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The Civil War Journals of Wilson E. Chapel.
March, 1861 to January, 1863

Company "F," 13th Regiment
Illinois Infantry Volunteers from Cortland, Malta and Sycamore
DeKalb County, Illinois.

Dedicated by Reuben M. Hevenor
and from Nellie A. Hevenor and Matt J. Hevenor.


Authorized by
The DeKalb County Historical and Genealogical Society.

DeKalb County Joiner Historical Room
Research by
Phyllis Kelley
Marian Anderson.

Computer typed and edited by with footnotes and appendix by
Thomas E. Woodstrup.

U. S. copyright applied for



To the Volunteers of Co. F& Staff, 13th Illinois Infantry Who Died in the Service of Their Country
Bushnell, Douglas R., Lt.Col. Sterling 11/27/63 KIA Ringgold
Chappel, Wilson E., Cpl. Malta 6/6/64 Died as POW
Clawson, Leonard L., Pvt. Sycamore 3/15/64  
Goodrich, George, Pvt Cortland 2/16/63  
Goodwin, Josiah K., Staff Amboy 8/4/63 HospStwd
Green, Andrew J., Pvt. Sycamore 10/2/61  
Hill, John, Pvt. Malta 1864  
Hogan, Thomas, Pvt. Sycamore 5/25/63 of Wounds
Keer, William C., Pvt. Sycamore 1/5/63 of Wounds
Keppell, Isaac, Pvt. N.Kingston 5/17/62  
Oieson, Hans, Pvt. Cortland 11/2/63  
Peck, Charles V., Pvt. Sycamore 11/27/63 KIA Ringgold
Russell, Alphonzo, Pvt. Cortland 12/29/63 KIA Chickasaw
Russell, Wesley D., Pvt. Sycamore 6/26/63  
Smith, Henry, Pvt. Pierceville 11/27/63 KIA Ringgold
Smith, William S., Pvt. Sycamore 9/19/61  
Stark, William H., Pvt. Cortland 12/15/61  
Wing, Vinter B., Pvt. Sycamore 9/6/62 internal fever
Wyman, John B., Col. Amboy 12/28/62 KIA Chickasaw
Young, John, Pvt. Sycamore 1/13/64 of Wounds

To Judith and Gerald Szesko, of Chicago, IL, who treasured the copy of Chapel's original diary with other artifacts and who during the Bicentenial of United States in 1976 began a diligent search for more information about the 13th Illinois, without which the above heroes and their comrades could not be remembered and honored.


Pictures and Illustrations.

Wilson E. Chapel.
On the Cover: This is a tintype in its original case of Wilson E. Chapel. (It is in the collection given to the DeKalb County Joiner History Room.)

1. Map of Battle of Wilson's Creek, Springfield, MO.

2. Map of Battle of Pea or Bloody Ridge, AR.

3. Map of Battle of Vicksburg, MS.
Map was drawn by Pvt. Edward F. Sprague of Sycamore, who joined Company F as a recruit on Sept. 3, 1861, and sometime after Vicksburg was transferred to Company I, 56th Illinois Infantry. (The drawing has been slightly rearranged to accommodate page size.)

4. Tobacco Buildings..
The wooden and brick tobacco buildings used as Confederate prisons in Danville, VA, from December, 1863, to April, 1865, when the war ended. Chapel was confined from December, 1863, to his death in April, 1864.

5. Union Officer's Prison.
An officer prisoner, Henry Van der Weyde, illustrates what it was like even for non-commissioned soldiers, such as Chapel. (The illustration has been altered to highlight these conditions and for photo-copying improvement.)

6. Grave of Cpl. Wilson E.
The grave of Cpl. Wilson E. Chapel located in the National Cemetery at Danville, VA. (This was taken by the Szesko family in their research of Cpl. Chapel.)



Pvt. Reuben M. Hevenor, who had volunteered with and had been with Wilson E. Chapel for almost three years, and was with Chapel just before he was taken prisoner, presumably was entrusted with the three volume diary and brought it home with him from the Civil War.

Hevenor was mustered out of service on June 18, 1864, and returned to his home in Malta, Illinois. Twelve days before, Chapel had died in the Confederate prison at Danville, Virginia, on June 6, 1864. Just when Hevenor learned of this is not known, but he undoubtedly realized he had in his possession, a most valuable diary of both Company F, 13th Illinois Infantry, and of his deceased comrade.

Several years later, on the 25th anniversary of their enlistments at Dixon, Illinois, May 24, 1886, Reuben's daughter, Miss Nelle A. Hevenor, painstakingly with a neat and clerkly hand, copied the diary for the uses of the regimental historian. He died September, 1921 and since then at least the copy has been kept and preserved by friends and relatives.

Some of these descendents have been Jennie Margaret Hevenor who married(?) William Charles Smith, Darrell Hevenor Smith, Mathias John Hevenor, Margaret Jennie Hevenor Smith, Folger M. Smith, Matilda Smith Haviland and W.C. Smith. Thus, the artifacts and memorabilia are known as the Hevenor-Smith Collection.

In May of 1976, Mr. Gerald Szesko, of Chicago, IL, addressed inquiries to the Archives Division of the Virginia State Library, Richmond, VA; to the Archives-Records Management Div., Office of Secretary of State, Springfield, IL; and to Military Service Records, (NNCC) National Archives (GSA), Washington,


D.C. He also had obtained references from the Chicago Historical Society and the Chicago Public Library. This added more information to verify the events related in Chapel's diary.

In April, 1995, Judith and Gerald Szesko contacted and had delivered by special limo to Peter and Jane Degman of Malta, IL, the eight boxes containing the Hevenor-Smith Collection. They in turn, contacted Mr. Ivan Prall, the historian of Malta, and as a long time member of the DeKalb County Historical and Genealogical Society, delivered the Collection to Mrs. Phyllis Kelley of the DeKalb County Joiner History Room.

In 1998, Phyllis contacted volunteer Tom Woodstrup of Sycamore, who had written other local histories, and with the aid of the computer and further research, prepared the manuscript for publication. The assistance of the Society was then called upon to approve and support the final phase of the project.

Now about the book itself. Chapel had been educated at an academy in Massachusetts, and therefore, had both the motivation the talent for keeping a journal. This is demonstrated in his vocabulary, grammar and punctuation; however, in over one hundred years, one has to realize these have changed. Every effort has been made to maintain the story as Chapel wrote it.

Extensive footnotes have been used to assist the reader with older words and terms. Some notations may seem elementary but hopefully they will further the interest and save time, especially of students. The publication could well serve as a basic text for introduction to the overall Civil War. Names of boats and ships have been italicized so as not to be confused with proper names.

DeKalb County is especially proud of its many generals and right they should be. However, the reader should know that only a few of them were made field generals, like Brig. Gen. Daniel Dustin and Brig. Gen. Everell F. Dutton, who were breveted Brig. Gen. on March 16, 1865; and, likewise, Brig. Gen. Frederick W. Partridge. To be breveted meant to be given a higher position without benefit


of more pay. Many of the others were Lt. Colonels or Colonels when they were in service and then were promoted to Brigadier General at the time of retirement.

Many books and articles have been and are being written about the Civil War. Such a war should never be repeated. May the diary of Corporal Wilson E. Chapel make America better understand its past so as to better prepare for the future.


P.S. The names of these Grand Army of the Republic comrades are given here for researchers who may wish to learn more about the 13th Illinois Infantry. The complete publication may be found in the Chicago Historical Society.

H.D. Dement wrote for Company A. Comrades J.D. Davis and Charles H. Sanford, had diaries of Company B. Comrades S. T. Josselyn had a diary and wrote for Company C. Francis Fox wrote for Company E.

A.H. Sibley wrote for Company H. For Company K, Charles Carpenter, Chalres E. Bolles and Capt. J.J. Cole. Mrs. Walter Blanchard, widow of the Captain of Company K, furnished his diary.

Comrade Reuben M. Hevenor, historian for Company F [GAR], furnished a valuable diary covering an important period of the services of the regiment.



"We were called by the Government in its hour of special peril.
We promptly responded.
There was toil and exposure and suffering and death to many.
If we who live may be permitted to speak for all,
we would say that we would not change it.
The Union was preserved and humanity was helped by it.
In what better way can men exert themselves or even sacrifice life."

— Preface, Military Reminiscences
Illinois Infantry, 13th Regiment

The following excerpts are taken from Boies' chapter on the "Thirteenth Illinois Infantry" and parts will hereafter appear within Chapel's journal to further explain each appropriate historical setting and event. Also, within the diary these will hereafter be in italics so as to not distract from Chapel's recording

When Fort Sumter had fallen, and that indignant uprising of the people had occurred which everywhere followed it, in every town and hamlet of loyal Illinois the notes of martial preparation were heard, and little bands of men, gathered together, began drilling, and clamorously demanded of the government to be led against the enemy. The President soon called for 75,000 troops for three months, feeling warranted by the laws as they existed only in calling out troops for that length of time. This all was filled; and still hundreds of thousands of men, anxious to do their duty upon the battlefield, were left out of the ranks.

Upon the 4th of May, the President made a new call for 42,000 more men, to serve three years; and Illinois was given the privilege of furnishing six regiments of them. Then began such a


scrambling for the privilege of forming a part of these regiments as was probably never seen before in may country. Places were sought in these regiments with as much avidity as civil offices are now struggled for. All manner of schemes, combinations and stratagems were used to affect the minds of the authorities, so as to gain the boon of a place in these regiments.

A convention of claimants for his honor in this congressional district was held at Geneva (IL), and every one who had any influence or acquaintance with any person in authority was urged to attend and secure a recognition for these companies. The convention accomplished nothing; but soon after, an order was procured for the creation of one regiment, the 13th Illinois, in this 2nd congressional district. Of its ten companies, one from Sycamore and one from Sandwich were fortunate enough to secure a place and a right to serve their country. Most of the companies had been filled up to the number of one hundred privates, besides the officers, when an order came from the War Department, still bent on diminishing the force, to reduce the company to eighty-four privates.

This was a sore disappointment to those who were excluded. In some of the companies the men drew lots to determine who should remain; and in others, by some kind of authority, the married men of the company were forced to fall out of the ranks and stay at home, the single men only being accorded the privilege of remaining. It is also a noteworthy fact that many men purchased the right of those who had been fortunate enough to be accepted, paying from $20 to $50 for the privilege of taking their places.


Wilson E. Chapel was born September 26, 1839, in Washington, Birkshire County, Massachusetts. His family came and located at or near Malta, DeKalb County, Illinois, sometime in 1860. His military record stated he was single and a farmer; however, another reference states his occupation was that of a school teacher. Perhaps he was both.

From his journal he indicates that he had attended the Hinsdale Academy in Massachusetts. This may have been the equivalent of high school or more as he was 20-21 years when he came to Illinois. In those days even matriculation from eighth grade qualified a person to teach or substitute in many one-room school houses. As he was called to service in March, 1861, he most likely taught for only a short period.

He stood 5 ft. 9 ˝ inches; had blue eyes, brown hair and had a dark complexion. The DeKalb County Joiner History Room has an original tintype believed to be of Chapel in his uniform. Chapel was just 23 years old when he died.


Volume I: March, 1861 — Jan., 1862.

[March 18th, 1861]

On the 18th day of March, 1861, I with [Reuben M.] Hevenor and [Jack] Hill, of Malta, enlisted with a company then being raised by Capt. Bulls of DeKalb Centre, Illinois, and which was soon expected to be called into service by the General Government as a Light Artillery Company. Went to drilling there with muskets as the Battery was not ready for us. When we had been there a little over three weeks, word came that no Artillery was needed, so we volunteered to go as Infantry, but through some scheming, unknown to us at that time, our Company was not accepted and the boys returned to their homes.

[May 9th, 1861]

I went back to Malta, and went to work in Mr. Evans' tin shop, which I had left when I enlisted. We now found out that it was through the influence of our 2nd Lieut. that our Company was not accepted and learning at the same time that the Sycamore Company was going, a lot of us determined to join that Company. Accordingly on the 9th day of May, twelve (12) of the DeKalb County boys started for Sycamore where we arrived at 9:00 A.M. having just time to put our names on the muster roll and be measured for our soldier's uniforms, as the Company was ordered to leave for Dixon, Ill., by the 10:00 A.M. train, where a Regiment was there being formed.

At 10:30 A.M. we left Sycamore with the blessings and "God speed, ye" of a large number of citizens who had assembled to bid us good bye and see us off. The Sycamore Band accompanied us to Dixon, where we arrived at 1:00 P.M.


The Sycamore company had for several weeks been drilling daily under charge of Z.B. Mayo, a decrepit old soldier who had seen service in the Mexican war; and many will recollect how, being without arms, they daily went through the manual in the streets of Sycamore with broomsticks and hoe-handles. [Boies]

Some of the Company's were there and others were continually arriving on the trains, and before night all were there. By the kindness of some Sycamore gentlemen, we found a good dinner awaiting us at the Nachusah [Nachusa] House, to which ample justice was done. After dinner, we marched up to the Fair-Ground where the camp was to be formed.

We found the Sterling Company already there and encamped, apparently at their ease and at home. We took possession of the buildings, used for animals on Fair days, and our Company was ensconced in a sheep-pen, previously occupied by a large family of fleas. We thought it rather hard to come down to living in such a place but all fell to work as lively as possible; cleaned it out and got some nice clean straw for beds and being very tired went to bed early and the first night spent in camp, I slept as sweetly as ever in my life.

[May 11th, 1861]

The next day, May 11th, we were sworn into the service of the State of Illinois for 30 days unless sooner called for the U.S. J[ohn] B. Wyman was elected Colonel of the Regiment, Benjamin F. Parks, Lieut. Col., and A.G. Gorgas, Major.

The second night we did not fare so well as the first for it was rainy and cold and our quarters leaked badly, but we thought this was the lot of soldiers, so we submitted to it without a murmur.

