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Pictures and Illustrations.

Columbian Fountain from the Rear.

United States Government Building.

The Illinois Building.

The Agriculture Building.

Machinery Hall.

The Electricity Building.

The Fisheries Building.

The "Farmer's Bridge."

The Woman's Building.

Looking Northeast from the Government Building.

Facade of the French Section.

Statue of Columbus Taking Possession.

Statue of California.

The Irish Village.

The United States Battle-Ship Illinois.

The Court of Honor by Moonlight.

The Falls of the Columbian Fountain.

The Grand Basin from the Administration Gallery.

The Horticluture Building.

Japanese Government Buildings.

Interior of Agriculture Building.

A Group of State Buildings.

The French Statue of the Republic.

Dome of Agriculture Building.

The Life Saving Station.

Looking North from the South Colonnade.

The Whaleback, "Christopher Columbus."

The New York Building.

The Great Steam Hammer.

A Procession in Cairo Street.

The Ferris Wheel.

The Columbian Fountain.

The Ruins of Yucatan.

The Alaskan Indian Village.

Haiti and New South Wales Buildings.

Victoria House.

Interior of Machinery Hall.

"The Spy," from the Art Palace.

The Convent of La Rabida.

The Santa Maria.

The Forestry Building.

The Michigan Building.

Details of the "Golden Doorway."

The Obelisk and Southern Colonnade.

The Javanese at Home.

Five Samoan Warriors in a Character Song.

Entrance to Woman's Building.

Proctor's Noted Statue of "The Indian."

The Transportation Building.

The Pennsylvania Building.

The Norwegian Building.

The Brazil Building.

State Buildings — Looking South.

North and West from the Government Building.

A View Through the Ferris Wheel.

The Curious Grain Picture.

Fort Sheridan in the Government Building.

Sections of Timber and Gladstone's Ax.

California Sea Lions in the Government Building.

The Statue of "Plenty."

Arab and Bedouin Horsemen.

Soudanese and Nubians.

Egyptian Swordsmen.

The French Colonies Building.

The Art Palace.

The Administration Building.

The Massachusetts Building.

Bird's-Eye View of State Buildings — Looking Northeast.

Interior of the Electricity Building.

Under the Government Building Dome.

"The Hunt Ball."

"An Innocent Victim." — From the Art Palace.

The Spanish Caravels, "Pinta" and "Nina."

Southwest, from the Government Building

A South Sea Island House.

Street Scene in the Java Village.

The German Building.

Camel and Driver in Cairo Street.

A View in Midway Plaisance.

The Midway Plaisance and World's Fair Hotels.

The Midway and Viaduct — from the Moorish Palace.

Solomon Joseph and Ta-Ra-Ra Boom-De-Aye.

King Bull and His Lapland Family.

"Medicine" and "Plenty Horse," Sioux Indian Chiefs.

Javanese Sweethearts.

Arabian Horses and Riders.

Kaleife and His Dromedary.

Interior of the Chinese Joss House.

A Group of Arabs, Turks and Bedouins.

Dahomey Men.

A Group of Boushareens.

Paseleo, a Samoan Chief.

Nizaha, a Woman of Nazareth.

Camel and Driver in Cairo Street.

The Grand Basin at Night — Showing Search-Lights.

The Mining Building.

The Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building.

The Obelisk and Southern Colonnade.

East Front of Machinery Hall, and the Obelisk.

Entrance to the Electricity Building.

The Spanish Government Building.

On the Wooded Island.

The Golden Door.

The East India Building.

The Ceylon Building.

Interior of Manufactures Building.

Interior View in the Government Building.

The Viking Ship.

The Cliff Dwellers.

United States Military Encampment, Government Plaza.

North Lagoon and the Merchant Tailors' Building.

A View Toward the Northwest.

Bird's Eye View of the Wooded Island.

The Canadian Building.

The Guatemala Building.

The Wisconsin Building.

The California Building.

Royal Berlin Porcelain Vase.

Eastern Portal of Machinery Hall.

The Boiler-Room of Machinery Hall.

Interior of the Mining Building.

Interior of "Old Vienna."

The German Castle.

Miriamna, a Woman from Ceylon.

A Group of Singhalese.

An Eskimo Boy.

The Court of the French Government Building.

Krupp Gun Exhibit and Leather and Shoe Trades Building.

South Front of the Manufactures Building.

Bird's-Eye View Looking South.

The Swedish Building.

The Colorado Building.

The Delaware Building.

The New Jersey Building.

The Ohio Building.

The Iron Gates, German Section.

Under the Horticulture Building Dome.

The Algerian Theatre.

Interior of the India Building.

The Sedan Chair Carriers.

Entrance to the German Castle.

Fettome, a Bedouin Woman.

North Front of the French Building.

A Load of Michigan Pine Logs.

The Germania Fountain.

The Washington Building.

The Missouri Building.

The Iowa Building.

The Indiana Building.

Machinery Hall from the Southeast.

The North Front of the Agriculture Building, and Lawn.

Entrance to Fisheries Arcade.

The Columbian Liberty Bell.

Music Hall, the Peristyle and the Movable Sidewalk.

The Macmonnies Fountain Front.

Interior of "Old Vienna."

Interior of the Javanese Theater.

Hindu Jugglers.

Reminiscences of the Fair.

1

Columbian Fountain from the Rear. — Father Time became a familiar figure during the Fair to the hosts who gathered about the music stands on the eastern part of the Grand Plaza, for the barge of the Columbian Fountain rode stern on to the plaza and Time was at the barge's helm. The illustration is an excellent one of the fountain from the rear and is as attractive, as were views taken from other points, of that splendid work of art. Grasping his scythe in an unaccustomed manner, Father Time tugs heartily away as if either the sea-horses in front or the fair rowers at the sides were swerving the grand barge a little from its course and he felt the full responsibility of his new position. In this view the rowers on the right appear, the oarswomen being Music, Architecture, Sculpture and Painting, and two of the sea-horses, which are assisting the rowers by towing, are also visible at the eastern side of the fountain, bearing upon their backs the riders typical of Modern Intelligence and Force. In the foreground a sea nymph is disporting and tritons and dolphins are enjoying themselves and tossing up the water near. The symmetry and classic majesty of the Barge of State are made from this point of view especially apparent. There was no aspect in which a feature of the fountain failed to justify the encomiums upon it.

2

United States Government Building. — Undoubtedly, buildings which were artistic and architectural successes have been erected by the United States Government, but they have been the exception rather than the rule. The Government Building at the Columbian Exposition was not one of the exceptions. It is not unfair to say of it that it fell far below the standard of excellence of the great buildings about it. It was not in tone with them nor the product of such genius. It was big and not absolutely offensive of aspect, but it did not belong to the nobility. There are some things which such a group as made the World's Fair can do a great deal better than the Government of the United States. The building was four hundred and fifteen feet by three hundred and forty-five feet in dimensions, and was erected at a cost of $325,000. The style of architecture was classic, and the prominent feature was the central dome, one hundred and twenty feet in diameter, and one hundred and fifty feet in height. This was of steel, was borne on sixteen columns, and was a fine specimen of engineering work. The location of the building, between the east lagoon and Lake Michigan, made it particularly conspicuous, and the view here given, taken from a point to the northwest, shows the northern and western facades to advantage. The national bird, the eagle, was prominent in the exterior decoration, and the interior was embellished by admirable panels with paintings illustrative of the arts and industries and of the occasion celebrated.

3

The Illinois Building. — It is but just to say that the Illinois Building was not considered one of the beauties of the World's Fair. The great sum of $800,000 was appropriated by Illinois for World's Fair purposes, and of this sum a quarter of a million dollars was expended on the ambitious structure shown in the illustration, but it was not artistically speaking, worth the money. It had only the quality that all about it was consistent; it was not charming outside nor homelike inside. It was not in tone with the rest of the Exposition. It was not international. It looked a State affair; was a State affair and was conspicuous enough to be obtrusive. So much may be fairly said of it in an uncomplimentary way, but it had some merits. The body of the building was impressive, and it was not ill-proportioned. Its dimensions were four hundred and fifty by one hundred and sixty feet. In the center a dome seventy-two feet in diameter rose to a height of two hundred and thirty-five feet. Memorial Hall, containing a great collection of trophies of war and State relics, was a prominent feature of the interior, and the non-competitive display of State products, the educational exhibit and other showings made were very creditable in themselves. The usual offices for commissioners were in the building, but little provision was made for the accommodation of visitors, and Illinoisans alone may be said to have had no home upon the Fair grounds.

4

The Agriculture Building. — Viewed from the northwest, different facades of the great Agriculture Building can be seen and a fair idea obtained of its magnitude and beauty. Though but a single story in height, most imposing effects were sought in the design of the structure and were fully realized. Its dimensions were, for the main building, eight hundred by five hundred feet, and for the annex five hundred and fifty by three hundred feet, with a combined floor area of about nineteen acres. The cost was $620,000. In connection with the building was an Assembly Hall costing $100,000. The general cornice line of the Agriculture Building corresponded with that of the other main edifices, and was composed of a main part connected by curtains with great corner pavilions, these, like the central body, bearing imposing statuary. It was, in fact, its wealth of thoroughly artistic ornamentation which contributed much to give the Agriculture Building its remarkable effect; for, fine as was its architecture, it was in the feature named that it specially surpassed the other great structures. Magnificent groups garnished the cornice over sculptured pediments and the series of sixty Zodiac bearers and other statuary are supplemented in effect by lavish interior mural painting of a high order. The view here afforded gives, in addition to the general aspect of the building, an idea of one of its approaches, with an electric fountain in repose, the Neptune statue and the so-called "Farmer's Bridge" as objects in the foreground.

5

Machinery Hall. — One of the most elaborate structures of the Columbian Exposition, Machinery Hall, or the Palace of Mechanic Art as it was termed officially, fully justified by its general effect the attention paid to ornamental details. The genius who achieved the lesser thing so well did not fail in the greater. Located at the south of the Grand Plaza and fronting to the east on the south canal, the vast dimensions of the building, eight hundred and fifty feet long by five hundred in breadth, appeared to great advantage, and viewed from the basin or the Manufactures Building, the charms of both facades appealed to the eye at once. The total cost was something over $1,200,000. The style that of the Renaissance, of the most famous cities of Spain, promoted greatly the architectural effects sought and, while its order might not be as strictly defined as was possible in other buildings, there was no question as to its capabilities. The main entrance on the north bore six large figures, each carrying a shield on which were engraved the names of prominent inventors, and above these and between the high towers were placed five more figures, each thirteen feet high. In the center stood Science and beside her were the elements, Fire, Water, Air and Earth. Surmounting each tower, both on the north and east, was a winged Victory, apparently just alighting from flight and bearing the laurel wreath. The graceful classic columns, the open beauty of the surrounding loggia and the taste maintained in the adornments everywhere combined in making the great edifice one of the Fair's great architectural triumphs.

6

The Electricity Building. — A brilliant picture is presented of the palace for the accommodation of Electricity, a new feature at expositions. Its architecture speaks the romance of the Italian Renaissance; its contents, the magic of modern electrical science. The view here allows the eye to sweep the whole of the north and east fronts, a distance of three hundred and fifty and seven hundred feet, respectively. The waters of the Central Lagoon, immediately in front, connect with the Central Basin. Here is recognized the Court of Honor, bounded on the farther side by the facade of Machinery Hall. From the esplanade to the rear rises the gem of all the Exposition palaces — the Administration. In this conspicuous position, the building accords faithfully in design with the main structures overlooking the Court of Honor. There is the similarity in height, in the repeated and uniform bay windows, and the elegant finish of Corinthian capital. The north end, unlike the south, is extended to form a semi-circular bay at either side. Between them springs the high, arched window, flanked by twin towers with gilded caps. Upon the cross sill, but scarcely seen in the picture, are read the names of famous electricians, suggesting that this great temple, reared to house the offspring of genius, celebrates at the same time the renown of the great inventors. Very appropriately an electric launch, forerunner of undreamed possibilities, speeds along in front of the bridge, while a romantic gondola, type of the past, glides slowly by in the background.

7

The Fisheries Building. — Quite unlike any other structure on the grounds, yet so situated and so constructed as to blend with the harmonious whole of the Exposition, the Fisheries Building afforded a striking example of an obstacle overcome by architectural genius. The space allotted to the Fisheries was irregular in form, and in what was considered an unpromising locality, but the novel building erected was as symmetrical in ground plan as striking in exterior treatment. The greatest length was three hundred and sixty-five feet, the terminal pavilions were one hundred and thirty-five feet in diameter, the area covered was over three acres, and the total cost was $225,000. Nearly six hundred feet of glass front were shown, and the collection of fishes and other marine creatures were something remarkable. The tanks wherein sea fish appeared were supplied with condensed salt water brought from the Atlantic Ocean. An odd feature of the building was its exterior ornamentation, the columns and arches being almost covered with frogs, tortoises, eels and similar creatures, all symbolical of the object of the structure. The Fisheries proved an exceedingly popular resort for visitors, and on all great days at the Fair there was a constant procession of a multitude beside the tanks, loud in admiration of the strange or beautiful inhabitants of the water there given a temporary home. The exhibit was decidedly the most remarkable ever seen in this country, and had the effect of awakening general interest in the progress of fish breeding.

8

The "Farmer's Bridge." — Not a few of the prominent features of the Columbian Exposition acquired popular titles quite different from their official designation. The main entrance to the Transportation Building became known as "The Golden Door," the rolling chairs propelled largely by theological students, acquired the title of "Gospel Chariots;" the Columbian Guards were called the "Tin Soldiers," and in other directions the American fancy for some pat, whimsical title disported itself. So it came that the broad was over the south basin, connecting the Grand Plaza with the Agricultural Building, was designated genially as the "Farmer's Bridge." A handsome structure it was, too, located in the midst of remarkable surroundings. All the bridges in the grounds were well built, and the idea of ornamenting them with figures of typical American animals was a happy one. Six animals were selected — the bear, buffalo, moose, elk, jaguar and antelope, the "Farmer's Bridge" having splendid representations of the buffalo and moose upon the pedestals at its approaches. The view affords much that is interesting to look upon, aside from the bridge itself. The northwest corner of the Agricultural Building is brought into prominence, and a study can be made of its various beauties, the splendid Corinthian columns, the Ceres pediment, the "Four Nations" supporting a sphere, encircled by the signs of the Zodiac and the mural painting in the vestibule. To the left is the Neptune column and in the distance appear many familiar aspects of the Court of Honor.

9

The Woman's Building. — In no Exposition previous to that of 1893 was there a great building designed by women and devoted especially to a display of women's work. That the Columbian Exposition should have such a structure was a natural outcome of the movement which made a Board of Lady Managers with a voice in the control of certain branches of exhibition. The Woman's Building occupied an exceptionally fine position just west of the west lagoon, and with all advantage afforded for the display of its architectural features. Its dimensions were three hundred and eighty-eight feet by one hundred and ninety-nine feet, its cost being $138,000. Competition for the design was restricted to women, Miss Sophia Hayden, of Boston, being the successful aspirant. The edifice was in the style of the Italian Renaissance, and, while perhaps lacking power and great originality in its conception, was at least chaste in effect and pleasing. The appearance of a towering skylight was not good when the view was at all remote, but it answered its purpose well of brightening the interior. The grouping consisted of a center pavilion flanked by corner pavilions, all connected in the first story by open arcades, a promenade being thus formed extending the whole length of the building. The pediment of the main triple-arched arched entrance was well proportioned and was enriched with an elaborate bas-relief. The interior effect of the rotunda with its surrounding arcades was light and pleasant, and the exhibits, including a great display of women's work, were inspected under the best conditions.

10

Looking Northeast From the Government Building. — From the roof of the Government Building, looking northeast, a view was afforded of a portion of the North Inlet, the elevated railway, a group of prominent structures and of Lake Michigan beyond. Conspicuous in the foreground on the right is a portion of the Life Saving Station, the inlet upon which it was located connecting with the lake a little further to the east. On the left, the north loop of the electric road is seen, and beside it the eastern wing of the Fisheries. Across the inlet, on the left, the front of the India Building shows, and east of the thoroughfare, on which it stands, a whole nest of important piles are outlined, the German Building towering above them all. The two edifices with long facades on the waterfront are the Banquet Hall, as it was termed to the left, and the Clam Bake to the right. The buildings clustered beyond are those of Germany, Spain, Hayti, New South Wales and Canada. Away to the extreme left appears a ruin, so great that it is imposing even at such a distance. It is the skeleton of the great "Spectatorium," the building which was to accommodate hosts and gratify them with the grandest stage illusions ever produced, the building which was begun and had hundreds of thousands spent upon it but which was never finished. It was the one inharmonious feature in the landscape of the Fair, an object of curious amazement to all who did not know its history. It was, in its wasting condition, an object lesson in finance, if not in architecture.

11

Facade of the French Section. — Among the various magnificent national displays made in the Manufactures Building that of France ranked with the greatest, either exteriorly considered or with regard to the works and products on exhibition. The section was on the east side of the north and south thoroughfare, known as Columbia Avenue, and at its junction with the main division east and west, France occupying the southeast corner diagonally across from Germany. The illustration gives the facade and portal of the pavilion with the big clock tower which stood in the center of the building showing a little to the left. The ornamentation about the arch and entrance is plainly indicated, and there is a view of the Statue of the French Republic, which was the first and most imposing object to command attention on entering. A minor piece of statuary was a chanticleer, "The Gallic Cock," upon the pedestal, supporting which where carved representations of historic scenes and incidents of the French Revolution. The archway was ornamented with finely carved caryatides and the columns of the entrance were not less gracefully embellished. The frieze over the entrance was a particularly exquisite piece of work. Inside the section might risk comparison with any in the Exposition. Its scope was broad, the exhibits of remarkable quality, while the arrangement was such as to produce a complete harmony, something not duly observed in even more pretentious exhibits in the building. Three rooms in the section were reproductions of salons of the time of Louis XIV. and Louis XV.

12

Statue of Columbus Taking Possession. — Only in a lesser degree than that accorded the Statue of the Republic was attention secured by its commanding situation to the statue representing Columbus taking possession of America. It stood in front of the eastern portal of the Administration Building, where were always throngs assembled whether the attendance of the Fair was light or heavy. In this part of the plaza the thousands gathered to listen to the music and to look out upon the beauties of the Court of Honor by day and the brilliancy of its illumination by night, and the statue was almost in their midst. It was the verdict, too, of most people, that it merited the position given it. It was begun by Louis St. Gaudens, brother of the famous sculptor, and completed by Miss Mary Lawrence, one of the latter's pupils. The figure stood on a square pedestal, the discoverer being shown in the formal act of occupation of the New World in the name of his sovereigns. In his right hand was grouped the staff from which floats the standard of Castile and Aragon while his left upheld a naked sword. The face was beardless, deep-lined and earnest, differing materially in expression from most of the portraits accepted as likenesses of the navigator.

13

Statue of California. — Typical of the great state upon the Pacific Coast was the Statue of California, a striking figure in the huge structure erected in imitation of one of the old Spanish missions. The artist had caught the spirit of the commonwealth, and joyous luxuriance was as apparent in the statue as indicated by the exhibits all about. The figure stood upon the apex of what seemed a pyramid of tropical plants, a bear lying beside her as a grim guardian, the olive branch of peace extended in her right hand and her left grasping a garlanded banner, upon her crown the star of empire. The face was buoyant and hopeful and the figure strong and even gracefully buxom. The surroundings of this statue, which so fitly stood for the Golden State, were in keeping with her expression and attitude. The scene was one of peace and plenty. The riotous extravagance of display of luscious fruits and all semi-tropical product of field, grove or vineyard was something to amaze the great mass of visitors. In the view presented appear other beauties which illustrate the quality of the California displays. The counties were grouped about, each making its own exhibition of varied products and resources whether of fruit, grain, or gold. The famous Marshall nugget was one of the exhibits.

14

The Irish Village. — There were two Irish villages in the Midway Plaisance, each possessing many attractions. The one here shown is that in which the Countess of Aberdeen was interested and in which she had a cottage. The village was one of the first of prominent features at the left upon entering Midway from the grounds proper, and comprised the exhibit of the Irish Industrial Association. The entrance was a copy of the north doorway to a chapel built by Cormac, Bishop of Munster, in the twelfth century, and led directly into a reproduction of the famous Muckrass Abbey. Beyond this were the cottages where the practical features of the village were made manifest. Turf fires were in the cottages, potato-pots were hanging over them, and other characteristics of Irish home-life were as strictly observed. Irish girls were at work showing how needle-point, applique, Limerick and other laces were made, and illustrations were given also of spinning for homespuns and of expert knitting. A dairy in operation was another exhibit, and the bog-oak carving industry was not neglected. At the rear of the village stood its most prominent object, Blarney Castle. Here were the living and sleeping rooms of the village workers and a winding stair led up to an apartment where those who wished might kiss a piece of the Blarney Stone. There were a village music hall and a museum, where curiosities were displayed. The pipers of the two Irish villages were special subjects of interest, a great rivalry being supposed to exist between them.

15

The United States Battle-Ship Illinois. — The happy idea of a battle-ship as a part of the naval exhibit at the World's Fair is said to have originated with Commodore R. W. Meade, U. S. N. The result of the conception was the "Illinois," which lay apparently at anchor in Lake Michigan, near Victoria House, and approachable from one of the docks. The "Illinois" was a reproduction of one of the ten thousand three hundred ton battle-ships of the navy, such as the "Oregon" and "Indiana," and was built of brick laid to the contour of the vessel and finished with Portland cement. Below the berth deck the ship was finished with steel plates extending well into the water and the sides of the superstructure, the turrets, redoubts and larger guns were of wood covered with cement laid on metal lathing. Other than in these respects the ship was finished and furnished with materials similar to those used on a real man-of-war. The length of the "Illinois" was three hundred and forty-eight feet, width amidships sixty-nine feet and three inches, and from the water line to the top of the main deck twelve feet. The height from the water line to the top of the military mast was seventy-six feet. The armament comprised four thirteen-inch breech-loading rifled cannon, twenty six-pound rapid-firing guns, two Gatling guns and six torpedo tubes, or guns. The ship was manned with a regular force from the United States Navy, the usual discipline was observed, and the "Illinois," save that it would not float, was a regular part of the navy, an imposing and interesting object and an instructive exhibit.

16

Samoan Girls. — Among all the semi-civilized people brought from distant lands to add to the completeness of the Exposition, none, not even the Javanese, made more friends than the Samoans. In the Samoan Village were to be seen the finest specimens of physical development, both of men and women, to be found upon the ground, and their sense and amiability were made manifest by their deportment throughout the continuance of the Fair. The illustration is from a photograph of the belles of the village, Lioloa and Fetoai. The perfection of their forms attracted general admiration, and before they returned to their own country one of the two, the one sitting in the chair, consented to be modeled for the use of the Art Institute, accepting the compliment modestly and naturally. She was pronounced by the authorities on art as possessing very nearly the recognized ideal of womanly proportions. The two women are wearing the native costume, the garments being made of fibers indigenous to their island though so skillfully woven as to resemble cotton. The Samoans are very fond of flowers, wearing them at all times, and the girls in the picture do not appear to have lost their taste for such adornment, even in a land where garlands may not be plucked at will.

