hundred and fifty pages, 1793. This edition has an appendix, which contains the following very interesting articles, by JOHN FILSON.
"1. The Discovery, Settlement, and Present State of Kentucky, and an Essay upon the Topography and Natural History of that Important Country.
2. The Adventures of Colonel Daniel Boon, one of the first settlers, comprehending every Important Occurrence in the Political History of that Province.
3. The Minutes of the Piankeshaw Council, held at post St. Vincent, April 15, 1784.
4. An Account of the Indian Nations inhabiting within the limits of the Thirteen United States, their Manners and Customs, and Reflections on their Origin."
This work of Filson, attached to Imlay's work, was first published in 1784, and to it is appended the following:
"ADVERTISEMENT. — We, the subscribers, inhabitants of Kentucky, and well acquainted with the country from its first settlement, at the request of the author of this book [Filson] have carefully revised it, and recommend it to the public as an exceeding good performance, containing as accurate a description of our country as we think can possibly be given, much preferable to any in our knowledge extant; and think it will be of great utility to the public. Witness our hands this 12th day of May, Anno Domini, 1784.
The "Adventures of Daniel Boon," purport to have been written by himself, as the first person is used. Boon, we know, was but a "poor scribe," yet he was capable of writing legibly. His power of composition was superior to his penmanship. The "Adventures," in style and description, are perfectly characteristic of Boon. He was calm, contemplative, and an ardent admirer of nature in the uncultivated wilds. We give the following extract as a specimen:
"This day, John Steward and I had a pleasing ramble, but fortune changed the scene in the close of it. We had passed through a great forest, on which stood myriads of trees, some gay with blossoms, others rich with fruits. Nature was here a series of wonders and a fund of delight. Here she displayed her ingenuity and industry in a variety of flowers and fruits beautifully colored, elegantly shaped, and charmingly flavored; and we were diverted with innumerable animals presenting themselves perpetually to our view. In the decline of the day, near Kentucky river, as we ascended the brow of a small hill, a number of Indians rushed out of a thick canebrake upon us and made us prisoners."
The Indians, however, could not manage such a man as Boon. The seventh day of their captivity, Boon says, "in the dead of night, when sleep had locked up their senses, my situation not disposing me for rest, I touched my companion and gently awoke him. We improved this favorable opportunity and departed, leaving them to take their rest, and speedily directed our course to our old camp."
At a future time we intend to give the readers of the Pioneer a correct account of the life and character of this man, whom we knew in Missouri.
16. Journal of Andrew Ellicott — This is a scarce and valuable work, especially for its exactness in determining, by a series of astronomical observations, the latitude and longitude of various points on the Ohio and Mississippi.
Mr. Ellicott was commissioned to examine and run the southern boundary of the United States adjoining that of Spain, which he executed in 1796, '97, '98, '99, and 1800. The work before us is a large quarto volume, containing the "journal," with "occasional remarks on the situation, soil, rivers, natural productions, diseases of the different countries on the Ohio, Mississippi, and Gulf of Mexico," six large maps, and an appendix containing all the astronomical observations in detail, are included in the book.
17. The next work deserving of notice is entitled, "Sketches, Historical and Descriptive, of Louisiana," by major AMOS STODDARD, of the U. S. army. Major S. took possession of Upper Louisiana, as Missouri was then called, in 1804. He spent about five years in Upper and Lower Louisiana. The "Sketches" evince great industry in collecting facts, and skill in arranging them. The author evidently was a gentleman of science, literature, good taste, and sound judgment. He was wounded at the siege of Fort Meigs, under general Harrison, May 1st, 1813, and died the tenth day with the lockjaw.
18. A Tour into the Territory North-west of the Allegheny Mountains, made in the spring of the year 1803, with a Geographical and Historical Account of the State of Ohio; BY THADDEUS MASON HARRIS — evinces industry, candor, patient research, and a mind devoted to science. It is confined chiefly to the state of Ohio and the shores of the Ohio river.
19. History of the Expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark, to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the River Columbia to the Pacific Ocean, performed during the years 1804, 1805 and 1806, by the order of the Government of the United States.
This journal was prepared for the press by PAUL ALLEN, esq., and published in Philadelphia, in 1814, in two volumes 8vo, and gives a vast amount of original intelligence of the "far west" at that period. An abridged form of the same expedition, in 12mo., was published in 1807 by Patrick Gass, one of the persons employed in the expedition. This is the earliest definite account we have of the Oregon territory.
