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Montly Record of Current Events, July 28

Map Showing Sherman's Operations

OUR Record closes on the 28th of July. The session of Congress closed on the 4th of July. Our previous Numbers have given a view of the general line of debate and the course of thought during this important session. We have not thought it expedient to continue the record of this from month to month. Several laws of the highest importance have been enacted; but most of these underwent great changes during their progress through the two Houses. The official copy of the acts of the session has not yet been issued, and we must here-content ourselves with producing a resume of a few of the laws of immediate interest, reserving for a future Number a more complete abstract.

The Tariff Act increases largely the duties on imports. We give a few of the leading items. Teas pay 25 cents a pound. Sugar, from 3 to 5 cents, according to grade. Molasses, 8 cents a gallon; sirups and melado, 2˝ cents a pound. Brandy, $2˝; and other spirits, $2 a gallon. Wines valued at not over 50 cents a gallon, 25 cents; from 50 cents to $1, 50 cents; over $1, 100 cents, with 25 per cent. ad valorem in all cases; Champagnes not to pay less than $6 a dozen for quarts. Spirituous liquors not enumerated, 100 per cent. upon the value. Ales, porter, and beer in bottles, 35 cents; not bottled, 20 cents a gallon. Cigars, from 75 cents to $3 a pound, besides from 20 to 60 per cent. ad valorem. Tobacco, 85 to 50 cents a pound. Iron, various rates, but none loss than 33 per cent. on the value. Coal, from 40 to 125 cents a ton. Lead, on an average, 2 cents a pound. Gems unset, 10 per cent. Wools, from 3 to 10 cents a pound, according to grade, with 10 per cent. additional advalorem. Woolen goods, various specified rates, none less than 50 per cent. on the value, and many more than this. Cotton, 2 cents a pound. Cotton manufactures, from 5 to 7˝ cents per square yard, besides from 10 to 85 per cent. ad valorem — the finer the goods the higher the rate. Linens, 35 to 40 per cent. Silk, 25 to 40 per cent. Silk goods generally, 60 per cent. China and earthen-ware, 40 to 45. Books, 25. Fancy soaps, 10 cents a pound and 25 percent. ad valorem; plain soaps, 1 cent. a pound and 30 per cent. ad vulorem. As far as possible specific duties are levied on every article, the general principle being that the highest duties are levied upon articles of luxury. An additional discriminating duty of 10 per cent. is imposed upon goods imported in foreign bottoms, except in cases where the contrary is specially provided for by law or treaty. This act went into effect on the 4th of July.

The Internal Revenue Law imposes licenses upon every trade and profession, varying with the presumed amount of business, discrimination being made against liquor-dealers, shows, lotteries, gifts enterprises, and the like. Almost every profession enumerated by name; of those not specially mentioned, every person whose profession brings; an income of $1000 pays $10 for license. Every possible legal document, to be valid, must be stamped the sums for each being set down, varying, as possible, with the amount denoted by the document. All patent medicines and similar preparations are subject to excise, the general principle


being to impose 1 cent for every 25 cents of the price of the article. Almost every article of manufacture is noted with a special tax, amounting, as nearly as possible, to 5 per cent. upon the value. Railroads, Express Companies, and similar branches of business, pay from 2 to 5 per cent. of their gross receipts. A special tax is also imposed upon many articles of show and luxury. Gold watches, pianos, and carriages kept for use pay $1, if valued at less than $100, with a general increase of a dollar for each additional hundred of value. Gold plate pays 50 cents an ounce; silver plate, 5 cents; but any family may have 40 ounces of silver free of tax. Incomes are taxed as follows; below $600, untaxed, from $600 to $5000, 5 per cent. on excess above $600, from $5000 to $10,000, 7˝ per cent.; on excess over $10,000, 10 per cent. Legacies and successions to real estate pay from $1 to $6 on the hundred, according to the degree of consanguinity between the parties. The foregoing gives merely a central view, of the scope of this long and elaborate law.

