Monthly Record of Current Events, July 4.
1. "To confirm certain acts of the President for the suppression of insurrection and rebellion." This bill confirms and ratifies all the acts of the President in calling out the militia, increasing the military and naval force, and all the acts and proceedings incident thereto, rendering them as legal and valid as if done under the express authority of Congress previously conferred. It also authorizes the President, if during the recess of Congress hereafter, any dangerous combinations should arise, to call into the service of the United States such military and naval forces as he may deem necessary.
2. "To authorize the employment of Volunteers to aid in enforcing the laws and protecting public property. "This bill authorizes the President to accept the services of volunteers in such numbers as he may deem necessary, for the purposes set forth in its title; and appropriates $300,000,000, or as much thereof as may be necessary, for this purpose. It prescribes the organization of these volunteers, the number of officers, and the pay of the men, which is in general to be the same as in the regular army, each volunteer also, when honorably discharged, to receive one hundred dollars, those wounded to be entitled to pensions, and the heirs of those killed to receive one hundred dollars, besides all arrears, of pay and allowances.
3. "To increase the present Military Establisliment of the United States." This bill provides for the addition to the present regular army of nine regiments of infantry, one of cavalry, and one of artillery; the numbers of which are definitely prescribed, the enlistments in the regular army during the years 1861 and 1862 to be for three years, afterward for five years; the men enlisted to be entitled to the same allowances as those of the volunteer force.
4. "For the better organization of the Military Establishment." This bill provides for the appointment of an Assistant Secretary of War, and for various additions to the Adjutant-General's, Quarter-master's, Engineers, Ordnance, and Medical departments of the army; for the appointment of Cadets in the Military Academy, and various other details of army regulations.
5. "For the organization of a Volunteer Militia force, to be called the National Guard of the United States." This important bill provides for a volunteer militia force of 240,000 rank and file, apportioned among the State in the proportion of their Representatives in Congress. It is to be composed of citizens, and those who have declared their intentions of becoming citizens, between the ages of 21 and 35. The Guard, or any part of it, may be called into the service of the United States by the President, in case of invasion or insurrection. Every member of the Guard to take an oath to defend the Constitution and laws of the United States, and obey the orders of the President. They are to be exempt from all other military duty, and from serving on juries, during their continuance in service.
A member may, after six years service, receive a discharge, which shall exempt him from military service in time of peace. The uniform of each arm of the Guard to be the same throughout the United States, one suit to be furnished to each member. Of these 240,000 men, 80,000 are to be enrolled within one year, a like number in two and three years. The bill makes minute provisions for the enrollment and discipline of the Guard.
6. "To promote the efficiency of the Army." This bill provides that any commissioned officer who has served forty years may, at his own request, be placed on the retired list, with pay and allowances; and that any officer who shall become disabled or incapable of discharging his duties may, upon his own request or by direction of the President, after due medical investigation, be placed on the retired list, with pay and allowance as specified in the act.
Mr. Chandler gave notice that he should introduce a bill to confiscate the property of Governors, Members of Legislatures, Judges, and Military Officers above the rank of Lieutenant, who should be guilty of treason, or of aiding and abetting it; disqualifying them from holding any office of trust or emolument.
In the House 159 Members were present, including five from Northwestern Virginia. The Clerk called the names of the members elected from South Carolina, Arkansas, and Florida, who of course were not present. For Speaker, Messrs. Colfax, Blair, and Grow had been named on the Republican side. Mr. Colfax declined before the ballot commenced, being unwilling to delay the organization by a triangular contest. As the first ballot advanced it appeared that there would be no majority, although Mr. Grow had, a plurality. Mr. Blair then requested his friends to change their votes from him to Mr. Grow, so that a choice might be made at ones. This was done, and the result was that Mr. Grow was elected by a vote of 99; for Mr. Blair 11 votes were given; for Mr. Crittenden. 12; the remainder were scattering. Hon. Emerson Etheridge, late Member of the House from Tennessee, was elected Clerk.