20. We may here as well mention the Voyage and Exploration of Alexander McKenzie, through the continent of North America to the Frozen and Pacific oceans, in the years 1789 and 1793; with an account of the rise, progress, and condition of the fur trade at that period. — Mackenzie's first voyage, in 1789, was from Fort Chepewyan, latitude 58.40 north, longitude 110.30 west from Greenwich, at the "Lake of the Hills," through a branch of the lake to Pearl, or, as called by some, Slave river, and down that river and connecting lakes and rivers, a N. N. W. course to the ocean, which the party reached July 13th, latitude 69.14 north, and within the arctic circle, where the sun was seen at that season of the year for the whole twenty-four hours in succession. They returned the route they came and reached Fort Chepewyan, September 12th, 1789.
The second voyage was commenced at the same fort, and the party proceeded up Pearl river a west-south-west course to its source, and with much difficulty pass the mountain range, and enter a river that leads them a western course, and partly by water in a birch canoe and partly overland, the party reached the Pacific ocean, in latitude 52.20 north, on the 20th July. They returned the same season, after suffering great privations and hardships. These voyages were published in London, in two volumes, octavo, 1802.
21. Schutlz's Travels, in 1807 and 1808, deserve notice, as exhibiting candor and a desire to be fair and impartial in his descriptions Christian Schultz, jun., was from England, and passed through the
318states of New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee, and the territories of Indiana, Louisiana, Mississippi, and New Orleans. He visited Illinois, St. Louis, the Missouri lead mines, and appears to have taken unwearied pains to be correct in his descriptions. His travels form a happy contrast with the British tourists in general at that period. They are contained in two small duo-decimo volumes, with maps and plates. The edition before us is New York, 1810.
22. Breckinridge's Tour in Upper Louisiana, should not be overlooked as an interesting and valuable work in its day. This tour was made in 1809.
23. Travels and Adventures in Canada and the Indian Territories, between the years 1760 and 1776; BY ALEXANDER HENRY, ESQ. — This author was engaged in the fur trade, up to the lakes and to the north-western regions, for many years, and in 1809 compiled the work before us from his journal. The work was published in New York the same year, in one octavo volume, and contains the incidents and adventures in which the author was engaged, observations on the geography and natural history of the country he visited, with views of the society and manners of the Indians. There is much interesting matter in this volume.
24. Harmon's Journal of Voyages and Travels in the Interior of North America. — The author was a native of New England, and in 1800, when his Journal commences, he became a clerk in the "North-West Company," as the firm of McTavish, Frobisher, & Co. was styled, and at the expiration of seven years' service became a partner. His "Journal" was continued to August, 1809, when he returned to Vermont. It was prepared for the press by the Rev. Daniel Haskel, and published at Andover, Mass., 1820. The region of country he visited lay between the 47th and 58th degress of north latitude, and extending from Montreal nearly to the Pacific ocean. He gives a particular description of the face of the country, the manners, customs, laws and religion of the Indians and other inhabitants, with a copious vocabulary of the languages of the Knisteneux, Tacully, and other tribes.
25. Volney's View of the Soil and Climate of the United States of America. — C. F. Volney resided and traveled in the United States and territories from 1795 to 1798, and penetrated into almost every portion. He speculates and philosophizes extensively upon the geology, climate, winds, and other meteorological phenomena, the solar and lunar influence on the winds, diseases, &c. He also describes and speculates about the French colonies on the Wabash, which he
319visited, and the American Indians. This work was published in France after his return, and translated by C. B. Brown, and republished in Philadelphia in 1804, in one volume 8vo.
26. A Narrative of the Campaign against the Indians, under the command of Major General St. Clair. — This book contains the "Narrative" of this unfortunate campaign of the general's, and various official documents intended to vindicate his conduct before the nation. It is a small octavo, and was published in Philadelphia, 1812.
27. The Expeditions of General Z. M. Pike, are contained in an octavo volume, accompanied by an atlas, and published in Philadelphia, 1810. General Pike's first expedition was to the sources of the Mississippi in 1805 and 1806.
His second expedition was in 1806 and 1807, up the Missouri river and, through the interior of Upper Louisiana, to the sources of the Platte and Arkansas rivers. The party, without knowing it, got into the province of New Mexico, was roughly treated by the government, and after being marched a long distance into the interior, at last obtained their liberty and returned to the United States.