17

The Court of Honor by Moonlight. — Of all the magnificent spectacles the Columbian Exposition afforded the view of the Court of Honor by moonlight seems, by common consent, to be accorded the first place. The effect of wonderful lights upon the glorious white buildings and on the waters, the electric flashes through the air, the sky scene made more beautiful, if possible, by the addition of the beauties below, the passage of gondolas and launches with their merry parties slipping through light and shade, the gleaming and shifting splendor of the fountains, the sensuous music filling the air, all combined to make such a scene one unsurpassable and likely to be unforgotten. The view given above is from the east end of the Grand Basin with the statue of The Republic in the immediate foreground and the Administration Building in the distance. Above a full moon with a few fleecy clouds which neither obscure her nor the myriads of stars add to the charms of the particular night. From the Manufactures Building on the right a blaze of electric glory makes wonderful lights and shades upon the Agricultural Building to the south and brings out statuary and architectural features in white relief. At the west end of the basin the fountains are in full play and their bright colors are but varied by the band of white light between. The water lies like a silken carpet. It is a dream picture — no other term will fit it — and it is true to the scene as it appeared. A wonderful thing was the Court of Honor at night, something hardly even imagined before, unless as a picture in a fairy tale or in some oriental story. But it was a reality.

18

The Falls of the Columbian Fountain. — Viewed from its front, and at a point not remote, the overflow of the Columbian Fountain afforded the spectacle of one of the most charming of cataracts. The mass of water tumbled down from level to level in a great foaming semi-circle, until, finally, it plunged into the Grand Basin, a white sheet impressive in its beauty Wider than the famous Falls of Minnehaha, though with not quite so much descent, the falls of the fountain reminded hosts of people of that pretty spectacle in Minnesota which Longfellow made so celebrated. "A table-cloth of pure water," the Falls of Minnehaha have been called, but in Minnesota the table-cloth is not hung so smoothly nor with such housewifely care as was that of the Columbian Exposition. Neither did the falls here go rollicking away with the flood of a pretty creek, but, instead, whipped into a fringe of foam the waters of a smooth expanse and added variety to the charming scene upon the basin. As the "Maid of the Mist" once took passengers to the verge of the abyss of Niagara, so gondolas and launches would approach the downpour of the fountain, but the greatest danger lay in a sprinkling, and the roar of the falls was not loud enough to render indistinct the chatting of the gay parties who delighted to be rowed near the spot, especially at night, and watch the rainbow hues made by the lights upon the water. It was a place of great attraction. From any point on the Grand Basin, as from any point upon the land, the Columbian Fountain was a source of pleasure, one of the inspirations and masterpieces of the Fair.

19

The Grand Basin from the Administration Gallery. — Very striking was the effect produced by the body of water known as the Grand Basin, forming a symmetrical marble-framed lake in the center of the Court of Honor. Here, during the day, were reflected the hosts of white fronts uprearing on every side; here, at night, were flashed back the blaze of light from all directions, and here the launches and gondolas flitted about by scores, carrying the hosts of people who chose to view the illuminations from the water. Never before was a lake of such dimensions upon which was a passenger traffic so constant and so great. Never before was a sheet of water so wonderfully illuminated, and, assuredly, never one so gloriously surrounded. The view given is from the west, in front of the Administration Building. In the foreground is the Columbian Fountain; then, on the left, one of the electric fountains, the bridge over the entrance to the lagoons, the large Manufactures Building, the Music Hall, the Statue of the Republic and the Peristyle to the far east. Continuing around, are the Casino, then the long front of the Agriculture Building, the bridge and the electric fountain. The light walls of the basin with the green lawns adjacent, and, then, the higher walls with their decorations of leafy plants in great vases, but added to the beauty of the setting of this water gem. Never was the element so used before to produce such effect on so grand a scale, an effect possible only by the presence of the inland sea showing dimly in the distance between the columns of the Peristyle.

20

The Horticluture Building. — It is doubtful if among all the views taken upon the World's Fair grounds one has been secured which in beauty and general interest surpasses that given here. It is from the top of the Government Building looking west over the Wooded Island and commanding the whole splendid frontage of the Horticulture Building, a view which, from the nature of things, could not be gained elsewhere or at a less altitude. The Horticulture Building appears here to a justified advantage. The frontage of this remarkable structure was just one thousand feet and its extreme width two hundred and fifty feet. The plan was that of a central pavilion and two end pavilions, each connected with the center by front and rear curtains forming two interior courts. The magnificent crystal dome roofing the central pavilion was one hundred and eighty-seven feet in diameter and one hundred and thirteen feet high. The cost of the structure was about $300,000. The style of architecture followed is designated as the Venetian Renaissance. A sculptural frieze and six single figures are the principal exterior decorations, the frieze with its cupids and garlands and the appropriateness of the statuary completing an effect which scarcely needed such assistance. On the left of the Horticulture Building appears Choral Hall, where were held many famous gatherings, and on the right the White Star Steamer Line Building and beyond it the "Puck" Pagoda. In the distance, outside the grounds, may be seen tall buildings looming up here and there, the World's Fair hotels about which so much has been said and written.

21

Japanese Government Buildings. — From the very inception of the idea of the Columbian Exposition, the Japanese Government showed a hearty good will toward the United States in the movement, and was one of the earliest nations on the ground engaged in the erection of its buildings. A site on the Wooded Island was given the old empire, it being the only country occupying space in that picturesque locality. The sum of over $630,000 was appropriated by the Japanese government, the famous Hooden Palace was erected at a cost of $100,000, and was surrounded with an area of Japanese landscape gardening at an additional cost of $20,000. The palace, consisting of three separate buildings connected by wide corridors, was built after the general plan of the famous historic temple of Hoo-do, erected eight hundred and forty-three years ago and still existing. The three structures were of unpainted wood, roofed with sheet copper, with interiors wonderfully paneled and decorated and indicative of the style of construction in Japan at different periods. The south wing was in the style of the Ashikaga period, about four hundred years ago; the main hall that of the Tokugawa period, about one hundred and fifty years ago, and the north wing that of the Fujiwara period, about eight hundred and fifty years ago. Very charming were the Japanese buildings and the scenery about them, and no locality in all the grounds aroused more delighted and curious interest in all visitors. The buildings, it is pleasant to consider, will remain among the permanent attractions of the park.

22

Interior of Agriculture Building. — The visitor new to the Fair and as yet unfamiliar with the topography of interiors was not unlikely to get lost in the Agriculture Building, with its acres of space and mile upon mile of displays. It was a most bewildering, but attractive, place, and drew the people, regardless of their occupation when at home. The dainty city woman and the sturdy farmer moved side by side here in examination of the marvelous displays made from almost every country of the earth. The view given in the illustration is one taken east from the main western entrance of the building. To describe the arrangement in a general way, it may be said that foreign countries occupied the north half of the building, and the United States the south. Close at hand on the left is seen the exhibit of Paraguay, and beyond it, on the same side of the avenue, are those of Uruguay, the Argentine Republic and Germany, the latter extending to the center of the building. On the right is Nebraska, and beyond are other States. Russia and Italy had also room in the south division. The exhibits from some South American countries were not strictly agricultural, from the ordinary point of view, that of British Guiana, for instance, including a splendid collection of ugly reptiles and dangerous wild beasts. In the Agriculture Building were reached the greatest triumphs in the erection of ingenious booths and pavilions, and a visit there was always a fascinating experience.

23

A Group of State Buildings. — The State Buildings, though dwarfed by the monster structures south of them, made a city by themselves in the north and northwest parts of the Exhibition grounds, and afforded varying and beautiful types of architecture in their exteriors, while among their interior displays were many rarely surpassed in interest. The view above presented is from an elevated point not far from the northwest corner of the grounds looking southeast toward the dome of the Art Building. At the right in the foreground appears a corner of the Kansas Building, and just over and beyond it show those of Florida and Missouri. On the left, the Texas Building is conspicuous in the immediate foreground; just south of it that of Kentucky, while, looming up beyond, are those of Pennsylvania and New York, the tops of the buildings of Massachusetts, the Joint Territories, Maine and Maryland being also visible. In the remote distance to the right appear the domes of the Government Building and Manufactures, while, as far away to the left, are the blue waters of the lake. A touch of greenery adds to the beauty of the picture and promotes the illusion that the observer is looking upon a real town of stately edifices, one in which people live, move, and have their permanent being. Some time elapsed after the opening of the Fair before the attractions of the many State Buildings were fully recognized, but toward the close they were thronged daily by great crowds who had acquired information of their interior treasures, and who were not inclined to depart without benefiting by their examination.

24

The French Statue of the Republic. — The majestic gilded figure which stood at the east end of the great basin in the Court of Honor, and which typified the nation inviting her sisters of the world, was not the only representative statue of a Republic to be seen at the Exposition. On the east side of the broad thoroughfare known as Columbia Avenue, in the Manufactures Building, and facing the main portal of the French display, stood the heroic statue representing the French Republic. Of splendid proportions, cast in bluish bronze and a recognized masterpiece of art, the beautiful creation well fulfilled its idea as indicating the spirit of the nation from which it came. France, with one hand upreared as if commanding attention and an audience, appeared appealing to the world for the rights of man. Moral force should be the agency — so said the attitude and the expression of countenance — but, that failing, there was the sword grasped in the left hand in which was also held the tablet containing the law of equality and fraternity. As the expression of an idea it could scarcely be surpassed by any of the vast number of great works exhibited, and in the position it occupied it appealed to the senses with added force. It had all the merit of French artistic development and the perfect conveyance of an impression, which is part of the duty of sculpture. It was France.

25

Dome of Agriculture Building. — The agriculture department of the World's Columbian Exposition was housed in a palace, for the great building devoted to the purpose was a magnificent structure, both as to dimensions and architectural character. The main building stood beside Lake Michigan its principal facade facing the grand basin in the Court of Honor, full opportunity being thus afforded for the display of its imposing features. The view above given is that of the principal entrance, with the landing for gondolas and electric launches in the immediate foreground. The style is the classic renaissance with Corinthian pillars fifty feet high and five feet in diameter. This entrance led through an opening sixty-four feet wide into a vestibule terminating in the rotunda one hundred feet in diameter, and surmounted by a mammoth glass dome one hundred and thirty feet high. Above the main entrance, as well as in the vestibule and on the domes of the corner pavilions, were groups of statuary illustrative of the building's uses. Surmounting the main dome, as will be seen in the illustration, is the beautiful Diana statue by St. Gaudens, which adorned the tower of Madison Square Garden in New York and was brought to Chicago for its greater purpose. The pediment, which represented Ceres, was a work of almost equal beauty.

26

The Life Saving Station. — The Life Saving Station was a popular institution at the World's Fair. At a certain hour every afternoon the crowd assembled on the lakeshore and gazed out over the water, out of which, at a considerable distance, rose a mast, theoretically, that of a vessel submerged beneath. To the mast clung one or more supposably shipwrecked people awaiting help from land. The help soon came. From the Life Saving Station dashed down the rescuers. A mortar was fired seaward, to the projectile of which lines were attached, and these lines fell so that they could be seized by those on the mast and fastened, and then the "breeches buoy" was drawn out, they got in and were brought, one by one, to land and safety, unharmed by the raging waves beneath. Practically, the waves were very seldom raging, but that did not impair the efficiency of the object lesson taught, nor lessen the proof afforded of the merits of the service. The Life Saving Station was established near an arm of the North Inlet, a portion of the building and some of its boats with the launchway appearing in the illustration. The building was of two stories and had the usual force of men under command of an officer of the service. Exhibition drills were given daily, the shore was regularly patrolled and all the discipline of an ordinary station was maintained. The exhibit, as already said, was very popular and was a most instructive one, familiarizing hundreds of thousands, as it did, with the work of the men engaged in one of the most hazardous of public services.

27

Looking North from the South Colonnade. — In the opinion of many people the most striking extended view to be had upon the Fair grounds was from the Obelisk, at the southern extremity of the South Canal, or better still, from the Colonnade immediately in its rear. From this point opened a vista nearly a mile in length terminated only by the beautiful front of the Art Palace, the dome of which is faintly discernible in the accompanying illustration. The whole stretch of water north and south appeared from here, the South Canal, the Grand Basin, the North Canal, the Lagoon and the North Pond, while the Wooded Island formed a charming center-piece to the distant picture. On the right were revealed frontages of the Agriculture Building and the Manufactures Building, while on the left were Machinery Hall, the Fountains, the Neptune Statue, the Electricity Building and, far away, the Illinois Building, the tall dome of which stood most prominent beyond them. In the immediate foreground were many charming additional features, as viewed from the Colonnade, the Obelisk, with its Guardian Lions, the Statues of Industry and Plenty beside the Canal, the "Farmer's Bridge," with its moose and buffalo, and all the western adornments of the Grand Basin. The picture was a wonderful one, in the richest frame ever a picture bore, for it was made of buildings costing millions. It was not surprising that, when it was learned what a view the South Colonnade afforded, there was a drift there of those with taste or that the fame of the prospect became so wide.

28

The Whaleback, "Christopher Columbus." — The steamboat company accorded the privilege of controlling the passenger traffic by water between the central part of Chicago and the Fair Grounds had a number of boats in its service but none to compare either in size or speed with the "Christopher Columbus," popularly known as the "Whaleback." The "Christopher Columbus" was one of the best of the type of freight carriers, a comparatively recent invention, built with the idea of rather sliding over the waves than cutting them, the device of an old lake captain who found his support in Duluth. The ordinary "Whaleback" from its appearance in the water fully deserves its name, but the "Christopher Columbus" had the addition of a large part of the ordinary passenger steamer, built on top of its queer body. It proved not only the fastest but the most comfortable of all the steamers engaged in the World's Fair traffic. The decks built above the odd looking hull accommodated a vast number of people, the boat being one of four thousand tons and carrying 5,000 passengers, and the comfort of the trip was increased by the fact that the furnishing of the big boat was made even luxurious. Before the end of the Fair it became almost a fact that the visitor had not "done" the opportunities of the great occasion thoroughly unless at least one journey had been made on the snow-white monster which made such flying trips over the blue water between the Van Buren Street wharf opposite Chicago's business center and the Fair Grounds to the south.

29

The New York Building. — Ranking nearly with that of Illinois, the New York Building was probably first in point of originality of light design and unique attractiveness of interior. It occupied a space two hundred and fourteen feet in length by one hundred and forty-two in depth, and was not quite one hundred feet in height to the apex of its towers. Its cost was $77,000. It was designed simply as an elaborately decorated and richly finished summer palace. A flight of fourteen steps, forty-six feet wide, led to the entrance, where were casts of the famous Barberini lions, and where the four pedestal lamps were reproductions of the best examples in the museum of Naples. Busts of the first and latest governor occupied niches on either side of the entrance, and in other larger niches in the exterior were heroic figures of Hendrick Hudson and Christopher Columbus. Above the entrance the great seal of New York was illuminated by hosts of tiny electric lights set close together. The mural decorations of the great entrance hall were from Pompeiian designs. On one side were the women's state apartments and on the other those of the men. The grand reception hall on the second floor was eighty-four by forty six feet in dimensions, a magnificent room decorated in white and gold. On this floor were various offices and rooms devoted to the exhibition of historical relics. An elevator carried visitors to a charming roof garden above. There were many notable gatherings in the charming structure.

30

The Great Steam Hammer. — One exhibit in the Transportation Building always attracted curious inspection. To many unfamiliar with the heavy machinery used in the vast manufactories of today, its use was not apparent, but to those informed in such fields it was an object of decided interest. This was the model of the monster steam hammer in use by the Bethlehem Iron Company, of Pennsylvania, the largest steam hammer in the world. Though painted to represent iron, the model was of wood, and so well executed as to convey an idea of every detail. Why a steam hammer should form a part of the display in this particular building, what it had to do with transportation, was a puzzle to many people, but the problem was easily explainable. Under the head of "Transportation," of course, came steam and sailing vessels, and this included war ships. In connection with this particular display was a group of objects of "Naval Warfare and Coast Defense," and in this group was exhibited the model of the steam hammer used in forging the armor for the big ships of the United States Navy. That the hammer must be used for some such purpose was apparent from its huge dimensions, and its proportions and the details of its construction proved of the greatest interest to experts in the field of its utility.

31

A Procession in Cairo Street. — It was attempted by the management of the Plaisance Street in Cairo to reproduce as far as possible Egyptian scenes and customs, and one performance in accordance with this idea was the appearance every afternoon of a procession which wound its way along through the motley assemblage in the queer thoroughfare. The view given is from a photograph taken of the parade as it was checked a moment for the purpose. The scene is an excellent portraiture of the street as it existed, and the faces of the Egyptians shown indicate the character of the group brought to this country to complete the showing. Thousands will recognize the monkeyish face of the little fellow toward the front at the right, the camel-riding drummers who made so much more noise than music, the Nubians and other members of the droll company who showed even more than American skill in pursuit of the mighty dollar. A pretty feature of the picture is the girl standing in unconscious grace in the immediate foreground. They were a merry and noisy lot, but had acquired the art of cajolement and petty money-getting to a degree which detracted somewhat from their picturesqueness.

32

The Ferris Wheel. — What the Eiffel Tower was to the Paris Exposition the Ferris Wheel was to the Columbian. Like the Eiffel Tower, it was a triumph of engineering and an example of metal construction on a gigantic scale, but it had the additional feature of activity. It was in motion, a monster plaything, a device for furnishing a novel experience to the multitude. The story is told and seems to be authenticated that the idea of the wheel was conceived by Mr. Ferris while at dinner, and that the design and dimensions as he jotted them down on paper at the time were never changed, the wheel being constructed in the manner then determined upon. A remarkable object, one visible miles away, was the great structure and it lost none of its curious or attractive features upon a closer approach. The height of the wheel was two hundred and fifty feet, the steel towers on which it rested were one hundred and forty feet in height and sunk in the ground thirty-five feet, and the steel axle was forty-five feet long, thirty-two inches in diameter and weighing seventy tons. It was the largest piece of steel ever forged. The total cost of the wheel was $380,000, and it had, out of the receipts from carrying passengers, earned the entire sum by the first of September. Its erection proved an excellent speculation, daring as was thought the venture. Passengers were carried in thirty-six cars suspended between the double tires of the wheel.

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The Columbian Fountain. — The Columbian Fountain was generally recognized as a triumph of artistic work on a splendid scale and beyond simplicity in its significance. The prominent object in the Court of Honor, directly in front of the Administration Building was a great circular basin, one hundred and fifty feet in diameter, in which Columbia sat in a Barge of State, drawn by sea-horses and rowed and guided by symbolical figures. At its eastern side the water of the fountain plunged in a circular cascade to the Grand Basin twelve feet below. The huge barge was of the style of the classic ages, its prow ornamented with an eagle's beak, its sides bordered with graceful reliefs and horns of plenty pouring their abundance over the gunwales. Columbia sat aloft upon a pedestal heralded by a figure of fame bearing a laurel wreath and sounding a trumpet. The barge was oared by the Arts and Industries and steered by Father Time, who had improvised his scythe into a helm. In one hand Columbia bore a torch at rest upon the pedestal beside her. The rowers of the barge on the right were Music, Architecture, Sculpture and Painting; those on the left and which appear in this illustration were Agriculture, Science, Industry and Commerce. Four pairs of sea-horses, the Sea-Horses of Commerce bearing riders representing Modern Intelligence, drew the barge, making lighter the work of the rowers. Dolphins, mermaids and tritons disported themselves in the water. The work was equal to the conception. It was a wonderful fountain.

34

The Ruins of Yucatan. — To the mind of the student of the world's history or that of any one of ordinary learning and imagination, there was no more interesting exhibit in its department of the Exposition than were the ruins from the ancient cities of Yucatan. They told of a civilized race existing on this continent, and building palaces and temples of an elaborate order of architecture long before Leif Ericsson reached the New World in his Viking ship, or Columbus, later, made the passage with his caravels. The remarkable duplication of the ruins shown at the World's Fair was the work of Edward H. Thompson, United States Consul to Yucatan, who visited the jungles of Uxmal, Labna and Capon and made papier-mache molds of the tablets and architectural features, which were later cast in staff for the showing produced. Portions of the ruins themselves were also brought, and so the actual work of American architects, who lived and died before modern history began, stood side by side with that of the builders of the World's Fair of 1893. The Maya language is dead, the inscriptions on the stones are undecipherable, but it is possible that, because they have now been placed within the reach of every student, their meaning may yet be construed, and something of the secrets of ancient American history revealed. There were six sections of these ruins, three of them showing doorways, arched, square and V-shaped, but in each instance, with the keystone lacking. The ornamentation was unique, and indicative of no little taste on the part of the original architects.

35

The Alaskan Indian Village. — Our vast territory of Alaska was not represented at the Fair to the extent its fast-developing resources might have justified. There were no territorial commissioners from that northwestern region; and such regular exhibits as were made appeared in the Government Building under the auspices of the Interior Department. Its fur display, loaned by a private Alaskan firm, was the richest ever made in this country, including the skins of the sea otter, silver fox, seal, mink and others of special value. If Alaska did not appear in the regular departments, though, the territory at least supplied a delegation of its inhabitants, whose mode of life was well illustrated and whose appearance and demeanor drew much attention. Near the South Pond, in which lay the old whaler, "Progress," whom some of the natives might previously have seen on her voyages to the Arctic Ocean, was a village of Quackuhl Indians who, during the Fair, lived there as nearly as conditions would allow, just as they lived at home. Their rude, oddly decorated huts, their boats, and, most conspicuous of all, their totem poles, were conspicuous objects. The totem poles were trunks of trees quaintly carved and the characters upon them told in a sort of picture language of the deeds of deceased ancestors. A totem pole seems to be an indicator of the social standing of the family possessing it, and the longer the pole, the higher the grade in Quackuhl estimation. A rugged and by no means unintelligent people are these Indians of the northern Pacific coast.

36

Haiti and New South Wales Buildings. — On the thoroughfare running west from the British Government Building on the lake shore, were the buildings of Haiti and New South Wales, located so together but by chance in the distribution of space. It was to be expected that the island republic, the region of Columbus' first landing place in America, would take an interested part in the Exposition and this disposition was early manifested. The building erected was a Grecian adaptation of the Colonial style. On the front portico were the coat of arms of the republic and three dates, that of the discovery of America, of the declaration of Haitian independence and of the four hundredth anniversary celebrated. The Haitian exhibit was all made in this building, including one of Columbus' anchors, a bust and relics of Toussaint L'Ouveture, and fibers, minerals, plants and specimens of work.

New South Wales was very much in evidence at the World's Fair, its exhibits being prominent in many departments, and its affairs being managed with exceptional tact and energy. Many medals of value were carried off by this remote country which is so rapidly advancing in importance. Australia House was the title given the building erected, a plain, handsome structure, in which were the headquarters for the Australian representatives, a genial and active group. The appropriation for the Columbian Exposition display made by New South Wales was nearly equal to that of Great Britain.

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Victoria House. — Great Britain's Building, known as Victoria House, was hardly what might have been expected from the Mother Country. It cost $80,000, was not a particularly imposing structure, though by no means ungraceful, and was closed to the public most of the time. It occupied a charming position on the lake front, being the only structure east of the Lake Promenade. It was a Gothic, half timber house, in the style of Henry VIII., with overhanging gables and a tiled roof. Terra cotta was much used in the first story, and the red brick facings and mullioned windows combined to give a very pretty effect. There was a fine library on the first floor, and some interesting exhibits, while the second floor was largely devoted to offices. The ceilings were in some instances reproductions of those of famous halls, and the embossed leather on the dining room walls was first executed for a new ball room at Sandringham Hall. Victoria House might have been made one of the most attractive and homelike to Americans of all the foreign buildings. In front of the Victoria House stood the group of statuary, "America," one of the four typifying the four quarters of the earth which stand at the corners of the Albert Memorial in London. Liberty, or Civilization, stands, her breast emblazoned with the stars of our States, extending her domain over the wild Indian and the buffalo. This piece of statuary has become famous, and its exhibition where it was located was a graceful and appropriate thing. It is understood that the group becomes the permanent property of the City of Chicago.