In a day or two we got boards and fixed it up so it was very comfortable. I was rather lonely for a little while being wholly unacquainted with the Company, save those who had enlisted with


me, but soldiers soon become acquainted with each other and I soon began to enjoy myself with the rest.

We commenced drilling both in Company and in Battalion drill and made rapid progress. We had to drill about 6 hours a day, besides a dress parade every evening. We were kept very strict and had to come down to the regular Army discipline which we thought very severe; as indeed it was, and which caused the boys to growl not a little, but this was the very thing which caused our Regiment to become what it afterward was, the best drilled Regiment in the Department of the South West.

[May 16th, 1861]

On the 16th, Hevenor and I received a barrel of things from Malta and very thankful were we to get these. The ladies there made us each a nice blanket, which we needed very much as we had only one very thin one, before we received these and the nights were sometimes quite cold. Mr. Evans sent me a nice lot of cooking utensils and Mr. Munger contributed some eatables and every thing was just what we needed. The donors will ever be held in grateful remembrance by us.

We had a mean dishonest Commissary, very appropriately named "Skinner," and could not get half enough to eat or half what we were entitled to but after awhile we got rid of him and then got along first rate.

For some time we were drilled without arms as we were promised rifles and none could be obtained for us, and finally they asked us to take Springfield muskets, promising to exchange them for Rifles as soon as possible, so we took the muskets and used them as Rifles, drilling in the Light Infantry Tactics.

About the 1st of June, we received our new uniforms from Sycamore. It consisted of a light gray cap, coat and pants of the same color and they gave us the name of the "Sycamore Greys," but


one other Company in camp (had) was uniformed when we received ours.

The citizens were ignorant of any army regulations of clothing; but gray was thought to be a desirable color; and the boys were equipped in full suits of gray, the gifts of the ladies and gentlemen of the place. With a vague idea that each company required a banner, a beautiful silk flag was prepared and presented to our company by one of the young ladies, before an immense crowd gathered to witness the novel scene. [Boies]

We were kept very close while in camp here and I only got a chance to go home to the city three times while I was there.

I was offered the position of 5th Corporal by Capt. Mayo, but being inexperienced I declined it and E.W. Olney took the place. Nothing worthy of notice occurred save that now and then the boys would get tired of the restraints of "Camp Life" and would run the guard; break down the fence around the camp, and show the officers that they would do as they pleased, but would soon get quiet again and be as orderly as ever.

I enjoyed good health all the time we were in Camp Dement with the exception of a short time when I had the Neuralgia in my face. Dr. Plummer blistered my face with Chloroform but without effect, and I went down town and had three teeth out and got some medicine, which soon relieved me.

On the 9th of May, 1861, the 13th regiment was organized at Camp Dement, Dixon; and on the 24th it was mustered into the service. It is said to have been the first regiment to organize under the President's call for three years men, and the first to enter the United States service. [Boies]

Friday, May 24th, 1861

On Friday, the 24th of May we were sworn into the U. S. service for the term of three years, unless sooner discharged. All who did not wish to enlist for that length of time were allowed to


leave, but most of the boys, as well as myself, were determined to see it through. On Thursday the 13th of June, we received our orders to march on the 16th; destination supposed to be Cairo, Illinois.

The Colonel granted furloughs to eight men in each Company: the chances to be decided by lot. They were to extend from Thursday the 13th to Saturday the 15th. I was not one of the lucky ones who drew one, but S.W. Morris of our Company was, and as he cared nothing about going home, he sold me his chance for two dollars and very glad was I to get too. I went to Malta on night train. Got there about 12 o'clock at night. Went to the Orient House and stayed until morning; then went up to Mr. Evans and spent the morning. In the afternoon I went down to Milan 5 miles south of Malta. Got back at sundown and then went up to Brother Enoch's where I arrived at 11:00 P.M. after they had all gone to bed. I staid with them until 10:00 A.M. the next day; then carried me to Malta to take the cars for Dixon again.

I had a boxful of eatables and delicacies which Sister Sarah had prepared for me to take back to Camp for my mess-mates and myself, and very glad were we to receive them, for we could get nothing of the kind in Dixon.

I found several of our Company at the Depot waiting for the Train. Hevenor, who had been at home a week before I came, was there to return with me. I staid a few minutes at Mr. Evan's and then went over to Mrs. Roy's to bid her good-bye, and she and Anna Roy, Mary Archer, Delpha and Adell Munger went over to the Depot to see us safely off. At 12 noon the train came in, and amid the tears and well wishes of our friends for our safety, we left this time to start in earnest for the seat of war, not knowing whether we should ever return or see any of our friends again.

We arrived in Dixon at 1:00 P.M.; found every things in bustle and all making preparations to leave the next day. While we had been gone, the Regiment had drawn a new gray uniform;


consisting of hat, dress coat and pants of a bright grey. This afterward gave us the name of "Wyman's Greybacks." They had also been supplied with Knapsacks, the first of our equipments we had received, and we began to feel "something" like "soldiers" now, but when we got our well filled Knapsacks slung, it seemed as though it would kill us if we had to make long marches, but after awhile they felt some what easier to us. Our Company "F" had, that day, been recipients of a grand dinner by the patriotic ladies of Nachusah [Nachusa], for which they received our heart felt thanks.

The regiment remained at Dixon for a few weeks engaged in improving its drill and discipline; and here lost its first man, Sergeant Berry, a young gentleman of fine promise, who was shot by one of the sentinels. [Boies]

The night before, our Seargeant Major was accidentally shot by a sentinel and instantly killed while going the grand rounds in the night. This was the first death in our Regiment.

[June 16th, 1861]

Early in the morning of June 16th, we were up and getting ready to start for the South. I was detailed to help pack our baggage. Got the first load ready about 8 o'clock A.M. and I went down town to attend to loading it on the cars.

We found two large passenger trains awaiting us at the Illinois Central R.R and a lot of baggage cars for our camp-equipage. Just before the Regiment left the camp, they were formed in line and an artist from the city took a picture of them. They came down town at 10:00 A.M. and took places in the cars and by noon we had the baggage all aboard and we were ready for a start.

A Tremendous crowd had assembled to see us off. All were enthusiastic in their praises of the Regiment and in their cheers and waving of flags and handkerchiefs; as the train moved slowly away from the Depot, bidding farewell to Dixon and its good people for a


long three years. These demonstrations of patriotism were repeated it every station and all along the roadside; the people manifesting great joy at seeing the first Regiment of three years volunteers from Illinois passing through their towns.

At Waupella a large number were assembled and the ladies of the town treated us with pie, cake, cheese, & c.[etc.]. We rode all day over some beautiful country especially around Bloomington, Ill., and from there 50 miles south.

At last it began to grow dark. We had some hard bread for supper: the first we had ever had or seen, and which seemed about as good to eat as so many dried shingles. We curled down in our pleats and tried to sleep a little; but the jolting of the cars as well as the noise prevented it.

At 11:00 P.M. we arrived at Sandoral [Sandoval], the junction of the Illinois Central and the Ohio and Mississippi Rail Road. Here we changed cars and were obliged to wait until daylight, before proceeding further. Nothing of notice occurred on our journey from here and at 10:00 A.M.

[Monday, June 17th, 1861]

On Monday, June 17th we arrived at Caseyville, St. Claire Co., Ill., 9 miles from St. Louis, Mo.[Missouri]. Here we formed our first regular camp.

We found our tents awaiting us and in a short time had them up a short distance from town. The land here is low and swampy and we have rather a poor place for camp; but as it was very warm dry weather, it did not matter so much.

Caseyville is an old antiquated looking town, inhabited principally by coal miners. The mines around here are numerous and, I am told, quite rich. I visited some of them and, for the first time in my life saw coal brought out of the earth.

We were within sight of St. Louis and the river [Mississippi] and with a glass, we could see into the city quite plainly.


We now commenced a systematic course of drilling under the instruction of drill master Harrington. We were supplied with Cartridge-boxes, Haversacks and Canteens, and were now ready to take the field at any time we might be ordered.

The regiment was soon after ordered to Caseyville, Illinois, and in July moved forward to Rolla, Missouri, an important strategic point, the termination of a railroad, and the depot of supplies. It was the first regiment to cross the Mississippi river, and move into the hostile region of Missouri. [Boies]

[June 22nd, 1861]

On the 22nd of June, Col. Henry Dougherty [of Belleville, IL] arrived there with the 22nd Illinois Regiment and encamped near us. We now had plenty of company and I am thinking the people there would not care about having the 13th and 22nd Regiments come back there again.

We found a Good Templars Lodge there. I attended several meetings and enjoyed them very much. It was called the "Miricle [Miracle] Lodge, No. 365," and it was almost a miracle that a lodge could be instituted and supported in such a town, where every second house was a grog shop. Col. Dougherty was a member and used to meet with us. I would that all our Officers would set as good an example before their men as Col. D— does before his Regiment.

Here we received our first pay for soldiering, it being $5.50 for one half month in the service of the State of Illinois. At this time there was a strong rebel feeling in St. Louis; Camp Jackson had just been cleaned out, and a Union Regiment had been fired upon while marching through the streets, and it was thought they would make a disturbance on the 4th of July and we expected to be called over there to keep order, but it passed away off quietly and we were not called on. It also passed very quietly in camp, nothing going on, save a few patriotic speeches; some firing of cannon, and target


shooting by companies. I made the second best shot in our Company. Charlie Caswell and I went out in the woods gathering mulberries, which are quite plenty around here, and are very nice, the first I ever saw.

Col. Parks resigned his commission here in compliance with a request from all the other Officers, and the men, as a general thing, were not sorry to have him leave. He was a good man in his place and profession, but he was out of his place in the Army. Major Gorgas was promoted to Lieut. Col. and F.W. Partridge, being the ranking Captain, was promoted to major.

[July 6th, 1861]

On the morning of July 6th a train came in from St. Louis for us and directly we were busy making preparations to break camp. At 9 o'clock A.M., at the roll of the drum, every tent fell, and in short order they were rolled up and taken on our shoulders over to the cars. The Regiment was formed and marched over and at 11:00 A.M. we were ready for a start.

The weather was very warm and in the crowded cars, with only what little air could come in through the car doors, we were almost suffocated before we got started. A ride of half an hour brought us to Illinois town on the River. We were ferried over to St. Louis and there for the first time I set foot on Missouri Soil.

As we marched through the streets, the majority of the people in the city did not appear very glad to see us. I suppose they would rather have seen Jeff Davis with his army, than us, but they did not offer to molest us and it was well for them that they did not, for we would have shown them of what the 13th was made.

Now for the first time we got an idea where we were going. We marched over to the Pacific R.R. Depot and immediately embarked on the cars. They had no passenger cars so we had to get into freight and lumber cars. We remained here until after dark and


then started for Rolla, Missouri. Rode all night over the roughest kind of a road and we got well jammed up in the old cars. At daylight we arrived at Rolla, expecting to remain here only till our transportation should arrive, and then to march to Springfield, Missouri, to reinforce General Lyon.

We remained in town an hour or two and then marched to our camping ground; about 100 rods east of town; stacked our arms, and cooked breakfast, then went to work clearing off the camp and parade ground, and by night we had our tents set and were making ourselves quite at home.

The day was fine, but rather warm and sultry. Col. Boiles with 5 Companies and our Regiment were all the troops here and an attack was expected daily. There were several alarms, and we were once called up in the night, but the alarms were false ones.

On Monday, the 18th, we cleared a dress parade ground and had a dress parade in the evening. Our train came on but there was no prospect of our leaving soon.

[Monday, July 18th, 1861]

On the 21st of July, Col. Boiles left with his command and we were left alone to guard the post, until the 6th of August when we were reinforced by the 14th and 15th Ill. Regiments.

About this time we commenced building Fort Wyman on an emmence [eminence] 1˝ miles south of town. Four heavy siege guns were brought on from Pittsburgh and we were in pretty good condition for defense, should the enemy attack the place. We continued working and drilling, and occasionally sending out small scouting parties, who usually brought in some prisoners and much contraband property, and sometimes having little skirmishes. A detail of 20 men, two from each Company, was sent out to guard a supply train through Springfield. They were at the battle of Wilson's Creek on the 11th of August, and when they returned, was the first reliable news we could get of the fight.


[August 16th, 1861]

On the 16th of August, Gen. Seigle [Sigel] arrived with the remnant of his army and encamped west of town, but their term of service had expired and most of them left for St. Louis. The 7th Missouri, better known as the "Bloody 7th," came in and camped near us. Our boys and they did not agree very well, and many a fight did they have, while they were such near neighbors.

In the 20th, we received Ten Dollars from the Government. It being part of the Fremont Loan.

We had a small cavalry force stationed at Salem [MO] 25 mi. east of Rotta and it was thought the rebels were about to attack them and they sent in for reinforcements. A detachment was sent out consisting of Companies A and F of our Regiment and two Companys each from the 14th and 15th Illinois and the 7th Missouri, under Captain Littlefield of the 14th. We started at noon, September 15th; marched 12 miles and halted for a rest in a fine [pine?] grove on Hyer's plantation; remained here until midnight; then got up and marched 5 miles further, and laid down and slept until daylight, then marched on to town where we arrived at 10:00 A.M.

We (Co. F) took up our quarters in the only church in town and the rest of the troop took possession of vacant stores, school and dwelling houses, etc., so we were all provided with comfortable quarters. While here we had a first rate time. We could buy plenty of fruit and farm produce of all kinds, besides what we confiscated from the rebels about there, who were very plenty. We had plenty of fresh meat, game, poultry, milk, honey and in fact almost everything we wished for.

[Sept. 22nd, 1861]

We did some scouting around took several prisoners, who were sent on to Rolla and from there to St. Louis. On the 22nd we received orders to return to Rolla, on a forced march.