28. The Life and Times of General James Wilkinson, in three volumes, 8vo., should not be overlooked as a source of historical information of the west.
29. Adventures on the Columbia River; BY ROSS COX. — Mr. Cox was connected with the expedition sent out by John Jacob Astor, of New York, in 1811, for the establishment of Astoria and in the prosecution of the fur trade; and after the failure of the Astor enterprise, he united with the "North-west company," and continued in the Oregon country till 1817. These "Adventures" were published in an octavo volume in New York, 1832, and contain much valuable information on the soil, climate, and other facts of the Oregon.
In connection with this work, we name Irving's Astoria, in two volumes, 8vo., and the Rocky Mountains, or Scenes, Incidents, and Adventures in the Far West, compiled by W. Irving from the Journal of captain Bonneville, in two volumes. To these we add, Memoir, Historical and Political, on the North-west coast of America and the Adjacent Territories; BY ROBERT GREENHOW, a United States Senate document, February 10th, 1840. A Geographical Sketch of Oregon, BY HALL J. KELLY; Journal of the Rev. Samuel Parker, in 1835, '36, and '37; and J. K. Townsend's Narrative of a Journey, &c., as furnishing complete and specific information of the Oregon territory.
30. Travels throughout the Interior of the United States and Mexico, from 1808 to 1816; BY HENRY KER. — Mr. Ker was born
320in Boston, Mass., but was taken by his father to England when a boy and raised in London. His travels commenced at Charleston, South Carolina, from whence he proceeds across the country to the French Broad river, and down the Tennessee to the Ohio and Mississippi; from thence to New Orleans, thence to the West Indies and back to New Orleans; ascends Red river to Nachitoches, and thence through the Indian country to Mexico. On returning through Texas, then a wilderness, the author falls into the hands of a band of robbers, is confined in a cave, his faithful servant (Edom) is killed, and his mules and property taken. He gains the good will of the captain, who liberates him in the night, and furnishes him with a purse of gold and a horse, and he reaches Nachitoches. From thence he proceeds through the Opelousas and Attakapas regions to the Chickasaw country, and reaches Nashville, Tenn.; thence to Knoxville, and a circuitous route through Western Virginia into Kentucky, and visited Lexington and Frankfort; then south through Alabama and the Choctaw country to Mobile, Florida, and round through Georgia and the Atlantic states to New Jersey, where he prepared his "Travels" for the press. The author says, "My propensity for a wandering life was very strong," of which we think he has furnished ample proofs.
31. Drake's Lives of the Indians, is a curious and interesting book, and should be in the possession of every one who desires to be acquainted with Indian Biography.
32. Bradbury's Travels in the Interior of America, in 1809, '10, and '11, contain much scientific and general information of Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri and other western regions. Bradbury was an Englishman, a naturalist, and deserves credit for his candor and impartiality.
MICHAUX (the elder and younger) and NUTTALL, as naturalists and explorers, have done much to develop the botany and other branches of natural history in the western valley.
33. H. R. SCHOOLCRAFT, ESQ., has been an industrious and successful laborer in developing the resources of the great West and adding to its stock of science and literature.
His first work, published in 1819, is "A View of the Lead Mines of Missouri," in an octavo volume. The work, however, includes "observations on the mineralogy, geology, geography, antiquities, soil, climate, population, and productions of Missouri, Arkansas, and other sections of the western country."
His Narrative of an Exploring Expedition through the Upper Mississippi to the Itasca Lake, its extreme source, in 1832, is a
321valuable work. His Algic Researches, or Tales and Legends of the Ogibeway Indians, are interesting and curious volumes.
34. Darby's View of the United States, should not be overlooked in our western historical collections.
35. Birbeck's Letters from Illinois in 1817, is a little work of some interest. But as many other European travelers at that period appear to have been delighted in giving frightful exaggerations of the inconveniences of western Americans, Mr. Birbeck evidently erred on the other side. Every thing in Illinois and the West appeared to him in the fairest colors and the most flattering aspect.
36. Becky's Gazetteer of Illinois and Missouri, compiled in 1819 and 1820, while the author was a resident at St. Louis, is an invaluable work of the kind, shows great research and patient industry in collecting a vast amount of original matter, and arranging it in a neat and scientific manner.
37. JAMES HALL, ESQ., is well known as an able and successful laborer in the field of western literature. His "Letters from the West," published some twenty or twenty-five years since in the Port Folio are sprightly, graphic, and original. As the conductor and editor of the "Illinois," and subsequently styled "Western Monthly Magazine," with "Legends," "Sketches of the West," and other works, he is too well known as a successful western writer to need further remark in this place.