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Interior of Machinery Hall. — Quite different from the view afforded inside any other of the buildings of the Fair was that where the acres of all kinds of modern machinery were exposed in competition. So constructed that the most effective display of such exhibits could be made, the vast hall presented a scene never equaled of its kind before. A common simile in describing the place was to compare its interior with three immense train houses set side by side and surmounted by a single roof, a structure eight hundred and fifty feet long by five hundred feet in width. This great area had a gallery about it fifty feet in width, and the illustration here makes possible a comprehension of the spectacle the gallery commanded. To the right, extending away into the distance, appears the roadway of the traveling crane, a necessity in this building, since no other means would suffice as well for moving the heavy machinery, one piece of which alone, a gigantic engine, weighed three hundred and twenty-five tons. All the extensive space was divided into squares and parallelograms, called sections, and here, in friendly rivalry, met all the leading nations of the world. The United States, admittedly first in inventions, made the anticipated showing, and Europe endeavored to prove that she had kept abreast in the struggle. The space allotted Germany, for instance, was so crowded that twice the amount might have been occupied to advantage, and so it was with other countries. The view given is over a portion of the foreign sections, Germany appearing in the middle distance.

39

"The Spy," from the Art Palace. — In the department allotted to the United States Loan Collection in the Art Palace was one painting which never failed to command earnest attention — though that may be said of many in that fine collection — and which was the subject of much admiring comment. It was the picture known as "The Spy," the property of C. P. Huntington, of New York, and painted by the French artist, A. M. de Neuville. It represented a group, apparently, of Russian officers, seated negligently at luncheon outside the quarters taken in some town occupied, and interrupted in their repast by the arrival of riders who have brought in a captured spy. The circumstance does not disturb the officers materially. They lean back carelessly in judicial attitudes, while the prisoner is being searched, the smoke-wreaths curling upward from the pipes and cigarettes they are enjoying with their coffee. To them this incident of war is not a serious matter. It is but to listen to, decide, and, possibly, to designate the fate of the man before them. With the prisoner the case is very different and it is in his face that much of the interest of the strong work of the artist centers. It is surely the face of a brave man, one resolute to any end and courageous under any misfortune. There is no fear in his eyes of the death that is close to him. His attitude is patiently defiant, graceful even in the degradation of the search About the square, women and children look curiously and regretfully on the scene. The artist who painted the picture is dead, but in this work alone, he left something worthy behind him.

40

The Convent of La Rabida. — In marked contrast with the great modern structures near it was the reproduction at the Exposition of the Convent of La Rabida, or, to express its title more correctly, the Convent of Santa Maria de la Rabida, which means The Convent of St. Mary of the Frontier. It was to this convent that Columbus went when most wearied and discouraged and found shelter for himself and his child, and it was at the town of Palos de Moguer, now a mere village, but then a flourishing seaport, that he obtained assistance in building his vessels and from which he finally sailed. The reproduction of the convent cost fifty thousand dollars, and it was appropriately devoted to the exhibition of the Columbus relics. The convent, as its exterior shows, was a plain, solid building with the usual internal arrangement of a monastery of the period, two stories in height, with a central court and cells and gathering rooms. The Columbus relics shown at the Exposition were numerous and interesting, including the original copy of the contract with the sovereigns of Spain and the commission they gave the navigator as "Admiral of the Ocean Seas." The government of Spain and the descendants of Columbus loaned other documents of almost priceless historical value, and one of the anchors and a cannon used by Columbus on his flagship, the "Santa Maria," were also secured. The weather-beaten old structure, the relics of the famous voyage, the documents upon which the eyes of Columbus himself had rested and which his hand had touched — all these combined to make a visit to the place one of absorbing interest.

41

The Santa Maria. — The duplicate of the flagship of Columbus, the famous "Santa Maria," had many thousands of visitors as she lay in Lake Michigan, just in front of the grounds, one of the most interesting of all the Exposition's attractions. The hosts who boarded her and examined her every part, accustomed as they were to the big ships of today, were surprised at her comparatively small dimensions, though, as a matter of fact, a stancher or safer craft it would be hard to imagine. With her sides built out from her hull so that a veritable platform overhung the water, and built high at bow and stern, it must have been a heavy sea indeed by which the decks of the "Santa Maria" were ever wetted. Her sailing qualities, on the other hand, could not have been remarkable. Her model was not that of a craft designed for speed, and she must have wallowed comfortably along at a rate which would not have satisfied a sailor of today. Her length was seventy-one feet and three inches, beam twenty-five feet and eight inches, and depth of hold twelve feet and five inches. She would hardly be classed as a racer, but she was at least reliable. How she was selected has often been told in story, the at one time rebellious city of Palos being compelled to furnish three ships for the expedition as an act of expiation for past misdeeds. The equipment of the vessel was, like its model, in as perfect an imitation of the original as could be produced. The "Santa Maria" was built at the expense of the Spanish government, a graceful recognition of the honors to be paid Spain and the great navigator.

42

The Forestry Building. — None among the many department structures on the Fair grounds was built with more regard for what was symbolic of its uses than the Forestry Building. It stood very near the southeastern corner of the grounds and its eastern frontage was upon Lake Michigan. Its dimensions were five hundred by two hundred feet, and it had a central height of sixty feet. It was made entirely of wood, not even a nail being used but wooden pegs substituted instead. The roofed colonnade surrounding the building, which shows well in the illustration, was upheld by pillars each composed of a group of three tree trunks, lopped of their branches, but with the bark still on them, these trunks all contributions from different States of the Union and Canada and other foreign countries. The walls of the edifice were of slabs and the roof was thatched with various barks. The main vestibule was of white pine, polished to show the uses of this wood for interior decoration and was made at a cost of $10,000. The graining was something very beautiful. The States and various foreign countries displayed their woods and other forest products inside, and the variety shown was something to astonish the average visitor, all parts of the world, from Japan to Paraguay, being represented Michigan had in her showing a single load of pine logs weighing three hundred thousand pounds, and Paraguay sent three hundred and fifty varieties of timber. A slab of a mulberry tree which was planted by Shakespeare was one interesting exhibit, and a washtub fifteen feet across was a curious one.

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The Michigan Building. — Of all the State buildings on the Fair grounds none was more popular than the Michigan Building. Standing near the Fifty-seventh street entrance, its handsome front catching the eye of visitors, its doors always hospitably open, not to Michigan people alone but to the multitude, and its spacious rooms and luxurious appointments inviting all to their enjoyment, it was generally the resting place of an appreciative throng. The structure was one hundred by one hundred and forty-four feet in ground dimensions, was three stories high, and partly surrounded by broad balconies to the first and second stories. In the center of the west front rose a tower, pierced with windows, one hundred and thirty feet in height. The grand tiled reception hall was sixty-two feet wide and the entire depth of the building. There were the usual offices for officials and a series of finely furnished rooms for visitors, beautifully finished in Michigan woods and having great fire-places with carved oak mantels. Though not intended as formal exhibits, there were some fine displays in the reception room, such as mineral specimens and curiosities, among other things a pair of wolverines, the wolverine being the typical animal of the State. On the second floor was the assembly room, equipped with a pipe organ, and, to the south of this, a splendid display of the fauna of the State, that former paradise of game, from the moose and bear down to the quail and woodcock. The general outside color of the building was gray, and its effect, both as to exterior and interior, was handsome and homelike on a large scale.

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Details of the "Golden Doorway." — The magnificent entrance to the Transportation Building, known popularly as the "Golden Doorway" — though it was not golden, but green and silver — was not, architecturally considered, complete with the quintuple arches and doorway proper alone, but included, as part of the entrance effects, a system of elaborate lateral ornamentation, the details of which, on one side, are given in the illustration. The treatment on the other side of the archway was the same. There is a suggestion of the ecclesiastical in the design, as illustrated in the stairs, the gallery and the oratory. The delicate work on the tympanum over the doorway is well defined in the illustration, as are also the bas-reliefs indicative of the structure's uses which appear beneath the balcony. The small panes of glass showing in the glimpse afforded of the window in the rear add to the ecclesiastical idea already mentioned. In all this delicate work the staff used showed its adaptability for such ends and added to its admitted reputation as the best known material when only temporary architectural and artistic effects are to be produced on a scale of any magnitude. That the lateral embellishment served to increase the general striking effect of the so-called "Golden Doorway" was admitted, and that this side work was, in its way, quite as original in adaptation and rich in feature was also the opinion of good authorities. It was conceded that, such elaboration once attempted, should be carried out to its logical fullness.

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The Obelisk and Southern Colonnade. — A fitting termination made to the view south on the South Canal was formed by the Southern Colonnade with the Obelisk in front. The Obelisk was history repeated in stone, or at least in its imitation, for it was a reproduction of the famous Cleopatra's needle, the original of which, thousands of years old, was presented by the Khedive of Egypt to the United States and is now a prominent object in Central Park, in New York City. The Obelisk stood on a finely carved pedestal reached by a circle of steps descending to the water and was guarded by four great Nubian lions. Upon the pedestal, at each corner of the shaft, stood an eagle upon a globe, the four globes connected by garlands. On the monolith's north front was the inscription: "Four hundred years after the discovery of this continent by Christopher Columbus, the nations of the world unite on this spot to compare in friendly emulation their achievements in art, science, manufactures and agriculture." The colonnade, in effect, connected Machinery Hall with the Agriculture Building, inclosing from outer view the entire inlet of the South Canal from the Court of Honor and completing the picturesque view from the north. It was, architecturally, very nearly a continuation of the first story and loggia of Machinery Hall, than which it would be difficult to say more for its appearance. The grand arch in the center was imposing and graceful and the groups of horses and cattle above were admirably designed. The colonnade became a very popular place of resort before the Fair ended.

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The Javanese at Home. — In their home life the Javanese are said to be a simple and happy people, and this will be readily believed of them by those who were in the Javanese Village at the Fair frequently enough to note the home demeanor of its occupants. They were most interesting, these gentle Javanese, and, in certain ways and habits and views of life, quite unlike any other people in the world, so far as the Fair afforded an illustration. There was an apparent sadness, which was not so much a sadness as a speculative dreaminess, in their faces, a suggestion of which is afforded in the look of the man who sits with his feet upon a barrel, in the picture, and a certain individuality which showed itself even in their music, which, with its sweet, deep tones, was in pleasant contrast to the shrill clamor of the Plaisance all about. They seemed to enjoy even the impaired degree of domesticity they had during the Fair, and the family groups which gathered on the quaint, rude piazzas were pleasant to look upon. The house shown in the illustration is one typical of the village, not pretentious nor, an American would think, particularly comfortable, but it suited the Javanese, at least, it was of the sort which suited them when at home in Java. Learning to know these little people with their wistful, but not unhappy, faces and their courteous ways, one wished all good fortune to the island whereon the thrifty Dutch are raising coffee for the world, and whereon the native inhabitants are gradually learning to be more in touch with humanity outside.

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Five Samoan Warriors in a Character Song. — There was a theatre in the village where the Samoans were, and they gave daily performances of no mean quality. Among these were the Tapate, a dance peculiar to the Wallis islanders in which both men and women appeared, the men carrying paddles which they struck together as the dance proceeded to the time beaten on a stick by one of the number sitting on the ground and controlling the movements of the others. A religious dance was another feature, accompanied by a singular chant and with the hitting of sticks together in a not unpleasant cadence. All the dances and performances of the islanders appeared to be descriptive, and one descriptive of the long journey from Samoa to Chicago must have been counted a great work of the composer and librettist of the party, if it were not a joint production. It consisted of songs and choruses and was accompanied with much clapping of palms and graceful movements, all in excellent time. At the close of the song all engaged sprang to their feet and danced and sang about the drummer, who played a rapid and merry rataplan. The Samoans have certainly a marked degree of natural histrionic ability and, if they advance in wealth and culture as it hoped, the time may some day come when in their opera houses will be given performances not to be excelled. That time is not however, in the immediate future. The islanders left the Fair with new impressions, for they were eager to learn and asked thousands of questions about the marvelous country to which they had been brought.

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Entrance to Woman's Building. — The view given in the accompanying illustration is of the east portal to the transept of the Woman's Building, and it may be said of it, as might be said of other portions of the edifice, that it appeared best upon a close inspection. The building, accidentally, no doubt, but none the less certainly, had a feminine character, lacking boldness and strength of conception, but charming in its parts and showing close and tasteful attention in its details. The triple arches, with Ionic columns between, were pleasant to look upon, and the balcony above, its entablature supported by Corinthian columns, added to the general gracefulness of the effect. The triangular bas-relief appearing on the pediment was the work of Miss Alice Rideout, of California, and represented various commendable occupations of the gentler sex, among the figures being those typifying "Charity," "Beneficence," "Literature," "Art" and "Home Life." The entrance porticos projected some fourteen feet from the main wall of the building. The pretty windows in the rear of the balcony show with good effect in this picture, but of course would not be visible to any one standing very close to the entrance. A position very near the edge of the West Lagoon was, in many respects, the best from which to contemplate the Woman's Building.

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Proctor's Noted Statue of "The Indian." — The most notable adornments of the West Lagoon were Proctor's "Indian" and "Cowboy," which pieces of statuary stood overlooking the lagoon from points near the Transportation Building. It was certainly fortunate that the work of producing the statuary around the main basin and lagoons was left to artists as thoroughly American in choice of theme and manner of treatment as Edward Kemeys and A Phimister Proctor. By neither of them was anything merely commonplace or abstract of idea attempted or accomplished. All was original and striking and all executed with the genius of the artist. The "Indian" represented a mounted warrior, his horse reined in for the moment, looking out beneath the hand which shaded his eyes for the possible foe in the distance. The figure of the Indian was a remarkable work true not in feature alone but in figure and in attitude and manner to the subject chosen. Red Cloud, the famous Indian Chief, was the sculptor's model and became himself much interested in the statue, posing upon his pony in every attitude desired. The gaunt form of the warrior, so typically Indian in every line, was a wonderful piece of modeling and the expression on his face such as would be recognized by all familiar with the grim and watchful Sioux. It has been asserted that the horse was not as fine a piece of work as the rider and that this portion of the work was left to pupils, but if this be the case, Mr. Proctor had assistants not incapable.

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The Transportation Building. — The Transportation Building was unique among the great structures of the Columbian Exposition in that it was the single departure from a general rule, the contrast and the foil to all the others. It was distinct in its style of architecture, and alone was decorated exteriorly in colors. It was not of those buildings which won for the Exposition the title of "The White City." The main building, located just west of the south end of the West Lagoon, was nine hundred and sixty feet in length by two hundred and fifty-six feet in breadth, and from this an enormous annex, a single story in height, extended westward to Stony Island Avenue. The annex covered an area of about nine acres, and the total area devoted to exhibits in the main building and annex combined was nearly twenty acres. The cost of the structure was about $500,000. Viewed from the lagoon or the highway to the west of that body of water, the Transportation Building afforded a charming frontage. In style it was a modified Romanesque. Its main entrance was a single arch, enriched to an extraordinary degree with carvings and bas-reliefs, highly colored, and forming what became famous as "The Golden Doorway." The interior was treated after the style of a Roman basilica, with a broad central nave and transept and aisles. The cupola, placed in the center of the edifice and rising to a height of one hundred and sixty-five feet, was reached by eight elevators, their shafts provided with galleries at various stages, from which a fine view was afforded of the remarkable exhibits in all directions.

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The Pennsylvania Building. — Among the most conspicuous of the State Buildings in size and cost, that of Pennsylvania possessed an added interest because its front was an exact reproduction of that of Independence Hall in Philadelphia, and because it contained the famous Liberty Bell. The edifice was in the Colonial style, of rectangular form, two stories in height, and occupied a ground space one hundred and ten by one hundred and sixty-six feet in area. Piazzas twenty feet wide surrounded the building. The outer walls, to the roof line, were of Philadelphia pressed brick. The height of the tower was one hundred and sixty-five feet and all its famous details were complete. The total cost of the building was $60,000. Over the front doors was a sculptured coat-of-arms of the state and at the sides were statues of William Penn and Benjamin Franklin. Groups of statuary representing the Arts and Sciences and mines and manufactures further added to the decoration of the exterior. The main floor contained a reception room thirty-five by fifty-six feet in dimension and there were the usual offices. Many most interesting relics besides the Liberty Bell were on exhibition, including portraits of Penn and his wife, of Washington, Chevalier Gerard, Thomas Johnston. There were exhibited also Washington's punch bowl, Anthony Wayne's sword, John Hancock's chair, Mrs. John Adams' scarf pin, the watch of Charles Carroll, manuscript of the first prayer offered in congress, in John Hancock's penmanship, and other relics scarcely less interesting or of less historical value.

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The Norwegian Building. — Despite their political connection, Norway and Sweden had separate buildings at the World's Fair, each a credit to its country. The Norwegian Building was situated near the lake front and east of the North Pond, amid a group of trees familiar to those who have visited Jackson Park before an Exposition was thought of. In size the building was sixty by twenty-five feet, and was constructed almost entirely of Norway pine. All the workmen employed and all the material used were Norwegian, the house being made at Drontheim, put together with screws to enable transportation, and then taken apart again and shipped to this country. It had gables surmounted by conventional "dragons' heads," such as those which appeared on the Viking Ships, and quaint oriel windows which gave a most picturesque effect. No attempt at a display of products was made in this building, Norway being well represented elsewhere, but a large map of Norway, a few banners and a picture of the Viking Ship were among the decorations of the interior. The Viking Ship, with the great Norse discovery it suggested, was, in itself display enough, for one nation, and the Scandinavians, as descendants of the daring race who first learned that America existed, had splendid recognition at the Fair. In the Norwegian Building, the race who have been sea-rovers from time immemorial, gathered and were as merry as were their ancestors returning after a raid along the southern coasts of Europe.

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The Brazil Building. — The structure erected by the greatest of the South American Republics was what might have been expected from that great country. Brazil appropriated for the Columbian Exposition no less than $600,000, and of this sum $50,000 was expended on the building where all visitors were entertained and where were the official headquarters of the commission. The edifice was in the form of a Greek cross, and it was originally intended by the architect to build the entire superstructure of steel, but threatened delays at the manufacturers necessitated a change of plan and wood was largely used. The building occupied a conspicuous position on the shore of the North Pond, directly opposite the Illinois Building, and attracted attention by its graceful proportions and style of decoration. It occupied an area of one hundred and fifty feet square and was surmounted by a dome forty feet in diameter and forty feet above the roof. The height of the two stories was sixty feet and the height in the clear one hundred and fifty feet. There were four campaniles used as points of observation, while the roof, which was adorned profusely with tropical plants, was utilized as a promenade from which a fine view of the grounds was afforded. The interior contained a large arena, the mural paintings and sculpture of which illustrated events in the history of Brazil. The offices of the commissioners were on the first floor, and a host of friends were made by the representatives of the distant friendly country. There were no exhibits in the building though Brazil was well represented elsewhere.

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State Buildings — Looking South. — The city of State Buildings at the north end of the Fair Grounds afforded many interesting bird's-eye views, of which one of the prettiest is given in the accompanying illustration. The view taken is from an elevated point at the northern extremity of the inclosed area, and very nearly at the center east and west. In the foreground, at the right, appears the log-built chalet of Idaho, beyond which is the Maryland Building, the gable of that of Delaware showing just behind it, and still further beyond the imposing structures of New York and Pennsylvania. In the distance, to the right, the tower of the Illinois Building appears, while the Art Palace forms the central background. Far in the distance, to the left, loom up the domes of the Administration and United States Government Buildings, while the ever-visible mountain of a Manufactures Building is conspicuous as usual. Continuing the circle to the left the Guatemala and other buildings are dimly visible in the wood at the east end of the North Pond, and then, just north of the east wing of the Art Palace, show the buildings of Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Jersey and Connecticut, the New Jersey Building being the one nearest in the left foreground. In this view the observer looks directly over the Virginia Building, one of the chimneys of which is visible in looking down toward the street immediately in front. A view from almost any elevated location in the northern part of the Exposition Grounds was good, because, from there, it was not suddenly cut off by some monster of a department structure.

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North and West from the Government Building. — From the dome of the Government Building the prospect north and west afforded as much variety as could be had from any point of observation of the Fair Grounds, since in other directions the view was either much shorter or was cut off by the huge department structures. The illustration shows the Fisheries in the foreground, the details of the south facade of the main building outlined very clearly at such short distance. At the left appear the Marine Cafe, the bridge to the Wooded Island, and, on the other side of the canal, the white Merchant Tailors' Building, overshadowed by the Illinois Building towering just behind it. To the left of the dome of the Illinois Building may be discerned that of the California Building, and to its left the big roof of a panorama outside the grounds. The front of the Ohio Building shows plainly fronting on the lagoon, while behind it uprears the tower of the Michigan Building and higher still the monster flag-pole in which the state of Washington exhibited such pride. Other state Buildings are noted more vaguely and then the splendid front of the Art Palace is displayed, while over its roof maybe seen the towers of the Pennsylvania and New York Buildings. The Beach Hotel and Spectatorium form a background to the right, and then, coming nearer again on that side, appear the roofs of more State Buildings, the east annex to the Art Palace, the Guatemala, Swedish and Venezuelan Buildings, and that of Brazil just over the Fisheries and near the starting point.

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A View Through The Ferris Wheel. — Imposing as was the Ferris Wheel seen from a distance, a great object towering aloft and showing the location of the Fair from a distance of miles away, it was scarcely less impressive when its monster parts were examined from one of the cars which revolved with it, carrying their hosts of passengers. It was not any intricacy in the design of the wheel nor the complexity of its mechanism which most commanded admiration, for its construction involved no novel law of mechanics nor engineering, but rather the simplicity of all, the grand scale of construction and the admirable finish of every part. In the illustration a close view is afforded of the system of tension spokes — the spokes really in use being always stretched, those below the axle tautening the upper arc and making a perpetual bridge — as well as of the great axle, the largest piece of steel ever forged. Two men and a boy, working under the big hammer of the Bethlehem Steel Works, made the great shaft, which was forty-five feet long, thirty-two inches in diameter and weighed seventy tons. It was made large enough and strong enough to bear six times the weight of the bridge across the Ohio River at Cincinnati. It rested and supported its burden at a height of one hundred and forty feet from the ground. As a specimen of daring engineering, well executed to a novel end, and of great work in iron and steel, the Ferris Wheel has never been surpassed.

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The Curious Grain Picture. — There were many fine exhibits in the big Illinois Building, many novel displays and a great showing of objects with what might be called an agricultural tendency, but the throng was always greatest at one particular point, that being immediately in front of what became known popularly as "The Grain Picture." The picture represented a typical, well-conducted Illinois prairie farm of one hundred and sixty acres, and its peculiarity was that it was not painted at all, but was a wonderfully arranged mosaic of grains and grasses. Even the frame and overhanging curtain were made in the same manner. The picture, a large one, occupied a considerable space on one of the walls in the western part of the building, and stood the test of close examination wonderfully well. Its vivid coloring, high lights and deep shadows made a most harmonious whole. The farmhouse, the barns, the various sheds, windmill, and even the cattle and horses were depicted, and the fields of grass, of standing grain and of grain partly reaped, with the green hedges between them, were shown with a fidelity to nature which was surprising. It was evident that Mr. Fursman had the eye of the artist in addition to his gift of infinite patience and ingenuity. Corn ears were largely used in the frame, and corn husks also assisted in the work, while other grains, natural grasses, berries and leaves were utilized in a lesser degree. The conception, as a whole, was as artistic and harmonious as it was certainly most novel.