The Enrollment Law practically renders every able-bodied citizen of military age liable to service in the army, either personally or by a substitute otherwise exempt. It authorizes the President at discretion to call for any number of volunteers for one, two, or three years, and ill case the required number of volunteers do not come forward to order a draft. Volunteers will receive a bounty of $100 for each year, one-third to be paid when mustered into service, one-third when half the term has expired. The other third at the expiration of the term of service. If the quota of any district is not filled by volunteers within fifty days from the date of the call a draft is to be ordered to supply the deficiency, in which case no payment of money shall be accepted as commutation for relieving any drafted man from personal military service. The Executive of any State may send recruiting agents into any of the revolted States except Arkansas, Tennessee, and Louisiana to raise volunteers, who shall be credited to the States and districts procuring them. This Act was approved by the President on the 4th of July, and in accordance with it he issued, on the 18th, a proclamation calling for 500,000 volunteers for one, two, or three years as they might elect. And in case this number of volunteers should not come forward, a draft was ordered to be made immediately after the 5th of September, being fifty days from the date of the call, for men sufficient to supply the deficiency in every district, these men to serve for one year.

By the Act to increase the pay of soldiers, the pay of non-commissioned officers and privates in the army has been augmented by about one quarter, commencing from May 1. In the engineer and ordnance service privates of the first class receive $18 a month; those of the second class, and all privates in the cavalry, artillery, and infantry receive $16 per month, with rations mainly as before. The former pay of private soldiers was $13 a month. A corresponding increase is made to the pay of noncommissioned officers in the army.

The Act for regulating commercial intercourse between the loyal and disaffected States enacts that in these latter all property is to be considered as abandoned when the lawful owner is voluntarily absent therefrom and engaged in aiding or encouraging the rebellion. Abandoned or captured property is to be taken charge of and sold; houses and lands may be leased for a year, with provisions for the employment and welfare of former slaves. Whenever any part of a loyal State is under the control of the insurgents the President may forbid or regulate intercourse with it. The President may authorize agents to purchase for the United States any products of the insurrectionary States, paying in money not more than three-quarters of the market value of the articles at New York. No goods shall be taken into these States except to the amount and in the manner prescribed by the commanding general of the department and by an officer appointed for that purpose by the Secretary of the Treasury. All officers and men of the army and navy are forbidden to engage in traffic in these districts.

An Act was passed by Congress guaranteeing to certain States whose governments had been overthrown or usurped a republican form of government. Its main provisions were: That the President might appoint a provisional governor for such States, to administer the government until a regular State Government should be established. When in any State military resistance against the United States has ceased the Provisional Governor shall enroll all the white male citizens, and request them to take the oath of allegiance; if a majority comply he shall issue a proclamation authorizing them to elect delegates to a Convention to form a State government; the delegates to be chosen by the votes of the loyal white citizens, those at home to vote where resident, those in military service at the head-quarters of their commands; no person who has held high civil or military office under the rebel usurpation, or voluntarily borne arms against the United States, to be eligible as a delegate. This Convention having declared the submission of the people to the Constitution and laws of the United States; and adopted provisions disqualifying for the office of governor or member of the Legislature all persons who shall have held any important civil or military office under the Confederacy; and prohibiting involuntary servitude; and disavowing all State or Confederate debts contracted by the usurping power, may proceed to the formation of a republican Constitution to be submitted to the people. If the Convention refuse to do this it is to be dissolved by the Provisional Governor, who may at his discretion order another. Until such a government is formed and recognized, the Provisional Governor is to enforce the laws of the United States, including this Act, which provides especially that slavery is abolished, and all slaves and their posterity enfranchised; that if any one attempts to hold in slavery any one declared free by this Act, he shall be punished by fine of not less than 1500 dollars and imprisonment for not less than five or more than twenty years; and that every person who has held or shall hold high civil office, or military office not below the grade of Colonel in the rebel service, is declared not to be a citizen of the United States. The above are the essential points of this Act, which embodies minute directions for carrying them into execution. — This Act was presented to the President too late for him to take it into consideration, and so failed to receive his signature. But on the 8th of July he issued a proclamation, stating that while he was not prepared by signing it to commit himself to any single plan of restoration, or to set aside the Free State Constitutions already adopted in Arkansas and Louisiana, still he was satisfied with this plan as a very proper one for the adoption of the people of any State who might choose to embrace it; and he would


give to such people all aid and assistance; and that when in any State armed resistance had ceased, and the people had sufficiently returned to their obedience to the Constitution and the laws of the United States, Military Governors would be appointed with directions to proceed according to the bill.