We left town at 4:00 A.M., leaving the "Stars and Stripes" floating from a Liberty Pole, which we had erected, but as soon as we left the rebels cut it down. We arrived at Rolla at 2 P.M. so tired and lame we could hardly move. This was the first hard marching we had ever done. We found our Regiment under marching orders, its destination being unknown.

On Tuesday, Sept. 24th, we received the full amount due us from the government, it being $38.70.

The regiment did excellent service in suppressing the plundering bands of guerillas who infested that region for forty miles around. They also served to inspire with courage the Union people of the country, who had been cowed by the prevalent disloyalty. While they were stationed here, Colonel Wyman organized many of the Union citizens of the neighborhood into cavalry companies, who afterwards, under General Curtis, proved themselves the most efficient cavalrymen in the southwestern army. While at this point, Captain Z.B. Mayo resigned his captaincy, and was succeeded by 1st Lieutenant E.F. Dutton. [Boies]

[Saturday, Sept. 28th]

On Sat. Sept. 28th, we with the Iowa 4th and Illinois 14th and 2 Battalions of Cavalry started for some point west of us, where we know not. We marched 10 miles and did not get in Camp till after dark. Camped on Little Piney River, weather fine.

Sunday, Sept. 29th, 1861

Broke camp at 7:00 A.M.; crossed the Gasconade River at 10:00 A.M. This is a beautiful stream, with a very swift current, and there is no bridge, we were obliged to ford it. As soon as we could get our clothes dry and on again, we started on and marched 4 miles further, when we halted for dinner and rest. When we started again it was on the road back to Rolla. I suppose the orders


are countermanded. We recrossed the River and went back 2 miles and encamped for the night at York [MO].

Monday, Sept. 30, 1861

Broke camp early and arrived at Rolla at 4:00 P.M. The 36th Illinois had arrived during our absence and taken possession of our old camping ground. We had to encamp on our old drill ground. Col. Wyman now took command of the Post of Rolla and Col. Gorgas commanded the Regiment. We now commenced drilling in skirmishing and bayonet exercise and it was quite a relief to us to have something new after drilling the same way so long. We remained here until — Thursday, Oct. 10th, 1861.

Thursday, Oct. 10th, 1861

When we again took up a line of march for the southwest. This time we had only one Regiment of Infantry and one Battalion of Cavalry and a heavy train guard though. Marched 15 miles; crossed the Gasconade. It rained all day and was quite cold and we had a rather tough night of it; but we built log fires and kept as comfortable as possible.

Friday, Oct. 11th, 1861

Broke camp at 8:00 A.M. and marched 10 miles. Weather warm and rather sultry; country rough and very stony, with much heavy timber.

Saturday, Oct. 12th, 1861

Broke camp at 5:00 A.M.; marched 20 miles, and encamped. Weather very fine. In the evening, our pickets were fired on and driven in. We expect a brush with the rebels before long.


Sunday, Oct. 13th, 1861

Started at 7:00 A.M. got along first rate until 10:00 A.M., when our train was fired into by the enemy. They were 900 strong and all mounted. We immediately turned and faced to give them battle, but they ran as fast as their horses could carry them with our cavalry in hot pursuit. We went on a double quick for 4 miles after them; over ridges; through swamps and grass, waist high, and we made the distance in less that 40 min. but could not get a sight of them. Our Cavalry succeeded in engaging them and killed 64 of and took 46 prisoners. Our loss was 1 man killed. We marched 6 miles after the battle and encamped. Day's march — 14 miles, besides the running we did after the rebels.

Monday, Oct. 14th, 1861

Our Company had to take charge of, and guard the prisoners. Marched 22 miles and arrived at Lynn [Linn] Creek, a little village on the Osage River.

When our advance came into the town, they surprised and took prisoners, a company of Reb's 40 in number.

Our camp was named Camp McClurg, in honor of Col. McClurg, a union man who had been driven from that place by rebels and who is now a Col. in our army.

We enjoyed ourselves finely at this place by fishing and boating on the Osage. The inhabitants are principally "secesh," and the merchants closed their stores and refused to sell us anything, so the boys opened them on their own account and bought whatever suited them, without asking the price.

The prisoners were sent back to Rolla from here.

A band of rebels attacked one of our foraging parties a short distance from town and our forces repulsed them with a loss to them of 5 men killed. We lost no men this time.


On the 18th Inst[ant], we got word that the enemy were about to attack us and we were ordered to be ready to meet them, day or night.

They came up with the intention of frightening us and lay one night in sight of us, intending to surprize us in the morning, but they heard the Cavalry bugles before daylight and thought they were discovered, and beat a hasty retreat. Had we known they were there, the surprise would have been on the other side, for we should certainly have gone out and attacked them, although they were 1500 strong and we only 1200.

On the 19th Col. McClurg arrived with 1200 State Militia and he intends to hold this Post when we leave it.

On Monday, Oct. 21st, we received orders to march, but could not go, as our teams were all out foraging, and many of our men are sick and not able to march.

Tuesday, Oct. 22, 1861

Received at 4:00 A.M., orders to march at 6:00. At this time we took the road toward Warsaw, which place we expect to reach in 2 or 3 days. Roads very rough, but scenery beautiful. However, we found that marching from 20 to 25 miles a day over rough roads, with load enough for a mule to carry, takes much of the romance out of it.

About 9:00 A.M. we reached and crossed Spoon (Stone) River near a saw mill. We marched 18 miles and encamped in a stubble field near a small creek. Weather cold and cloudy.

Wednesday, Oct. 23d, 1861

Reveille at 4:00 A.M. and at sunrise we were on the road. Passed over some very high bluffs, one of which was nearly 300 feet high and nearly perpendicular with a beautiful spring gushing out of its side about 20 ft. above its base of sufficient volume and power to carry a large grist mill with an over shot wheel.


The road rook a winding course down this bluff but it was almost impossible to get our train down it. At its base was the Meango River a small but beautiful Stream which we crossed on some logs. We marched along beside this stream for some distance. The river on one side of the road and a solid mass of rock on the other, in some places from 20-40 ft. high and seemingly threatening to fall on us at every step, and I think it was, altogether, the wildest and most picturesque scenery I ever saw.

At length the river ran so near the bluff, that we must either wade the former, or climb the latter and of the two evils we chose the latter and pulled ourselves up the cliff by means of vines and bushes, and after marching a couple of miles through the woods, we came out to the road again and had a good [road?] to Mack's Creek where we encamped, having made 12 miles.

Thursday, Oct. 24th, 1861

Remained encamped here all day for rest. Nothing worthy of note occurred.

Engaged in this duty until October 25th, the regiment was then ordered forward to join the army which was forming under Fremont at Springfield, in southwestern Missouri. The troops were still comparatively unused to long marches; yet they were urged forward with great rapidity, marching, on the second day thirty-four miles, and reaching Springfield, a distance of one hundred miles, in four days. Gen. Fremont, learning the speed on which it had come to his assistance, named it his "Flying Infantry," and, noting its superior discipline assigned it the highest post of honor and danger in his army. [Boies]

Friday, Oct. 25th, 1861

Started at day light; roads very level and nice; but country rather barren until we came to "Round Prairie," which is a beautiful


place and served to remind us of our Illinois homes, it being the first prairie we have seen since we left there; marched 12 miles.

One of Company K died soon after we got into camp.

Saturday, Oct. 26th, 1861

Started at day light and marched until noon, when we came to "Grand Prairie." This is decidedly the richest place we have seen in our marches.

On the west of the prairie was a little village called Lewisburg [Louisburg], where the people are loyal and were glad to see us come, and it cheered us a great deal, too, for it had been a good while since we had seen any loyal citizens.

Today we made the longest march we have ever made, and I doubt if any of the troops have beaten it. We marched 34 miles and arrived in Bolivar, at 4:00 P.M.; camped on the south side of town.

This is a fine little village, with some 3 or 4000 inhabitants. The streets are well laid out, shaded and ornamented, and there is a public square surrounding a fine courthouse.

In the days of its prosperity (that was before the Rebellion broke out) it was as pleasant a village as one could wish to see. Here the Lynn [Linn] Creek and Springfield and Jefferson City and Springfield roads connect and here we first came up with a part of the Grand Army under General Fremont and here I first saw the General himself.

During the night, 75 pieces of Artillery and a large number of Regiments of Infantry passed our camp on their way to Springfield.

Sunday, Oct. 27th, 1861

Remained encamped here. Troops passing our camp all day or Springfield. Gen. Sturgis arrived here with 8000 men and encamped near us. General Fremont and Staff left for Springfield.


Country people came in by the hundreds to see the soldiers, the like of which they had never seen before.

Our Company was on guard in town. The business places have all been robbed and closed by the rebels.

Monday, Oct. 28th, 1861

We started for Springfield at 8:00 A.M. but there being another command ahead of us, we were hindered a great deal, and only made 15 miles and encamped early. Our march has been across fine prairies all day, and we have passed some splendid farms.

Tuesday, Oct. 29th, 1861

We were up at 2 and off at 4:00 A.M.; marched 15 miles and arrived at Springfield at 10:00 A.M. Marched through town in grand style and received from Gen. Fremont the name of "His Flying Infantry" on account of our fast marching.

We camped one mile from town in a beautiful valley, well shaded by trees, and watered by a little creek flowing from a large spring about 40 rods above our camp which furnishes water enough to supply the whole Army.

There is now about 60,000 troops encamped in and around town and I doubt if ever a better organized or more perfect army was ever brought into the field. The troops were all in excellent health and good spirits and had an abundance of faith in Gen. Fremont and all they asked for was to be lead against the enemy, and an opportunity to show them what kind of metal we are made of.

Gen. Fremont's bodyguard, under Maj. Yagoni, had a sharp skirmish with the enemy, who were in town upon their arrival. They killed about 100 and completely routed the remainder. We encamped on the ground where the battle commenced, the trees are well marked with bullets, and farther back are indications where the hardest of it was fought: dead horses in plenty lie around, but the


killed had all been buried and the wounded taken care of before our arrival.

There is rumor in Camp that [Gen.] Price, with his army, is encamped on the old battlefield at Wilson's Creek and it is said that we are liable to have a brush with him at any time.

Wednesday, Oct. 30th, 1861

I went up and explored the town. This must have been a fine, thriving place before the war broke out but is now very dull. It is tastefully laid out and contains some noble buildings. There is no business of any amount done save by the soldiers and sutlers. Everything remained quiet with but little to do in camp until —

Sunday, Nov. 3d, 1861

When an order was issued for the troops to move out and attack Price. Some Regiments marched out and ours was formed when the order was countermanded, it being found out that he had gotten up and skidaddled [skedaddled] for Arkansas.

While here we had a general inspection and muster by Gen. Wyman. We could not visit the old battle-field as none but a few officers were allowed to go out. It is 9 miles from town.

On the 8th of November, Captain Dutton told me I might consider myself a Corporal from that date.

We enjoyed ourselves first rate while here. We all had plenty of money and could buy anything we wanted from the farmers, who brought produce in to sell to the soldiers for miles around the town. We lived on butter, milk, cheese, honey and c. [etc.] and could have plenty of fruit for the trouble of gathering it from an orchard about a mile from (town) camp, and which contained more than 2000 trees all loaded down with fruit, but before we left, the apples were like "Angel's visits:" few and far between.


On the 9th of November we learned that General Fremont had been removed from his command. This caused a general feeling of indignation among the troops here for his is believed by all of us to be just the man for the place and for us. Some of the Regiment threatened to stack their arms and never take them till he was restored to his command, and I believe that if one Regiment had set the example all the rest would have followed suit.

We also learned that the troops are ordered back to their starting point, so I suppose we will have to march back to Rolla. We were living so well that we regretted to hear marching orders which came —

Monday, Nov. 11th, 1861

At 2:30 A.M. we were awakened by the reveille and at 5:00 were on the road. When we got up in town we found that many of the troops had gone, and among the number the 42nd Illinois Regiment in which was our old DeKalb Company with whom we had some good visits during our stay. They had started back for Jefferson City.

We got through town just at sunrise. Took the road leading back directly to Rolla. Marched 16 miles and encamped. Weather: windy and rough, with signs of rain. Country: rugged but occasionally some fine farms.

But Fremont was now removed from command, the plan of the campaign was changed, and the 13th returned to Rolla. In the retrograde movement, on the night of November 11th, a very sudden death occurred at Camp Plummer, proving that the skeleton-king oft comes when least expected — passing from the blazing battery to strike his victim in the midst of security and peace. [Boies]


Tuesday, Nov. 12th, 1861

We started on our march at day light. Country: hilly and rough. Marched 25 miles, which was very hard on the boys, and some of them didn't get into camp till 9:00 in the evening. There were not more than 100 of our Regiment that went with the Col., but I was one of the number, though I was quite unwell, and quite sick during the night. We encamped in a large meadow and the boys had plenty of fresh pork.

Wednesday, Nov. 13th, 1861

I felt very badly today and rode part of the way on Yule Thompson's horse and got along tolerably well. Weather: warm and beautiful. Made 18 miles and encamped at Lebanon, a little village that has, until very lately, been in possession of the enemy.

Thursday, Nov. 14th, 1861

Broke camp at 7:00 A.M. This morning I was neither able to walk or ride on horseback, and as the Ambulances were full, I was obliged to ride in a Government wagon. The roads were hilly and rough and it would be terrible for a well man to ride in one of these wagons, what must it be for one so sick that he could not sit up, as was my case now, one can imagine.

It seemed as though we should never reach our camping place, although we only made 15 miles. Camped in a cornfield beside a small stream.

Friday, Nov. 15th, 1861

Broke camp early. I rode in the wagon all day, hardly able to sit up. At 11:00 A.M. we arrived at the little village of Waynesville [MO], where we met our commissary train, which was very acceptable to the boys as they were very short of rations, but for me it made no difference, for I could eat nothing at all.