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Fort Sheridan in the Government Building. — In point of reproduction, under a roof, of certain objects connected with the aim of its display the government did exceptionally well. The lay figures of soldiers and animals, the first to exhibit styles of uniforms of different eras, the second to illustrate means of transportation under certain circumstances, were exceedingly life-like and deceived, for the moment, hosts of the inexperienced. In the illustration given here, while the main subject is, of course, the representation of Fort Sheridan, which occupies the foreground, there is much to interest in the figures grouped beyond, recalling in their style of dress the heroes of 1812 or of the later war with Mexico. They look as if they had stepped down out of some of the school histories. Of the representation of Fort Sheridan, Chicago's pet army post, it may be said that it was remarkably well done and attracted much attention, perhaps even more from Chicagoans than from visitors, since Chicagoans know all about Fort Sheridan's brief history, while comparatively few of them have ever visited the grounds. To the north and left is the parade ground and south of it the row of buildings devoted to the various uses of the post, with the familiar tower in the center and together a dividing line between the barrack grounds and the parade. Over in the distance, away to the north and east and nearer Lake Michigan, appear the officers' residences. The work was executed in stucco and the whole was surrounded by a fence with ascending steps outside, enabling a view of the interior.

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Sections of Timber and Gladstone's Ax. — One of the great "show pieces" in the Forestry Building had a personal attraction in that the implement actually used in chopping by one of the most famous men in the world formed a portion of the exhibit. This was the ax, with its history properly attested, which had been used by Mr. Gladstone in cutting down a tree upon his eightieth birthday. In the center of the building stood a collection of huge sections of trees, remarkable for the fact that no two came from the same region of the earth, and showing a wonderful difference in fiber and dimensions. A huge disk of California redwood, with a placard explaining that when Columbus landed the tree from which the disk was cut was four hundred and seventy-five years old, stood near a cut of oak from Russia, and a section of white pine from Wisconsin rested beside a giant bamboo, seventy-five feet in height, which came from far Japan. It was a curious and most instructive showing. Mr. Gladstone's ax was in a glass case which was fastened to the side of the redwood cut and numerous were the conjectures as to how long it would take the statesman to fell such a tree as that! A letter from Mr. Herbert Gladstone, son of the Premier, formed part of the documentary evidence of the implement's authenticity, and a printed card gave a history of the manner in which the souvenir was obtained. The ax will be preserved as a memento by one of the great Lumber Trade Associations.

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California Sea Lions in the Government Building. — The California Sea Lions, which afforded such a fine illustration of the taxidermist's skill and attracted so much comment in the Government Building, were like old friends, not merely to Californians who had seen them or their relations, enjoying themselves in the waters of the coast, but to thousands of people familiar with scenes in the parks of the great cities. The Sea Lions exhibited in the Government Building were fine specimens, well mounted and shown in the attitudes so familiar to those who have watched the movements of such animals when alive. This was but one of the many fine exhibits from the Smithsonian Institution, and but aided to impress upon public attention, as did a host of other objects, the wide range of usefulness of that great public storehouse of scientific treasures. The Smithsonian Institution and National Museum both stood higher in popular favor after than they did before the Columbian Exposition, because, a portion of their treasures having been seen by millions, their aim and objects were better appreciated. A group of stuffed Sea Lions, was, of course, nothing to speak of in such connection, but was one little thing illustrative of the great work which has extended in Washington year by year since a generous Englishman showed more zeal for this country's advance in some directions than a host of wealthy Americans have done, leaving, as he did, the most of his possessions to aid in the promotion of general knowledge by the creation of a special and practical means of education.

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The Statue of "Plenty." — The pieces of statuary which stood beside the portals of the great buildings or bridge approaches, or on pedestals overlooking the Grand Basin and canals and lagoons, had all definite names fitted to the idea of their conception. What Kemeys and Proctor did with wild animals Potter and French did with domestic ones, introducing them in statuary with fine effect. The Statue of "Plenty" was well conceived in the female figure leaning carelessly and trustingly against the massive side of the bull, one arm resting on the abundant product of the field half borne upon his back, the other extended and holding above his head the stalk of maize with its ripened ear indicating the garnered harvest. The sturdy frame and gentle countenance of the great bull indicate the breeding which is proof of the times of peace and attention to the development of what is best among dumb beasts, and the face and posture of the graceful woman indicate alike content and triumph. It was good for the Columbian Exposition that in these out-door exhibits of American art the same standard was maintained which made the buildings themselves such marvels and the design of the Fair as a whole so beautiful and striking. It has been mentioned as a singularity of the groups such as the Statues of "Plenty" and "Industry," that, though made by different sculptors, the animal and human figures ware in perfect harmony of composition.

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Arab and Bedouin Horsemen. — Just what the distinction was between Arabs and Bedouins, visitors to the Wild East Show were puzzled to determine. Those of them who had ever paid attention to the terms counted "Arab" as a general description, including all the desert dwellers, and "Bedouin" as something more definite, applying to a single tribe or nation. They left the Wild East Show with just as much and no more information on the subject than they had when they entered. The so-called Arab and the so-called Bedouin looked alike to American eyes and showed equal skill in riding and in all the wild sports which were a. part of the Exposition's program. No doubt there was a distinction plain enough to those familiar with North African expressions, but it was not here made apparent. The horses were as much alike as their riders. Those appearing in the illustration will be recognized as of the same breed, while even their trappings are not dissimilar. And, speaking of trappings, the Arab horses would present to us a much better appearance if they had less of them. Fringes and tassels tossing loosely about concealed the lean, strong outline of the horses and prevented any possible neat effect. It may be that the horses themselves — as some writers say — have learned to like the rich housings and gallop more bravely under them, but so would not, certainly, a clean-limbed racer from the Kentucky blue grass region or some California ranch. Be that as it may, though, Arab and Bedouin horses were good animals and bore daring riders.

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Soudanese and Nubians. — Northern Africa was well represented in a Street in Cairo, and among the odd races, of whom groups appeared, the Soudanese were not the least conspicuous. The group in the illustration includes both Soudanese proper and Nubians, the latter readily distinguishable as of the more distinctly negro type. They seemed to associate on equal terms, though, and it was a characteristic of the negroes direct from Africa at the Fair that they had a dignity of their own and showed neither the dependence nor the self-conscious assertiveness of those who had been changed by slavery. The dance of the people consisted of a curious stamping and contortion of the head and shoulders, accompanied by a queer, sibilant sound, which, to the Caucasian, indicated nothing in particular. Men and women danced this together, but the men had a war dance for themselves alone in which they engaged with great vigor to the sound of a drum. The baby, who appears in the foreground of the picture, was a most important personage. She was not quite two years old, but could wabble about famously on her chubby black legs, and could say "How do you do?" in English, and, when asked her name, reply, with dignity, that it was "Mary Anderson." The big fellow conspicuous at the left of the picture was prominent in the war dance, and the little girl would try to imitate him, following his movements with great accuracy. A girl twelve years of age, a member of this same group, was an excellent dancer and possessed no small degree of intelligence.

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Egyptian Swordsmen. — Among the attractions of a Street in Cairo were a number of swordsmen, some of them very expert in their profession. Their weapons were not of the style in use among Europeans and Americans, but resembled Japanese swords somewhat and had no guard above the hand grip. The blades were not, however, used much in a defensive way, that being left to the small circular buckler or target held by each combatant in the left hand. Given claymores instead of the odd blades they used, and the Egyptian swordsmen would have been equipped very much as were the Highlanders at Flodden Field or Bannockburn. The fencing was rather of the dramatic sort, there being considerable leaping about and gesticulation, but there is no question that, in a bout with weapons of such sort, the Egyptians would have given the ordinary swordsmen of other countries at least sufficient to occupy their earnest attention. The illustration shows the but mildly bloodthirsty gentlemen on guard preliminary to amusing a mixed audience of men, women and children from everywhere. The surroundings are hardly in keeping with the scene, the Temple of Luxor certainly never having been erected originally as a theater for sword play, but in Cairo Street they were not particular about the fitness of things. The ancient, the medieval and the modern jostled each other there.

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The French Colonies Building. — Situated well over toward the southeast corner of the grounds and out of the great tide of movement, the French Colonies Building at the Exposition did not attract the attention it merited, though it attained a degree of popularity toward the close, as the interesting nature of its contents became known. Its locality was sometimes referred to as "the back yard of the Fair," though it contained many curious and beautiful displays, not the least among which were in the structure mentioned. Here were products and works of skill and art from both North African and Asiatic provinces, Tonquin, Annam and Algiers contributing, the articles displayed being of a nature to be found in no other buildings. What such countries as Annam, for instance, could do in the way of manufacture was a surprise to many people, and the showing made proved essentially educational. Near the building, as shown in the illustration, were many other objects of interest. The queer old Dutch windmill appearing to the left was a reproduction of one famous in Holland. It was called Blooker's Cocoa Wind-mill, and, inside, Holland girls sold cocoa to visitors in a quaint cafe decorated with much tiling. To the right a glimpse is had of the South Pond, in which lay the famous old whaling ship, "Progress," and where, at night, were moored the steam launches which plied on the watercourses of the grounds and out into the lake during the day. A number of them not in use are shown in the illustration. Beyond, and forming the background to the picture, is the rear of the Agriculture Building.

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The Art Palace. — No structure among the many which made up the White City commanded more universal admiration than did the Art Palace, wherein were displayed the triumphs of artists from all over the world. It was a fitting receptacle for its marvelous displays. The style of architecture adapted in the building was of the Grecian-Ionic order and the blending and adaptation of what was most perfect in the past was such as to secure an effect, if not in the exact sense original, at least of great harmony and grandeur. The area of the main structure is three hundred and twenty by five hundred feet. It is intersected by a nave with a transept one hundred feet wide and seventy feet high, and a central dome sixty feet wide and one hundred feet high surmounted by a winged figure of Victory. The main structure is surrounded by a gallery forty feet in width. It has two annexes one hundred and twenty by two hundred feet in dimensions, each with exterior colonnades. Because of the enormous value of the statues and paintings exhibited — the buildings' contents were estimated to be worth five million dollars — it was necessary to make the Art Palace fire-proof and it was so built, at a cost of six hundred thousand dollars. It so remains a permanent structure and is now occupied by the Field Columbian Museum, one of the great Fair's heritages to the public. The view of the building from the lagoon on the south, from the broad highway on the north and the areas of lawn in other directions are such as to afford a just idea of its excelling beauty. It stands today without peer a triumph of architecture.

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The Administration Building. — The heart of the great entity known as the Columbian Exposition was in the Administration Building. Here were the offices of the Presidents and here, also, those of the Director-General and some of his immediate lieutenants. From here the vast machinery was directed and controlled, and about here as a nucleus thronged the multitude preliminary to any great festal occasion. It was intended that the structure should be one dominating in position and in appearance, as the forces in its interior were in reality, and the design was successfully carried out. The word "magnificent" will best express the effect of the structure on the beholder. With the broad plaza all about it affording opportunity for a just idea of its dimensions, with genius exhibited in its grand conception as a whole, and with a tasteful luxuriance of ornamentation and coloring, it was a structure both dignified and splendid. Its gilded dome, towering far aloft, could be seen glittering in the sunlight from a distance of miles; its broad facades enchanted as it was approached and, closer still, its masses of sculpture held the attention rapt. The Administration Building cost $435,000, and was in the form of four pavilions each eighty-four feet square and connected by a great central dome one hundred and twenty feet in diameter and rising to a height of two hundred and fifty feet, its interior enriched with panels filled with sculpture and painting. Beside the four lofty entrances at the base of the dome and in other fitting places were groups of statuary of effective design. All was striking and all fitting.

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The Massachusetts Building. Typical of the history and character of the old Bay State was the Massachusetts Building, which stood just east of New York on the broad roadway leading east from the Fifty-seventh street entrance to the grounds. It was in the old Colonial style and, as nearly as was practicable, a duplicate of the historic John Hancock residence which until within comparatively recent years, was one of Boston's landmarks. The building was three-stories in height, the exterior of staff an imitation of cut granite and like its original was surrounded by a terrace raised above the street, having a fenced in fore-court in front planted with old-fashioned flowers and plants. It was this court, with its flowers so familiar in childhood to thousands of the men who have made the West, that appealed very pleasantly to hosts of minds. The idea was entirely in keeping with the house itself. The main entrance opened into a large hallway with a tiled floor, and faced a broad colonial staircase leading to the second story. The post-office and general reception room on the right was what might have been expected from the exterior view. Its marble floor, tiled walls, uncovered beams and high mantel were all in the style of what our forefathers would have considered an ideal mansion. On the left of the hallway were two large parlors. The second floor, somewhat similarly divided, was given over to women, and the third was occupied by servants There were in the various apartments many quaint and interesting exhibits of colonial times.

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Bird's-Eye View of State Buildings — Looking Northeast. — Very popular was the Fifty-seventh street entrance, at the northwest corner of the Exposition Grounds, situated as it was close to a railroad station and at the end of a street car cable system, and hundreds of thousands of people became, in consequence, familiar with the view given in the illustration. The scene is that presented looking to the northeast from a point near the entrance to the grounds, and is that of the main street which led across the grounds to Lake Michigan and between State Buildings exclusively. Close at hand in the left foreground is the Nebraska Building, with the flag presented by the ladies of Omaha showing conspicuously from its staff as it dangles in a slight breeze. Just beyond, on the same side of the street, is the edifice of North Dakota, and still beyond, looming up conspicuously, is the Kansas Building, in which were so many striking exhibits, including the natural scene where the wild animals of the State, stuffed and placed in natural attitudes, were represented as they existed before driven out by man. On the right, over the grass plat north of the west annex of the Art Palace, may be seen a little of the Minnesota Building, while, farther along, that of Arkansas shows more plainly. In the center the Texas Building is also distinctly visible. Always picturesque were these vistas of State Buildings, exhibiting as they did a pleasant contrast in design, comprehensible, because of their relatively small size, far more easily than the variations of the vast department and governmental structures.

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Interior of the Electricity Building. — How the world advances was perhaps better illustrated in the Electricity Building than in any other of the great structures on the grounds. At no previous exposition had there ever been a structure set apart for electrical exhibits and at none could there have been anything like the display here made. The marvelous advance in the use of electricity has been accomplished since Philadelphia and Paris did their best. Science and invention have but lately begun to fairly occupy this new world, but that the occupancy is already great was demonstrated by the magnificent showing made at the Columbian Exposition, a showing which in itself must result in promoting advancement in electrical discovery, bringing together as it did evidence of what those discoveries are to date, and conveying boundless suggestions for the future. The view given in the illustration is down one of the great center aisles of the building and conveys an idea of the general effect produced, though of course no print, even with the artist's aid, can quite equal the beauty of the night exhibition, with the combined blaze of thousands of brilliant lights. The great pillar seen in the center is that up which lights in various colors seemed to climb continuously, and the nature of other objects is indicated to electricians by their form, though, so new is the science, that the layman may not in every case distinguish. Foreign countries were well represented in this great department, though, of course, the United States, the country of Franklin and Morse and Edison, took the lead.

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Under the Government Building Dome. — Whatever might have been thought of the beauties of the United States Government Building as a, whole, there was but one opinion as to the attraction of one scene its interior presented, that being directly underneath the dome of the great structure, and having for its single unique exhibit a house made within the trunk of one of California's monster trees. The section of trunk shown was thirty feet long and twenty-three feet across, and was divided laterally into three parts, two of fourteen feet each, and the other of but two feet. The divisions are perceptible in the illustration. The two long sections had been hollowed, making large rooms, and the short section served as a floor between them. A spiral stairway connected the lower room and the chamber above. The queer house, as it stood, was of a character to have made a comfortable home for a settler, while, at the same time, considerable of a fortress as against attacks of wild beasts or Indians. The tree from which the sections were cut stood over four hundred feet in height. The rotunda in which this curious exhibit was placed was a charming place. There were eight entrances, upheld by groups of pillars upon either side, the pillars of steel but colored to represent bases of marble, supporting shafts of malachite with gilded capitals. The dome was colored a pale blue, and upon panels ornamenting its sides were painted figures representing the arts and sciences, executed in masterly style. Of the effect produced in this part of the building the United States had no reason to be ashamed.

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"The Hunt Ball." — Among the hundreds of magnificent paintings exhibited in the Art Palace, the work of artists widely renowned in their special fields, certain pictures had always a throng about them from morning until night. Among these was one, which, from its intrinsic merit, even beyond its size and brilliant coloring, attracted a continuous group of delighted visitors. It was "The Hunt Ball," the work of Jules L. Stewart. It would be difficult, certainly, to imagine a scene more full of brightness and the keen enjoyment of life, or one more cleverly representing a phase of society the quality of which is not excelled anywhere in the world. In England "The Hunt Ball" is a great social function in its season and brings together the fairest women and gallant men under circumstances the most propitious The scene represented appears to be at a time when the festivities are at their height, and when, indeed, there is a half whimsical flavor to the spirit of the moment, as indicated by the thrumming of the tambourine by one of the gentlemen while various couples waltz gaily to his earnest, but possibly somewhat irregular music. Charming women are these, and manly looking men, and it is not surprising that the painting proved one of the most popular, even in a collection the most extensive of its class ever made and including masterpieces representing scenes of a graver sort. It was a work of admitted art, techinically speaking, but it was, doubtless, the genial and brilliant touch of cultivated humanity in it which most made it appeal to the taste of the thousands.

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"An Innocent Victim." — From the Art Palace. — Many stories were told by the paintings which made up the treasures of the Art Palace, and some of them were very sad ones. Among the most touching was that related by the work "An Innocent Victim," in the United States section, from the brush of the artist S. Seymour Thomas, of Paris. The scene represented was that on the outskirts of a battle, and the foreground was occupied by the victim and the immediate spectators of a tragedy. The bearings of the picture impress themselves at a glance. The Red Cross contingent and Sisters of Charity are following close upon the advance of the forces engaged, to minister to the wants of the wounded and dying. Their garb should protect them from both combatants alike, but it cannot protect them from the accidents of war. A stray bullet has found the breast of one of them, and that one the youngest and weakest of the group. One of the Sisters of Charity is wounded to the death and has fallen where she stood when the deadly missile reached her. She is dying, her head supported in the lap of her older companion. The surgeon, his case of instruments at hand, kneels beside the wounded girl, but his skill will not avail in such emergency as this. The face of the unwounded sister is full of a questioning dread but to be confirmed by the verdict which cannot be doubtful. A wounded man near by has raised his head in sad contemplation of the more touching scene than a battlefield ordinarily gives and, for the moment, is oblivious to his own hurt.

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The Spanish Caravels, "Pinta" and "Nina." — The Spanish Caravels should have had their names painted on their sides to distinguish them apart; at least, so thought many of the visitors to the Fair; for their build was singularly alike with the "Santa Maria" and "Pinta." The "Nina" was distinguishable enough, as she had no raised deck at the bow, did not overhang like the others, and had no square sails of the ordinary type, only the long rakish-looking yards which hung slantwise of the masts with a sort of Lascar, piratical sweep to them, a look belied by her ponderous high-built stern. Between the "Santa Maria" and "Pinta" the main difference was that the former was decked over, had more decorations, and was not quite so squarely built. The "Pinta" absolutely sloped backward at the bow. The "Nina," it will be remembered, was commanded by Yanez Pinzon, while his brother, Alonzo Pinzon, commanded the "Pinta." The latter broke her rudder the third day out on the voyage, not as the result of pure accident, either, it was thought; but Columbus had it mended after a fashion and kept the vessel along. The whole number of men in the three vessels was but one hundred and twenty, but they were not the choicest of mariners, and among them were either cowardly or turbulent spirits enough to keep a commander occupied. Credit should, however, be given to the Pinzons for what they did. They defied superstition and, alone among Spanish ship owners, at the time manifested something of the daring spirit which is today that of the land for which they sailed.

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Southwest, from the Government Building — The view southwest from the roof of the United States Government Building embraced a great number of attractive objects. The east lagoon and more than half the Wooded Island appeared conspicuously in the foreground, and there was no elevated place in the grounds from which the island and lagoon could be seen together that did not command a sight worth seeing, for any lover of the beautiful. To the left, immediately in front, is the Fire and Guard Station, and a little beyond the northwest corner of the Manufactures Building uprears itself. Over that is afforded an excellent view of the north facade of the Electricity Building, and above it, again, towers the dome of the Administration Building. To the right, the whole north front of the Mines Building is shown, though its details were not such as to be conspicuous at such a distance. The features of the Transportation Building, further to the right, are brought out well, however, its "Golden Door," with the lateral details being plain to view. Still further to the right, Choral Hall and the southeast corner of the Horticulture Building are visible, Choral Hall especially standing out distinctly against its shadowy background. A great place for gatherings was Choral Hall, and here the late Mayor Harrison made on state occasions some of his most original addresses. In the water of the lagoon, so perfect was the photograph from which comes the illustration, may be seen the shadows of flags on the towers of the Manufactures Building.

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A South Sea Island House. — The South Sea Island Village included among its inhabitants natives of various islands in the Polynesian Archipelago, though so superior to all the rest were the Samoans that they soon attracted most attention, and the place was as often alluded to as the Samoan Village as otherwise. The houses were of Samoan construction, and the largest of them was a building of repute, having once stood for ten years in the village of King Mataafa, and coming here as his personal contribution to the curiosities of the Fair. It was a work of ingenuity and considerable art, its timbers hewed from the wood of the bread fruit tree, and its thatching made from the leaves of the wild sugar cane, the substances in themselves forming striking exhibits of nature's prodigality toward the support of man in Samoa. Fully ten thousand pieces of wood were used in the construction of this single dwelling. The other houses followed the same general plan of construction, but were made of cheaper and more common material. The skill of the Samoan in thatching and in mat-weaving is illustrated in the picture, while the war clubs lying about indicate the existence still of necessities and inclinations decidedly aboriginal. Neither Africans, Indians nor Mongolians, these natives of the great Polynesian area are a puzzle to the student, and the superior Samoans afford him the greatest puzzle of all. It is very much to be doubted if the Samoan has anything to be thankful for in the advent of the white race. He had a happy country before the white man came, one now the scene of turbulence and dissension.

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Street Scene in the Java Village. — One of the earliest attractions of Midway Plaisance was the construction of the Java Village by the clever little carpenters, who, using only the most primitive methods, succeeded in erecting structures, which, though frail, must in a warmer climate be very pleasant abodes. The village was encircled by a quaint wall of bamboo, and the same material entered chiefly into the buildings. The illustration gives a definite idea of the cottages as well as of the people who inhabited them, though it cannot convey an impression of the uniform gentleness and courtesy of the people, nor of the good impression they made upon all who visited the settlement. The buildings, twenty in all, included, besides dwellings, a theatre, a coffee and tea salon and two bazaars, in the latter of which various commodities were exposed for sale. In the theatre were given daily quaint but not displeasing performances, and in the tea and coffee houses those beverages were sold to all visitors. The night scene in the village with the little Javans grouped about their doorsteps and playing upon their simple instruments was always a pleasant one, and it has been justly commented that to sit on the veranda of the Javan coffee house and let the hour grow late was the most poetic and restful occupation offered to a World's Fair visitor. It is to be regretted that because of some misunderstanding regarding the terms upon which the village was erected, a difference grew up between the Javan management and the Fair authorities. They left an army of friends.