The Presidents Message is brief, confining itself wholly to the matter on account of which the extra Session of Congress was called. It begins by explaining the position in which the Administration found itself upon coming into office. In six States the functions of the Government, with the exception of the Post-office Department, were suspended. Forts, arsenals, arms, and public property in these States had been seized; the Confederate States had organized, and were invoking recognition and aid from foreign powers. The Administration had to prevent, if possible, a dissolution of the Federal Union, and a choice of means was to be made. The policy chosen was developed in the Inaugural Address. It looked to the exhaustion of all peaceful measures before resorting to stronger ones. The proceedings relating to Fort Sumter are clearly explained. The Government wished to retain it, not for aggression, but merely to maintain visible possession, and thus to preserve the Union from actual and immediate dissolution, trusting to time, discussion, and the ballot-box for a final adjustment. The enemy assailed and reduced the fort for the reverse object, to drive out the visible authority of the Federal Union, and force it to an immediate dissolution:
"Then and thereby," says the President, "the assailants of the Government began the conflict of arms without a gun in sight or in expectancy to return their fire, save only the few in the fort sent to that harbor years before, for their own protection, and still ready to give that protection in whatever was lawful. In this act, discarding all else, they have forced upon the country the distinct issue — immediate dissolution or blood. And this issue embraces more than the fate of these United States. It presents to the whole family of man the question whether a constitutional republic or democracy, a government of the people, by the same people, can or can not maintain its territorial integrity against its own domestic foes. It presents the question whether discontented individuals, too few in numbers to control the administration according to the organic law in any case, can always, upon the pretenses made in this case or any other pretenses, or arbitrarily without any pretense, break up their government, and thus practically put an end to free government upon the earth. It forces us to ask, Is there in all republics this inherent and fatal weakness? Must a government of necessity be too strong for the liberties of its own people, or two weak to maintain its own existence?"
No choice was left but to call out the war power of the Government to resist the force employed for its destruction. The President proceeds to explain and justify the responsibilities which he assumed in calling out the volunteer army, declaring a blockade, and in certain cases suspending the writ of habeas corpus. Nothing, he thinks, has been done which exceeds the constitutional power of Congress to sanction, and he confidently anticipates a full indorsement of all his acts. The paragraph setting forth the means which the Administration asks to be put at its disposal, is as follows:
"It is now recommended that you give the legal means for making this contest a short and decisive one; that you place at the control of the Government for the work at least 400,000 men and $400,000,000. That number of men is about one-tenth of those of proper ages, within the regions where, apparently, all are willing to engage; and the sum is less than a twenty-third part of the money-value owned by the men who seem ready to devote the whole. A debt of $600,000,000 now is a less sum per head than was the debt of our Revolution, when we came out of that struggle, and the money-value in the country bears even a greater proportion to what it was then than does the population. Surely each man has as strong a motive now to preserve our liberties as each had then to establish them. A right result at this time will be worth more to the world than ten times the men and ten times the money. The evidence reaching us from the country leaves no doubt that the material for the work is abundant, and that it needs only the hand of legislation to give it legal sanction and the hand of the Executive to give it practical shape and efficiency. One of the greatest perplexities of the Government is to avoid receiving troops faster than it can provide for them; in a word, the people will save their Government, if the Government itself will do its part only indifferently well."
Some space is given in the Message to an argument against the right of a State, as such, to secede from the Union, and other points of interest, which our space will not allow us to epitomize. The following paragraph developes the policy proposed by the Administration after the suppression of the insurrection:
"Lest there be some uneasiness in the minds of candid men as to what is to be the course of the Government toward the Southern States after the rebellion shall have been suppressed, the Executive deems it proper to say it will be his purpose then, as ever, to be guided by the Constitution and the laws, and that he probably will have no different understanding of the powers and duties of the Federal Government relatively to the rights of the States and the people under the Constitution, than that expressed in the Inaugural Address. He desires to preserve the Government, that it may be administered for all as it was administered by the men who made it."