Rested here about an hour, then started on; marched 20 miles and encamped on the bank of the Big Piney River.

Saturday, Nov. 16th, 1861

When we got up this morning there was a heavy frost on the ground. We started at daylight and the first thing was to get across the river. As there was no bridge the boys had to wade, which was tough, as the water was icy-cold. I was in the wagon and did not get wet.

Marched 24 miles and encamped within one mile of Rolla on the ground formerly occupied by the 14th and 15th Illinois Regiments. We expected to remain here but a few days and then go to St. Louis and go in to winter quarters, but in this we were disappointed.

I kept growing worse and in two days after our arrival there, was placed in the Hospital, and for 4 weeks from this time I never even saw out of doors. I had the lung fever and was very sick, and didn't know what was going on half the time. The time seems almost a perfect blank to me. When we left Springfield my weight was 161 pounds, and when I came out of the Hospital it was 119.

Before I got away. Jack Hill was brought in, very sick and not expected to live from one day to another. While I was the most sick, it went pretty hard with me. I could eat nothing and if I had an appetite, I could get nothing to eat, but when I got better the boys from my mess would bring me toast, oysters & c.[etc.] and I got along first rate. If it had not been for them, I believe I should have died for something to eat.

On the 8th of December I was able to go up to my quarters for the first time but I was not yet able to stand up without some support. The weather was warm and beautiful and has been for some time.


Generals Seigle [Sigel], Asterhaus [Osterhaus] and Asbothe [Asboth] are encamped here with their comrades, about 20,000 men in all.

When I got up to camp, its appearance was so much changed that I hardly knew where I was. Our little wedge-tents had been condemned and we had drawn "Fremont-tents" in their place. In these we could have a fire and make them quite comfortable. We also drew a new blue uniform and shed our old grey clothing and with it our name of "Greybacks." We have now a very neat and tasteful uniform.

Our Company exchanged their Springfield muskets for rifled Minnie [Minie] muskets which we consider the best arms in the service and the whole Regiment is to be supplied with them as soon as possible.

In the evening there was some sign of a muting among the Cavalry and half of our Regiment was called out to restore and keep order, but it did not amount to much and the boys returned back to camp.

On the 11th of December 1861, we were paid off. I received $21.00.

The regiment remained at Rolla till, on December 12th, it moved to Salem, where guerrillas were reported to be infesting the country, and, after remaining two weeks, returned to Rolla. [Boies]

In the afternoon, ˝ of our Regiment including our Company started again for Salem, [MO]. Of course I was not able to and there were 6 sick men in my mess who had to be left behind and, although I was hardly able to walk around, I had to help take care of those that were worse off than myself. Burkie and I occupied the Orderly's tent and tended to things generally during his absence.

A small Cavalry force of ours had been attacked by the enemy at Salem, but the latter had been repulsed with considerable


loss, but it was feared that they might return with a superior force and our Regiment was sent out to reinforce them. The boys remained there 2 weeks enjoying themselves finely; occupying the same church we did the first time we went out there. During their absence one of my mess-mates, Wm. J. Jones, received his discharge and started for home.

On the 28th of December, they were ordered back to Rolla and arrived on the 29th.

On the 31st, we were mustered for payment. I was now gaining strength and began to feel some what like my former self and began doing my regular camp duty. The weather was very fine nearly all the time, it was dry and much of the time the roads were dusty.

Nothing of importance occurred till the 15th of January when the different commands began to leave here for Springfield, and it is supposed we shall soon follow. Of late it has been quite stormy and the roads are now very bad.

On the 16th of Jan. we received orders to be ready to march on the 18th. Our train went to the Depot and loaded with commissary stores and it seems pretty certain that we are to leave.

Saturday, Jan. 17th, 1862

Today the boys are all busy making preparations to leave tomorrow. We dread the march and would rather remain here for the present.

Sunday, Jan. 18th, 1862

This morning our marching orders were countermanded and it causes great rejoicing among the boys. The troops are all gone except our Regiment and now we have all the duty to do. We furnish a provost guard in the town and labor details for the fort and a picket guard on the Rail-Road, besides our own Regimental duties and it keeps us very busy.


Monday, Jan. 19th, 1862

Today Cap't. Dutton left for home having received a leave of absence on account of a wound in the foot by the accidental discharge of a revolver.

Wednesday, Jan. 21st:

Today the Iowa 9th arrived here but did not encamp but started immediately for Springfield. They are a fine looking body of men. On Friday, Jan. 23d, our whole Company was on guard in town. Six pieces of Artillery arrived from St. Louis and went on to join the army.

Saturday, Jan. 24th, '62.

This morning a detail was sent out to clean our old camping-ground, just vacated by the 36th Illinois and we are to move up there as soon as the ground can be prepared. We remained in "Camp Lafayette" doing guard duty and drilling when it was pleasant weather and a dress-parade every evening till Feb. 3d when we moved to our old "Camp Rolla."

We now went to work and fixed everything up very comfortable; guarded our streets nicely, and had our camp neat and trim. We bought a good cooking-stove; put it in our tent, and could then live "like pigs in clover," and keep warm too.

About this time Capt. Dutton returned and took command of the Company. The people of Sycamore sent a nice lot of luxuries by him to the Company for which they received our warmest thanks. A detail was made out of our Regiment to guard some prisoners to St. Louis and Edd Olney of our Company went.

Our mess, known as the DeKalb mess, all went down and had a mess picture taken. Eleven of us on a plate and one for each of us and we presented one to Capt. Dutton. We were kept pretty busy until we were ordered to join Gen. Curtiss' [Curtis] Army then in Arkansas which orders came on Thursday, March 6th, 1862.




Volume II: March, 1862 — July, 1862.


Here [Rolla] the cold dreary winter was spent until, on the 6th of March, 1862, the regiment was sent to join the army of Gen. Curtis, who was threatened by Price's rebels, and who, before our regiment could reach him, had fought the famous and sanguinary battle of Pea Ridge. It was a terribly severe march. Through constant rain and mud, and amid want and destitution, it pressed on from twenty to thirty miles a day, living upon most scanty rations, and forbidden to forage upon the country — as the policy of the higher powers was still to please instead of punish the foe. [Boies]

Camp Rolla, [Phelps County] March 6th, 1862

We are ordered to be ready to march at 8 o'clock A.M. It is a cold, stormy morning and we did not strike our tents till 9 o'clock and got started at 10:00 A.M. After we got into the woods, it was much more comfortable. We marched 14 miles; crossed the Little Piney [River], and camped upon the bank.

After supper, we went upon a very high bluff, overlooking the Gasconade river. It was very tedious work after a hard days march, but the scenery from the top well repaid us for the trouble.

Friday, March 7th, 1862

Reveille sounded at 4 A.M. and at daylight we were ready to start. Marched till 11:00 A.M. when we reached the Big Piney river. It took about an hour to ferry us all across, started again at 1:00 [P.M.] and marched off again at a brisk pace.

I began to get footsore and lame, and with a good many others, fell behind and took our own time to get into camp. Got into camp about 3:00 P.M. at Waynesville[MO], having marched 22 miles. Captain Dutton and some of our boys went up town by


order of Col. Wyman and emptied 8 barrels of whiskey on the ground.

Saturday, March 8th, 1862

Reveille at 4:00 A.M.; broke camp at daylight; weather warm and beautiful as in May in Illinois. I am rather footsore, but by bathing my feet and soaping my stockings, I get along very well. Marched 18 miles and camped at 2:00 P.M. on the bank of the Gasconade River.

Sunday, March 9th, 1862

Broke camp at daylight; marched over a good road until about 10:00 A.M. when it commenced raining, but as there was no camping-ground short of Lebanon, to that place we must go, so we increased our step to a double quick and reached there at 2:00 P.M.

After it commenced raining, the roads were horrible, in some places the mud and water was over our shoes, and when we got to camp we had to pitch our tents in the mud and sleep in the same. Some of the boys went up town to sleep, but we thought as we were Soldiers we would take Soldiers fare. We rolled up in our blankets and slept well till morning. Day's march, 10 miles.

Monday, March 10th, 1862

Owing to our severe march yesterday and poor roads we did not break camp until 10:00

A.M. weather fine; marched 10 miles, and camped at 2:00 P.M.

Tuesday, March 11th, 1862

During the night we got word that a fight was going on near Springfield, between Generals Curtiss and Seigle and old Price and that we were wanted there as soon as possible. So we were 5 miles on our way by sunrise.


We marched the first 14 miles in 4 hours. During the day we marched over some very pretty country, several small prairies that seem some what to remind us of Illinois. We marched 25 miles and camped at 3:00 P.M. within 16 miles of Springfield. We here learned that the fight had taken place at Sugar Creek, Arkansas, and Price was thoroughly cleaned out.

Wednesday, March 12th

Broke camp at daylight. My feet are badly blistered and swollen, and as all the boys are tired and lame, we marched slowly. We marched within ˝ mile of Springfield, we then dressed up in order and marched through the town in good style with Colonel Wyman at the head, feeling as proud, I venture to say, as he ever did in his life. We marched ˝ miles from town on Wilson's Creek road and camped near the ground where the 4th Iowa first attacked old Price.

The town here has suffered severely in the hands of the Rebels since we were here last fall. Many houses have been burned and much valuable property destroyed.

Thursday, March 13th

As the men are all tired and lame, the Colonel concluded to remain here 1 day for rest.

After breakfast, some of my mess-mates and my self went to town to make a few purchases and look around a little. I bought me a light felt hat, and went back to camp and had my hair shaved, as it has come but badly since I was sick.

On the 14th it passed over the battle-field of Wilson's Creek, and on the 17th camped on the battle-ground of Pea Ridge. The ground was strewn with shot, shell, and other remains of the conflict. The odor of the decaying bodies was still extremely offensive. In one spot the bodies of seventy hostile Indians lay festering in corruption: there was such a bitter feeling toward the


savages who had scalped and plundered our men, that they were refused interment. [Boies]

Friday, March 14

During the night it has rained a great deal; the roads are muddy, and the creek very high. Weather misty and lowering. About 10:00 A.M. we had quite a shower. At 11:00 we reached the battle-field of Wilson Creek, the creek was very high, and as it crossed the road, we had to ford it, 3 times before we reached the field. We halted for a short time and scattered over the field to see what we could.

There are many marks here to show what a severe battle was fought. In one grave I saw where 20 Rebels were buried, and in many others, nearly as many. There is one place, that I did not see, where 80 are buried and on every hand, the bones of horses, pieces of clothing and other things lie scattered around to show what has taken place. We marched until 3:00 o'clock when we reached Day Springs and camped. This place was also the scene of skirmish last summer between Seigle and Price: the ground is wet and muddy, and we went 1˝ miles to get straw to sleep on.

500 prisoners went into Springfield with several Indians. Our advance guard took two prisoners — they said they were out duck hunting. One of the officers drew the charges from their guns and found it contained a ball and 9 buck shot. They intended to follow the Regiment and shoot any of the boys who might be lagging behind. If we could have had our way about it, they would have been finished in short order.

Saturday, March 15th

Left camp at 7:00 A.M. Weather cold and misty. We had to cross the creek several times so it kept our feet cold and damp. Marched 18 miles and encamped in an orchard.


This is a very pleasant country, good enough to be Union, but they are nearly all secesh here and we do not look for anything else, consequently, where we camp the sheep, pigs and chickens have to suffer.

Sunday, March 16th

Broke camp at 7:30 A.M. We camped on the bank of the Plaite creek, a large clear stream, which, in course of the day crossed and recrossed the road so that we had to ford it 10 or 12 times which detained us very much in our march and we did not get into camp till 5:00 P.M. having marched 19 miles. We are one mile from Cassville [MO] in good style. Here we found a great many of the wounded and during the day we met and passed many Ambulances going and coming from the battle-field with wounded men.

At 10:00 A.M. we passed through Keatsville. It was here that Gen. Seigle's advance over took Price's rear guard and here the skirmishing began and continued along the road for 10 miles or more. At 3:00 P.M. we came to the main battlefield. Most of the slain have been decently buried, but many dead horses are lying about, while the ground is covered with shot and shell and the trees filled with musket balls. Many of the trees have limbs cut off by cannon-balls and even some quite large trees are shivered in pieces. All the houses around here are filled with the wounded.

We marched over to the further and camped having marched 24 miles. We are now in Arkansas and feel as though we are "way down south in Dixie."

On the 18th the regiment joined Curtis' army, but next day moved back again some ten miles, Price being reported within twenty miles with 50,000 men. But Price's army was too badly shattered by its late terrible conflict to dare to attack us. [Boies]


Tuesday, March 18

This morning our Knapsack Wagon was discharged and, for the first time in our lives we packed our knapsacks on our backs; started at 8:00 A.M., and at 10:00 A.M. reached the pickets of the Main army. Here we halted and rested a little while, then marched into camp, eliciting many praises upon our fine appearance, numbers, &c [etc.]

We went through their camp and encamped on the bank of the creek, a short distance from Seigle's Camp. Our Company was on guard, but I was not detailed, for which I was thankful as it was a stormy night. Day's march, 7 miles.

Wednesday, March 19th

We were thinking that we should have 2 or 3 days rest, but during the night we got word that Price was advancing on Keatsville in order to cut off our supplies. Reveille was sounded at 3:00 A.M. and before daylight we were ready to start back but owing to the difficulty of getting a large body moving we did not get fairly to marching until 1 o'clock P.M.

We had to stand around with our Knapsacks on and this was worse than marching as the weather was cold and disagreeable. We marched back to Keatsville (24 miles); got there after dark.

There are three batteries of Artillery and a large force of Cavalry and Infantry. We thought that perhaps we might fall in with some of Price's forces, but we saw nothing of them. This was as severe a march as we ever made, having gone 24 miles between 1:00 P.M. and dark.