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The German Building. — Making a fine showing in nearly all departments of the Columbian Exposition the German Empire excelled in its official building. Facing the lake, where its character could be fully appreciated, the structure compelled the unstinted admiration of the visiting world. The ground area occupied was one hundred and fifty by one hundred and seventy-five feet and the cupola rose to the height of one hundred and fifty feet, the total cost of the building being a quarter of a million dollars; but it was not its dimensions nor cost, but the novelty and charm of its form and coloring which attracted attention. It was a poetical edifice, one telling, in a way, the story of the Fatherland, with a richness of coloring and ornament which was as historically and artistically correct as it was picturesque. In the belfry was a chime of bells, with the sweet sounds of which visitors to the Fair became familiar, and which, after the Exposition's close, were returned to the Church of Mercy, in Berlin. The main portion of the interior was in simulation of a chapel, its furnishings corresponding with the idea, while apart from this a host of historical and charming objects increased the merit of the interior. There were valuable displays of books, and the visitor could gain in this building information of the greatest interest. The structure was solidly built and may remain a permanent feature of the park.

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Camel and Driver in Cairo Street. — The Cairo Street camels had varied duties to perform, at one time being hurried along with much mauling and gesticulation to convey a rider, or perhaps a couple, from one end of the street to the other and unload them hurriedly to make room for other experimenting people, and again, bedecked with cumbrous trappings, led along the same boisterous thoroughfare to take part in some procession alleged to be a duplicate of what may be seen in the streets of the genuine Cairo on the Nile. It is when prepared for his appearance in the latter capacity that the camel in the illustration appears, led by his far from conventionally beautiful master. In the immense howdah, looking like a garden tent upon the camel's back, is supposed to be a fair Egyptian, for it is to be a wedding procession which will add to the street spectacle, and the bride must be borne along on the camel's back, though she is concealed from the gaze of the populace, as becomes a properly reared and dutiful woman of the Orient. The nature of the camel's gear on these state occasions seemed, in the opinion of visitors, to detract from rather than assist his peculiar style of beauty, and there was no division of opinion on the proposition that the bride, in courtesy to the guests of the occasion, ought to show her face.

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Egyptian Dancing Girls. — That prominent feature of the Midway Plaisance, a Street in Cairo, had a theatre among its attractions, and what doubtless drew most visitors to this place of entertainment, was the performance of the Egyptian Dancing Girls. The illustration gives excellent portraits of the three dusky beauties who were most prominent there, and shows also the semi-Oriental costume in which they danced. Of the performance it may be said that it was something entirely new in America and something not likely to become acclimatized. Suggestive it certainly was, but to American eyes lacked even the redeeming quality of beauty, though the dancers were lithe as panthers and should have been capable of graceful movements. It resulted in a protest from the Board of Lady Managers, their course being supplemented by the action of the Director-General, who compelled the interested concessionaires to restrain all future exhibitions within the limits of stage propriety as recognized in this country. The three women whose portraits appear may be considered typical representatives of the class who for centuries have been an element in the sort of amusement favored by the Oriental rulers of the valley of the Nile. Their dancing is a profession to which they are trained from childhood though it can hardly be considered a dance so much as a contortion.

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A View in Midway Plaisance. — A city in itself was the Midway, picturesque certainly, and educational as well, however meretricious some of its droll features. It was the playground of the multitude and they learned much while they ate, drank, stared and were merry. The view above presented is from a point about the center of the west half of the Plaisance and a little west of the Ferris Wheel. On the right appear the fronts of Old Vienna and on the left the entrance to the Chinese Village and Theatre, the difference in styles of architecture affording a striking contrast. Still further on the left rises the front of the panorama of the volcano of Kilaueau, and in the remote distance may be dimly perceived the domes of the great buildings of the Exposition proper. The particular locality represented in this illustration was one exceedingly popular with visitors, and the number of people appearing in the broad thoroughfare at the time the photograph was taken is by no means up to the standard of crowded days at the Fair. The three or four attractions here grouped together always commanded their laughing great constituency. From Pekin to Vienna is a far cry, and from thence into space on the wings of an American inventor is another remarkable bit of travel, but hundreds of thousands of people made the journey within the limit of an hour or so. The view, it need not be said to the observer, is an admirable one, the familiar fronts being reproduced with a fidelity which speaks for itself.

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The Midway Plaisance and World's Fair Hotels. — Almost as much a curiosity, in their way, as some of the prominent features of the Exposition, were the great World's Fair Hotels, pretentious, and in many instances solidly built permanent structures, which sprang up all about the grounds. In the view here given, one or two of the large hotels just north of the Plaisance appear, and an idea is afforded of their magnitude and general character. As a rule, these ventures were not successful to the extent anticipated. Those chancing to occupy convenient sites and in the way of immediate drift of travel near the grounds, in some cases closed the season with large profits, but the majority either little more than paid expenses or failed absolutely. So great were the expectations of speculators that hotel-building was overdone, and competition was so great before the Fair was half over, that prices for board and lodging became reasonable, and the visiting world went away satisfied with its treatment, on the whole, a desirable circumstance for Chicago. Another effect of the surplus of large hotels was that, after the Fair closed, they were transformed into apartment houses, and afforded such enormous facilities in this respect as to reduce materially the price of living in Chicago, making it very nearly the same as in other cities, despite its excessively rapid growth in population. Not only in the area immediately about the Fair grounds, but north and west, a mile or two away, these huge edifices were erected in such numbers as to change the whole appearance of that part of the city.

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The Midway and Viaduct — from the Moorish Palace. — From many points in the Midway itself interesting views were to be had, not counting that favorite point or observation, the Ferris Wheel. One of these vantage places was the Moorish Palace, and from it the view was taken, which appears above. The domes of the Government Building, the Illinois Building and the Fisheries Building loom up in the far distance, and the Woman's Building shows with some distinctness nearer, but most objects in the grounds proper appear only vaguely. The viaduct over the Plaisance, which appears in the foreground, was that at Woodlawn Avenue, and that beyond the one at Madison Avenue, both these viaducts being for ordinary street traffic merely. Still farther away is the Viaduct of the Illinois Central Railroad. To the right, close at hand, is the circular building, containing the panorama of the Bernese Alps, and still nearer, on the same side of Midway, the Turkish Village. On the left, the German Village is the most prominent feature. The viaducts were not things of beauty, and might have been so constructed as to have impaired less the freedom of the general view, but they were necessarily only temporary affairs, and, under the circumstances, hardly worthy the expenditure which would give them lightness and grace. Besides, the Midway, unlike the Fair proper, was not a place where a harmonious entire effect was sought. Every concessionaire wrought for himself, and it was the queer architectural contrasts afforded, which gave to the Plaisance much of its picturesqueness.

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Solomon Joseph and Ta-Ra-Ra Boom-De-Aye. — As a group of uncompromisingly rapacious and mannerless patronage-seekers the donkey boys of a Street in Cairo were probably never surpassed, and of these Solomon Joseph was admittedly the chief brigand. He was noisy, persistent and altogether intolerable in soliciting people to ride upon his dwarfish beasts, and was always grinning and good-natured. Of the two, the donkey shown in the picture had probably the greater number of lovable qualities, though even "Ta-ra-ra Boom-de-aye," as he was called, appeared to have suffered by association, and bore in his face and manner an air of stolid depravity painful to witness. With a lady upon his back, trotting along the street, impelled by Solomon Joseph's beating, the donkey's look was one of desperate and enduring malignity, while that of the driver was the concentration of all impudence. The pair were patronized though, because donkey-riding in a Street in Cairo became a fad, and because the easiest method of getting rid of Solomon Joseph and his donkey was to submit to the former's shrill demands. It was whispered darkly as being the intention of a great number of persons to kill Solomon Joseph at some time before the end of the Exposition, but the threat was never executed, and, if he be not there already, he will probably yet reappear in the streets of the real Cairo on the Nile to make himself once more a buoyant nuisance to tourists. A Street in Cairo had many original features, but none more drolly obtrusive in a small way than this son of an Arab and leader of donkey boys.

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King Bull and His Lapland Family. — Quite apart from the fact that it contained representatives of a people made famous in the school books and geographies as living near the North Pole and owning reindeer, the Lapland Village at the Fair had an attraction in the personality of its leading people. Lapland is not a monarchy, but the most notable figures in the village were King Bull, as he was named, and his wife, Queen Margaritha. King Bull was said to be over one hundred years old and a great-grandfather, but was an extremely vigorous old gentleman, as is shown, to an extent, by his attitude in the illustration. Old King Cole in his palmiest days was not a more gallant roysterer than Old King Bull, the chief difference being that the latter cared nothing for "fiddlers three" if he could get bowls enough. The fierce light which beats upon a throne caused gossip to be circulated regarding King Bull, and the newspapers dared to say that American drinks so tickled his palate that he remained much of the time in a state of Kingly ecstacy while his noble Queen could, on occasions, encourage her lord by mild example. A great couple they were, certainly, despite the vagueness of their kingdom. The village contained quite a colony of sturdy Laplanders, and they, with their reindeers, sledges and dogs, and their costume, too warm for comfort in the temperate zone, were objects of much interest. The illustration gives a good view of the conical dirt-covered huts erected in the village to afford a knowledge of how the Laplanders contrive to keep warm in their own cold country.

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"Medicine" and "Plenty Horse," Sioux Indian Chiefs. — The typical Indian Village on the Plaisance was not so much of a novelty as a study for American visitors to the Fair. They had seen Indians enough, but they had never seen members of widely separate tribes grouped together and so affording opportunity for comparison. To foreigners all were interesting, as savage races from abroad were to us, but to the American the contrast was the curious thing. It was decidedly marked, too. Here were remnants of some of the greatest tribes upon the continent, tribes whom the whites despoiled of vast regions and whom they almost annihilated; here were survivors of the Pottawatomies and Winnebagoes, tribes which, a comparatively short time ago, occupied the region about Chicago where the Exposition now upreared itself; here, too, were representatives of the great tribes of the Far West, not yet extinct, but rapidly going the way of their Eastern kindred. It was a curious and, in some respects, almost a saddening sight. The Indians themselves did not appear to be much depressed by the fact that their grandfathers were rulers when they themselves were but features of a show for the multitude. They lived placidly in their wigwams, their squaws and papooses about them, played the games in fashion with them; and gave an occasional war dance for the benefit of guests.

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Javanese Sweethearts. — The flavor of soft sentiment and romance almost civilized which pertained to the village of the gentle Javanese crystallized in one instance very prettily. Never, probably, did two Javanese before make so long a bridal tour as a couple who were at the Fair, for it extended from Chicago to their home in Java. Had they but fallen in love and wedded a little earlier they might have made the journey twice as long, including the round trip. Not very imposing but very pleasant personages were the small couple in whose espousal hundreds of thousands of people felt an interest, for the affair was exploited in the newspapers and the hosts of visitors at the Javanese settlement wanted to see the bride and groom. The bride was but a girl and the groom little more than a boy, but they mature early in the distant land of coffee, and the two shown in the illustration felt themselves quite old enough for the responsibilities they were assuming. The bridegroom was a very proud and happy individual and did not hesitate to say so, and the demure little bride seemed quite as content as he. It was a great occasion in the Javanese Village where the wedding festivities were celebrated and the outside world was made heartily welcome by the hospitable little people. It was in the same spirit that the newly married couple allowed their photographs to be taken for the benefit of their American friends.

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Arabian Horses and Riders. — Ottoman's Arab camp, or the "Wild East Show" as it was finally called, was one of the World's Fair enterprises which, with various striking features, was yet financially unsuccessful. The Bedouins, with their families and equipments, were brought to Chicago by a private company, and the original intention of the promoters of the enterprise was to exhibit them in a park near the Exposition, but this design was, for some reason, impossible of execution, and the performances were given in a park in the western part of the city, remote from the Fair and from the business district. The attendance was not such as to make the exhibition profitable. Toward the end of the Fair the aggregation secured a concession in the Midway Plaisance and attained something of the popularity it might, with better fortunes, have had from the beginning. The camp of Bedouins afforded an interesting spectacle, and the rough riders of the desert showed themselves as much at home in their feats as the cowboys and Indians who gave performances elsewhere. In no show of the Plaisance or Fair proper, was a more gallant scene afforded than where these wild horsemen gave proof that the century-old reputation of their race, as horsemen, had been fully merited. Their arms and trappings were picturesque in the extreme, and the Arabian horses were worthy of their daring riders. The exhibition did not begin at the Fair in time to retrieve fully the fortunes of the company, and the beautiful horses were eventually sold, many of them remaining in Chicago.

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Kaleife and His Dromedary. — The Bedouin and the dromedary, "the ship of the desert," were very much in evidence at the Ottoman's Arab camp, or "Wild East Show." The "ship" when under full sail around the encampment was gorgeously decorated, and his driver was not less brightly appareled. Why in a region as warm as the desert is supposed to be so much covering should be deemed a necessity is hard to say, but on all state occasions both the Arabs and their beasts were burdened with a great deal of what was gaudy but not neat. There was a general "flapping" effect when a dromedary with his loosely garmented rider went careering over the grounds. The dromedary appearing in the illustration was counted by his Bedouin owners as a beast of exceptionally good blood and fine points, though to American eyes these desirable qualities were not at once perceptible. In fact, judging from the comments of visitors, the impression seemed to be that a dromedary's neck curved the wrong way and that the general appearance of its figure and countenance might be much improved upon. Unquestionably picturesque and interesting, though, and in their way, instructive, were the Wild East exhibitions, and in these dromedaries and their riders were necessarily features second only in importance to the troop of wild Arab riders on their blooded horses. Many a visitor was reminded by the curious scene before him of the pictures in the old geographies. If the "Wild East Show" could have given an exhibition of a sirocco the reminiscence would have been complete.

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Interior of the Chinese Joss House. — Even conservative and ancient China did not keep away from the World's Fair entirely, though the exhibit made was the result of private enterprise, the Chinese government manifesting no great interest in the friendly reunion of the rest of the world. What was known as the Wah Mee Exposition Company had the energy as well as the capital to erect a Chinese Village in the Plaisance, and the Theatre, Joss House, Garden and Cafe there proved attractions to the multitude sufficient to make the venture one not to be regretted by the spirited investors. It may be said of the Chinese Village that its attractions were genuine ones of their kind, what was shown being what it professed to be, the exhibit thus proving as instructive as it was certainly curious to visitors. The Joss House was located on the second floor of the main building and presented a wonderful, and in many respects, charming spectacle to the beholder of its contents. There were idols without number, what corresponded to the Chinese conception of angels, and demons as numerous, and the infernal regions, with the various modes of punishment adopted there, were vividly depicted. It was, from the Buddhist standpoint, an elaborate religious display. There were, in addition, beautiful ornaments and carvings, and the appearance of the place in its entirety was such as to command the delighted attention of all who entered. It was a good thing that the ancient Empire chanced to have such representation by proxy.

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A Group of Arabs, Turks and Bedouins. — If there be a region in the world where caste and race distinctions are forgotten, where the religion is the same, it would appear to be in northern Africa, for the people at the Fair from that continent seemed utterly devoid of prejudice as regarded each other. The group here represented should have the addition of some swarthy Nubian chief, to convey a full idea of the good fellowship which prevailed, but, as they sit thus together, they afford a contrast as interesting as it is certainly not very strong. The Turk and Arab are not very dissimilar in facial expression. Transpose fez and turban and the ordinary American would mistake Bedouin for Turk and Turk for Bedouin. The Turk may have a little more of the air of a man of the world, but in the faces of the six men there is a striking general resemblance. There is in all the same expression of wide separation from the man of Europe or America as there is the same symbol of the faith upon the different costumes. The blood which enabled Mohammed to accomplish wonders is widespread, and the standard of the Prophet floats over very much the same sort of people everywhere, however varying in modes of government and living. It was one of the merits of the Columbian Exposition that, bringing together as it did people from every part of the world, it enabled comparisons and conclusions never so easily attained before. Of course all this was incidental, but the circumstance did not detract from the value of the ethnological study so made possible.

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Dahomey Men. — The Dahomey Village had a special attraction in the fact that its people were supposed to represent pure savagery, with a degree of intelligence combined, and it must be admitted that the looks of the swarthy tourists did not particularly belie their reputation in civilized lands. Their demeanor rather conveyed the impression that they were bad and glad of it, and that, while the Caucasian might build expositions and things of that sort, the only real way to live was in the Dahomey style, engaging in much dancing and the occasional killing and eating of somebody. The village consisted of three houses and a group of huts, much of the material being brought from Dahomey for the purpose, and was occupied by sixty men and forty women. Of the sexes, the women, battle-scarred Amazons from the King's army, were the larger and fiercer looking. Anything but attractive were these she-warriors, and about as devoid of all femininity, even of the uncivilized type, as could be well imagined. Their manner of eating and living in the village was not pleasing, and, observing their ways, it was not difficult to imagine the scenes of their annual human sacrifices and various fetish ceremonies, or the festivities of the annual tax-gathering, when the Kings followers, going through the country, are, or have been in the past, regaled with feasts upon captives and offenders who have been held for the occasion. One looking at them was inclined to believe that about the only good thing to be said of the natives of Dahomey is that they are fearless and, as has been, proved, will die rather than submit to any form of slavery.

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A Group of Boushareens. — Africans of a sort, whose feet had never trod the soil of America before, were among those who made up the population of a Street in Cairo, and among those were none more interesting to the white visitor than the group known as Boushareens. They were a people entirely unknown to most of those viewing the Fair's wonders. Not one person in a thousand had ever heard of the Boushareens, and yet they are a people of note on the Dark Continent, a stalwart, handsome tribe, ranging between the first and second cataracts of the Nile, and holding their own there with admirable energy and persistence. At the Fair they were objects of decided interest and well repaid the attention of those who became acquainted with them. They appear to have benefited decidedly by such civilization as has found its way along the upper Nile, and were well armed, almost elaborate in their attention to dress, and particularly courteous in their demeanor. In features they had much less of the negro than many other representatives of Africa, who appeared at the Exposition, and their ways were as different as their faces. As seen in the illustration, the noses were almost aquiline and the lips but of moderate thickness. The woman standing next to the man, on the right, is almost handsome, even according to our standard, while the faces of the men are thoughtful and intelligent. They enjoyed the Fair amazingly, conducting themselves like favored guests of this strange nation, and approving very much of its diet and its customs. They will henceforth be people of importance in their own country.

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Paseleo, A Samoan Chief. — Splendid specimens of manhood and womanhood physically were the Samoans at the Exposition, and comment was as general upon their fine proportions as upon their intelligence and courtesy of demeanor. It may be that a remembrance of this time when Samoans imperiled their lives so recklessly in aid of the crews of American warships wrecked in the great hurricane at Apia had something to do with the good will shown, but, whatever the cause, the Samoans became popular at once and were admired and made much of. The story of the United States they will carry back to their pleasant island will, assuredly, be one to make the good feeling closer. As magnificent animals, counting nothing else, the visitors deserved all the attention paid them. The climate and the diet of Samoa must be good for humanity, and that may yet become famous as a health resort in the far Pacific to which Americans will go in thousands. Mention has appeared elsewhere of the fact that a cast was made of the limbs of one of the Samoan girls, as models for the Art Institute, and the same compliment was paid Paseleo. Deepchested, well-jointed and symmetrical, with the suppleness and strength of a leopard, he was a magnificent specimen of a human being. Like the women, the men of the Samoans delighted in garlands about the neck, and Paseleo himself did not feel superior to this simple and natural style of adornment.

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Nizaha, A Woman of Nazareth. — Hardly what one would expect in appearance was Nizaha, a woman with the Bedouins, who came from the locality reverentially considered by all the Christian world as the birthplace of Christ. It must be borne in mind, though, that Jerusalem and all the holy places are still in the hands of "the infidel," as they were in the time of the crusaders, and that the Arab race extends well into Asia. The first thought in relation to the inhabitants of Nazareth is, of course, that they are Jews, and many of them are still there, but the typical woman of Nazareth is no longer a dark-haired Jewess, such as Mary must have been, but a woman like the one shown here in the illustration. It will be observed that in sitting for her photograph Nizaha did not forget her hands and handkerchief and that, with the left hand especially, as it is spread out against her side, a somewhat startling effect is produced. The rings are shown prominently, but the hands themselves have undue size because of their nearness to the camera. They show that they are the hands of one whose life has been spent healthfully out of doors and engaged in the duties of a woman of a nomadic race rather than those of a creature of the drawing room. A very good exponent of the manner of women of her race was the ingenuous Nizaha.

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Camel and Driver in Cairo Street. — The Cairo Street camels had varied duties to perform, at one time being hurried along with much mauling and gesticulation to convey a rider, or perhaps a couple, from one end of the street to the other and unload them hurriedly to make room for other experimenting people, and again, bedecked with cumbrous trappings, led along the same boisterous thoroughfare to take part in some procession alleged to be a duplicate of what may be seen in the streets of the genuine Cairo on the Nile. It is when prepared for his appearance in the latter capacity that the camel in the illustration appears, led by his far from conventionally beautiful master. In the immense howdah, looking like a garden tent upon the camel's back, is supposed to be a fair Egyptian, for it is to be a wedding procession which will add to the street spectacle, and the bride must be borne along on the camel's back, though she is concealed from the gaze of the populace, as becomes a properly reared and dutiful woman of the Orient. The nature of the camel's gear on these state occasions seemed, in the opinion of visitors, to detract from rather than assist his peculiar style of beauty, and there was no division of opinion on the proposition that the bride, in courtesy to the guests of the occasion, ought to show her face.

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The Grand Basin at Night — Showing Search-Lights. — One of the charms of the night view over the Grand Basin was that it was always new, atmospheric or other causes producing varied effects, and the scene on one occasion being entirely different from that presented on another. And not only were atmospheric conditions fluctuating, but the artificial ones produced were made still more so, a new experience to the sight-seer after dark being thus assured beyond all peradventure. Here the great element of the Search-Light came in. Never before was the comparatively recent device for overcoming darkness utilized on such a scale or with such effect. In the illustration one search-light is operated from a tower of the Manufactures Building and the other from a window in the Agriculture Building, their broadening shafts crossing gloriously in mid-air and calculated to make all observers unfaithful to the moon. Fantastic as could be imagined were sometimes the effects produced by these streamers flaunted through the vault above, for they were not fixed at all, but dived, or rose, or turned, flashing here and there as if the sword of the Angel Gabriel were seeking out the sinners everywhere. From the Government Building was occasionally projected a monster of light, the most powerful known, which made visible objects four or five miles away, on the lake or along the city front, and which, thrown upward toward the clouds, gave the appearance of a great fire beneath, or suggested a volcano in eruption.

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The Mining Building. — This imposing facade illustrates the massive and graceful proportions of the Mining Building. The grand central arch, one hundred feet high, and the domed pavilions at either corner are supported by heavy pilasters of granitoid blocks, suggestive of great solidity. The lofty bays, the recessed balcony with pillared support, the elaborate frieze, the architectural reliefs, the bannered flagstaffs, give the finishing touch of beauty to simple strength. The great floor space is seven hundred by three hundred and fifty feet in area including a space of five and one-half acres. The dome of Administration, in the rear, and the towers of Electricity to the left, give an exalted sky relief and indicate the relation of this to the other edifices of the Central court. At the left appears the verdure of the water-bound and wooded islands — the centerpiece of the Exposition landscape. The continuous fringe of green at the water's edge is broken by the pedestals of the statuary in the immediate foreground. The projecting cornice above the horse is all that is visible of the Golden Door to the Transportation Building. The equestrian groups are fitting accessories of the scene. Their spirited energy and the expressive, life-like attitudes of horses and riders won the praise of eminent sculptors. The frontier and mountain life they represent is intimately associated with the development of the industry to which the great edifice in front, with its abundant wealth of mineral, ore and metal is dedicated.