38. Recollections of the Last Ten Years, passed in Occasional Residences and Journeyings in the Valley of the Mississippi, BY TIMOTHY FLINT, was first published in 1826, and is a sprightly and valuable work of the kind. His "History and Geography of the Western Valley," appeared in 1832. These and other works of Mr. Flint are both valuable and indispensable to a library of western literature.
39. The Expeditions of Major S. H. Long and his Corps, the first up the Missouri, and the next up the Mississippi, the St. Peter's, Lake Winnepeck, and to the Red river colony of the north, with the notes of Messrs. Say, Keating, and Calhoun, contain a large amount of information concerning the regions they explored.
40. Tanner's Narrative, BY DR. EDWIN JAMES, is an interesting account of the captivity and adventures of John Tanner during thirty years' residence among the Ogibeway and other Indians in the interior of North America.
41. The History of Louisiana from the Earliest Period, BY FRANCOIS XAVIER MARTIN, in two volumes, 8vo., 1827, is an elaborate and sterling work. The reader will find in this work nearly
322every fact pertaining to the early history of Canada and the American colonies, with much pertaining to the revolutions and changes of Europe, as well as the events of this western valley.
42. The History of Kentucky, BY HUMPHREY MARSHALL, in two volumes 8vo. This work was commenced in 1812, but not printed till 1824. It is confined chiefly to the civil, political, and military history of the state. Unfortunately the author carried his political partialities into his historical sketches.
A History of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, BY MANN BUTLER, ESQ., was first published in 1834. This is more connected and condensed than the one by Marshall, still neither are complete as a history of that state.
43. Description of the Antiquities Discovered in the State of Ohio, and Other Western States; BY CALEB ATWATER, ESQ. — This elaborate work was a communication to the American Antiquarian Society, and published in the first volume of the "Transactions" of that society, 1820.
44. The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee up to the First Settlement therein by the White People in the year 1768; BY JOHN HAYWOOD, Nashville, 1823. — This is a curious and interesting octavo volume of four hundred and fifty pages, abounding in interesting facts and antiquarian lore. There is another volume, by the same author, containing the Civil History of Tennessee, which we have not seen. Judge Haywood, though a little eccentric, was a man of profound research and investigation.
45. History of the Late War in the Western Country; BY ROBERT B. MCAFFEE. — This volume professes to contain a full account of all the transactions in the western valley, from the commencement of hostilities at Tippecanoe to the termination of the contest at New Orleans on the return of peace; 534 pp. 8vo., Lexington, Kentucky, 1816.
46. A Collection of some of the most Interesting Narratives of Indian Warfare in the West; BY SAMUEL METCALF. — This collection contains Boon's Narrative, and the Expeditions of general Harmar, Scott, Wilkinson, St Clair and Wayne, with an account of the manners, customs, traditions, superstitions and wars of the Indians; 270 pp., 8vo., Lexington, Ky. 1821.
47. Incidents of Border Life, is a compilation of Indian adventure, accounts of battles, skirmishes and personal encounters with the Indians, together with the history of various captivities and escapes, and a great variety of historical sketches of the north-west. It is an octavo volume of more than five hundred pages, and well
323worth the attention of those who delight in exploring our frontier history.
48. Sketches of Western Adventure, containing an account of the most interesting incidents connected with the settlement of the West, from 1775 to 1791, by John A. M'Clung, Maysville, Ky., 1832. This work contains substantially the same matter as is found in the "Incidents."
49. Notes on the Settlement and Indian Wars of the Western Parts of Virginia and Pennsylvania, from the year 1763 until the year 1783, inclusive; together with a view of the state of society and manners of the first settlers of the western country; by Dr. Joseph Doddridge; 12mo., Wellsburgh, Va., 1824. This is a curious and interesting little volume, especially as giving a most graphic picture of the "state of society and manners of the first settlers of the western country."
50. Notes on the State of Virginia; BY THOMAS JEFFERSON, written in 1781 and 1782, should be consulted in connexion with western history. The edition before us is a small duodecimo; Boston, 1832. It has an appendix relative to the alledged murder of the family of Logan by colonel Cresap.
We have by no means given a descriptive catalogue of all the works deserving of attention, but such as are either in the possession of the writer, or with which he has had acquaintance. We hope that some one else will make the "Catalogue" more complete.