Thursday, March 20th

We remained in camp all day. Weather: cold and raw. Some of the boys went out foraging and brought in a sheep, half a pig and some chickens. These come very handy now, as we are short of provisions and reduced to ž rations.


Friday, March 21st

It snowed all night and this morning we have as much snow as we had at Rolla any time this winter. It is a regular "Down Easter" equinoctial Storm.

As we left our overcoats and all our blankets, except one, at Springfield, we have to work hard to keep warm. I laid abed most all day, wrapped up in my blanket. Towards night the weather moderated a little. We got our 1st mail to night since leaving Rolla. I got a letter from Sister Eliza, also her picture.

March 22, Saturday

This morning the sun came out bright and pleasant and it is quite comfortable being out. We are all of us quite busy today writing letters in answer to those received last night. We do not know when we can send them, but will have them ready for the first chance. Toward night it clouded over and grew colder again.

Sunday, March 23

As we were short of rations, several of us went out foraging. We bought some dried apples and peaches and molasses and vinegar and killed a nice, fat pig. Got into camp at noon, went off about 4 miles. No duty to do in camp, but take care of ourselves.

Monday, March 24

Weather cool yet but more comfortable than during the past few days. Went out foraging again. Killed a yearling beef and carried it 5 miles to camp. I do not know but we shall have to come to living on parched corn yet, as some other troops here have.


Tuesday, March 25

Last eve Lieut. Smith came back, having been home on a furlough. He brought our mail with him. I received a letter from Bro. Enoch and one from Belvidere, Illinois.

We had a dress parade tonight for the first time since leaving Rolla. Went over and saw that of the Iowa 9th, which was rather a tame affair compared to ours.

Wednesday, March 26

Had a general inspection in the forenoon and I went out in the grove and wrote letters all afternoon. The weather seems much more like June than March.

Thursday, March 28

Went out foraging again with poor success. After we had gone to bed, Lieut. Buck came in and told us he was going out the next day with a party of 20 foraging. Adams and myself volunteered to go with him. We are to take provisions for 2 days, so we had to get up and draw flour and set up and bake biscuit. I did not get to bed again till 12:00 A.M.

Saturday, March 29

We were up and all ready to start at daylight. We took 20 teams and went off to the North 27 miles. Where we found plenty of forage; loaded our teams and encamped for the night. Went off and bought some chickens and eggs, determining not to starve as long as we had any money.

We had out a picket guard and I went on and stood an hour with Lieut. Buck. This same night the Regiment got word that Price was advancing on them and were ordered to fill their canteens and to sleep on their arms, which they accordingly did; but the night passed away and no Price appeared.


Sunday, March 30

We were up and ready to start for camp by sunrise. Nothing worthy of notice occurred on the road & we got back about 2:00 P.M.

Our Company had just received two month's pay from paymaster. We went and drew ours as soon as we came in. It was very acceptable to us now as we are nearly out of funds and in this country that is nearly equivalent to being out of friends.

Monday, March 31

Weather fine as one could wish. We had a Battalion Drill from 3 to 4:00 P.M. Col. Wyman commanding us for the first time on drill. Col. Gorgas always having had command.

Tuesday, April 1st

First and foremost, I did not get fooled in the whole day as many did. I was sick all the night before and Olney went out for the Doc in the night. He sent me two doses of morphine which quieted me some. In the morning I went up to see him and he gave me some more medicine, and towards night I felt much better.

Wed., April 2nd

I did not do anything all day, being excused from all duty, but did not think it necessary to see the Doctor. I loaned Capt. Dutton $45.00 and took his note for it. Our Company sent $1,375 home by the paymaster.

Thursday, April 3d

I went to see Doc. again, was excused from duty, but went on dress parade, which was witnessed by General Asbothe and Staff.


Fri., April 4th

In the morning I felt much better and went out on Battalion Drill, but had to leave the ranks and go up to my tent and lie down. I got up and finished a letter to Bro. Enoch.

Saturday, April 5th

Reveille sounded at 5 o'clock. At roll-call we got orders to march at 8:00 A.M. At the hour, we were all ready to start. All the rest of the Division was in advance of us.

We took the back track as far as Cassville, then we turned off to the N.E. and marched 16 miles. Came upon a range of the Ozark Mts; went through one pass and camped in the valley. We have no idea where we are going or for what purpose. Even our officers, except the Generals, know nothing of the design of this movement.

Sunday, April 6

As we had to wait for the whole Division to pass by us, we did not get started till 11 o'clock, then owing to bad roads and the great length of the Division, and trains, we could not march very fast.

About dark, it commenced raining and we got wet through, but did not get to camp till nearly 11 o'clock P.M. and our train got stuck and our knapsacks were on the wagon and we had to do with out tents or blankets.

This is decidedly the hardest time we have seen in the service. We suffered much with the cold during the night. Days march 18 miles over the Ozark Mts. Camped upon the bank of Platte Creek at Cape Fear.

Monday, April 7th

Much to our satisfaction we were ordered to remain here in camp all day. About 8 o'clock A.M. our train came and we pitched


our tent; took breakfast, and did not sleep much during the night and were consequently tired and sleepy and the most of us laid down and took a nap. Weather warm and pleasant.

We lay encamped till the 8th of April, and then commenced a long, tedious and laborious movement across the country to Helena, Arkansas. No one who was engaged upon that terrible march can ever forget its painful weariness, the cold, the hunger, the drenching, chilling rains, the dangers from flooded rivers, the perils from hovering guerrillas and armed bands of the enemy, the destitution from scanty rations, and, at times, from thirst. Terrible sufferings were caused during the latter part of the march by this cause. The weather had become intensely warm, streams were very rare, the rebel inhabitants filled up and destroyed their wells upon our approach, and our troops often were without water for a day at a time. [Boies]

Tuesday, April 8th

The troops have been busy all day in crossing the river. We expected to start in the course of the day, but night came and the whole Division was not across and we were ordered to remain over night and be ready to start at 5:00 in the morning. We had a rain during the night.

Wednesday, April 9th

Broke camp at daylight; crossed the river without any difficulty and, as the rest of the Division were out of the way, we weren't hindered for the first 4 or 5 miles, and then we came up to some more troops and were until noon marching to Galena [MO] 8 miles, encamped near the James River.

The weather has been uncomfortably cold all day, with occasional dashes of snow. Our road has been on a ridge of Mountains and winding in nearly every direction; some of the time it appeared that we were going back in the same direction we came.


Thursday, April 10th

Reveille sounded at 3:00 A.M. and we started at day light. We crossed the river on a bridge of wagons, placed end to end across the river. The stream is wide, deep and rapid here and it was hard for the teams to cross. The roads are very bad, and it took all day to march 13 miles.

It is about as tiresome to be standing about all day with our knapsacks on as it is to be marching all the time. We had just time to pitch our tents and cook our supper of corn-meal pancakes and coffee without sugar, when tattoo sounded for 4 o'clock and tired and sleepy we all laid down on the ground to rest.

Fri., April 11th

Broke camp about 7 o'clock. Hardly had we got started when it commenced raining and kept it up steadily all the afternoon. The mud got deep and the creeks high and we were all the forenoon marching 7 miles.

Here we encamped on Bear Creek, 9 miles from Forsyth [MO]. We were wet through, but we carried rails and made a good fire and it stopped raining in the afternoon and we got comfortably dry and cut cedar boughs and laid them on the ground and made us quite good beds.

The Illinois soldier, like his companions in service from other states, developed a fine sense of the dramatic with respect to foraging, as well as appropriate knowledge of the regulations under which he operated. When he was told by his commanding officer that he could take only the top rail of a nearby fence for firewood, he quickly understood that as long as there was any rail at all, it was the top rail. When fences disappeared, as they eventually did, the cattle roamed unrestrained — usually into the camps of Union Regiments, where they were slaughtered.

In time, foraging developed the aspects of an art marked by subtlety and cleverness. On one occasion, the 13th Illinois, termed


the "Stealing Regiment," stole a regimental surgeon's stove, fire and all, while his back was turned. [Long]

Saturday, April 12

We lay in camp all day expecting orders to march, but none came. It came my turn to cook, which is no desirable job, now that we have nothing but corn-meal to live on and unbolted meal at that, and no sifter to sift it with. Some of the boys went out to try and buy something, but did not find anything.

Sunday, April 13th

Our trains went to Forsyth for rations for us and succeeded in getting a little for us. Adams and Olney went out and shot two pigs, which are very acceptable just now. Barton went off and got some sorghum. We, today, first heard of the great Union victory in Tennessee.

Monday, April 14th

Weather fine. Did nothing but do a little writing, as we learned we could send letters and we have to improve [employ?] every opportunity, as it is so seldom we can send letters from here.

Tuesday, April 15th

Our boys went out and brought in a splendid, fat pig. Our Quartermaster is so mean that he will not furnish us rations when he might as well as not. The Line Officers are trying to get him out of his office, and I hope they will succeed. One thing is certain: we should starve if it were not for what we get foraging.

Wednesday, April 16th

Did nothing but lie around camp and read, and write letters. I wrote and mailed a letter to Sister Sarah. It was quite a rainy day and during the night we had a severe thunder-storm.


Thursday, April 17th

It is dull business trying to keep a Diary when there is nothing going on, save the ordinary routine of camp life and duty. It is a rainy day; the mud deep, and everything dull and lonely.

Friday, April 18th

There is no change, either in our condition or the weather. I made a bet, with Jimmy Smith, for the oysters for the mess, that peace would be declared with in three months. I believe that the Rebels begin to see their case is hopeless.

Saturday, April 19th

Reveille sounded at 4:00 A.M.; ordered to be ready to march at 8:00, but we did not move at all, and we were all glad of it, for it rained all day, and the mud was ankle deep.

Sunday, April 20th

Broke camp at 2:00 A.M. in the morning. It proved fair to be a rainy day and such it proved to be. We had to cross Bear Creek, which we had to ford. This is a large & swift running stream. We took a N.E. course and marched 5 miles. Our teams got stuck and our tent-team did not come up and we were obliged to sleep on the ground with the sky for a shelter; but luckily it rained but little during the night.

Monday, April 21st

About 10:00 A.M. our teams came up and we pitched our tent in order to dry it and make it lighter to carry. Weather fine and clear. We divided the train and Regiment, each Company going with its own wagon to help them out if they get fast. We marched about 2 miles and over took a train which had started early in the morning, but got fast in the mud and as our train could not get past them we had to encamp.


Tuesday, April 22

At daylight we were ready to start. Took a N.E. course of the mts. [over the mountains?] The weather was fine and clear and the roads much improved. We marched 14 miles and encamped about 4 o'clock. As we had nothing to eat, we went out and killed a beef by permission of General Wyman. I hope our Quartermaster will be compelled [to] issue rations.

Wednesday, April 23d

Broke camp at 8:00 A.M., continued in the same direction. About noon we came to Crane Creek, which we had to cross 6 times, and we camped upon its banks at 6:00 P.M., having marched 15 miles.

Thursday, April 24th

Reveille sounded at 4:00 A.M. and we broke camp at 6:00 A.M. Weather, cloudy in the morning, but clear in the afternoon. We had to cross and recross the creek about a dozen times. About 4:00 P.M. we came to Beaver Creek and encamped. Days March, 21 miles.

Friday, April 25th

Started at 6:00 A.M., took the regular plan of marching; that is marching ž hours and resting ź at a time. We can march farther in this, than any other way; got into camp at 2:00 P.M., having made 15 miles: Our course is toward the Mississippi River, and its rumored that we are going directly to Memphis.

Saturday, April 26th

Broke camp at 6 o'clock. Marched over a good road till 3 o'clock having made 22 miles. We had to ford a stream several times, but as the water is getting warm it is not very bad wading. Weather, fine.


Sunday, April 27th

Broke camp at 6 o'clock. Weather very warm. We are getting tired and our march of so many days without rest is beginning to worry us some. Got into camp at 1 o'clock, having marched 18 miles. Camped in a beautiful grove of pines, nearly the first I have seen in Missouri.

Monday, April 28th

We were called up at 3:00 but without Reveille, as we wanted to pass the division ahead of us and did not want to wake them with our guns. We started as soon as we could see and passed them before they got in line.

We made a hard march, and just before night, came up with Davis' Division and encamped, having made 23 miles. We are near West Plain, a small, but rather pretty town. The whole army is here encamped. We started four days behind some of them, but by hard marching have come up with them.

Tuesday, April 29th

Broke camp at 5:00 A.M., took the lead of the whole array toward Salem, Ark., the course being South. Marched 16 miles and camped at 2 o'clock. We are all very tired and lame and must have rest soon or we shall be completely used up. I think we shall rest when we get to Salem.

Wednesday, April 30th

Broke camp about 6 o'clock. About 8 o'clock we crossed the line into Arkansas and got to Salem at noon, having marched 14 miles. In the afternoon, we were mustered for payment, but I suppose the pay will not be forth coming for a good while yet.


Thursday, May 1st

Weather, very fine and beautiful. We had a days rest and we appreciated it too. I wrote two letters, but did not get a chance to send them. At this place, Col. Wood's Cavalry had a skirmish with the Rebels and killed and took several prisoners. I saw where 6 of them were buried.

Friday, May 2nd

As soon as it was daylight, the troops began to pass by our camp. We got orders to march at 1:00 P.M. At that hour we started, and marched through some of the prettiest groves I ever saw. The ground is covered with wildflowers and it is really delightful marching through them. Marched till 5:00 P.M. and camped upon a clear cold stream of water.

We are now father south in "Dixie" than we have ever been before and I think the country improving in appearance as we go south from Missouri.

Saturday, May 3d

Reveille sounded at 2:30 A.M. started at 4. Marched till 1:00 P.M. and camped on Strawberry Creek Days march, 23 miles, we passed some plantations which looked very fine. The corn is well up, and some has been hoed once.