The siege of Petersburg and the invasion of Maryland are the topics about which the interest in the eastern campaign has mainly centred.

Smith's corps was the first of Grant's army that arrived south of the James; it was marched directly to Petersburg. This important military position had been attempted June 10, nearly a week before, by a joint infantry and cavalry expedition under Kautz and Gillmore. Kautz gained the first line of defenses, but not receiving adequate support from Gillmore, who was shortly afterward relieved of his command, the attempt failed. During the few days between this attach and Smith's approach the defensive works about the city were greatly strengthened. Smith's transports were yet coining up when at 2 A. M., June 15, he started from Bermuda Hundred, north of the Appomattox River. This river separating City Point from Bermuda Hundred, at its month, skirts the northern front of Petersburg about twelve miles above.

The approach was to be made from the east; therefore the Appomattox had to be crossed. This was effected by a bridge of boats. After crossing four roads were taken by separate columns; the river road on the right by Martindale; farther to the left, the City Point road by Brooks, the Jordan Point road by Hinks with his colored division; Kautz with his cavalry making a detour away to the left on the Prince George road. At noon, two miles from the city, Smith halted waiting for Kautz until evening. But Kautz not arriving, the batteries north east of Petersburg were carried, a regiment of Wise's brigade being captured. This sucess gave us about sixteen pieces of artillery, and a good position. Hancock's corps came up that night, just too late to render the success a decisive one; Hancock himself suffering rather seriously from his old wounds and not able to keep the saddle. This corps was placed to the left and southward of Smith. June 16 other positions were carried, and in the afternoon Burnside's corps came up, taking a position on Hancock's left.

But this day also the enemy was reinforced by Beauregard, who left his line at Bermuda Hundred in so great hurry, not waiting for Lee's columns to come up, that Butler had a good opportunity, which he improved, of breaking in upon the railroad between Petersburg and Richmond. Lee came upon him, his work pretty nearly done, and forced him back to his intrenchments. On the eve of the 16th, at 6 o'clock, an assault was made by the three corps, carrying a line of rifle-pits, followed by another the next morning, in which two redoubts were taken with 450 prisoners. During the 17th Warren's corps came up, taking the extreme left; and Wright's taking the place of the Eighteenth, the latter returned to Butler. By Saturday night, the 18th, the Confederate line was pushed back to its ultimate position, on a series of elevations, with its flanks resting on the river. The line had the form of a crescent, to which the Federal line conformed

Petersburg communicates with the South by means of three railroads — the Petersburg and Suffolk, the Petersburg and Weldon, and the Petersburg and Lynchburg. The line which Grant's army held on Tuesday, the 21st, stretched across the Appomattox; Butler's two corps north of that river, facing Petersburg on the east, and the four corps of the Army of the Potomac on the south, fronting Petersburg in that direction. But this line crossed only one of the three railroads above-mentioned, viz.: the Petersburg and Suffolk. In order more closely to invest Petersburg, Grant, on the 22d, moved his Second and Sixth corps, supporting each ether at a rather spacious interval, close up to the Weldon road; the Eighteenth Corps taking the place of these two on the right. Not only was this movement anticipated by Lee, who forthwith dispatched Hill to the threatened point, but due notice was taken of the gap between the Second and Sixth, and Hill promptly seizing his advantage pierced the weak centre and appeared on Barlow's flank. Barlow fell back, leaving Birney exposed, and the rifle-pits of the latter were taken by the enemy; together with M'Knight's battery of four guns. The confusion was but temporary; the Second Corps was re-formed and joined by the Sixth, when Hill was repulsed.