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The Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building. — Ranking in popular estimation as one of the greatest wonders of the Fair, the Manufactures Building compelled the astonishment and admiration of the artists and architects of the world as well. The largest building in area ever erected under one roof it has yet been recognized as a triumph artistically not less than as a marvel of daring in construction. In describing the mammoth structure, which rises in the illustration above and beyond the Wooded Island, figures become almost poetry, so striking are they in character. The building covers an area of nearly thirty-two acres, and the interior, with the galleries, had an exhibiting space of nearly forty-four acres. The height of the roof truss over the central line was two hundred and twelve feet nine inches, and its span three hundred and fifty-four feet in the clear. The building was four times as large as the old Roman Colosseum, which seated eighty thousand people, and its great central hall, a single room without a supporting pillar, could seat three hundred thousand persons. The height of the exterior walls was sixty-six feet and the grand entrances in each facade are eighty feet in height by forty in width. The structure was of the Corinthian order of architecture, was rectangular in form, and the classic severity of its style was relieved by the corner pavilions and elaborate and appropriate ornamentation. Its cost was $1,700,000 and 17,000,000 feet of lumber, 12,000,000 pounds of steel and 2,000,000 pounds of iron were used in its construction.

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The Obelisk and Southern Colonnade. — A fitting termination made to the view south on the South Canal was formed by the Southern Colonnade with the Obelisk in front. The Obelisk was history repeated in stone, or at least in its imitation, for it was a reproduction of the famous Cleopatra's needle, the original of which, thousands of years old, was presented by the Khedive of Egypt to the United States and is now a prominent object in Central Park, in New York City. The Obelisk stood on a finely carved pedestal reached by a circle of steps descending to the water and was guarded by four great Nubian lions. Upon the pedestal, at each corner of the shaft, stood an eagle upon a globe, the four globes connected by garlands. On the monolith's north front was the inscription: "Four hundred years after the discovery of this continent by Christopher Columbus, the nations of the world unite on this spot to compare in friendly emulation their achievements in art, science, manufactures and agriculture." The colonnade, in effect, connected Machinery Hall with the Agriculture Building, inclosing from outer view the entire inlet of the South Canal from the Court of Honor and completing the picturesque view from the north. It was, architecturally, very nearly a continuation of the first story and loggia of Machinery Hall, than which it would be difficult to say more for its appearance. The grand arch in the center was imposing and graceful and the groups of horses and cattle above were admirably designed. The colonnade became a very popular place of resort before the Fair ended.

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East Front of Machinery Hall, and The Obelisk. — The area of water extending to the south from the Grand Basin and known as the South Canal was so entirely surrounded by the beautiful in art or architecture that a view across it from any point was sure to be something captivating. The view above is from the northeast corner of the canal, just where the "Farmer's Bridge" terminated on the area in front of the Agriculture Building, with the observer looking toward the southwest. The great arch of the Southern Colonnade and the east portal of Machinery Hall appear with fine effect, as does the Obelisk, while the illustration has also an interest as showing the manner in which the Horticulture Department aided in beautifying all about the Court of Honor, with the great potted plants upon the balustrades. Here, too, are visible in one scene three of the sculptural masterpieces used for outdoor adornment of the grounds. At the left appears the statue of "Plenty;" across the canal that of "Industry," or, as it was sometimes called, the "Boy and Horse." To the right, in the immediate foreground, is one of the famous group, or, rather, "set," of wild animal figures which attracted a great deal of admiration. Guarding the east end of the bridge stood, as described by the sculptor, Mr. Phimister Proctor, "two sullen moose with shaggy manes, disproportionately long legs, short, thick necks and ugly noses. The animals' antlers are their only beauty, but the sculptor has given a faithful representation of them." They were beautiful, though, in the very perfection of their uncouth naturalness.

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Entrance to the Electricity Building. — The south front of the Electricity Building was by no means deficient in the part it sustained toward making a wall of splendid architecture about the Grand Plaza, and the special feature of this front was, of course, the main entrance to the structure. Here the architects had made their chief study and secured their greatest results. The facades were all relieved by entrances, but the one to the south had special distinction in its treatment. A great triumphal arch, fifty-eight feet wide and ninety-two feet high, made the frame of a semi-circular niche, or hemicycle, as it is called, extending into the building and covered by a half dome. The half dome was divided into panels on which were various graceful devices on a background of greenish blue. Above, exteriorly, were different figures representing the functions of electricity as applied to the industrial arts, and the general effect produced was not only dignified but, at the same time, thoroughly emblematical. The object which attracted most attention at the entrance was the heroic statue of Benjamin Franklin, the inspiration being Franklin's discovery that lightning might be brought from the clouds. He stood, his kite beside him, head thrown back, and the whole attitude that of a man triumphing in a great end achieved. The statue comported well with its surroundings.

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The Spanish Government Building. — It was to be expected that Spain, the country in one respect most honored by the World's Columbian Exposition, should be well represented in the displays, and that its government should enter into the broad spirit of the occasion. The Spanish government showed earnestness in its course from the beginning, not merely in assisting Spanish exhibitors but in such special direction as the building of the duplicate "Santa Maria," the flagship of Columbus, the loan of treasured relics, shown in the Convent of La Rabida and the care paid to make something typical of the Spanish Government Building. The structure, which occupied a site near the lake shore between those of Germany and Canada, was the reproduction in design of the Valencia Silk Exchange, a building the erection of which was begun in Valencia, Spain, in 1492, the year that Columbus sailed. It showed exactly the style of architecture prevalent in Spain at the time, and so had had a peculiar and appropriate interest. The dimensions were a frontage of eighty-four feet, a depth of about ninety-five feet and a height of about fifty feet, the tower rising fifteen feet higher. The ornaments of the interior represented the church, the magistracy and the military arts, and the general effect was in keeping with the time represented. Here, of course, were the Spanish governmental headquarters at the Fair.

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On the Wooded Island. — Without the Wooded Island, with its touch of the country, its wonderful flowers and shrubbery and winding walks, and cosy nooks and quaint Japanese houses of the past, the Fair would have lacked one of its most refreshing and interesting features Charming alike to the naturalist, the couples who liked to wander by themselves, the student or the mere lover of the beautiful, was the island which added such variety to the scenery of the vast inclosure. The flora, transplanted from a thousand different and distant places, seemed to thrive here as at home, and nature seemed assisting man to make the whole as nearly a perfect thing as possible. And man certainly did his own part exceedingly well. He utilized what nature gave to the greatest advantage and added numerous improvements of his own which were in admirable taste. The view which appears above is but a bit, just the extreme southern end of the island where it is connected with the mainland by a tasteful bridge. There appears the broad way leading up to the Administration Building directly in front, with the Electricity Building showing partly on the left and a corner of the Mining Building on the right. The very spirit of the island's atmosphere is caught in the illustration, the flowers, the shrubbery, the sturdy trees and the fairy lamps which gave such brilliancy to the night scene, are all depicted just as they were. The spot was one of the most charming on the Island.

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The Golden Door. — The main portal of the Transportation Building, because of its strikingly attractive features both of design and coloring, became known as "The Golden Door," and certainly deserved the admiring title given it by the public. The Transportation Building, as a whole, was a complete departure in style and hue from the great mass of structures which gave the White City its name, and its greatest entrance was its most novel and beautiful part. It was, beyond question, the chief illustration at the World's Fair of what can be done in architecture by combining exquisite reliefs with oriental richness of painting, though in the decoration of entrances architects and artists had lavished all their genius and invention. The doorway is an arch, or, more properly speaking, a quintuple arch, the five blending into a whole elaborately ornamented and embellished with delicate bas-reliefs. The combined arches form a semi-circular environment for a symbolical mural painting in the background and just above the entrance proper. The impression is thus produced of a picture gorgeously framed, and this effect is further enhanced by a square, treated in a similar manner to the arches, and joining the peripheries of the exterior one. This remarkable portal was painted a pea-green and the bas-relief was overlaid with silver leaf, the result being something dazzling in the extreme. Not merely because of its richness and originality, but because of the lesson it taught by comparison with less florid though grander styles the Golden Doorway was certainly among the most notable architectural features shown.

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The East India Building. — Through the result of private enterprise instead of being strictly a governmental affair, the East India Building was representative, both as to exterior and contents, and was counted one of the most graceful of its group. It was eighty feet long, sixty feet wide and sixty feet in height, and had one large room surrounded by a gallery, the whole lighted by an extensive skylight. The structure was almost entirely of staff and though built for a foreign company, the design was by local architects. The cost of the structure was $15,000 borne by the company mentioned, one desirous of making certain teas grown in India popular in this country. The style of architecture adopted was East Indian, and some of the features of the famous Taj Mahal were reproduced, the staff affording special facilities for such an attempt. The building was entered through a tall arched gateway surmounted by four minarets and profusely ornamented with an arabesque design. On either side were arcades lavishly decorated with relief work. A parapet with corner minarets surrounded the roof the panels of which were also decorated. The effect was heightened by lavish coloring, applied with admirable taste. The interior was so crowded with Indian goods that but little of the walls remained exposed to view, the exhibits, for sale, of wares of gold, silver, copper and ivory, curios and Indian fabrics being numerous and costly. The tea was served by natives in costume. Private enterprise though it was, the East Indian Building was not discreditable to the ancient country represented.

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The Ceylon Building. — Distant Ceylon made an admirable showing at the Columbian Exposition, its building forming a notable exhibit in itself. The "Court," as it was called, stood just to the north of the German Building, fronting on the lake. The material was of the beautiful native woods of Ceylon, and the pillars, ends of beams and doors were wonderfully carved in imitation of the works of art found in the ancient city of Anuradhapura. The interior of the structure, which was one hundred and sixty-two feet in length, was also decorated with fine carving. The court stood on a projecting basement and its main floor was reached by carved stairways, two leading into the central octagon and one into each of the projecting wings. The shrouded figures seen carved in bas-relief, guarding either side of the steps, are to ward off evil spirits from the house. The entrance was through a beautiful doorway and the scene, on emerging into the central hall, was particularly attractive. The interior carvings represented lotus and other flowers and were admirably executed. Colossal figures of Buddha and Vishnu were prominent objects on either side of the central hall. The whole outside of the building was framed in satin-wood and the roofs were covered with imitation pan-tiles. The roofs over the central hall and the famous tea-room rose in three tiers, and the whole was surmounted by a hammered brass finial, a duplicate of the one on the Temple of the Sacred Tooth of Buddha, at Kandy. The tea-room, it may be added, was a great place of popular resort.

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Interior of Manufactures Building. — Very like a great city by itself was the interior of the Manufactures Building, with its forty-four acres of exhibiting space — space which was not enough, great as it was for what the world demanded, with its broad avenues, its scores and scores of galleries, its wonderful exhibits and its teeming population. Never under one roof before was collected such an enormous display of what human industry and ingenuity can produce; never was made such an exhibition of what has been accomplished in productive art. The mammoth proportions of the building on the outside impressed all beholders but hardly prepared them for the effect upon them when within. It was many things in one; a magnificent showing of the beautiful and useful, a city doing business, a promenade for hundreds of thousands, a great entity which seemed almost as if separate from the remainder of the Exposition. The view given is from the height of the gallery and down Columbia avenue, the great thoroughfare, fifty feet in width, extending through the building north and south, being so designated. An avenue of equal width crossed the center of the structure from east to west. In the foreground may be seen displays from Switzerland, Norway, Denmark, Canada, Great Britain, France and Belgium. In the distance just in the center of the building may be seen the great clock, so that the view is really one of half the extent of Columbia avenue, and the general effect of the great central arch of the building the throngs are lacking, this admirable view being taken in the early morning.

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Interior View in the Government Building. — While the building erected by the government of the United States was hardly counted among the architectural masterpieces of the Fair, it was at least to be expected that the vast resources available would make its exhibits of special interest, and in this respect public opinion was not wrong. From the possessions of the Smithsonian Institution, the National Museum and the various departments were drawn such objects as made the display not only one of great magnitude, but of a remarkable character. The view above given is of but a limited space inside, and includes a portion of the exhibit made by the War Department. This exhibit alone had wide scope, including a historical collection of small arms, with present devices of fabrication, ordnance, ancient and modern, machine guns used and devices and supplies of a thousand kinds, all arranged to give an idea of the equipment and means of movement and maintenance of an army. The view shows some of the colors, standards and guidons in use by the United States or other nations, while the pillars bristle with small arms and below appears a glimpse of ordnance. The mules shown are among the lay figures which were a constant source of wonder to the uninitiated. The wax figures of soldiers, illustrative of the uniforms worn at different periods, were especially deceiving, being often mistaken for sentrys on guard over the exhibits. The governmental display, as a whole, was creditable, even for so great a country.

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The Viking Ship. — It was well that with the Columbian celebration honor should be paid to Leif Ericsson, undoubtedly the first European to land upon the shores of America, though due advantage was not taken of his great discovery, and it was well, too, that the Viking Ship seen at the Fair should be a reproduction of one buried with its commander at about the time Leif Ericsson made his voyage. That was not far from the year 1000. The "Viking," as the vessel was named, was seventy-six feet in length, was open, with the exception of a small deck fore and aft, and was very simply rigged with one mast, which could be taken down, and with a single sail. Evidently the Norsemen depended much on their long oars. The prow was adorned with a dragon's head, and the stern with a dragon's tail, both being finished in gilt. Outside the slender bulwarks were hung the embellished shields of the crew, and there were benches and apertures for sixteen rowers on a side. The rudder, after the ancient custom, was placed on the right side, close to the stern. A canopy which could be erected at will made a shelter over the deck. The fund for the reproduction of the" Viking" was raised in Norway by popular subscription and, under the command of Captain Magnus Andersen and a picked Norwegian crew, the vessel made the trip across the Atlantic Ocean and through the great lakes with ease, doing even more than the Norsemen did so long ago in a similar craft. A splendid exhibit was the "Viking," and all honors were paid it and its country by America.

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The Cliff Dwellers. — There were few more interesting exhibits at the World's Fair than the home of the ancient Cliff Dwellers, shown in the imitation of Battle Rock Mountain, in the Mac Eimo Valley of Colorado. The curious structure was made of timbers, iron and staff, and stood near the Anthropological Building in the southeast corner of the grounds. The representation of the homes of the people whose history can be but guessed at was most complete, and, upon entering the structure through a cavern made to produce the effect of a canyon, it was difficult for the visitor to comprehend that he was not in the country of the people who, ages ago, peopled the mesas and tablelands of the Southwest. The houses, perched far up the cliffs in places apparently inaccessible, were reproduced on a scale of one-sixth their real size, but there were shown also portions of the genuine structures as they exist today. To all who had paid any attention to the discoveries made regarding these prehistoric Americans, who must have had dangerous enemies to guard against to have taken such extraordinary precautions, these houses possessed the greatest interest. There was, in addition to the natural scene presented, a department of relics, showing remains of the Cliff Dwellers and specimens of their pottery, the implements they used and the weapons with which they armed themselves. Tortuous paths led to the summit of the mountain by which visitors might ascend and obtain a view of the surroundings. The exhibit ranked well among those which were not only curious, but taught something of the history of the continent.

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United States Military Encampment, Government Plaza. — North and east of the Manufactures Building was an extensive plaza devoted altogether to the uses of the United States Government. Here were the military encampment, the life-saving station, the signal service bureau, the naval station, the light-house exhibit and similar governmental features. The view shown is taken from the Government Building looking southeast, the northeast corner of the Manufactures Building filling most of the picture. Very neat and well kept was the military encampment at all times, the strictest discipline prevailing, and all the usual routine of the soldiers' life at a post being observed. Uncle Sam has not so many soldiers that he ever makes a great martial display at any place, in peaceful times, but it was the comment of foreign military authorities visiting the Fair and who chanced to be present on occasions when the troops from Fort Sheridan took part in the parades that they were fully equal in point of apparent efficiency to the soldiers of the armed camp known as Europe. When the natty West Point cadets had a vacation made memorable by the privilege afforded them of visiting the Fair, this praise was further extended. It is doubtful if all Europe has a military school more efficient or one which has produced more great generals than the academy on the Hudson. The picturesqueness of the view here given is somewhat curtailed by the nearness of the great building overshadowing all, but this is a glimpse of the distant lake and a partial view of the outlines of one of the chocolate pavilions.

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North Lagoon and The Merchant Tailors' Building. — It was hardly to be expected that a building erected by a special class of exhibitors would compare favorably in classic beauty of conception and in all architectural features with anything produced by the great artists of the Exposition, but such was certainly the case. The Merchant Tailors' Building was an architectural gem, inside and outside. However, a structure planned by Pericles and built under the supervision of Phidias should be something admirable, and those two were responsible for the edifice, since it was a reproduction of the Erectheum at Athens. A local architect of note, was it is true, the author of certain charming details, but the general design was as indicated. The building, which stood near the bridge across the north pond, was ninety-four feet each way over all and fifty-five feet six inches square, inside measurement. The interior of the main room was octagonal in shape, and upon the north and south sides were semi-circular rooms. The walls of the main room were finished in cream and gold and decorated with mural paintings, illustrating the eight historical periods of dress. The first scene represented Adam and Eve making aprons of leaves; the second was a barbarian scene; the third, Egyptian; the fourth, classical Greek; the fifth, medieval; the sixth, Renaissance; the seventh, Louis the XIV. to Louis the XVI., and the eighth, modern. The exterior effect was beautiful, the edifice giving one of the purest and most delightful effects of the Exposition landscape.

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A View Toward the Northwest. — From the roof of the Government Building some of the finest views of certain portions of the World's Fair grounds were had, and, among these, the one here presented is not the least attractive. It is from the north end of the roof and taken toward the northwest, it must have been in the early morning, for scarcely a figure is visible on the walks or bridges and the water lies quiescent as a plate of glass. The west portion of the Fisheries and the north end of the Wooded Island are brought out boldly in the immediate foreground, the Japanese Hooden Palace with its three buildings huddled cosily amid the island's greenery, looking the comfortable place it was. Further on, to the left, appear the north end of the Horticulture Building, then the "Puck" and Children's buildings, and then the Woman's Building, while behind the latter, stretching away far to the west, is the Midway Plaisance, with its odd structures and the Ferris Wheel looming up in the distance as a guide to the merry locality. Further to the right, an end of the California Building and the whole southern facade of the Illinois Building appear, and then, nestled down by the water side, shows, clearly defined in its whiteness, that beautiful reproduction of Grecian architecture, the Merchant Tailors' Building. From even this distance the grace and beauty of that exquisite structure suffice to make themselves apparent. Away off to the west and northwest stretch Chicago's suburbs, the smoke slowly drifting over from the areas of denser population.

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Bird's Eye View of the Wooded Island. — It was soon discovered after the World's Fair had become a reality, that, from various points of vantage, views could be secured of a scope and beauty unsought and unexpected by the architect or landscape gardener. From the tops of certain buildings there opened vistas such as could have only been imagined by the poet or the painter. The illustration given above is from a photograph taken from the top of the Transportation Building and is that of a scene to be equaled in very few places in the world. All but the southern extremity of the Wooded Island is visible in perspective, and the buildings grouped about it on the north and east appear in their relative proportions. The design of the island is shown, with the dense thicket at its southwest corner in the foreground close to which, like a little pirate in waiting, hovers one of the electric launches. In the distance, to the left, shows part of the southern facade of the Art Palace; then to the right the Marine Cafe, the Fisheries, the Government Building and the northwest corner of the Manufactures Building. The sky-line is relieved with scores of different sorts of dome and tower and cupola and minaret and steeple. Upon pediment and pedestal are faintly discernible varied ornamentation and figures. The water is still, just a faint "crinkle" appearing on its surface, and, from the small number of people moving on the island paths, it may be assumed that the picture was taken before the great daily throng of sight-seers had reached the ground. It is a charming view.

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The Canadian Building. — In some respects the Canadian Building had the best location of any among the foreign headquarters on the Exposition grounds. It stood facing the lake, just south of the Spanish Building and nearly opposite that of Great Britain, and from its pleasant balconies afforded a beautiful view up and down the lake shore promenade. It was not the attractive location of the Canadian Building, though, which made it the popular resort it became, and which it continued to be throughout the Fair. It was because of the character of the official and journalistic forces there, and of the reception accorded to visitors, both Canadian and American, who entered the place that it became widely known and deservedly popular beyond its material attractions. No attempt at any exhibit was made here for Canada was sufficiently in evidence elsewhere in almost every department of the Fair, carrying away a great deal of the honor. The building was simply the headquarters for Canada, and, incidentally, for a great deal of the rest of the world. It was this tactful management which made the Canadian Building of really greater importance than the more pretentious structure of Great Britain. The difference was in the personality of the management, and Canada was very fortunate. Because of this good fortune and of Canada's energetic appearance at the Fair in general the Dominion and the United States understood each other better and have come a great deal closer to each other, as they should have done long ago. Canada was a star of the first magnitude at the World's Columbian Exposition.

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The Guatemala Building. — Built in the Spanish style and tastefully though not profusely decorated, the Guatemala Building presented a most attractive frontage from its site at the east end of the North Pond. The edifice was one hundred and eleven feet square, and two stories in height, and the corners were embellished by graceful towers twenty-three feet in diameter. The entire height of the towers was sixty-five feet, and in two of them were staircases giving access to the roof which formed a terrace about a great central court. This court in the center of the building was a feature which indicated especially its Spanish style and which proved a delightful conception in itself a pretty thing, and enabling ventilation and coolness to the rooms during all the summer. In the court's center was a fountain in which water tumbled over a great rock and which was so surrounded as to make both a charming retreat and pleasing interior view. The building held the customary offices, and in other rooms were displays of Guatemalan products and some most interesting historical relics, particularly of the ancient Quitche nation, that strange race existing before Columbus and of which the language is still known. Among the exhibits were beautifully carved wooden pillars taken from a discovered Quitche temple. Even the work of famous Hindu artists would scarcely excel that upon those pillars. A display of brilliant plumaged birds gave light and variety to the exhibits.

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The Wisconsin Building. — It was intended that the Wisconsin Building should be indicative of the resources of the state, and such it was in fact. All the visible material came from Wisconsin, the brown stone, the pressed brick, the shingles and even the plate glass being home products. A handsome building was the result, too. The rich brown stone has long been famous for such use, and the design of the structure was such as to enable its employment to advantage. The total cost was $30,000. The interior was beautifully finished in highly polished hardwoods, and there were some attractive specimens of mosaic work. There were the usual offices for the state's representatives in Exposition management, and there were reception, library and reading rooms, and other apartments designed to make a pleasant headquarters for Wisconsin people. In the building was an exhibit of statuary which was more than creditable. "The Genius of Wisconsin," by Nellie Farnsworth Meirs, was a female figure of heroic proportions and noble countenance caressing an eagle perched upon her shoulder. At the head of the broad stairway was a stained glass window of Wisconsin workmanship which attracted much attention by its artistic design and coloring. Another object of interest was a beautifully-wrought Spanish flag, bearing the inscription, "To Castile and Leon Columbus Gave a New World." In the library was a large bookcase filled with works exclusively by Wisconsin authors. The great covered veranda which encircled most of the building became a popular place of resort.

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The California Building. — The reputation of California as a State possessed of an abundance, which it has no hesitancy in showing in an original way, was fully justified in its imposing and novel structure at the World's Fair and by its contents. The building stood near the northwest corner of the grounds, on the right of the thoroughfare leading south from the Fifty-seventh Street entrance, and was a not only striking but, to most observers, a curious object. With a length of four hundred and thirty-five feet and a width of one hundred and forty-four feet the structure was a reproduction on a large scale of the style of the old Spanish Missions of Southern California, which, in some localities, are still preserved. It was surmounted by a Moorish dome one hundred and thirteen feet high, and had an extensive roof garden decorated with semi-tropical plants. There was but one departure in construction from the Mission style, the southern porch being on the classic order; but this contrast served rather to accentuate the general idea than to detract from it. The staff used here, as in the Spanish Building and in the Convent of La Rabida, was just the thing for the purpose, serving to imitate to a nicety the stucco and adobe of the old convents and mission houses. Among the State Buildings that of California was exceeded in dimensions by only one upon the grounds, that of Illinois. The interior showing of the California Building was excelled nowhere. Not only were the resources of the State made manifest by the most profuse displays, but all its exhibits in other departments of the Fair were duplicated.