Sunday, May 4th

Broke camp at 4:00 A.M. At the first start we got on the wrong road and had to go back half a mile. It rained nearly all day and we got completely wet through. By the road we were obliged to take it. Made 21 miles to Batesville [Ark.], which place we reached at 2 P.M.

The town is situated on the White River and is the most beautiful town I have seen in the west. Its street's Residences are


beautifully laid out and ornamented. I was much surprised to find so pretty a town.

This river is navigable from this place to Memphis [TN], we are now 100 miles from Memphis.

The people here are all secesh and they own it and defend it too. When our Cavalry came in here there were 3,000 of the rebels camped on the other side of the river, but a few shells from our Howitzers made them think they had better be off, and as all the boats were on their side of the river, our men could not get across till they were out of harms way.

Monday, May 5th

We did not get up till after sunrise being very tired and sleepy. At 10:00 A.M., we got orders to move to another camping ground 1˝ miles distant. We marched there and found a fine ground and plenty of wood and water. After we got our tents pitched, we all went down to the river. Some of us went fishing, but did not ever get a bite.

Tuesday, May 6th

I went down to the river fishing again, but with no better success than the day before. We are living better than we have since we left Springfield [MO]. When we came here, we found large quantities of army stores, designed for the Rebels, but which they did not have time to remove when we came so we took it for our own use.

Wes'day, May 7th

For the first time in a long while we have a chance to send letters to Rolla [MO] to be mailed and we all spent the rest of the day in writing letters. The troops have begun to march across the river and I suppose our turn will come soon.


Thursday, May 8th

Our company was on guard, and I was on duty during the night. We learn that 10 Regiments are ordered to report at Rolla as soon as possible and some of them across the river are coming back.

Friday, May 9th

1 [One] year ago today, we enlisted in the service of the State of Illinois for 3 mos. [years] Little did we think that we should now be in the U.S. Service for 3 yrs. [mos.] and away down in Arkansas. But we now hope and think that the Rebellion is about crushed and that we soon will be discharged.

Saturday, May 10th

Reveille sounded at 2:00 A.M. and it was Reube's and my turn to cook. We got up and had breakfast in short order and we were ready to start by day light. But as is usually the case when we are ready to start, something hindered us, and we lay around all day, between a simmer and a boil and did not start at all and we don't know whether we shall start tomorrow or not.

Sunday, May 11th

For the first time since I have been in service, I attended service at a church. Chaplain Ing. preached in the Methodist Church. There were no citizens out except a few ladies and as they were thorough rebels they did not appear to like the services very well. It really seems as though we had got back into a civilized country, to hear a church-bell on Sunday Morning.

Monday, May 12th

Last night, a ferry boat capsized here and 6 men of the 3d Illinois Cavalry drowned. There was one Captain, one Sergeant and


men. Every effort has been made to recover their bodies, but with out effect. They have probably floated down the river.

Tuesday, May 13th

I went up town once and laid around camp the rest of the while. Weather excessively hot.

Wednesday, May 14th

Went up town again. Had some ripe strawberries the first of this season and the earliest I ever had. Green Pease [peas] and Potatoes are large enough to eat.

Thursday, May 15th

Today there is quite a sensation in camp. Caused by the rumor that Jeff Davis has ordered his men to lay down their arms and return to their allegiance, but we hardly credit it, as it is too good to be true.

Friday, May 16th

I went down to the river once and the rest of the day, felt too lazy to do anything. Weather, still hot.

Saturday, May 17th

This morning, Isaac Keppel of our Company died at the Post Hospital. This is the 4th man that has died in our County since we enlisted. Nearly the whole Company went up in the evening to bury him, but when we got there we found the body was already buried by the Hospital Employees.

Sunday, May 18th

Broke camp at 8:00 A.M. Marched down to the river, took us from until after noon to be ferried across. Marched


southward about 6 miles and encamped. If nothing happens to prevent we will be in Little Rock [AR] in less than a week.

Monday, May 19th

Reveille at 4; marched at 6:00 A.M. We had quite a rain the day before and it was quite cool and comfortable. We crossed the Saladine Creek [AR] and encamped at 2:00 P.M. having marched 19 miles. Just as we got in camp it commenced raining again and rained hard all night. I was on cook detail and had rather a hard time baking in the rain.

Tuesday, May 20th

Broke camp at 6:00 A.M. in the midst of a heavy thunder storm and it continued to rain hard all day and the roads became almost impassable. We intended to march to Searcy [AR] on the Red River but the train ahead of us got stalled and we were obliged to encamp 4 miles short of the river and 16 miles from our last camp.

On our way we passed through an old secesh camping ground where there must have been a great many of them. It is reported that they intend to oppose our way to Little Rock but we are too strong for them. Only one team besides ours came up that night and most of the boys had to sleep out in the rain with out tents or supplies, but we divided with them as far as possible.

Wednesday, May 21st

This camp has been appropriately named by the boys "Camp Stick-in-the-Mud" for that was the sole reason of our stopping here. This morning the sun came out bright and pleasant, but the roads are so bad we are unable to get away.

The enemy are down the river in some force and they and our advance have done considerable skirmishing, though without any great damage on either side, I believe. We can hear their


cannon occasionally. This is the only way they can fight, for the Rebs are on the other side and our men are on this and we have not force enough to attempt to cross under their fire.

Thursday, May 22

Last night it rained again and now the roads are utterly impassable for our heavy trains. Our teams went out foraging with a heavy guard and may perhaps have some hard work before they get back, as such are the chances the Rebels take to attack foraging parties when they have at least 10 to 1 against us.

Friday, May 23

Today, General Curtiss [Curtis] and Staff came through from Batesville [AR], and it was all the horses could do to get through. They say no train can possibly reach us, so here we are shut off by the mud from all supplies and rations to last only 2 or 3 days at most. But we will not starve as long as there are plenty of provisions in the country and that too where the people are the worst kind of Rebels. They are committing all kinds of depredations where-ever they get a chance, especially the Indians who are with them. It rained all day and bids fair to be a rainy night.

Saturday, May 24th

One year ago today, we were sworn into the U.S. service at Camp Dement, Dixon, Illinois, 1/3 of our term of enlistment has expired and we hope that the time has nearly arrived when our services will no longer be required.

I am on cook detail again today; went out and gathered some huckleberries and made some pies which seems a little like old times. Weather, fine and warm.


Sunday, May 25th

I attended services at Headquarters; preaching by 4th Iowa Chaplain. Weather fine. No news from the River yet.

Monday, May 26 1862

Nothing new going on in or out of Camp. Some of the boys went down to the river but saw nothing of the Rebels. They have retired a short distance from the river.

Tuesday, May 27/62

This morning we got orders to clear off our streets and set our tents in regular order and it looks a tho' we were destined to stay here for some time yet. Companies C and K went out with the train foraging. They took one piece of Cannon with them. They are going across the river and into Searcy and are bound to see what the secesh are made of.

Wednesday, May 28th

At 12 o'clock last night we were called up by the Captain of Company K, had got into a fight and had sent in for reinforcements — C had returned the night before. Companies A, B, F and G were detailed from our Regiment and 4 Companies from the 4th Iowa with two pieces of artillery. At 2:00 A.M. we were ready to start.

About daylight we reached the river and about 7 o'clock entered Searcy without having seen an armed rebel. The town was almost entirely deserted the inhabitants having left the night before expecting a fight there in the morning. It is a very pretty town but not quite as pretty as Batesville.

It was reported that the Rebels were encamped 2˝ miles from town and that Company K was near them. We planted a gun at each of the principle roads leading into town and as we had


better guns than the rest, Company A and ourselves were detailed to guard them.

The balance of the regiment had previously been sent for as it was feared we were not strong enough for them. The Cavalry and some of the Infantry then went out to try to get around them and drive them back to town. But they were too quick for them. They had heard of our coming and had got up and left for parts unknown. In the skirmish the day before, one secesh Captain was killed which was the only loss on either side. When our boys came back we were quite disappointed for we hoped to get at least one shot at them. However, we got a large amount of provisions and forage. We started for Camp about 4:00 P.M. and got there just at dark.

Thursday, May 29th

We all felt plenty tired and did not get up very early as there was no roll call at Reveille. One of Company G was drowned while swimming in the river.

Friday, May 30th 1862

It was our Company's turn to do guard duty and I was on duty 2 hours. The rebels returned to Searcy and our Cavalry retreated to the River. Their number was not known and our small force there did not dare to meet them.

Saturday, May 31st

Today I went up and picked 6 quarts of huckleberries. They are just beginning to get ripe, in a few days there will be plenty of them. I wrote a letter to Mass.[achusetts] but don't expect to get an answer till after the war, for we do not get any mail now. I have not had a letter in two months.


Sunday, June 1st

Weather warm but unsettled; rain and sunshine alternating. Weather so bad there was no preaching.

Monday, June 2nd

Some of our boys were sent to the river to guard some bacon and other stores which they found buried there by the rebels, and they will be very acceptable to us now.

Tuesday, June 3d

At 12:00 noon, we got orders to move at 1:00 P.M. Many of the boys are out of camp and we had to hurry ourselves to get our own and their things ready. The orders were unexpected for we had believed we were to stay here some time.

At 1:00 we started, but instead of going on as we supposed, we turned back toward Batesville; but on a different road from that on which we came. We know nothing of the object of this movement, but so it's all the time. We never know where we are going or what for, till after we have gone. We marched 15 miles and encamped at 6:00 P.M. Weather cloudy with occasional dashes of rain.

Wednesday, June 4th

Broke camp at 7:00 A.M. and at 10:30 A.M. encamped near Fairview, a little deserted village, 7 miles from our camp the night before. We have orders to not leave camp at all; for the rebels are reported to be near us and it is not safe to go far from camp.

I went to cooking for the Capt. till Will Kerr got well. He wants me to cook for him all the while, but I do not like to cook very well in warm weather.


Thursday, June 5th

At last have found out the reason of our retrograde movement. It was to draw the rebels over to this side of the river, and it has succeeded so well that we have 200 of them prisoners. Our forces had hardly left the river when they began to come over and after 200 of them had come over the first thing they knew, they were surrounded by a Regiment of Cavalry and had to surrender.

Weather hot, no duty to do in camp except take care of ourselves the best we can.

Men could be seen struggling along in the intense heat, their tongues swollen and hanging out of their mouths. Yet guards of United States troops were sent forward every day to guard every rebel's house that we passed, and prevent foraging upon the inhabitants. The march lasted for more than three months; and it was not till the last of July that our army reached the Mississippi at Helena, and again was furnished with the necessaries of existence from the stores of the United States. [Boies]

Friday, June 6th

Today there has been another mysterious movement made. Just as Reveille sounded the order came round for us to pack and start immediately without waiting to get breakfast. We thought this time we were sure to have a fight. The whole force with us, was up and moving and the cavalry was scouting in every direction. We marched 1˝ miles and took a position N.E. of town, in a thick clump of bushes. After waiting some time we were ordered to set our tents and encamp. We have done so, but do not expect to stay here long. Today we heard of Gen. Halleck's victories on the river.

Sunday, June 8th

At Reveille we were ordered to march as soon as we could get our breakfasts, but we did not get started till 8:00 A.M.


marching was very slow, in consequence of the trains being ahead of us, and we were till 4:00 P.M. marching 13 miles. We camped in a thick clump of bush about 7 miles from Batesville.

We now believe the alarm has been caused by the Cowardly Conduct of the 3d Illinois Cavalry. They have given out false alarms and do not go out on picket duty as far as our infantry. They deserve to be sent home in disgrace.

Bill Tyler came up from Jacksonport and staid with us. He was there at the time the rebel gun-boats came up there. Their Regiment was the only force there and they had to get up and get. As they were passing through town a rebel "lady"(?) came out of a house and said to them, "Is that what you Yankees call skidaddling?" Those who professed to be Union men, swung their hats and hurrahed for "Jeff Davis" when the gun-boat came up. They burned the cotton and destroyed the sugar and molasses and went back down the River. Our men now hold the place and are prepared to receive the boat should she see fit to come up the river again.

Monday, June 9th

It was reported that we were to remain here some time, so we moved up the river about 40 rods and cleared off a nice camping and parade ground. Weather, fine, but very warm.

Tuesday, June 10th

At Reveille we got orders to march at 8:00 A.M., but did not get started until later, and we were hindered so much, we did not reach the river till sundown. We crossed the river and encamped in some woods near the river.

Our old ground is occupied by Gen. Steele's Division. They are building a pontoon bridge across the river. It is the first I have ever seen. It will be complete in a few days and then it will be convenient crossing the river.


Wednesday, June 11th

The dispatch came today that Memphis [TN] was taken and that the river was in our possession. Perhaps we may see some of the rebels up here, they may come up the river to get out of the way of our gun-boats, but I imagine they would be running into a hornets nest if they come up here. We had to clear up a parade ground for a dress parade in the evening. I got a letter from Belvidere.

Thursday, June 12th

Our Company's turn to do guard duty but I did not have to go on. There are all sorts of rumors in camp of recent victories and defeats but about the most pressing rumor to us that we are to get our pay in a day or two.

Friday, June 13, 1862
Today we signed the payrolls and expect our pay tomorrow. Weather very warm in the day time, but cool at night. This is a peculiarity of this Southern country, no matter how hot the day may be. The nights are so cold, that we need two blankets over us for comfort. This is a good thing for us, for if the evenings were proportionally hot with the days, we could not stand it.

Saturday, June 14

Today we received our pay from Government. Our paymaster has sold all his change to Sutlers and it is almost impossible to get a script changed. I went up town and got some cloth for shirts which I have got to make myself. Fortunately, I am able to make them having learned to sew when a boy.


Sunday, June 15th

There was preaching in the Iowa 9th, but the weather was so hot I did not attend. I think but few did. I spent the day in reading and writing letters.