On the same day Wilson and Kautz made an attack on the Weldon road further south, about 11 miles from the Federal left. Crossing the road at Reams Station, the track was torn up for several miles and valuable property was destroyed. The next day the two commands reached the junction of the Danville and Lynchburg roads at Burkesville and destroyed the railroad for several miles. They pushed on to Roanoake Station on the Staunton River to burn the bridge at that point, but finding it strongly guarded turned back to Roanoake. June 28 they readied a point near Reams Station where they were surrounded by rebel cavalry under Hampton and Lee. A battle followed, which resulted in the retreat of the Federals. Information of this action and its result led Grant to patch the Second and Sixth corps to Reams Station to create a diversion in Wilson's favor. Kautz's from his knowledge of the country was able to reach. Grant's lines on the 30th; Wilson, taking a more circuitous route, came in the next day. Sixty miles of railroads were thoroughly destroyed. The Danville Road, General Wilson reports, could not be repaired in less than forty days. His loss was from 750 to 1000 men, including those lost from Kautz's division.

Hunter's expedition against Lynchburg resulted in failure. The details are the following: June 10 Crook and Sullivan, under Hunter, march from Staunton on Lexington; defeat M'Cansland's brigade; on the 14th are joined by Averill at Buchanan; on the 16th strike the Virginia and Tennessee railroad at Liberty, twenty miles west of Lynchburg, having moved through a gap in the Blue Ridge at the Peaks of Otter. Here the railroad was destroyed for several miles, including a bridge 700 feet long. Hunter then proceeded invest Lynchburg, but before he had completed his preparations Early came up, and he was compelled to retire.

Hunter, in retreating, followed the line of the railroad westward to Salem, and then across mountains to Gauley, in Western Virginia. Early, thus left with no strong force between him and the Potomac, marched rapidly up the Shenandoah with a force of 22,000 men, including Breckinridge and Rhodes's Corps; 5500 of this force was cavalry. Leaving about four thousand men to protect Lynchburg, Gordonsville, and the gaps of the Blue Ridge, he crossed the Potomac, striking the Baltimore and


Ohio Railroad at a point just above Harper's Ferry, threatening Martinsburg. July 3, Sigel, in command at Martinsburg, fell back on Sharpsburg, leaving valuable commissary and ordnance stores to be plundered by the enemy. The next day all; the country between Winchester and Williamsport was in the hands of the rebels; at nine o'clock P. M. Sigel held Maryland Heights, Harper's Ferry having been evacuated. The Chesapeake and Ohio canal, running along the Potomac from Alexandria to Cumberland, was very seriously damaged by the Confederates, who took possession of Hagerstown, and were looking forward to Frederick, from which a large amount of Government stores were being moved to the North. This was on the 5th.

On the 9th was fought the Battle of Monocacy, between General Lewis Wallace and the enemy. Frederick was evacuated the previous night, and in the morning was in the hands of the foe. Early had gathered in all his forces from scattered points, concentrating them against Wallace. Ricketts's Division of the Sixth Corps had arrived from Washington and was on the field, holding the left of our line. The enemy forced the passage of the stream, and by their superiority of numbers pressed back Ricketts and got in the rear of our right, where the hundred days men were, capturing General Tyler, who afterward escaped. Wallace then fell back, Early pursuing on the Baltimore pike toward Ellicott's Mills. Sunday was a day of intense excitement at Baltimore. The enemy was now chiefly occupied in plunder, which they carried on on a most extensive scale. Bridges were burned on the Northern Central road; two trains were captured on the Philadelphia road, in one of which was Major-General Franklin, who was taken prisoner, but who afterward succeeded in effecting his escape; and railroad communication was suspended between Washington and the North. Monday evening, July 11, the main body of the rebels were on the Seventh Street road, six or eight miles from Washington, threatening Fort Stevens; but General Augur, in command of the defenses of the Capital, sent out a brigade of veteran troops which soon succeeded in thriving the enemy. Early's rear now began to be threatened by forces under General Couch and by the return of Hunter, who held Martinsburg. On Wednesday the invaders recrossed the Potomac southward, taking their plunder with them.

General Foster, having fitted out an expedition for the seizure of James Island and other approaches to Charleston was partially successful, having captured the lower end of the island. Subsequently an expedition, under Colonel Gurney of the One Hundred and Twenty-seventh New York, fitted out for the purpose of capturing Fort Johnson by a night attack, signally failed; a portion of the force, about 132, were landed, but not being supported in time were captured by the rebels.