The Report of the Secretary of the Treasury is devoted to an elaborate exposition of the sum required to be raised and of the means of procuring it. The general result is that for the ensuing fiscal year the sum, in round numbers, of 320 millions of dollars must be raised. Of this 80 millions, representing the ordinary expenses of the Government should be provided by imposts and taxation, and the remaining 240 millions should be provided for by loans. The existing tariff will fall far short of producing this 80 millions, and the Secretary proposes certain modifications, the most important of which are a
402tax of 2Ë cents per pound on brown sugar, 3 cents on clayed sugar, 4 cents on refined sugars, 6 cents per gallon on molasses, 5 cents per pound on coffee, 15 cents on black, and 20 cents on green tea. He estimates that with these modifications the tariff will produce 57 millions; from sales of public lands 3 millions will accrue, leaving 20 of the 80 millions to be furnished by taxation. A tax of one-eighth per cent on the real and personal property of the whole country — of one-fifth per cent. on this property in the States not under insurrection — or of three-tenths per cent. on the real property alone in these States, would either of them produce more than the 20 millions required to be raised by direct taxation. The Secretary also suggests that the required sum may be raised by moderate taxes on stills and distilled liquors, on ale, beer, tobacco, bank-notes, carriages, silver-ware, jewelry, and legacies; and still further suggests that both methods — a tax on all property, and a special one on these luxuries may be combined. He also suggests that "the property of those engaged in insurrection, or in giving aid and comfort to the insurgents, may be properly made to contribute to the expenditures made necessary by their criminal misconduct."He further suggests a reduction of 40 per cent. on salaries, the abolition of the franking privilege, and other retrenchments. In suggesting these various modes, whether singly or in combination, to the choice of Congress, the Secretary urges the paramount and absolute necessity of "making such full provision of the annual revenue as will manifest to the world a fixed purpose to maintain inviolate the public faith by the strictest fidelity to all public engagements." — To supply the 240 millions required for extraordinary expenses, the Secretary recommends that a subscription be Opened for "a national loan of not less than 100 millions to be issued in the form of treasury notes or exchequer bills, bearing an interest of 7 3/10 per cent. to be paid half-yearly, and redeemable at the pleasure of the United States, after three years from date."He says that "as the contest in which the Government is now engaged is a contest for national existence and the sovereignty of the people, it is evident that the means for prosecuting it with energy to a speedy and successful issue should be made, in the first instance at least, to the people themselves." The proposed rate of interest, besides being equitable, is convenient for calculation, being one cent per day on fifty dollars, so that it is only necessary to know the number of days since the date of a note, or the last payment of interest, to determine at a glance the amount due upon it. The Secretary further recommends the issue, if necessary, of bonds for a sum not exceeding 100 millions, at an interest not exceeding seven per cent. payable after thirty years in London or at the Treasury of the United States. These, he thinks, will be easily negotiable at home and in foreign countries. In addition to the foregoing, he proposes an issue of treasury notes for $10 or $20 each, payable one year from date, to an amount not exceeding 50 millions, bearing interest at the rate of 3 65-100, exchangeable for Treasury notes; or, if found more convenient, issued without interest, and payable in coin. In either form, these notes would prove useful, if prudently used; but the greatest care will be required to prevent the issue from being degraded into an irredeemable paper currency. — The increase of the public debt is thus stated by the Secretary; July 1, 1860, it was $64,769,000; Jan. 1,1861, $66,243,000; March 7,1861, $76,455,000; July l, 1861, $90,867,000.
— In view of the embarrassments to the collection of the revenue from the insurrection, the Secretary recommends that, when necessary, duties may be collected on shipboard or beyond the reach of obstruction from insurrection; and that the President be empowered to determine by proclamation or other notification, within what limits insurrection has attained such an ascendency as to compel the total suspension of all commerce, and to establish by license such exceptions to that suspension as he may deem expedient. — The Secretary urges the passage of laws to carry into effect the various recommendations embodied in his Report.
The Report of the Secretary of War gives a list of the seizures made by the seceding States previous to the inauguration of the present Administration. It embraces revenue cutters betrayed by their commanders or overpowered by disloyal troops; the Government arsenals at Little Rock, Baton Rouge, Mount Vernon, Apalachicola, Augusta, Charleston, and Fayetteville; the ordnance depot at San Antonio, and all the other Government works in Texas, which served as the depots of immense stores of arms and ammunition; forts Macon, Caswell, Johnson, Clinch, Pulaski, Jackson, Marion, Barrancas, M'Kee, Morgan, Gaines, Pike, Macomb, St. Phillip, Livingston, Smith, and three at Charleston; Oglethorpe Barracks, Barrancas Barracks, New Orleans Barracks, Fort Jackson, on the Mississippi, the battery at Bienvenue, Dupre, and the works at Ship Island; the Custom-houses at New Orleans, Mobile, Savannah, Charleston, and other important points, containing vast amounts of Government funds; the branch Mints at New Orleans, Charlotte, and Dahlonega: the marine hospital at New Orleans; the public property in Texas, handed over by General Twiggs, who deprived the loyal men of his command of the means of transportation from the State. In contrast with this conduct of General Twiggs, honorable mention is made of the course of Major Anderson at Fort Sumter, Lieutenant Slemmer at Fort Pickens, and Lieutenant Jones at Harper's Ferry. — The proclamation of the 15th of April, calling for 73,391 men, was responded to by more than 80,000, who are now under arms, notwithstanding the refusal of the Governors of several States. — Under the proclamation of the 4th of May, calling for volunteers to serve during the war, 208 regiments have been accepted. The total force now in the field is thus stated:
|Regulars and volunteers for three months and for the war||235,000|
|Add to this fifty-five regiments of volunteers for the war, accepted and not yet in service||50,000|
|Add new regiments of regular army||25,000|
|Total force now at command of Government||310,000|
|Deduct the three-months' volunteers||80,000|
|Force for service after the withdrawal of the three-months men||230,000|
For the maintenance of this force, in addition to appropriations already made for the year ending June 30, 1861, the following are the estimates:
|Topographical Engineer Department||50,000.00|
|Due States which have made advances for troops||10,000,000.00|
By the advice of the General-in-Chief one half of
403the officers of the new regiments have been appointed from the regular army, and the other half from civil life. Of the civilians appointed to regimental commands, "all except one are either graduates of West Point or have before served with distinction in the field; and of the lieutenant-colonels, majors, captains, and first-lieutenants, a large proportion have been taken from the regular army and the volunteers now in service; while the second-lieutenants have been mainly created by the promotion of meritorious sergeants from the regular service."The volunteer system is commended by the Secretary; "experienced men, who have had ample opportunity to familiarize themselves with the condition of European armies, concede that in point of personnel this patriot-army is fully equal to the finest troops of the Old World." Special commendation is given to the manner in which some of the New England States have armed and equipped their quotas; this is attributed to the efficient home organization of the militia in those States. — The deficiency in arms and munitions, arising from the bad faith of those intrusted with their guardianship, has been in a great measure overcome. "The arms and ordnance supplied from our national armories compare favorably with the very best manufactured for foreign Governments. The celebrated Enfield rifle is a simple copy of the regular arm manufactured for many years at the Springfield Armory. Arrangements have been made to rifle a large portion of the smooth-bored cannon now on hand. Arms have also been procured from private manufacturers, equal in quality and not much higher in cost than those made in the national work-shops. It is recommended that our troops be supplied from these sources, instead of making purchases abroad. — The large disaffection of army officers is referred to. " The majority of these officers solicited and obtained a military education at the hands of the Government — a mark of special favor, conferred by the laws of Congress on only one in 70,000 inhabitants. At the National Military Academy they were received and treated as the adopted children of the republic. By the peculiar relations thus established, they virtually became bound, by more than ordinary obligations of honor, to remain faithful to their flag. "In view of this, it is suggested that there must be a radical defect in the system of education pursued at the Military Academy. — The appointment of a Military tribunal is urged, to have jurisdiction only in places where the functions of the Federal courts are interrupted. — The report closes with a tribute to "the veteran General-in-Chief of the Army, for the constant and self-sacrificing devotion to the public service exhibited by him in this grave crisis."
The Report of the Secretary of the Navy furnishes a complete abstract of the condition of that Department, On the 4th of March the total number of vessels of all classes was ninety, designed to carry 2415 guns; excluding those unfinished, those not worthy of repair, and those used for store-ships, the available force was 69 vessels, with 1346 guns; of these 42, with 556 guns, were in commission, the remainder being dismantled or in ordinary, nearly all of them being on foreign stations. The Home Squadron consisted of 12 vessels, with 187 guns, only 4 of which with 25 guns, being in Northern ports. Of the 69 vessels regarded as available for service, the sloop Levant was lost in the Pacific, the steamer Fulton was seized at Pensacola, and one frigate, two sloops, and a brig were burned at North folk; the other vessels destroyed at this place were considered worthless, and were not included in the list of available vessels. This left at the service of the Department 63 vessels carrying 1174 guns, all of which, with the exception of 4, with 153 guns, are or will soon be in commission. Nine steamers have been chartered, and 12 steamers and 3 sailing-vessels have been purchased, making the entire naval force in commission 82 vessels, with upward of 1100 guns. The squadron on the Atlantic coast, under command of Flag-officer Stringham, consists of 22 vessels, with 290 guns and 3300 men. The squadron in the Gulf of Mexico, under command of Flag-officer Mervine, consists of 21 vessels, with 282 guns and 3500 men. The East India, Mediterranean, Brazil, and African squadrons, with the exception of one vessel each, have been recalled; this will add to the force for service on the Atlantic coast and in the Gulf about 200 guns and 2500 men. — Since the 4th of March 259 naval officers have either resigned or been dismissed from service. But while so many officers have proved unfaithful, the crews have throughout proved faithful. — Besides the vessels purchased, the Department has contracted for building 23 steam gun-boats of about 500 tons burden, and has made preliminary arrangements for several larger and fleeter vessels; the work on the eight vessels ordered to be built at the last Session is now vigorously prosecuted. — The appropriations for the Navy Department, asked by the Secretary, amount to $30,609,000.