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Royal Berlin Porcelain Vase. — There were some very beautiful objects in the porcelain display by Germany, in the Manufactures Building, but easily first was the Royal Porcelain Vase, nine feet in height, which is the subject of this illustration. It was part of the showing made by the Royal Berlin Porcelain Works, which are conducted under government patronage, and was one of the largest, if not the largest, vase of the kind ever made. It may be added that the vase will yet be admired by hosts of Americans, for it has become one of the treasures of the new Columbian Museum, it and other pieces having been so secured through the efforts of Mr. Horstmann, of Berlin. The vase stood on a carved wooden pedestal. Its body was a cobalt blue while the upper portion, where were the exquisitely modeled flowers and cupids, varied in color to meet the natural requirements The flowers, cupids and the panel in front were the only decorations. The medallion, upon which appears a cupids face, was an iron-red, a characteristic color of the works where the vase was produced. The modeling, was, of course, all of the most delicate of handwork, and in both conception and execution commanded the warmest admiration of experts, as well as of the general public.

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Eastern Portal of Machinery Hall. — The view here given is an admirable one of the eastern entrance to Machinery Hall and makes plain the remarkable architectural style of that great edifice. The entrance has been described at length, but only such a view as this, the reproduction of a photograph taken from the Agriculture Building at a point directly across the canal, could bring out the charming details. The portico of this entrance was a popular resort because here was a regular stopping place for the boats, a couple of gondolas which are in the picture showing where the landing was. In addition to this, the south canal was at times the theatre of most interesting and amusing contests, one in particular occurring on what was known as "Machinery Day," affording vast recreation to visitors. A contest between steam pumps was on and one of its features was, for the sake of sport, made especially droll. Stout rafts were placed upon the canal and on these sturdy fellows, managing hose through which water was forced by the contesting pumps, were stationed to do battle. The test was to determine which men could, by the force of the streams from their hose, drive their opponents from the other rafts. The result may not have materially affected the ultimate decision of the judges of machinery, but it was a great naval victory for the successful combatants and a source of great delight to the public.

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The Boiler-Room of Machinery Hall. — Never before was such a boiler-room as that which delighted engineers in Machinery Hall. It must needs be enormous, for it supplied the force for all the lights and machinery of the great buildings, but those who had never seen it were none the less astonished when they entered the great room. It extended north and south in the annex, and to look down it was like looking down a street the end of which was lost in the distance. It was the largest boiler-room in the world. Not one class of boilers alone were used, but those of different manufacturers were set up side by side and so, throughout the Fair's continuance, they were subjected to a practical test of quality and endurance. The same rule was followed with the pumps, the boiler-room thus becoming one of the greatest competitive fields of the Exposition. It was a model boiler-room in management, too. Only petroleum was used as fuel; convenience and neatness being thus assured, and tyros had little place among the engineers in charge of a plant so expensive and working under such conditions. An amazing force emanated from that boiler-room. Underground tunnels in which pipes were laid carried steam to distant buildings where engines were in operation, and great conduits containing electric wires radiated in all directions. It was a sight worth looking at for the engineer, or the student of progress of any sort in the mechanical field, and will afford a mental object of comparison for a long time to come. It was one of the wonders of the Fair, but was recognized as such by only a portion of the visitors.

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Interior of the Mining Building. — There was much in the Mines and Mining Building the value of which was not apparent save to the expert, but there was a great deal there also which was glitteringly attractive, and a great deal that was curious even to the casual visitor. The display of gold and silver made from some of the states was striking, as were the exhibits of precious stones from different countries, and the great monuments of coal were as impressive in their way as they were graceful in form. Of course a statue of solid silver modeled in the likeness of an actress and widely advertised would attract more people out of the average throng than would a specimen of perfect building stone, but, lacking in neither class of features, the Mines and Mining Building held its own pretty well, considering the great counter-attractions the Exposition offered. How the interior appeared to the eye shows in the accompanying illustration, a bird's-eye view from the southwest corner of the building and extending over a large area of the exhibits. The Mexican exhibit is prominent in the immediate foreground, that country, so rich in mineral resources, making a fine showing, while, just across the broad central aisle, Montana, Utah, Idaho and California are bravely prominent. A little farther to the north, Germany, Great Britain, Michigan and Missouri occupy the four corners about the central open space on the main floor. The coal and marble monuments loom up as sentinels here and there and give variety to the scene. The earth certainly gave forth lavishly of its treasures to enrich the stores of the Mines Building.

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Interior of "Old Vienna." — To leave the Exposition without having visited the Austrian Village, more widely known as "Old Vienna," was, in the opinion of many people, not to have seen the Fair at all. It was one of the most popular places of resort for the multitude, despite the expensiveness of the luxury, for prices in Old Vienna were "World's Fair prices" indeed. There was a charm about the place, though, this faithful reproduction of "Der Graben" in the Vienna of one hundred and fifty years ago, and the old town with its ancient buildings, its shops, its tables set out under the skies, its lights and its charming music had always an attendance while the evenings remained warm enough for out-door idling. Old Vienna covered a space in the Plaisance of one hundred and ninety-five by five hundred feet and consisted of a court, or plaza, around which were the buildings. There were thirty-six in all, the largest being the rathhaus, or city hall. There was a church in which services were held according to the Austrian custom, and in the shops about the plaza were sold all sorts of Viennese goods. About five hundred Austrians were employed in the village, some fifty young women acting as waiters in one of the buildings fitted up for the purpose, though most of the restaurant patronage was of the out-door kind. Two bands played alternately in the plaza, and it was their excellent music which formed the main attraction to the village. A curious object was "The Iron Stick," the imitated stump of an old tree preserved in Vienna because of the good fortune it gives to all who drive a nail in it.

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The German Castle. — The most notable feature of the German Village in Midway Plaisance was, assuredly, the German Castle, a manner of structure with which very few save foreign visitors were at all familiar. It bore little resemblance to the ideal fortress of the Middle Ages, even to those upon the Rhine whence robber barons descended upon passing bodies of traders or to make war upon rival lords. The castle was a specimen of South German architecture especially and was surrounded by a fosse and moat which, however, gave it only a mildly martial appearance. It was rather homelike and graceful in outline than otherwise, and, while it afforded slight suggestion of long resistance to a siege, gave an idea of jolly gatherings and unlimited good cheer within, a sort of manor house rather than a fort. The interior of the castle afforded, in its contents, matter of interest for the antiquarian quite as much as did the exterior to the architect. Here was arranged the large collection of antique armor which attracted so much attention and afforded such an excellent object lesson regarding the burden a medieval German of importance had to carry, aside from the cares of governing his domain. Though but a private enterprise and built, as were all the plaisance structures, as an investment, the German Castle was an educational object of decided value and was so recognized. It had the merit, which did not in every instance appertain to the Plaisance exhibits, that it was at least historically correct in its representation and that its contents were something more than replicas.

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Miriamna, A Woman From Ceylon. — The Singhalese type was well illustrated in Miriamna, a woman who, from the nature of her position at the Fair, became, perhaps, better known than any other one of her race there. The Ceylon tea room, in the Woman's Building, was a popular resort, and there Miriamna sold tea and made a pretty picture as she moved about. She was a wee bit of a woman, but had a dignity of her own which she maintained under all circumstances. Not only were her fingers and wrists resplendent with rings and bracelets, but there were jewels in her hair, rings in all available places in her ears, and, as a final touch, a jewel in the side of her nose. This last bit of adornment was often the cause of an amusing scene in the tea room. Ladies visiting there would notice it and regret audibly that the pretty attendant should so disfigure herself. Miriamna understood English and did not approve of such criticism. After enduring it for a time, she would remark calmly, but with much firmness, that she might be guilty of wearing a nose jewel, but that she at least did not distort her form by wearing corsets! Then there would be confusion among the critics. An exceedingly patriotic little Singhalese woman was Miriamna, and in herself one of the most creditable exhibits among the many fine ones from that distant island.

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A Group of Singhalese. — The Singhalese seemed to have a good time of it at the World's Fair. Their country was well represented by a charming building and fine exhibit of the products of the land, and the people themselves, in family groups, had both occupation and amusement. The old hymn to the effect that "Ceylon's lovely Isle" is a place where nature has done pretty well and "only man is vile" seemed hardly justified by the appearance or the actions of the Singhalese, who were a particularly quiet and well behaved little community. In the Ceylon Building the tea of that country was exploited, cups of the beverage being sold to visitors, and was handled by the natives who were particularly deft and pleasant servitors. Tea has rarely been enjoyed under conditions more in tone with the character of that seductive beverage than it was in the Ceylon Building. In the illustration the men are not garbed at all alike, one retaining the full dress of his native country while the other seems to have become Americanized with the exception of his turban. When bareheaded and at work in the building, the men presented a singular appearance with the great combs stuck upright in the hair at the back of their heads, after the fashion of our own grandmothers. The combs were the admiration and envy of lady visitors, some of those ornaments being beautifully made and embellished with jewels.

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An Eskimo Boy. — Not the least interesting objects in the village of the Eskimos, and certainly the most attractive, were the youngsters who rolled about like the seals in the waters of their own cold country. One of the young gentlemen of the group became an exceedingly popular personage with visitors to the odd village of odd people. He had reached the age of about four years, but his general air and bearing indicated that he had little more to learn and, while rather pleased with the world, yet looked upon it affably from a purely objective point of view. The illustration gives an excellent idea of his laughing face and by no means airy costume; that is to say, it does not look airy in the picture, but there is a dreadful scandal to the effect that when the young gentleman's photograph was taken he wore only the light fur jacket which forms his coat, and that, when he was placed against the chair, the remaining portion of his garments were held up in front of him to be abandoned after the taking of the picture. It must be admitted that the appearance of his trousers lends an air of vraisemblance to the story, but whatever the eccentricities of the costume might be, he was a jolly little fellow, and one of the curious minor exhibits among the thousands of the Fair.

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The Court of the French Government Building. — In particular effects secured in the scores of imposing buildings within the grounds there were few more pleasing in many ways than that attained in the court connecting the pavilions of the French Building. This semi-circular colonnade forming the court and gallery was an admirable specimen of architecture in the Corinthian style, so far as its outside was concerned, and the device for the inclosure was such as to secure the attainment of the best effects. There were few places on the grounds more attractive to the lover of beauty and usefulness than this gallery and court, where were shade and the babbling of water in the fountain, where the cool breezes from the lake had play, and where the eye was gratified in whatever direction it might chance to turn. The fountain in the court was an admirably executed bronze production made in France and brought to America for the special use to which it was here devoted, and the landscape gardening, though necessarily on no extended scale, was in the style most popular in the country of which the building was the headquarters at the Fair. Upon the walls of the gallery were drawings which were almost a topographical history of France and a similar combination of the artistic and the practical extended to other features of the decorations. It was, indeed, a characteristic of the French idea as exploited in the whole building that the beautiful and materialistic should be blended together and so presented, and if a departure was made at all it was in the court's interior.

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Krupp Gun Exhibit and Leather and Shoe Trades Building. — The building in which was the famous Krupp Gun exhibit and that devoted to the Leather and Shoe Trade displays were situated together on the lake front, in the southeastern part of the Exposition grounds, and both appear in the above illustration. The big gun shown in the Krupp exhibit, the largest in the world, weighs one hundred and twenty-two tons, is forty-eight feet long and throws a ball weighing two thousand three hundred pounds a distance of six miles. This monster was the chief show-piece, but there were numerous other large guns, intended for naval use or coast defense, and armor-plates illustrative of what could be produced to resist their power. It is said that to produce the exhibit in the United States cost Herr Krupp not less than $500,000 and that the display was made by him at the special request of the Emperor.

The Leather and Shoe Trade exhibits occupied a building five hundred and seventy-five feet in length by one hundred and fifty feet in width, the flooring space of which was increased by extensive galleries. The structure, which was entirely of wood, was lighted by five hundred and twenty windows and skylights. There were remarkable displays not only of leather boots and shoes, and the allied trades, but there was also an extensive showing of curios, such as the foot-gear of all nations and queer sorts of leather. The second floor was devoted almost entirely to machinery. A model shoe factory in operation was one of the features.

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South Front of the Manufactures Building. — While not its greatest frontage, the south end of the Manufactures Building was most familiar to Exposition visitors, facing as it did on the Court of Honor and affording between it and the Grand Basin a vantage point for seeing the fountains at play and the illumination of the buildings at night. The illustration above shows this frontage as well as that on the west, adjacent to the canal and the East Lagoon. The point of view is from near the northeast corner of Machinery Hall with one of the Electric Fountains in the immediate foreground and the Columbian Fountain to the left. The effect of the Manufactures Building seen from this position was curious. It was far enough away to allow something like an idea of its vast proportions to obtain in the mind, but, somehow, it did not appear so much like a structure raised by human hands as upon a nearer view. Its dimensions were so great as to make it seem a part of nature, and the brown dome, rising away in the distance above the surrounding plateau made by the regular stories, suggested rather a mountain than anything else. The haunting impression remained that if the building were really the work of men they must have had the assistance of giants or fairies or some similar force in the construction. That men alone could raise such a pile was absurd. Such a thing had never been done before. Such fancies would come to those at all imaginative who looked at the Manufactures Building from the vantage ground designated. It was, to a certainty, one of the greatest material wonders of the Fair.

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Bird's-Eye View Looking South. — It is difficult to determine what first attracts attention in this picture — the mirror surfaces of water, the cluster of state buildings, or the distant but easily recognized outlines of the great Exposition buildings. Certain it is that Nature, in all her loveliness, never appeared more at her best or appealed more bewitchingly than she does in these two sequestered sheets of water. The crowded roofs only make us feel that these leafy nooks were forgotten in the hurry, and Dame Nature given a chance to show what she could do unaided. Thousands looking down that glen were refreshed with the bit of peaceful quiet amid the ceaseless, nervous activity and manufactured effects everywhere about. The lofty flag pole, two hundred and fifteen feet high, one of Washington's giants of fir, proudly floats the Stars and Stripes as if conscious that on this parade ground of the Nation the great states and commonwealths were out for inspection drill. Directly in front of Washington rises the square tower of the Michigan State House and a little further south, Indiana's, of somewhat similar pattern. The big dome of Illinois is the most striking object in the center of the picture. The outer row of State buildings commences at the south with the quaint and characteristic one of California — an old Spanish Mission. Its tile-covered dome, an inverted bowl in shape, is easily distinguishable. Next appear the twin towers of Colorado, and in succession the homes of Washington, South Dakota, Nebraska, North Dakota and Kansas.

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The Swedish Building. — The remarkable style of architecture of the Swedish Building made it conspicuous among the group between the north pond and the lake, and it may be added, that the comment thus attracted was most favorable. The building stood on a triangular piece of ground, and to meet this exigency, in preparing the plans a hexagon was inscribed within the triangle and the shape of the structure made to conform to the pattern. The hexangular main hall was sixty feet across and the pitch of the cupola above seventy feet. On top of this a flagstaff was erected, carrying the banner of Sweden at a height of one hundred and fifty feet from the ground. The entire floor area was eleven thousand square feet. The building, which cost $40,000, was made in Sweden, then taken, to pieces and sent across the ocean to be re-erected. The architect, Gustaf Wickman, of Stockholm, attempted in the design to follow the style of Swedish churches and gentlemen's houses in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The lower part of the building was of modern brick, terra cotta and cement, all made in Sweden, and the remainder of wood from the same country. The crown on the top of the steeple and the framework around the bell were gilded, and details of the exterior were colored red, green, or white. The inside was painted in light lines and richly decorated. The display included Sweden's natural resources, products of her industries and exhibits indicative of national customs. A most interesting exhibit was made and the building was very popular.

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The Colorado Building. — Occupying a prominent site near the popular northwestern entrance to the Exposition Grounds, and presenting a fine frontage, the Colorado Building was one of the most noticeable of State structures, and in detail fully deserved the attention it attracted. It was built in the Spanish Renaissance style at a cost of $35,000, and was finished exteriorly in staff of an ivory color. Two slender Spanish towers, rising to a height of ninety-eight feet, gave character to the entrance, and the graceful ornamental designs above the portal arches and upon the towers contrasted well with and relieved properly the effect of the flat facade. The total area of the structure was one hundred and twenty-five by forty-five feet. The interior was devoted to office uses and to service as a State headquarters, and contained a number of beautiful apartments. A rear balcony, extending the entire length of the building, and overlooking one of the lagoons, made a delightful place of outdoor resort. Among the interior adornments was Powers' statue, "The Last of His Race," for the purchase of which the women of Colorado contributed $10,000, and which was the object of much study and admiration. A magnificent onyx mantel was one of the features illustrative of the State's varied resources, and there was a fine showing of the flora and fauna, one which attracted great attention from students of natural history. In all departments of the Exposition Colorado was well represented, though, of course, it was in the Mines Building that it excelled.

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The Delaware Building. — Delaware though not a large state, made an admirable showing at the Columbian Exposition, and the building had about it something so attractive, that it was thronged constantly. The edifice represented a Colonial cottage with wide verandas and balconies, and presenting from the outside a vast idea of comfort. Inside, the appointments were what might have been expected from such an exterior. There were the usual offices and a number of well finished rooms in which were displayed numerous objects of special interest. There was a flag carried by a Delaware regiment in the Battle of Brandywine; there was a cabinet of Delft-ware over one hundred and fifty years old, of that rich color now so seldom seen. There were old suits of clothing, such as gentlemen wore one hundred years ago, and samplers worked by the worthy dames who were their consorts. There was an old warming-pan — and the wonder is that warming-pans are not still used along the northern line of states — and there was a reproduction in clay of the old Swedes Church at Wilmington, built over two hundred years ago. The Swedes, it will be borne in mind, were among the first settlers in Delaware, and this old church built by them so long ago is used today as a place of worship. There are very few, if any, older church edifices upon the continent. Very creditable was the Delaware Building, and indicative of the state's sturdy part in the making of that great story known as American history.

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The New Jersey Building. — The New Jersey Building at the Fair was something to attract the attention of Americans generally, for it was a reproduction of the house in Morristown, New Jersey, occupied by Washington during the trying winters of 1779 and 1780. The old house still exists in Morristown, and is preserved and cared for by the American Historical Association, which has purchased the building and the grounds. It was in this building that Alexander Hamilton wooed and won the charming Miss Schuyler, who afterward became his wife. In this building Gen. Greene, Lafayette, Baron Steuben, Light Horse Harry Lee, Mad Anthony Wayne, Putnam, Kosciusko and even the traitor Arnold often met, and within its walls were laid many of the plans of the Revolution. There probably exists in the United States no structure, big or little, around which cluster so many and so interesting historic associations. The house had a homelike appearance inside, and there were many relics of the time when it was so occupied by the heroes of the Revolution. It may be described in appearance as a typical Colonial town house, with its rooms conveniently distributed and a veranda extending along its entire front. What gatherings must have occurred upon the veranda of the original building during the times referred to! The length of the structure was 40x60 feet, and it was two stories in height, with a wing 16x20 feet in area. Its erection at the Fair cost $13,000.

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The Ohio Building. — The Ohio Building occupied a fine position near the northwestern corner of the grounds and was in itself a structure of considerable pretensions. It was in the Colonial style of the more imposing order of architecture and presented a graceful frontage. It was utilized simply for official and reception purposes and as a state headquarters, and naturally became the visiting place of thousands. The parlors, offices and drawing-rooms were beautifully finished and made a charming meeting place for the host of Ohioans at the Fair. The gallery on the second story gave access to several balconies from which were afforded views of some of the most beautiful scenery upon the grounds. On a large bronze plate, at the right of the main entrance of the building, was inscribed the date of the arrival of the first settlers in Ohio, with a record of the present population. Near the building stood the Ohio Monument, the design that of a massive pillar upon which stood a female figure with outspread hands as if in benediction. About its base stood full length statues of famous Ohioans, while the pillar above bore the inscription: "These are my Jewels." It was natural to suppose that Ohio, a state of such progress and wealth, should afford a vast contingent of visitors to the Fair, and Ohio did not disappoint this expectation. The Ohioans came in hosts, and their building was daily thronged. Ohio helped in making history at the fair as she has helped in making the country's history usually.

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The Iron Gates, German Section. — The facade, if it may be so called, of the German exhibit in the Manufactures Building, was as unique as it was attractive. No solid front or imposing arches faced the visitor, but, instead, merely three iron gates connected by an iron fence. But the gates were on a grand scale and with the connecting fence formed in the opinion, not only of metal workers but of artists, the most beautiful piece of wrought-iron work ever made, and commanded attention from thousands when lofty porticos and columns were passed unnoticed. This remarkable facade fronted Columbia Avenue for a space of one hundred and sixty-one feet. The work as produced by Armbuster Brothers, of Frankfort-on-the-Main, and when later exhibited in Berlin, attracted such regard that it was visited by the Emperor William himself, who was delighted with the masterpiece. The illustration here given is an admirable one and gives a just idea of the novel creation. The central gate was the largest piece of artistic iron ever wrought, standing forty feet high and twenty-two feet wide, the swinging portion beneath the arch weighing alone eighteen tons. The wide gates were thirty feet high and fifteen feet wide and each pair weighed thirteen tons. One hundred and fifty skilled workmen were engaged for half a year in hammering out the complex patterns from bar iron, the bars and gratings and moldings and wainscotings and flowery arches above, with the fruit and leaves and oriental tracery, formed a bewildering combination. The gates were a marvel, a credit to the nation whose display they inclosed.

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Under the Horticulture Building Dome. — The largest hothouse in the world had sights worth seeing. The great dome of the Horticulture Building, one hundred and eighty feet in height and one hundred and fourteen feet in diameter, overhung a charming scene where gigantic palms, ferns, bamboos and other products of tropical growth were flourishing, and where one coming in from the grounds outside seemed transported suddenly to some equatorial country. Directly underneath the dome in the center of the building rose a mountain of greenery, one side of which is shown in the illustration, while an encircling gallery afforded room for a further display of the glories of nature at her best. All lovers of trees and plants and flowers spent a great deal of time underneath the big dome, wondering at the luxuriant development of things ordinarily almost dwarfish in a climate such as ours, and inspecting a host of thriving objects absolutely new to them. The mountain of plants and trees was called the Cave of Palms, for in it was a cave, reached by a bridge over the water of a little lakelet, and here were charming results produced by lights upon the rocks and water, for water was abundant, miniature cascades tumbling down the sides of the mountain and assisting in the production of many delightful effects before reaching the level of the ground. Very attractive, was the horticultural showing, not merely because of the magnificent display beneath the great dome, but because of the wonderful variety and extent and quality of exhibits in every department.

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The Algerian Theatre. — The Algerian and Tunisian Village, in which the theatre was the chief attraction, was situated near the center of the Midway Plaisance and adjoining the Street in Cairo. The frontage, as may be seen in the illustration, was not remarkably pretentious, but the main building inside had a Moorish dome with towers and minarets, and its exterior was covered with the rich-hued glazed tiles of Tunis and Algiers, as, in fact, were most of the buildings. There were a Moorish cafe, a Kabyle house and a tent village, the theatre additionally being the main edifice. The desert people were seen about the village engaged in their regular occupations and jewelry, embroideries and other North African wares were sold. Connected with the theatre were over fifty people, musicians, jugglers, dancing girls and some amazing specialists. At the performances most of those who were to take part were in open view. The dancing girls would come on, one after another, to the accompaniment of the shrill, unpleasant music, and would go through with what has been so often described as a contortion, and not a dance at all. Though a little less unconventional than in the Persian theatre, the performance was only graceful at times, and at times was but vulgarly interesting. Here the famous "torture dance" was performed, a. man, seemingly half frenzied by the music and the movement, thrusting iron skewers through his arms, legs, cheeks and lips, and even behind one of his eye-balls. It was not a pleasant spectacle.