In our last Record we left Sherman in possession of Alatoona Pass, the gate eastward into the open country from the Alleghanies. Sherman's advance on Atlanta from Chattanooga had been along the line of the Western and Atlantic Railroad, upon which it was necessary that, he should keep fast hold at every step forward. June 6 he reached Ackworth, a few miles south of the Pass; on the 11th he made a depot of Big Shanty Station. Johnston confronted him, holding Kenesaw Mountain on the railroad, with strong outposts on Pilot Knob and Pine and Lost Mountains. Severe skirmishing on the 15th gave us Pine Mountain; on the crest of the mountain Polk was killed. At night the Confederate line reached from Kenesaw on the right, six miles, to Lost Mountain.

The Kenesaw, two miles and a half northwest of Marietta, is a double hill, the higher peak rising to the height of 1828 feet above the level of the sea. Lost Mountain is directly east from Kenesaw, north of the railroad between Marietta and Dallas. Five days more of hard pushing forced in Johnston's left from Lost Mountain. The Confederate commander now began to mass on the right, contracting his lines. M'Pherson operating on the enemy's right also gained some advantages.

These partial successes led Sherman to adopt with some degree of confidence the plan of direct assault against the Kenesaw, which was set down for the 27th of June. The Confederate army on the 22d stood in the shelter of the Kenesaw, with its centre strongly posted on that mountain, Noses Creek covering its left. This creek was crossed by Sherman's right, his centre meanwhile pressing up to the base of the Kenesaw, having carried some commanding positions west of the mountain from which the enemy's position became exposed to an enfilading fire. In the assault on the 27th M'Pherson's corps — the Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth, commanded respectively by Logan, Dodge, and Blair — moved against the main position on the Kenesaw, Blair against the eastern, Dodge against the northern, and Logan against the western slope. Palmer at the same time assailed the enemy's centre, supported on the right by Hooker, while Schofield swung around to the extreme right. The assault failed, resulting in a Federal loss of between two and three thousand men. Schofield's movement on the enemy's left was then strengthened and pushed forward, resulting in the evacuation of Kenesaw, July 3, on the anniversary of the capture of Vicksburg. July 11, Johnston took up a position two miles north of the Chattahoochee and commenced crossing; by the 9th his whole army was across, having lost a large number of prisoners (rumor says 4000) on its way from Kenesaw.

Sherman crossed at various points north of the railroad bridge — his main column, after the north bank was clear of the enemy, M'Pherson's three corps somewhat earlier; his whole army being south of the Chattahoochee at 9 P. M. on Sunday, July 17. The line extended from near the mouth of Peachtree Creek, on the right, to Decatur, a distance of fourteen miles, as follows: Palmer, Hooker, Howard, Schofield, the three corps of M'Pherson. That Sunday was the beginning of a momentous week. Sherman's army held, as we have seen, a long line, resting in the form of an arch on the northeast and within five miles of Atlanta.

In the mean time Bragg, the military supervisor of the Confederacy, had visited Atlanta, and on the 18th Johnston was removed from command, which was assumed by General Hood, and a new policy was adopted. His plan was well conceived. He knew that a line fourteen miles long must be weak somewhere; he would strike the right centre, fold Sherman's right wing back on the Chattahoochee and then turn upon and annihilate the left. On Wednesday, therefore, July 20, he came out and hurled his columns against Hooker's corps, which was after all not the weak point, making three assaults which were "bloodily repulsed."

Not satisfied, Hood assaulted again on Friday and with even poorer success than before, leaving, so says report, 7000 killed and wounded on the field,


and inflicting on the Federal army a loss of 2500. It was on this day that M'Pherson was killed.

Sherman in the mean time advanced his lines, directing particular attention to the destruction of the Confederate lines of retreat. On Thursday he had gained a position commanding a portion of Atlanta; M'Pherson moved up to within two miles and a half of the city on the south and cast, his left under Blair holding a positron near the Macon road. There are four great lines of railroad which centre in Atlanta. Northerly runs the Western and Atlantic road, along which Sherman had been pushing Johnston across the mountains for three months. On the east is the road to Augusta, branching off to Charleston and Savannah: the trunk of this road was held by M'Pherson at Decatur. On the south runs the Macon road, also connecting with Savannah; a short distance south of Atlanta it branches off into the West Point and Montgomery road.