On the 9th of June General Butler sent a strong detachment from Hampton and Newport News to attack two Confederate posts at Little and Big Bethel, about eight miles distant. The regiments were to unite at a point about a mile and a half from Little Bethel. Colonel Bendix's New York regiment had reached the spot, and Colonel Townsend's Albany regiment were coming up just at daybreak, when they were mistaken for enemies and fired upon by Bendix's regiment. The error having been discovered a junction was effected, and the troops, commanded by General Pierce of Massachusetts, advanced upon Little, Bethel, which was abandoned at their approach. They then marched toward Big Bethel. They encountered a masked battery, of which they had no knowledge. They attempted to take this without success, and after fighting an hour and a half retreated. The loss in this affair was 16 killed and 57 wounded. Among the killed were Captain Greble of the regular army, and Mr. Theodore Winthrop, one of the aids of General Butler. Of the 73 casualties in this action, 21 occurred by the firing upon each other of the New York regiments. — On the 17th General Schenck, with the First Regiment of Ohio Volunteers, left the camp at Alexandria, to make a reconnoissance along the Alexandria and Hampshire Railroad. Guards were placed at various points, taking off a great part of the force. Near Vienna the road, after passing a deep cut, makes a sharp curve. This point was commanded by a battery hastily erected by the Confederate troops, of the existence of which General Schenck was Ignorant. As the cars containing the remaining Ohio companies approached the spot a fire was opened upon them, killing about 12 men. The troops retired, carrying their wounded with them, — Harper's Ferry was abandoned on the loth of June by the Confederate troops, commanded by General Johnson. The public works were burned and the railroad bridges partially destroyed. The garrison, numbering about 12,000, retired upon Martinsburg. — The Savannah, of Charleston, the first privateer
404licensed by the Confederate Government, has been captured by the United States brig Perry. She was provided with a crew of twenty men. Two days before her capture she had fallen in with the brig Joseph, of Rockland, Maine, from Cuba, loaded with sugar. The prize was taken to Georgetown, South Carolina, in charge of eight of the crew of the Savannah. The privateer mistook the Perry for a merchantman, and advancing to seize her fell an easy prey. Her crew were sent to New York, to be tried for piracy. — Several engagements, attended with no important results, have taken place between the Government vessels in the Potomac and the Confederate batteries at various points on the shore. On the 27th of June Captain Ward, of the Freeborn, with his own vessel, the Pawnee, and the Resolute, left Washington, intending to erect a battery at Mathias Point. Thirty or forty men were landed for this purpose, when they were attacked by a large force, who had been concealed in the adjacent woods. The men returned to the boats, which lay near the shore, to protect them. Captain Ward was struck by a musket ball, and mortally wounded. Several skirmishes between outposts and advanced corps have taken place, but no action of decisive importance has occurred.
Our Record closes on the 7th of July. There is every prospect that decisive action will be had before this number of the Magazine reaches its readers. On the 2d of July General Patterson's corps crossed the Potomac into Virginia above Harper's Ferry, and advanced upon Martinsburg, which, was occupied on the 3d, the Confederate troops, after some skirmishing, falling back. — On the 7th of July large bodies of troops were sent from Washington across the Potomac. — John C. Fremont has been appointed Major-General, and placed in command of the Military Department of the West, embracing Illinois and the States and Territories west of the Mississippi, to the Rocky Mountains.
In Maryland the election for members of Congress took place on the 13th of June. The Union candidates were elected in all except the Baltimore district, where H. Winter Davis was defeated by Henry May, whose position is not clearly defined. He, however, received the secession vote. In Baltimore the feeling in favor of secession is very strong, and is apparently held in check only by the presence of the United States forces. General Nathaniel P. Banks, formerly Speaker of the House of Representatives, and more recently Governor of Massachusetts, has been placed in command of the Military Department of Annapolis, in which Baltimore is included. On the 27th of June he arrested George P. Kane, Chief of the Police, and superseded the authority of the Police Commissioners, appointing Colonel Kenly, of the Maryland Volunteers, Provost Marshal of the city. In a proclamation giving his reasons for this measure, General Banks says that it was not his purpose to interfere with the legitimate government of the people of Baltimore, or of Maryland; but there existed unlawful combinations for resistance to the laws, and providing hidden depots of arms and ammunition to be used against the Government. The Chief of Police was not only aware of these facts, but was proved to be a protector of the parlies engaged therein; the Government could only regard him as the head of an armed force hostile to its authority, and acting in concert with its avowed enemies. Whenever a loyal citizen should bo named as head of the police, the military would render him instant and willing obedience. A large amount of arms and ammunition was found concealed in the office of the Chief of Police. The Police Commissioners and the Mayor protested against the action of General Banks, and said that while they yielded to the force of circumstances, and would do nothing to obstruct the execution of such measures as the military commander might take for the preservation of the peace of the city, they could not recognize the right of the police force, as such, to receive orders from any other authority than the Board; and that the forcible suspension of their functions suspended the operation of the police law, and put the men off duty for the present. Nearly all the policemen resigned, and General Banks directed the Provost Marshal to fill their places with others. The suspended Commissioners continued to hold their sessions, refusing to recognize the officers and men appointed by the Provost Marshal. General Banks thereupon, on the 1st of July, in pursuance of orders from Washington, arrested the members of the Board, with the exception of the Mayor, and placed a body of troops within the city. — The Legislature of Maryland adopted measures tending if possible to unite that State with the Southern Confederacy. Among these was a resolution declaring that the debt now being incurred by the General Government in prosecuting the war is unconstitutional, and of no binding force upon the States which do not consent thereto, and that Maryland will not hold itself bound for any portion of its payment.