Monday, June 16th

I began one of my shirts; worked till tired, and then went up to town. We are very short of rations again. We do not draw a single thing from Uncle Sam except Coffee and hard bread and some of the once despised bacon would be thankfully received now. But what we lack in rations is made up in drills and dress parades. I do not think we have enough exercise in camp, so I had as soon drill.

Tuesday, June 17th

Today I finished my shirt and they all say it is well made. Weather very hot, and I do not know what we shall do when we get one mile farther south as we shall probably be and that too in the scorching month of July.

Wednesday, June 18th

Our boys went out with the boys foraging and our mess got 16 lbs. of Bacon which is quite a treat for us now. Last night we had about the hardest thunder storm I ever saw. The thunder and lightning were incessant and the rain just poured down, flooding the tents thoroughly, wetting us through.

Thursday, June 19th

Everything quiet in and around camp. They have taken up the pontoon bridge and taken it to Jacksonport and I suppose we shall soon follow. Weather cooler and more comfortable.


Friday, June 20th

Went up town to temperance meeting. Made arrangements for a union meeting between Iowa 4th and our lodge. I think it will be interesting for us both.

Saturday, June 21st

Today we learned that the rebel gun-boat (that came up to Jacksonport) had come up again and had been captured by our men. She was called the "Monrepose" and she ventured up once too much.

Sunday, June 22nd

Today, Gen. Steele's Division left here, supposed to be going to Des Arc [AR] 40 miles below Jacksonport. We follow as soon as they get out of the way.

Monday, June 23d

Nothing of much importance going on. They are loading flatboats with provisions to take down the river. It is expected the boats from St. Louis will soon be here for us. They started from there a week ago yesterday.

Tuesday, June 24th

Ordered to be ready to march early; but for some good reason I suppose, I do not know what, we did not move. Capt. Dutton is sick up town and will have to be left if we leave here, as we expect to soon.

Wednesday, June 25

Reveille sounded at 2:00 A.M., marched at 4:00. Our Division is the last to leave the place. When we had gone 4 miles, we reached Sulphur Rock. This is a large spring of sulphur water


like that at Lebanon, New York. We got in camp at noon, having marched 16 miles. Weather warm and roads dusty.

Thursday, June 26th

Reveille at 2:00 A.M.; marched at 4:00; 1 mile from Jacksonport, having marched 8 miles. As the Division ahead was not all across we had to wait over night to cross.

A good many slaves take the opportunity to leave the masters and go with the army and the planters are following us up; but do not have very good success in getting their property back.

Friday, June 27th

Broke camp at 7:00 A.M.; crossed the river on the pontoon bridge, marched a short distance and encamped near a large Bayou and Cypress swamp, full of large cypress trees, the first of the kind I ever saw. They say there are some alligators in this Bayou and I do not think I shall venture in the water much there. Burkey [Burkee] and I commenced cooking regularly for the mess.

Saturday, June 28th

Today the 9th Illinois Cavalry had a skirmish with the reb and 19 of them were killed. Gen. Osterhaus division were ordered out and we were ready to go, but they soon returned, the rebels having run away as usual.

Sunday, June 29th

No preaching today, weather very hot with the prospect of a thunder storm before morning. Had an inspection of arms at 9 o'clock P.M.

Monday, June 30th

At 9:00 A.M., we were mustered for payment. The boys are at work draining the Bayou to catch the fish in it.


Tuesday, July 1st

Last night we had quite a rain and tonight it is cool and pleasant. The boys went out, bought some potatoes and bacon so we can live again for awhile. We expect to leave soon for Augusta [AR].

Wednesday, July 2nd

Companies B & F were placed on duty as provost guard of this town. We left the Regiment and moved up to the other side of town. We are to relieve the 24th Missouri, now on duty here.

Thursday, July 3d

Weather fine and tolerably cool. We now have an excellent place to camp with plenty of good water. An article we have not had before in a long while. I was busy all day in cooking and making a shirt for one of my mess mates.

We got inside a Secesh printing office, and just cleaned the old thing out. I got type for my name, which I mean to keep as a relic of our visit here.

In the evening I attended the I.O. of G.T. [International Order of Good Templars] Lodge meeting. We held it in the Hall, lately occupied by Gen. Curtis for headquarters. Had a large attendance and good time. Several Initiations; Lodge slowly but steadily increasing. I would that every man in our Regiment was a good, true G.T.

Friday, July 4th

Everything has been extremely quiet here today. They would not even allow us to fire our guns. I do not think I ever passed so still a 4th of July as this has been. One year ago today we were in Caseyville, Illinois, 9 miles from St. Louis.

Two more Regiments came here today: the 2nd Wisconsin and 10th Illinois Cavalry. We are now getting a splendid army


together and shall be able to meet all the secesh they bring against us. Ordered to march at 3:00 A.M. tomorrow.

Saturday, July 5th

Reveille at 1:00; broke camp at 3:00 A.M. Marched out of town a short distance and halted for the Regiment to come up, which they soon did; marched till 4:00 P.M. We got off our road and marched 4 or 5 miles more than there was any need of. Marched 22 miles making us 17 miles from Jacksonport. The day was very hot and the roads dusty and worse than all, there was scarcely any water to be had on the way, and we suffered a great deal from want of it.

The rebels have burned all the cotton along the road, to prevent its falling into our hands and our men retaliate by burning all the Cotton-gins and presses at some of the leading secessionist's houses. Captain Wordsworth was wounded while coming down the river on a boat-load of stones.

Sunday, July 6th

Reveille at 1:00, marched at 3:00 A.M. The day was if possible still hotter than the day before, and no water to be had along the road except in drained wells. No 1/4 of us could get any water and what we did get was not fit to drink.

Reached Augusta at 2:00 P.M., having marched 18 miles. Not more than 100 men went in with Col., the rest being tired and laid down outside for rest. I fell out when within a mile of town and rested an hour. This is a regular rebel town and the boys threaten to burn it and have been beginning [at or it], by burning the largest store in town.

Monday, July 7th

Remained encamped here. I did not do much but cook and look around a little. Our Company was on provost guard in town.


All the Divisions except ours have left here, and we follow in the morning. Our advance is skirmishing with enemy, and it is thought we have quite a fight in a day or two.

Tuesday, July 8th

Reveille at 1:00; broke camp at 2:30 A.M.; marched until 8:00 A.M. when we came to a splendid plantation, with two good wells of water and a nice shade. Rested here an hour, greatly to the annoyance of the secesh ladies who reside here. Marched from there at 9:00 and at 11:00 we halted; unloaded the wagons and cooked dinner as we expected to be up all night.

Our advance are skirmishing with the rebels and we are wanted as soon as we can get there. They had quite a fight this morning, killing 15 of our men and 150 of the rebels. At 5:30 P.M., we crossed the Cache River; marched 3 miles and encamped, having made 20 miles. The rebels have blockaded the roads by felling large trees ahead of us, and we cannot get them out of the way, or get around them at night.

Wednesday, July 9th

Broke camp at 4:30 A.M. As we were in the rear we were hindered much and could not march more than half the time. At 11:00 A.M. we stopped and got dinner, expecting to move on in the P.M., but the orders came for us to encamp, which we did having marched 10 miles.

One of the Company "I" boys got his hand shot and had to have it cut off nearly to the elbow, poor fellow, his soldiering is over. No news from the advance today.

Thursday, July 10th

Reveille at 1:00; marched at 2:30 A.M. took another road leaving Des Arc to our right, marched 4 miles, then got on the


wrong road and had to go back a mile; got right again about daylight.

When the sun came up it was very hot and dusty and no water to be had and we had to go through on a forced march. At one time we marched 10 miles without halting for rest and in less than 3 hours. Not more than half the Regiment could stand it and they fell out all along the road. After we started from there, they did not try to keep in ranks at all, but every man marched to suit him self and rested just when he pleased. The Regiment was strung out as much as 5 miles long, but I got in camp as soon as any of them, which was about 4:00 P.M. Some of the boys did not get in till 9:00 or 10:00. Days march 25 miles.

I had to go 1˝ mile for water to cook with and got some poor muddy stuff at that. We are 6 miles N. of White River.

Friday, July 11th

Reveille at 3:00; marched at 4:30 A.M. Companies C, D, E, & F were detailed as the rear guard of the Division. Where the head of the division had marched 3 miles, they were formed in line of battle, as the rebels were said to be crossing the river ahead of us, and it was thought they intended to give us a chance for a fight. The train was corralled and we were ordered up on a double quick.

We soon came up and the batteries took position and we were ready to receive them. We waited all the forenoon for them, but not nary a one did we see. They had left their so-called strong fortification and skedaddled up White River. They are supposed to be 8000 strong and they dare not meet our division alone.

Our gunboats which were up at Clarendon [AR] have gone back and now we have got to march through to the Mississippi River as soon as we can for supplies.


Saturday, July 12th

Reveille sounded at 12:00 and at 1:30 A.M. We were on the road. Marched 5 miles toward Clarendon and took the road directly E[ast] toward the Mississippi. We marched till noon without finding a drop of water along the road and we could stand it no longer, so the Regiment halted and broke off on each side to hunt for water. Got our Canteens filled about a mile from the road; rested 3 hours; then started and did not rest again till we reached camp, which we did at 6:00 P.M. having marched 32 miles.

This is the longest march any man in this Department has done and I doubt if any harder has been done during the war. Last fall we marched 34 miles, but the weather was cool and there was plenty of water along the road. This was nothing to be compared to our march today. I hope I shall never have such a days marching to do. We camped at a Bayou where the water was plenty but very poor.

Sunday, July 13th

Broke camp at 5:30 A.M. As we had but a short way to go we took it quite easy and were until noon marching 10 miles. Encamped near Cypress Creek. Weather very hot and sultry.

Monday, July 14th

Reveille at midnight marched at 2:00 A.M. Made a good march before daylight. About 10:00 A.M. we came up with Steele's Division and were hindered a good while. About 4:00 P.M. we reached Helena [AR], on the Mississippi River, opposite the State of Mississippi, and 90 miles from Memphis. Days march 22 miles. Encamped near the ?LERREE River, 2 miles above the city.

It really seems that we had got back to Civilization again, to see the river and the steam boats passing up and down. It is a beautiful place. It is thought we shall soon go to Vicksburg to help take the place.


Tuesday, July 15th

As there is mail going out, I wrote two short letters to my brothers and sisters, to let them know that I was yet alive and well. This is the first chance we have had to send letters in 2 months.

Just at dark, our Company was ordered down town to do guard duty on and around the boats which have come in loaded with army stores for us. They are the same ones that went up the White River for us. There are eleven of them and there is no danger that we shall want for rations again very soon. A mail came in for us. I got a letter from Wm. and Hattie. We were on duty on board the boats. During the night the "Golden Era" left for Memphis.

Wednesday, July 16th

We continued our duty on board the boats. Early in the morning the Acacia came down from Memphis. I got my breakfast on board of her in the P.M. The hospital boat, D.A. January, came down for our sick and wounded.

At 6:00 P.M. we were relieved from duty and started for camp just as it commenced raining and we got wet through and when we got to camp we found our tents flooded and the rain just pouring in, but as we were pretty tired and hot not rested the night before we camped down and, I for one, wet as I was, slept well till morning.

Thursday, July 17

This morning the sun came out clear and the air was much cooler from the effect of last nights rain. Spent a good share of the day in writing.



Volume III: July, 1862 — January, 1863.

Friday, July 18th

Today, we are necessarily very still & quiet, for the mud is so deep in and about camp that we cannot stir much without going in over shoe. Weather cool and quite comfortable.

Saturday, July 19th

Today I have been quite busy coloring my shirts. White shirts show dirt too easy for a soldier to wear. We have now drawn plenty of rations and begin to live some as we used to in Rolla, which seems very good to us; but would be considered very poor living by our friends at home.

Sunday, July 20th

At 7:00 A.M. we broke camp and moved down very near town. Got a first rate camp-ground on the sandy side of a hill where it is impossible for it to get muddy. We here have good spring water and are in every respect very comfortably situated. Got our mail today. Letters from Bro. E. & Sister Rachael — all well.

Monday, July 21st

Went down to the I.O of G.T. meeting at M.E. [Methodist-Episcopal] Church. Had a full degree meeting. Very pleasant time. Weather very hot. the crippled gunboat "Tyler" came up from Bayzoo River where she met with hard usage from rebel ram, "Arkansas."

Tuesday, July 22nd

Last night, some of the boys found where an old rebel had stored 50,000 lbs. of sugar, a lot of lard, and about $1,000 worth of champagne and they went there and took all the liquor and lard and


as much sugar as they wanted. We took 150 lbs. of sugar for our mess, so we will not be short of it for a while.

Wednesday, July 23

Weather fine during the day, in the night had a severe thunder storm with high wind. We did not get much wet, but our arbor was torn down and our dishes and table blown edge ways.

Thursday, July 24th

Today commenced drawing our new uniform. Drew our hats which are very good ones, and also drew shoes and socks and expect the rest in a few days. Adams came back today after having been home on furlough.

Friday, July 25th

Today, Gen. Hovey came down from Memphis with 8,000 men and more expected soon. All along the bank up and down the bank, as far as eye can reach, is lined with our men, each camp being a little city itself.

We reached the river accompanied by an immense train of negroes, the slaves of the rebels, who followed the army loaded with such provisions and property as they could secure — a most ludicrous procession.

After some desultory service about Helena, the regiment was attached to General Steele's division of Sherman's army, then assembling for the movement upon Vicksburg. [Boies]

Saturday, July 26th

Today, Gen. Steele's Division started down the river, Destination unknown. More troops came down from Memphis. Drew new uniform pants.


Sunday, July 27th

Today I finished my month's cooking but by the wish of the mess, I am to cook another month, no desirable job in hot weather.