This latter road had been very lately the object of a raiding expedition under the command of General Rousseau, who started from Nashville, July 8, with 2700 cavalry, consisting of four regiments which concentrated at Decatur, in Northern Alabama. Proceeding from Decatur, July 10, and crossing the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers, Rousseau struck for that portion of the West Point road between Montgomery and Opelika. During this reach of eight miles there are eight railroad bridges, all of which were destroyed, also bridges between Opelika and West Point. He reached Sherman's lines at Marietta on the 23d.

General Forrest was severely punished about the middle of July by Generals Smith, Mower, and Grierson. Several engagements occurred on different days, in all of which Forrest, with Lee and Walker, were defeated. Grierson estimates the Confederate loss as not less than 4000. Smith was compelled to return for want of supplies. The battles with Forrest took place between Corinth and Okolona in Mississippi, on the Mobile railroad.

Smith's and Rousseau's expeditions started out nearly at the same time. About the same time also Slocum fitted out two expeditions from Vicksburg into the interior of Mississippi. These were probably only a diversion in favor of Smith and Rousseau; if they meant any thing more than thil they certainly failed.

The Confederate cruiser Alabama, which has so long been the scourge of our commerce, was destroyed on the 19th of June off the port of Cherbourg, France, by the United States steamer Kearsarge, Captain Winslow. The Alabama, Captain


Semmes, arrived at Cherbourg on the 11th, from a cruise in the Indian Ocean. In accordance with the French law of neutrality she was warned to leave that port. On the morning of the 19th she steamed out of the harbor, which was watched by the Kearsarge. The French iron-clad La Couronne followed her until she was beyond French waters. The Kearsarge stood off, followed by the Alabama, for about three leagues, so as to be sure that the action should take place clear of French maritime jurisdiction: she then turned to meet the enemy. The force of the two vessels was as nearly as possible equal; the crew of the Kearsarge was a little nore numerous, the armament of the Alabama somewhat heavier. The Alabama opened fire at 11 o'clock at long range, the Kearsarge reserving her fire for a little until they came closer. During the action both vessels moved in a series of circles, gradually diminishing, and having a common centre, so that each kept her starboard battery bearing upon her opponent. The fire of the Alabama was more rapid, that of the Kearsarge more accurate. The commander of the Kearsarge had taken the precaution to protect, in a measure, some vital points of his vessel, by suspending the iron anchor-chains, over the side; this is a novelty in naval war, having been previously only used by one of our vessels in the capture of New Orleans. In a quarter of an hour after the action began the Alabama began to suffer severely. At every moment the suffered more and more, while the Kearsarge was scarcely harmed. In less than an hour the Alabama was in an almost sinking state, and her commander attempted to run toward the shore in order to reach French water; the Kearsarge crowded all steam to shut her off, and coming within 400 yards, delivered a broadside which reduced the enemy to a hopeless condition. Captain Semmes, finding his vessel going down, struck her flag, ordered his crew to jump overboard, and sent a boat with an officer to surrender his vessel and ask assitance to save his crew. All the serviceable boats of the Kearsarge were got out for that purpose. Meanwhile an English yacht, the Deerhound; owned by a Mr. Lancaster, whose family were on board, had come out of Cherbourg to see the fight. He was hailed from the Kearsarge and requested to aid in saving the crew of the Alabama. His boats picked up about forty, including Semmes and most of his officers; the boats of the Kearsarge saved sixty; and nine more were rescued by a French pilot-boat. The Alabama lost 7 killed on board, 17 drowned, and 12 wounded. The loss of the Kearsarge was three wounded, only one mortally. The vessel was scarcely harmed, and at the close of the action was in a condition to engage again. Meanwhile the commander of the Deerhound put off for the English coast, with the men whom he had picked up, Captain Winslow never imagining that one who bore the flag of the Royal Yacht Club would be guilty of thus dishonorably rescuing his prisoners. Semmes was landed in England, and received with much warmth, and he declared that he would soon be afloat in another Alabama. This, if more than bravado, was supposed to refer to the Rappahannock, formerly the English steamer Victor, which had been bought by the Confederates, taken without armament to Calais, in France, where she was then king; others supposed it to refer to the Yeddo a steamer built in a French port, ostensibly for the China trade, but presumed to be designed for the Confederates; this vessel soon after put to sea, and it was announced that she had been sold to the Prussian Government. Others still suppose that it referred to another vessel building in England. Captain Winslow meanwhile took his prisoners into Cherbourg, and as French law does not permit the detention of foreign prisoners of war, and as he had no room for them on his own vessel, he released them on parole.