In Kentucky the special election for Members of Congress resulted in the choice of nine Union Representatives and one "States Rights" man, Mr. Burnett, who was re-elected by a reduced majority. The majorities were very large, amounting in the aggregate to nearly 60,000. Among the representatives chosen is Hon. John J. Crittenden, late Senator in Congress.
The Virginia Union Convention re-asssmbled at Wheeling on the 12th of June. Arthur J. Boreman was chosen permanent Chairman. About one-third of the counties of the State were represented. A resolution proposing a separation of Virginia, the counties represented in the Convention to be organized into a new State, was, after considerable debate, rejected by a vote of 57 to 17. On the 19th a Declaration and Ordinance for reorganizing the Government of the State was passed. The Declaration says that the Constitution gave the General Assembly no power to call a Convention without the express consent of a majority of the people; that the calling of the Richmond Convention was a usurpation; and that the Convention also abused the powers nominally intrusted to it by requiring the people of Virginia to separate from and wage war against the Government of the United States, transferring the allegiance of the people to an illegal Confederacy of rebellious States, and placing the military force of the Commonwealth under the control of this Confederacy, and bringing the allegiance of the people to the United States into conflict with their subordinate allegiance to the State, thereby making obedience to their ordinance treason against the United States. The delegates therefore declare that the preservation of the rights and liberties of the people of Virginia "demand the reorganization of the Government of the Commonwealth, and that all acts of said Convention and Executive, tending to separate this Commonwealth from the United States, or to levy and carry on war against them, are without authority and void; and the offices of all who adhere to the
405said Convention and Executive, whether legislative, executive, or judicial, are vacated. "The ordinance for the reorganization of the State Government provides for the appointment by the Convention of a Governor and Lieutenant-Governor, to continue in office until their successors are elected and qualified; for a Council of five members to aid and advise the Governor. The Delegates elected in May, and the Senators who are entitled by the existing laws to seats in the next General Assembly, who shall appear and qualify themselves by taking the requisite oath of allegiance, are to constitute the Legislature of the State; a majority of the members so qualified to constitute a quorum. The following is the oath to be taken by all civil and military officers:
"I solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support the Constitution of the United States, and the laws made in pursuance thereof, aa the supreme law of the land, any thing in the ordinances of the Convention which assembled at Richmond on the 13th day of February, 1861, to the contrary notwithstanding; and that I will uphold and defend the Government ordained by the Convention which assembled at Wheeling on the 11th day of June, 1861, and the Legislature, Governor, and all other officers thereof in the discharge of their several duties, as prescribed by the last-mentioned Convention."
The posts held by all officers who fail to take this oath are to be declared vacant, and are to be filled by others. Frank H. Pierpont was elected Governor, and Daniel Paisley Lieutenant-Governor. On the 22d the Governor issued a proclamation summoning the Legislature to meet at Wheeling on the first day of July. The President has formally recognized this new Government, by transmitting to it the official notice of the Congressional apportionment under the late census. — Governor Letcher has issued a proclamation to the people of the northwestern part of the State, in which he says that the people of Virginia, by a majority of nearly a hundred thousand qualified voters, have severed the tie's that bound them to the Government of the United States, and united the Commonwealth with the Confederate States. The right to institute a new form of government was one that freemen should never relinquish. The people of the northwestern part of the State voted as well as those of the other parts; the majority was against them, and it was their duty to yield to the will of the State. There had been a complaint that the Eastern portion of the State enjoyed an exemption from taxation, to the prejudice of the Western part. The State, by a majority of 95,000, had put the two sections on an equality in this respect. By this display of magnanimity the East had shown itself ready to share in all the burdens of Government, and to meet all Virginia's liabilities.