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Interior of the India Building. — So great was the display of articles of sandal-wood in the interior of the India Building that the fragrance of the various objects always filled the air and added to the oriental flavor of the scene and the occasion, and very little of the walls could be seen, so profuse was the display of all kinds of East India goods. At one end of the single large room, lighted only from above, was an apartment where natives in their home garb served the tea being exploited by the company which paid for the building, and these silent people did not detract from the far Eastern effect produced. It was a transported bazaar. In the main room among the rich things was quite a display of gods and fakirs, all excessively curious to look upon, and ugly as could be desired. Among the host of articles for sale there were exquisite carvings both in wood and ivory, wonderful brass work, mosaics from Agra and Jaypore, and things as beautiful from Cashmere, Zurrat and Benares and other regions of the artificers. Of jewelry and other articles in silver and gold there was a great array. There were many things, too, not strictly of the shop. An elephant's skull with two tremendous tusks were an appropriate Indian exhibit, as was a tall pagoda with its proper contents and surroundings. As a whole, the interior of the East India Building fulfilled the promise of its outside, and what was to be seen delighted a host of people. The display, in the comparatively limited space, appealed to the senses by its very richness and prodigality.

142

The Sedan Chair Carriers. — There was a partial return to the ways of our forefathers at the Fair, though the fad was not introduced as the result of any spasmodic whim of society, but by fez-wearing and not always excessively clean laboring men from the Orient. The concession for the Sedan chairs belonged to the Turkish Village people and near this, at one side of the Plaisance, the Sedan bearers, sturdy Turks as one could wish to see, stood soliciting custom and getting a great deal of it, for who, among those intent on "doing" all the novel experiences thoroughly, would neglect such opportunity for a new experience? Ladies especially affected the Sedan chair, and when inside, frequently wished they hadn't been so venturesome. The bearers were careful enough and the motion in the chair was not unpleasant when one became accustomed to it, but few became accustomed. A single experience for curiosity's sake was about all the average person had with this type of conveyance. One could not see all about from its interior as well as when in one of the so-called "Gospel-chariots," pushed about by theological students, and the sway of the chair, experienced as the bearers might be, was something not felt in the other conveyances, gliding evenly along over the smooth roadway. The bearers were about all that made the Sedan chair interesting. They were to an extent spectacular, while the chair itself was not a thing of beauty. They wore an assorted Turkish garb and ferocious moustaches and were, altogether, as delightfully piratical looking fellows as any lady could wish for to carry her off.

143

Entrance to the German Castle. — The entrance to the German Castle in the German Village, in the Midway Plaisance, was the part of that structure which most recalled to mind a castle of the medieval barons, who had such particularly good times when the Emperor would let them alone and when raids upon their neighbors were always exciting and sometimes profitable The moat was not very wide nor very deep; the drawbridge would not have accommodated a grand pageant of any sort, and the battlements of the castle were not so high but that a good bowman outside could have hit a button on the doublet of one of the defenders of the place, yet it was a very gallant castle, nevertheless, and, passing over the bridge, one thought of Marmion scurrying away from the residence of the somewhat abrupt gentleman named Douglas; of Brakspeare hacking away with his battle-ax at the lifting chains of another castle's bridge, and of half a score of similar incidents in fiction, all little affairs of a lively nature occurring at some stronghold's portal. The duplication of an old South German Castle, if not on a grand scale, was at least a beautiful one, and the lover of feudal romances found a satisfaction in studying the design. The illustration gives a view of the moat and drawbridge and general character of the entrance. The architectural features of the castle were not imposing above the first story, but there was a mellow air of old times about the place and a suggestion of heavy eating and drinking and fighting enough to give variety.

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Fettome, A Bedouin Woman. — Much as has been written about the Arabs and their wild life upon tne North African plains, descriptions have been, as a rule, confined mostly to the men and how the woman of the desert lives, moves and has her being has been left largely to the imagination. So it came that the Bedouin women, at the Columbian Exposition, were looked upon with a good deal of curiosity and were found to be by no means uninteresting creatures. They were quite as intelligent as their lords, were by no means bad-looking and manifested the utmost good nature in their strange surroundings, enjoying the trip to a far land immensely. The illustration shows the garb they wore, Fettome the woman appearing in the picture, being quite a leader in her "set" in the encampment. The almost universal oriental taste for jewelry is shown by the Arab women, and Fettome was no exception to the rule, being laden with bangles and coins and heavy bracelets whenever occasion for this proper display occurred. The background afforded by the leaf-carpeted turf upon which she stands serves well to bring into prominence the peculiarities or her costume. Fettome, as the picture shows, was photographed only as the Fair was nearing its end, the Wild-East show being one of the latest Plaisance attractions to secure a concession.

145

North Front of the French Building. — The French Building at the Exposition consisted, practically, of two parts connected by a semi-circular colonnade. Of these the one to the north, a facade of which appears in the illustration, was the larger and more important. Built in the Renaissance style and richly decorated, it was a beautiful object in its conspicuous position at the junction of the main east and, west thoroughfare across the grounds and the lake front Promenade. A large and exceedingly graceful group of statuary, representing "Liberty, Equality and Fraternity," was a prominent feature of the decoration of the front here shown, and is well presented in the illustration, In front of the group a splendid lion lay on guard, and all the adjuncts architecturally were such as to complete the fine effect. On other sides of the exterior of this pavilion were paintings representing historical events in French history, and inside was the main room of the entire structure, the one named after Lafayette. Here were the chief historical relics exhibited. There were a bureau from Lafayette's library, the sword of honor presented to that gallant leader by the American Congress in 1779, and other articles of curious interest. All the sketches for the building were made in France, and models of the statuary were sent from that country.

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A Load of Michigan Pine Logs. — The lumber industry in Michigan is conducted on a grand scale, and something of the methods pursued was illustrated by a firm which contributed a single load of logs to the Exposition. Twenty-five saw logs were shown in a single load at the Centennial Exposition. Michigan simply doubled this. Never before was seen such a load of logs. It consisted of fifty magnificent lengths of white pine, borne on a single sled, containing forty-six thousand feet of lumber, and weighing one hundred and forty-five tons. This load was drawn six miles to the Ontonagon River in Michigan by a single span of horses, but of course this was down an incline and on a roadway smooth as ice could be. Nine flat-cars were required for the transportation of the great load to Chicago. This was part of the exhibit made in a Logger's Camp, in which it was intended to illustrate the methods by which the great lumber product of the lake states is finally brought to the markets of the world. There was a log cabin seventy feet in length by twenty in width, occupied by lumbermen dressed in the style of the woods, and living, theoretically, on the winter fare of such locality, but it is doubtful if they really consumed on warm, idle days, any great amount of either Johnny-cake or pork and beans and black molasses. Near by was a saw mill, two hundred by one hundred and twenty-five feet in dimensions, and here were displayed the latest appliances for handling timber, while here also were sawed many of the pieces used in the construction of the Forestry Building.

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The Germania Fountain. — Just to the north of the German Building, and showing charmingly against a background of trees which intervened between it and structures to the west, was what was known as the Germania Fountain, a work of art forming part of the German showing. Germania, standing upon a supported globe, held aloft a lamp, while typical additional figures made an effective grouping. The globe was upheld by four female figures seated upon a lavishly decorated pedestal, which made the body of the fountain proper. The whole result achieved was graceful and attractive. Indeed, it would be difficult to mention anything about the German Building which was not of interest, so well was the great Empire represented in all respects. The beautiful structure contained other works of art, in the wonderfully bound books, of which so many were exhibited; in the carved wooden ceilings of the room of the Imperial Commissioner, in the quaint old furniture, the rich carpets and brocades, and linens beautifully worked with gold and silver thread. About the whole German Building was a certain touch scarcely to be found elsewhere, a richness of coloring which was never glaring and an originality of decoration which was never bizarre. It was the reflection of an old nation's taste. It is not exaggerating the effect to say that the appearance made by Germany at the World's Columbian Exposition did more than has ever any single previous event to make the people of two countries broadly appreciative of and in closer and better touch with each other.

148

The Washington Building. — With the exception, possibly, of those of California, Pennsylvania and New York, none of the State Buildings at the Columbian Exposition attracted more attention than that of Washington. The great new state illustrated in the magnificent structure it erected its resources and its prospects. It was a vast building of vast timbers, situate near the Fifty-seventh street entrance to the Fair Grounds, and formed the most conspicuous object in that locality. This prominence was accentuated by an enormous flagstaff erected in front of the building, the staff formed of the trunk of one great tree, five or six feet in diameter at the base and rising to a height of one hundred and seventy-five feet. The timber in the building consisted of half-hewn logs, all giants of their kind, those in the lower tier being one hundred and twenty feet long and four feet thick. In a general way the building may be described as a monster triple chalet, though its great size rather precluded the chalet idea. It was very much like building a cottage the size of a palace. Inside the building were exhibits also indicative of the state's resources and productions. There was a single bock of coal weighing over fifty thousand pounds, and there was a skeleton of a mammoth, the largest ever found. The State of Washington was very much in evidence at the Fair. Its legislature appropriated one hundred thousand dollars, and the cost of the building was fifty thousand dollars.

149

The Missouri Building. — The great state of Missouri, prominent in the history of the country for many years, yet recently awakening into new and more vigorous life, was admirably represented at the Columbian Exposition. The first appropriation toward making a creditable display for the state was two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and this was subsequently increased to a half a million. The state building was in the Spanish Renaissance style, cost forty thousand dollars, and was one of the most graceful of edifices of its class. It was located on the thoroughfare of state buildings leading from the Fifty-seventh street entrance to Lake Michigan, and was a place of resort for thousands beside Missourians. Its dimensions were ninety by one hundred and ten feet, with a height of sixty feet, and a tower rising to a height of one hundred and forty feet. The main entrance with its flanking cupolas was one of the most charming in appearance to be found anywhere. There were thirty-two rooms in the building, including those devoted to the usual offices and a number used as reception and resting rooms and for exhibits which included many relics and objects of interest. It may be said of the Missouri Building that it was distinctly an architectural success. Its dome surmounting the tower was certainly its most distinguishing feature. It was often compared to an inverted water lily, and in its gracefulness of outline and originality of design afforded, it must be admitted a strong contrast to several domes which could be looked upon from the broad balconies of the Missouri Building.

150

The Iowa Building. — The building of the State of Iowa occupied a very attractive place in the Exposition grounds. It was situated in the extreme northeastern corner of the Fair grounds; one of its fronts overlooking Lake Michigan. It had the additional advantage that it was composed partly of the old Jackson Park Pavilion, a stone structure standing in the park before the Fair, and one of considerable architectural merit. The main part of the Iowa Building conformed in a general way to the architectural style of its annex, and contained the state offices and reception rooms. There were some interesting exhibits, among which was a model of the capital of the state, made of steel and glass, presenting a striking appearance and attracting much attention. What most interested visitors, though, was the display in the annex or old pavilion. The decorations were made of corn and other grains, and the effects produced were something inconceivable to those who had never before learned what could be accomplished in such direction with products of the farm. It is not asserting too much to say that the decoration of the interior of this pavilion accomplished in this manner would compare well with much of the work done elsewhere with paint and brush. It was a curious work with curious incidents. They drove a horse in one day with a load of something and left him standing by a pillar and he promptly began eating a painting done in grain as a mural decoration. But these were only incidents.

151

The Indiana Building. — The building of the State of Indiana occupied a most attractive site, just west of that of Illinois and upon the great thoroughfare running parallel with and near the western boundary of the Exposition grounds. It was a large structures French-Gothic in design, with cathedral windows, turrets and towers. The brown-red sloping roofs both contrasted and blended pleasingly with the dull gray of the staff which formed the exterior of the building. Its costs was thirty-seven thousand dollars, and it was certainly, in all respects, a credit to the state. Its interior contained many exhibits of interest. There were some beautiful pieces of statuary by Indiana artists, a number of relics connected with the history of the state, and other objects of note. There was the figure of an elephant carved out of a single block of stone, appearing as an exhibit from the quarries, and there were other displays of curious quality. The reception and assembly rooms were elegantly finished and furnished, and made a pleasant gathering place for hosts of people. As might have been expected there was a great drift of visitors from a state so near the Exposition as Indiana, and its magnificent headquarters were a necessity well met. The building was a great trysting place for parties visiting the grounds, and its broad piazzas accommodated thousands of luncheon-eaters daily.

152

Machinery Hall from the Southeast. — The Spanish Renaissance style adopted by the gifted architects who designed Machinery Hall, enabled a beautiful effect and the north and east facades of the great building ranked in most respects with the grandest of the Exposition. The illustration here afforded shows the southeast comer of the structure and most of its east frontage, and gives a fair idea of the many attractive elements. Here was an extent of five hundred feet, every square yard of which was of elaborate finish, and, aside from its special charm, part of a harmonious whole. The covered loggia at the first story appears to exceptional advantage in this view, and the lavish decoration of its graceful columns is made apparent. The staff was stained to an ivory tint, and the gold finish of the upper part of the columns made a rich and striking combination. The heroic figures gathered at the portals added much to the effect of each facade. Over the eastern entrance, on the pediment, Columbia appeared sitting on a throne, Honor and Wealth standing beside her, the one ready to award the laurel leaf, and the other what gold may purchase; while, awaiting, stood the great inventors. Above the pediment appeared the group of figures seen on the north as well, Science, Fire, Water, Air and Earth, all graceful and symbolic. The great towers on the east, like those on the north, each supported an angel just alighting from flight, and all the sculptural and architectural effects of the other towers were here repeated. Statuary also enriched the opening to the canal.

153

The North Front of the Agriculture Building, and Lawn. — Between the magnificent Agriculture Building and the Grand Basin was a lawn not very broad, but nearly a thousand feet in length, resting the eye with its strip of green, and giving room for a just estimate of the architectural beauties displayed above. In the view given here is afforded not only a charming perspective of the Agriculture Building's graceful front, but of two Exposition features which commanded general admiration and were among the first to perish after the Fair ended. In the distance is seen the greater portion of the famous Peristyle, destroyed by fire January 8, 1894, and, nearer, the dome and central groups of statuary of the Agriculture Building, which were consumed in the later fire of February 24th. The origin of the fires, as of those occurring elsewhere upon the grounds, is, as yet, unknown, whether the work of tramps or of some "cranky" lover of the Exposition's glories, resolved that to disappear in flames should be their proper ending — but the fact that two points of greatest beauty were so attacked inclined many to the latter theory. The Agriculture Building, or, rather, the Southern Colonnade connecting with it, had been fired but a few days before the dome was destroyed, yet, though the west end of the edifice was seriously injured, its splendid frontage and the beauty of its adornments remained unmarred. No amount of caution on the part of watchmen appeared sufficient to prevent the fires, and the incendiary theory, very naturally, became the dominant one with the public.

154

Entrance to Fisheries Arcade. — The Fisheries Building, because of the peculiar form of the site to which it was relegated, consisted of a rectangular central structure connected by curved arcades with circular pavilions on either side. The view here given is that of an entrance to one of the connecting arcades, and affords an excellent idea of the graceful and novel decoration resorted to in this structure, together with an example of mechanical duty performed too well. The columns of the structure were decorated, as befitted its uses, with all sorts of water creatures, arranged in quaint devices, and the architect in his drawings indicated this, though not in every instance covering the entire column, supposing that the work indicated would be fully carried out. The mechanic, however, stuck to the letter of the pictured text and put a newt or frog or lizard on a column only where it was distinctly indicated. Of course this was something to be easily remedied, but the illustration shows certain columns as so unfinished. The arcades, wide corridors open at the sides, made a delightful highway from one part of the building to another, and, spacious as they were, proved none too much so for the great throngs which visited the Fisheries, where the strange marine inhabitants disporting in water, brought from the Atlantic, afforded a spectacle which made the building one of the most popular upon the grounds. The sea creatures, though, were not the only animate attraction, the great exhibit of lake and river fish drawing both the sportsman and the economists, and affording object lessons of decided value.

155

The Columbian Liberty Bell. — Not least among the ideas natural to the Columbian year, and which finally embodied themselves, was that of casting a new Liberty Bell, one the very metal of which should have associations connected with the thought of liberty and a universal brotherhood. The plan of such a bell was conceived by Mr. William McDowell, of New Jersey, and it was he who carried it into execution. Correspondence was entered into on an extensive scale, contributions for the bell came from hundreds and thousands of sources, and it was cast in time to be one of the features of the Exposition, occupying a prominent place on the Plaza just west of the Administration Building, and being rung on different notable occasions. Unique gifts contributed to make the composition of the new Liberty Bell remarkable. The keys of Jefferson Davis' house, pike heads used by John Brown at Harper's Ferry, John C. Calhoun's silver spoon and Lucretia Mott's silver fruit knife, Simon Bolivar's watch chain, hinges from the door of Abraham Lincoln's house at Springfield, George Washington's surveying chain, Thomas Jefferson's copper kettle, Mrs. Parnell's earrings and Whittier's pen are all among the articles melted to make the bell. Surely if there be anything in association it should always ring strong and true for liberty. It was first sounded on the occasion of the opening of the World's Congress of Religions, than which there could have been no better occasion for declaring the grandest liberty of all — liberty of thought. The bell is seven feet in height and weighs thirteen thousand pounds.

156

Music Hall, The Peristyle and The Movable Sidewalk. — First to disappear totally from among the grander features of the Columbian Exposition were the Casino and Music Hall, the famous Peristyle and a portion of the Movable Sidewalk, destroyed by fire on the evening and night of January 8, 1894. The view given above shows all save the Casino, with which the Peristyle connected on the south. Music Hall, in which were given concerts conducted by the most famous leaders and attended by hundreds of thousands of music lovers, appears in the foreground; its style of architecture, as will be seen, in harmony with and supplementing that of the Peristyle. Its interior, especially the grand concert room, was beautifully finished and decorated. The general effect of the Peristyle, as viewed from the Manufactures Building, is well shown in the picture, the columns, the triumphal arch, the promenade and the surmounting heroic figures all appearing, though at such a distance that detail is necessarily sacrificed. Beyond is the pier, extending out nearly half a mile into Lake Michigan, where were landed passengers who came to the Fair by boat. Out upon this pier ran the Movable Sidewalk. Under the long shed appearing on the walk the endless platform moved continuously, and here the tired visitor, seated in full enjoyment of the cool lake breeze, could, for five cents, ride as long as desired. The great fire which destroyed the Peristyle and connecting buildings encroached upon the pier as well, but the structure was finally saved.

157

The Macmonnies Fountain Front. — This view, taken from a position in the Grand Basin, affords a just idea of the appearance of the Columbian Fountain from the east, and of the steps and terrace down which the water tumbled in a cascade when the fountain was in action. The Sea-Horses of Commerce, which were represented as assisting the rowers in the propulsion of the barge, uprear themselves in front and on either side, and Fame, sounding her trumpet, is conspicuous on the vessel's bow. At the left, and beyond, there appear to advantage some of the groups of statuary which added to the charm of the Administration Building; a corner of the Mining Building is visible in the middle distance, and to the right the Electricity, with its graceful arch and rich pediment, is a pleasant thing for the eye to rest upon. And in the immediate foreground is a gondola with its gondoliers. It was a clever suggestion which resulted in bringing from Venice real gondolas and real gondoliers in all their finery, but, oddly enough, it had the effect, probably, of soon making the gondola a thing of the past even in the old European city. The boat was picturesque, but it was slow and clumsy, and the electric launch glided past or around it at will, swifter, noiseless, more graceful, and above all, more comfortable. And visiting Venetians saw and thought, and a company was formed and the ancient lagoons and canals, so it is said, may no longer know the style of boats which has existed for so many centuries. Be this as it may, the gondolas and their oarsmen were an artistic novelty and an attraction at the Fair.

158

Interior of "Old Vienna." — To leave the Exposition without having visited the Austrian Village, more widely known as "Old Vienna," was, in the opinion of many people, not to have seen the Fair at all. It was one of the most popular places of resort for the multitude, despite the expensiveness of the luxury, for prices in Old Vienna were "World's Fair prices" indeed. There was a charm about the place, though, this faithful reproduction of "Der Graben" in the Vienna of one hundred and fifty years ago, and the old town with its ancient buildings, its shops, its tables set out under the skies, its lights and its charming music had always an attendance while the evenings remained warm enough for out-door idling. Old Vienna covered a space in the Plaisance of one hundred and ninety-five by five hundred feet and consisted of a court, or plaza, around which were the buildings. There were thirty-six in all, the largest being the rathhaus, or city hall. There was a church in which services were held according to the Austrian custom, and in the shops about the plaza were sold all sorts of Viennese goods. About five hundred Austrians were employed in the village, some fifty young women acting as waiters in one of the buildings fitted up for the purpose, though most of the restaurant patronage was of the put-door kind. Two bands played alternately in the plaza, and it was their excellent music which formed the main attraction to the village. A curious object was "The Iron Stick," the imitated stump of an old tree preserved in Vienna because of the good fortune it gives to all who drive a nail in it.

159

Interior of the Javanese Theater. — Not a remarkable histrionic production was any play performed in the Javanese Theatre, but it was interesting, as was anything connected with these gentle people. Centrally in the quaint village was a structure, somewhat larger than the others, made of bamboo, thatched in the native style and illuminated at night. From this building emanated the sound of instruments strange to an American ear, deep-toned and monotonous, but soft enough and by no means unpleasant. It was a sort of liquid rumble. Even those who did not become familiar with the Javan Village will remember the odd melodious boom which echoed at times along the Plaisance, which meant that a play was going on in the Javanese Theatre and that the orchestra was at work. The sound came from hollow music boxes, bronze gongs and singular looking drums in considerable variety, the gong band which appeared at the village being an excellent one supported by a wealthy planter. In the view above, the band is at the rear and the play in the theater is fairly on. The performance was unique. It told of the love and manifold adventures of a prince and princess, but the actors did most of their work in pantomime while the tale was indicated loudly by one of the band who was among the group placed on the stage just in the rear of the actors. The movements of these were graceful in the extreme, and, to those who could comprehend what it was all about, the quaint play so quaintly given was no doubt full of interest.

160

Hindu Jugglers. — Some time before the close of the Fair there was erected a small building on the Midway Plaisance in which Hindu jugglers appeared, to display their skill for the first time before American audiences. It is said that they lost caste by coming to this country, but, if so, the disaster did not seem to prey greatly on the minds of the two swarthy gentlemen who appear in the illustration. They were not only in apparent excellent spirits over the steady inflow of money polluted by the touch of all manner of people, but showed an inclination to adopt something like the American mode of dress. The effect of the partial transformation was, from a sartorial point of view, picturesque rather than strictly beautiful. American shoes of the army pattern became aggressively conspicuous as the terminal endowment of thin legs in tight trousers, a cotton umbrella does not add to the dignity of a tall young man in a white turban, and an ordinary vest worn outside, a long white blouse and cravat worn without any collar fail equally, somehow, to meet all the requirements of a symmetrical blending of styles. However, the jugglers seemed to like the combination. As to the performance, it was clever but lacked that element of the mysterious anticipated by many. They were prestidigilateurs of a little above the ordinary class but by no means equal to many on the stage.

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