Soon after two-other United States steamers, the Sacramento and the Niagara, arrived in these waters; and the arrival of two Confederate steamers is announced. One of these was supposed to be the General Lee, and the other the Florida, this last is thought improbable, as that vessel was only a few days before known to be off the American coast. It is generally thought to be a Confederate corvette name unknown, which had been reported in the neighborhood of Gibraltar. At the date of July 13 there was a report of a naval action having been fought between two of these vessels, but the news brought two days later failed to confirm the rumor.

Mr. Chase resigned his post as Secretary of the Treasury on the 30th of June. The place was offered to Mr. Tod, ex-Governor of Ohio, who declined to accept it on account of his health. It was then offered to and accepted by Hon. William Pitt Fessenden, Senator from Maine, and Chairman of the Finance Committee in the Senate. The financial policy of the new Secretary, as far as developed, seems to be to diminish rather than increase the amount of currency, which is thought to be greater than is required by the wants of the country, and thus to have in part caused the present increase of prices; to rely upon taxes for funds to meet the current expenses of Government, including interest on the public debt, and to procure what other amount may be required for the prosecution of the war by loans from the people. Under authority of an Act passed in June he proposes to issue $200,000,000 in Treasury notes, payable in three years, to bear interest at the rate of 7 3/10 per cent. These notes to be of $50, $100, $500, $1000, and $5000, to have coupons attached for the payment of interest semi-annually in lawful money; these notes at maturity to be convertible, at the option of the holder, into bonds at 6 per cent.. redeemable in gold after 1872, and payable in 1887. This proposition was accompanied by a cogent appeal to the people of the United States, urging them, on the grounds of interest and patriotism, to take part in this National loan.

The Opposition Members of Congress put forth, on the 2d of July, an "Address to the People of the United States, and particularly to the people of the States which adhere to the Federal Government," arguing that there is good reason for changing the administration and policy of the General Government through the instrumentality of suffrage, in the elections of the present year. The address asserts that it is useless to speak to the President or tho majority in Congress. It charges the President with the engrossment of power; with military interference in elections; with the creation of bogus States; with illegally raising troops; with unnecessary and hateful conscription; with the payment of exorbitant bounties; with employing colored troops on an equality with white soldiers; with setting up a false and ruinous financial system; with placing us in peril of foreign interference; with endeavoring to corrupt the race by amalgamation with negroes. It then proposes to organize an Opposition, Upon the general basis that all laws shall be executed; that the alleged wrong measures of


Government shall be abandoned; that all troops shall be raised through and officered by State authority; that in reconstructing the Union the States shall stand as before the war, except as to changes which may be agreed upon between or among them; that the Constitution should be so amended as to provide: against the uncontrolled domination of sectional parties North or South; and that there should be a general amnesty proclaimed except for particular offenses. This address, of which the above are the leading points, is signed by nine members from Pennsylvania, thirteen from Ohio, five from Indiana, eight from Illinois, one from Wisconsin, two from Kentucky, one from Virginia, two from Delaware, one from New Jersey, and one from New Hampshire — 13 in all, of whom 7 are Members of the Senate, and 36 of the House of Representatives.

A singular but abortive effort has been made to open negotiations for peace between the Union and the Confederacy. After some preliminary negotiations, which appear to have been conducted by Mr. William C. Jewett, George N. Sanders, once Navy Agent at New York, and recently an active agent for the Confederates abroad, wrote to Mr. Horace Greeley, editor of the New York Tribune; that Clement C. Clay of Alabama, and James P. Holcombe of Virginia, and himself, with one other, whose name was not given, were in Canada, and were ready to go to Washington if a safe-conduct were given them. Mr. Grecley, who had gone to Niagara Falls authorized to act in the matter, replied that, understanding them to be bearers of a proposition for peace, he was authorized to promise the safe-conduct; the blank left for the name was filled by him with that of Jacob Thompson, formerly Secretary of the Interior under Mr. Buchanan. Clay and Holcombe replied, intimating that Mr. Thompson was not the person intended, that they were not accredited agents of the Confederate Government to submit propositions for peace, but they were in its confidential employment, were familiar with its wishes, and would be furnished with authority to act. They asked for a safe-conduct to Washington, and thence to Richmond. Mr. Grecley replied that under this changed aspect of the case he must await instructions from the President. These came in the shape of the following dispatch from the President, addressed "To Whom it may concern:"