In Tennessee the vote upon the ordinance of separation from the United States and representation in the Confederate Government was taken on the 8th of June. The result upon the adoption of the ordinance is officially stated by Governor Harris to be:
The vote for "Representation "is about the same. On the 24th of June the Governor issued a proclamation declaring that "the people of the State of Tennessee have, in their sovereign will and capacity, by an overwhelming majority, cast their vote for ‘Separation,’ dissolving all political connection with the late United States Government, and adopted the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America," Tennessee is therefore "a free and independent Government, free from all obligation to or connection with the Federal Government of the United States of America. "In a Message to the Legislature, the Governor says: "While it is to me a source of regret that entire unanimity was not attained at the ballot-box, in the decision of the vitally-important and exciting questions referred to, I have entire confidence that now, the deliberate and impartial judgment of the overwhelming majority of the people of the State having been recorded, the whole people, forgetting these differences of opinion, however earnestly and honestly entertained, will stand together as one man in maintaining the rights, honor, and dignity of Tennessee, and in preserving the domestic tranquillity of the community the time for crimination and recrimination has passed. Threatened by a common enemy; imperiled by a common danger; bound together by ties which can not be severed, we are identical in interest: we must be so in action. "He recommends that the payments upon the public debt, now by law to be made in New York, be made payable at Nashville, Charleston, or New Orleans, to "the people of all Governments which are on terms of peace and friendship with us, who are and were previous to the commencement of the war bona fide owners of our bonds, and that you adopt such policy toward the owners and holders of our bonds, who are citizens of States at war with us, as is recognized and justified by the law of nations, regulating their intercourse as belligerents." — In view of the impossibility of disposing for money of the State bonds authorized to be issued for the defense of the State, he recommends that three-fifths of the sum be issued in Treasury notes, which shall be received in payment of all taxes and Government dues. — He has caused to be organized and equipped twenty-one regiments of infantry now in the field; ten artillery companies and a regiment of cavalry are in process of organization; in addition to which there are three regiments mustered into the service of the Confederate States, now in Virginia. — A Union Convention of Eastern Tennessee met at Greenville on the 17th of June. Hon. Thomas A. E. Nelson was chosen as President. A declaration of grievances and a series of resolutions were adopted on the 21st. The declaration says that the election of the 8th was free, but with few exceptions, in no other part of the State than East Tennessee. In the larger parts of Middle and West Tennessee no speeches or discussions in favor of the Union were permitted. The unanimity of the vote in many counties where, a few weeks ago the Union sentiment was strong proves that the Union men were overawed by the tyranny of the military power, and the still greater tyranny of a corrupt and subsidized press. For these and other reasons the Convention does not recognize the result of the election as expressive of the will of the people of Tennessee. Had the election been free the result would probably have been different. But whether this be or be not the case, East Tennessee has a better right to remain in the Union than the other sections have to secede. Neither the Constitution nor Congress has wronged Tennessee; the President has made no threat against her law-abiding people; there is no cause for rebellion or secession. While peace and prosperity have been. enjoyed under the Government of the United States, rebellion has paralyzed commerce, and lessened the value of property; it has changed the relations of States and adopted Constitutions, without submitting them to the vote of the
406people; it has formed military leagues and opened the door for oppressive taxation; it has offered a premium for crime by directing the discharge of volunteers from criminal prosecution, and by recommending the Judges not to hold their courts; it has stained the statute-book by the repudiation of Northern debts; it has called upon the people to contribute their surplus productions for the support of a Government destitute of money or credit; it has attempted to destroy the freedom of speech and the press. In view of the foregoing list of wrongs, and many other grievances which are enumerated, "and of the fact that the people of East Tennessee have declared their fidelity to the Union by a majority of about 20,000 votes, "the Convention passed a series of resolutions to the following effect: 1. Desiring the restoration of peace, and especially that East Tennessee should not be involved in civil war. — 2. Pronouncing the action of the State Legislature in reference to secession and union with the Confederate States as unconstitutional, and not binding. — 3. Appointing Commissioners to prepare a memorial to the Legislature of Tennessee, asking its consent that the counties composing East Tennessee, and such counties in Middle Tennessee as desire to cooperate with them may form and erect a separate State. — 4. Appointing an election to be held in these counties. — 5. Requesting the Union members of the Legislature to resume their seats unless prevented.