"Any proposition which embraces the restoration of peace, the integrity of the whole Union, and the abandonment of slavery, and which comes by and with authority that can control the armies now at war against the United States, will be received and considered by the Executive Government of the United States, and will be met by liberal terms on substantial and collateral points, and the bearer or bearers thereof shall have safe-conduct both ways."

Upon the reception of this reply, the Confederate agents at once broke off all further correspondence, affirming that the document precluded negotiation, and prescribed in advance the terms and conditions of peace, returning to the original policy of "no bargaining, no negotiations, no truces with the rebels except to bury their dead, until every man shall have laid down his arms, submitted to the Government, and sued for mercy."

The latest intelligence from England shows no increase of friendly feeling toward the United States. The warm reception given to Captain Semmes indicates the current of sentiment in leading circles. With cotton quoted at 81 pence a pound, instead of a little less than 8 pence, which was the ruling price just before the war — a fourfold increase attributed to our blockade — the feeling among financial and commercial circles could not well be other than hostile to us; for the life of England depends upon buying raw cotton cheaply and selling it when manufactured dearly. Moreover, the high rates of wages attainable in the United States are drawing away the best part of the laboring class. This is especially the case in Ireland, whence the emigration is fast approaching the highest numbers reached ten years ago. Most of the emigrants now leaving take with them not only their persons and their capacity for labor, but no inconsiderable amount of capital. A few years ago the policy of the British Government was to encourage emigration; now it is to discourage it. Moreover the Opposition, who hope to replace the present Ministry, are committed to action against the friendly or at least neutral course which the Government has endeavored to maintain. A strong pressure is thus steadily brought to bear on the Government to induce a change of policy, and it has not been without its effect. Thus in Parliament Mr. Lindsay has just given notice of a motion in favor of the interference of Great Britain, and this was postponed at the special request of the cabinet. A deputation from a body calling, itself a society for obtaining a cessation of hostilities had an audience with Lord Palmerston, and it is now said that Mr. Mason, the Confederate Commissioner has had an interview with the Premier, which was quite satisfactory to him.

The Danish question, meanwhile, for the moment absorbs European interest. The Peace Conference held its final session on the 25th of June, having, as had for some time been foreseen, accomplished no practical result. The neutral powers agreed to a partition of the Duchies, and proposed the line of the Schlei. Denmark would consent to this, but the Germans claimed more. So fighting was renewed, the Danes, overmatched, getting the worst of it, and the Prussians capturing the island of Alsen. The latest report is that the King of Denmark, apparently despairing of any substantial aid from England, has resolved upon a new policy; has dismissed his former ministers, and asks peace with Prussia, and proposes that Denmark shall be admitted us a member of the German Confederation, placing her navy under the control of the Diet. If this is accomplished the German Confederation will soon be able to take rank among the great maritime powers, the point at which Prussia and the minor German states have really all along been aiming. Such a result can not be pleasing to England and France, who now hold between them the control of the ocean. Moreover, no little uneasiness has been felt on account of a meeting lately held by the sovereigns of Russia, Austria, and Prussia, which was reported to have in effect resulted in a league between these powers against England and France. There is, however, no sure evidence of the accomplishment of any such league. Meanwhile the personal relations of the English court with the belligerents have no small part in complicating British action. The eldest daughter of the Queen is married to the Prince of Prussia, presumtive heir to the crown; while the wife of the Prince of Wales who may at any time become Queen of Great Britain, and who is said to have gained complete control over her feeble husband, is daughter of the King of Denmark. The Queen herself apparently leans to the German side: but the future Queen, of course, is in favor of the Danes.