In Missouri, Governor Jackson, after fruitless attempts to induce the United States commander to consent, to a virtual neutrality, has taken ground against the Union. He demanded that no United States troops should be quartered in or marched through the State, while General Lyon asserted the right of the Government to send troops into any part of the State, to protect, loyal citizens or repel invasion. The Governor, on the 12th of June, issued a proclamation stating that all efforts toward conciliation had failed, and calling out 50,000 State militia "for the purpose of repelling invasion."The proclamation concludes as follows:
"In issuing this proclamation, I hold it to be my most solemn duty to remind you that Missouri is still one of the United States; that the Executive Department of the State Government does not arrogate to itself the power to disturb that relation; that power has been wisely vested in the Convention, which will at the proper time express your sovereign will; and that meanwhile it is your duty to obey all constitutional requirements of the Federal Government. But it is equally my duty to advise you that your first allegiance is due to your own State, and that you are under no obligation whatever to obey the unconstitutional edicts of the military despotism which has introduced itself at Washington, nor submit to the infamous and degrading sway of its wicked minions in this State. No brave-hearted Missourian will obey the one or submit to the other. Rise, then, and drive out ignominiously the invaders who have dared to desecrate the soil which your labors have made fruitful, and which is consecrated by your homes."
He then left the capital, giving orders to burn the railroad bridges behind him, and proceeded southward, pursued by the United States troops. A considerable body of the State militia having been gathered at Booneville, General Lyon advanced upon them on the 17th of June, and after a few minutes action dispersed them with a loss of about 20 killed. Many prisoners were taken, who were subsequently set at liberty. General Lyon issued a proclamation inviting all who had taken up arms against the General Government to return to their homes, assuring them that they should not be molested for past actions, but warning them that this forbearance would not long continue.
"SIR, — You are already aware that the Queen is desirous of observing the strictest neutrality in the contest which appears to be imminent between the United States and the so-called Confederate States of North America. I have now to inform you that, in order to give full effect to this principle, her Majesty has been pleased to interdict the armed ships and also the privateers of both parties from carrying prizes made by them into the ports, harbors, roadsteads, or waters of the United Kingdom, or any of her Majesty's colonies or possessions abroad. It is her Majesty's desire that this prohibition should he forthwith notified to all proper authorities within her domimons, and I am to desire that you take measures to secure its effectual observance within the limits of your Government."
In Parliament Mr. Gregory had given notice that he should present a motion for the recognition of the Government of the Confederate States. Being urged to postpone the motion he consented to do so. He, however, published in the Times a letter giving the reasons which he should have urged in favor of recognition. He writes: "I advocate the recognition of the Southern States, because I am of opinion that by this separation the area of slave-occupied territory will be circumscribed, instead of increased."
The Emperor of France has issued a decree stating that, "taking into consideration the state of peace which exists between France and the United States of America, he has resolved to maintain a strict neutrality in the struggle between the Government of the Union and the States which propose to form a separate Confederation." The following extracts from the decree define the position of the French Government:
"No vessel of war or privateer of either of the belligerent parties will be allowed to enter or stay with prizes in our ports or roadsteads longer than twenty-four hours, excepting in case of compulsory delay. — No sale of goods belonging to prizes is allowed in our ports and roadsteads. — Every Frenchman is prohibited from taking a commission under either of the two parties to arm vessels of war, or to accept letters of marque for privateering purposes, or to assist in any manner whatsoever, the equipment or armament of a vessel of war or privateer of either party. — Every Frenchman, whether residing in France or abroad, is likewise prohibited from enlisting or taking service either in the land army or on board vessels of war or privateers of either of the two belligerent parties. — Frenchmen residing in France or abroad must likewise abstain from any act which, committed in violation of the laws of the empire, or of the international law, might be considered as an act hostile to one of the two parties, and contrary to the neutrality which we have resolved to observe. — Every Frenchman contravening the present enactments, will have no claim to any protection from this Government, against any acts or measures, whatever they may be, which the belligerents might exercise or decree."
The Spanish Government has issued a proclamation of similar import. The Queen is determined to maintain a strict neutrality. The building, arming, or equipment of privateers in Spanish ports is strictly prohibited. No privateer or prize can remain in any Spanish port longer than 24 hours, except In case of urgent necessity, and then they must leave as soon as possible. They can not ship any arms or munitions of war, and no articles belonging to a prize can be sold. Any Spanish subject engaging in privateering does so on his own responsibility, and forfeits all claim to protection from the Government, besides being liable to punishment.
Abdul-Mejid, the Sultan of Turkey, died on the 25th of June, aged 39, He was succeeded by his brother, Abdul-Azzis, born Feb. 9, 1829.