Monday, July 28th

Today, the gunboat "Carondolet" came up from below. She, too, is crippled from the shots of the rebel "Arkansas" shots. This is the first iron-clad we have had a chance to examine. Several have passed up and down the river since we have been here, but none have landed before. She has one gun dismounted and several holes stove in her. *2 shots

Tuesday, July 29th

Today has been a rainy, muddy day and we are content to do as little as possible and were it not for cooking I should have done still less than I did.

Wednesday, July 30th

Today the paymaster paid the Iowa 4th and moved up to our Regiment. Our pay rolls were sent us, marked $26, when more was due us for clothing not drawn. Gen. J.B. sent them back saying, "If my boys can't have what's due them, they shant have anything this payday." Weather showery.

Thursday, July 31st

Drew our pay from U.S., got full amount. I drew for clothing and got $41.77. This with about $60, makes $100.75 of which I am going to lay up for a rainy day. In the afternoon we saw a fleet in the river coming up from below. It proved to be Davis' fleet of about 4 rams, 4 gunboats and 10 transports coming up on account of its being so unhealthy near Vicksburg.


Friday, August 1st

I went down to town to take a look at the fleet. The gunboats, "Burton," "St. Louis" "Curcumati" and "Gen. Braggare" are here and the rams "Monarch," "Sampson," "Lioness" and "Switzerland." We understand that all operations [are halted] at Vicksburg, till cooler weather.

Saturday, August 2nd

As my partner in cooking was sick, I had to do all the work alone, and this kept me so busy I had time to do nothing else. The thermometer stands at 126[degrees] in the shade. Wonder what the Northerners would say to that kind of weather up there.

Sunday, August 3rd

Went down to see the "Nebraska" come in. Expected Jule [Julius] Thompson, but he did not come.

Monday, August 4th

I sent $75 home by the paymaster. Capt. Dutton is quite sick and started for home with "Neb." About 11:00 A.M., I was detailed on guard; took 6 men and went down to guard a commissary store.

Tuesday, August 5th

Last night, I found an old friend and school and classmate whom I had not seen before for 6 years. He attended school with me at Hinsdale Academy in Massachusetts. He moved to Ohio and I to Illinois and I had not seen him since. He belongs to the 2nd Ohio Battery and has been near me a year but we have never met.

He was one of my particular friends at school and the meeting so far from home and friends was very pleasant for us both.

At 11:00 A.M. I was relieved from duty and went to camp and to sleep, as I had not slept much the night before.


Wednesday, August 6th

Went down and spent the P.M. with my friend. He is in the Ordnance Dept. at present. The 3r and 12th Missouri are ordered out on some expedition. They do not know, what, but they drew an extra amount of Ammunition, so it seems there is a prospect of fight. Gen. Hovey has gone to White River with his division and will probably go on to Little Rock, [AR].

Burbanks came back today having been a prisoner in the hands of the Rebels at Little Rock. He looks pretty hard and tells a hard story of his treatment; he with several others were exchanged.

Thursday, August 7th

Weather still very hot. They have by the Drs. orders begun to issue regular rations of whiskey and quinine to the mess as a prevention of ague and yellow fever. I have not taken any yet, nor do I intend to for I do not believe in taking medicine when I am not sick, but that kind of medicine just suits many of the boys, as there is just quinine enough in the whiskey to make good bitters.

Friday, August 8th

Had a drill before breakfast; another at 5:00 P.M., and Dress Parade at sunset. This comes hard on us this hot weather, but continual exercise in the manual of arms is necessary to keep our hand in and not let other Regiments get the start of us.

Saturday, Aug. 9th

Drill and Dress Parade the same as Yesterday. Ordered to have a general inspection at 4:00 A.M. tomorrow and be ready to march at a moments notice. But I doubt if we are going, for when we really are we never have more than two hours notice.


Sunday, Aug. 10th

Drill at 5:00; Inspection at 7:00 A.M. and Drill at 5:00, Dress Parade at 7:00 P.M. No sign of our leaving very soon, on the contrary, Company D went on a scout taking 5 days rations with them. They have gone over into Mississippi hunting for and guarding cotton.

Monday, Aug. 11th

Got mail. Received a letter from Malta, folks all well. Busy all day copying a journal of 15 this ranks for me of Company E.

Tuesday, Aug. 12th

Continued at work all day on journal. Started a letter to Bro. Enoch in the evening, but did not have time to finish it. Between cooking, writing, and drilling and parading, I am kept pretty busy.

Wednesday, Aug. 13th

Had a grand review and inspection of our Brigade by Gen. Carr. We have a new Regiment added to our Brigade, the 5-6th Ohio. We saw them today for the 1st time. They are the crack Regiment of Ohio, and are certainly a splendid Regiment. This was the grandest review we have ever had, and it was acknowledged by all that ours is the finest Brigade in the army of the South W[est]. Yesterday we drew our new uniform blouses and are once more in full uniform.

Thursday, Aug. 14th

An order has been issued to employ 5 contrabands in each Company as cooks. So we sent down town and got a negro to cook for us as we thought that it was better than work in the hot summer, bringing wood and carrying water, but that one was so lazy that we shipped him in a hurry.


Friday, Aug. 15th

Today our Regimental colors came on from Illinois. Gen. Wyman has sent a requisition for them several times and they have just got along. It is a very nice stand of colors and our Regiment will now make a better appearance than ever. We got another cook today and his is a good one too. As I am now relieved from that duty, I have more time for writing.

Saturday, Aug. 16

I was busy nearly all day in making another copy of the journal. A great change in the weather. This morning it was cool enough to make the weather quite comfortable, but I am afraid such weather will not last long, and in a few days it will be hotter than ever before if such a thing is possible.

Sunday, Aug. 17th

Inspection at 9 o'clock. Service downtown in Episcopal [Church] at 10:30 A.M. Weather warmer than yesterday.

Monday, Aug. 18th

Formed in line on parade ground at 7:00 A.M. for the first time displayed our new colors. Marched down to the general review ground and the Brigade was reviewed by Gen. Carr and was seen by Gen. Curtis. Got back to camp at 10:00 A.M. and a muster in the afternoon and dress parade in the evening.

Tuesday, Aug. 19/62

I felt quite unwell and reported to the Surgeon who gave me opium and quinine to take which made me as drunk as tho' I had been drinking whiskey. Our negro cook has got sick and left and we to do without much to eat for I am not well enought to cook.


Wed'ns, Aug. 20/62

Felt no better this morning reported to Surgeon again. He gave me blue mash camphor and opium to take, excused from all duty.

Thursday, Aug. 21st/62

Felt a little better but still under the Dr. care. I am taking so much opium and morphine that I want to sleep nearly all the time.

Friday, Aug. 22/62

Today the "Tyler" came down the River — she brought 8, 32 and 64 pound cannon for the fort which has been commenced here. The work is being done by negroes. Felt much better today.

Sat. Aug. 23rd/62

Last night the "Ac' acid" bound down from Memphis with about 200 passengers mostly soldiers, struck a snag and broke in pieces and all but about 50 were drowned. Searg. [Sgt.] Hall of our Company was on board and saved himself by hanging to a cake of ice and floating down the river until rescued. I received a letter from Sister Hattie.

Sunday, Aug. 24th/62

I attended service in Episcopal Church in town, there is fine organ in church, the first one I have heard since I left Illinois. Weather very warm and sultry.

Monday, Aug. 25th/62

All the troops here went out for target practice. One not knowing what was going on might well have supposed that we were having a fight. The continual thunder from the gunboats and land batteries and the cracking of rifles and muskets and cavalry carbine and revolvers, gives one a pretty good idea of how a battle


sounds. We fired at a 12 inch target at a distance of 30 rods and I was the only one who hit inside the inner ring, consequently I made the best shot in the Company. No other company fired at such a long distance as we did, as we had the best guns.

Tuesday, Aug. 26

Today some of the fleet came up, having been down to Yazoo River. They captured the rebel boat, "Fair Play," loaded with arms for Hindman's army. She had come down the Yazoo and was going up the Arkansas [River] to Little Rock. She had 5,000 new rifles and a whole battery of field guns. We also took 100 prisoners, this was a good haul for us and a damper on Hindman, for he wanted them badly.

Wednesday, Aug. 27

Everything dull about camp. Weather scorching making ice water and lemonade in good demand.

Thursday, Aug. 28th

Companys E. & G. were sent out on a foraging expedition up the St. Francis River, and it is tho't [thought] we may have to go up to help them as the guerrillas are said to be very plenty up there.

Friday, Aug. 29th

Weather very hot, commenced drilling Bayonet exercise and skirmishing for our general drill. It is a very pretty drill, but very hard to learn and difficult to practice, and just makes us sweat this hot weather.

Saturday, Aug. 30th

Our foraging party returned, bringing a lot of cotton and corn. They visited Gen. Pillow's plantation and got a lot of mules


and other property. They saw a few small squads of secesh who skedaddled as soon as they saw the boys.

Sunday, Aug. 31st

Mustered for payment at 9:00 A.M. Showery in aft[ernoon] and eve[ning]. Reube and I took his and Mose Wyleys horse and went to the 1st Illinois Cavalry to see Charlie Simpson and Joe Smith. Took dinner with them, had a pleasant chat and in the afternoon returned to camp. This ride of 6 miles is the longest horse-back ride I've had since I've been in service.

Monday, Sept. 1st

Went out in the country a short distance foraging but did not get anything. We had had quite a novelty today in ration-drawing. Drew tea and sour-kraut, the first we ever drew of either. We have plenty of potatoes by paying $4 a barrel for them Corporal Deiley being reduced to ranks, I am ordered to take his place.

Tuesday, Sept. 2nd

As soon as Reveille beat, I took Reube's horse and went out in the country for milk which I succeeded in getting at the moderate price of 20 cents per qt. Our company was on guard, but I was not as I was the last Corporal on duty.

Wednesday, Sept. 3d

Very busy all day doing nothing.

Thursday, Sept. 4th

Attended the Lyceum in the afternoon. The Essay, Debate and impromptu compositions were all interesting and the meeting very pleasant.


Friday, Sept. 5th

Went down town and bought a gold pen for which I paid $4.00. Got a script changed and put the dollar in my pocket, but lost it before I got to camp. Spent most of the day in copying journal for one of the boys. Weather cooler with some thunder.

Saturday, Sept. 6th

Busy all day in writing. In the evening W.B. Wing of our Company died of internal fever. The first we have lost since we left: Batesville[MO]. I was up nearly all night assisting in laying out the body.

Sunday, Sept. 7th

As I had not slept much the night before, I slept nearly the whole forenoon. Our comrade was buried with soldier's honors.

Monday, September 8th

One of the Company B was shot by a man in the 8th Indiana Cavalry. He was somewhat intoxicated and got over into their camp and was shot by a man who thought he was stealing something.

The flags on the fleet are at half mast and minute guns have been fired in honor of the late Generals Kearney and Stevens. Our news from Washington is very discouraging and our cause never looked so discouraging as now; but we hope the old saying my prove true, "It's always darkest just before dawning." The troops here are all impatient to think we are lying here idle when our services are needed elsewhere.

Tuesday, Sept. 9th

Nothing new in camp and no news from Virginia. In the evening, Companys A & F were ordered to be ready to go up to St. Francis on a scout. Two Companies of the Iowa 4th and 2 pieces of


Artillery and some cavalry are going with us and we expect fighting to do up there.

Wednesday, Sept. 10th

Up at 3:00 A.M., got breakfast by starlight. At 5:00 A.M our train was loaded and off out at 7:00 we marched down to the wharf where the steamer "Hamilton Belle" lay awaiting us; went on board and soon started. A ride of 12 miles up the Mississippi brought us to the mouth of the St. Francis where we turned and went 7 miles where we landed and encamped.

We were allowed to roam and forage at pleasure only limited by our own sense of prudence as there are Guerillas up here. The result of our first days foraging was such a supper: nice fat mutton; sweet potatoes; chickens and Uncle Sam's hard bread and a dessert of peaches, pears, melons, honey, etc. The like of which we had not seen for many a day. There are no Union men in this section of the country.

Thursday, Sept. 11th

Early in the morning we broke camp and prepared to pay a visit to Gen. Pillow's plantation. After a 3 mile march the roads became so bad that our trains couldn't get along and we had to turn back and encamped about noon. Loaded our trains with corn and they are to return to camp in the morning, while we are going up the river as far as the steamer can run to see what we can find up there.

Friday, Sept. 12th

All forenoon was spent in ferrying the teams across the river, during the time we scouted around the country as far as we could. At 1:00 P.M., we started up the river and at 4:00 P.M. had made 16 miles when the boat ran on a sand-bar, and to get her off we had to go ashore and marched 2 miles up the river when she


struck another sand-bar and we had to encamp, which we did on the deck of the boat.

Saturday, Sept. 13th

As we had to remain here all day, we had plenty of time to forage. A squad of us started out with instructions to, "Take nothing which you cannot carry," which was equivalent to take anything we wanted.

We visited a rebel plantation where there was said to be concealed arms. We searched the house and found 1 rifle, 1 shot gun, 1 bowie knife and a pistol, these of course were taken. There was also found some property belonging to Officers who were lost on the steamer "Acacia" which was lost nearly opposite this place. A party of our boys saw some Guerrillas and fired on them and they skedaddled without returning our fire. In the evening, we were drawn up in the line of battle expecting an attack, but the alarm was false and the night passed quietly.

Sunday, Sept. 14th

Bright and early we were up and getting ready to start down the river. We walked below the sand bar and then got on board the steamer and sailed down. When half way down we met the "A.R. Williams" coming up to see what had become of us. Nothing worth notice occurred on the return trip and we arrived at Helena [AR] at 4:00 P.M. in a thunder storm. Found everything quiet and no news.

Monday, Sept. 15th

Spent all day cooking, as we had nothing cooked when we got home. Weather cool.


Tuesday, Sept. 16th

For the first time in a good while we have had a rainy day, so we were obliged to stay in our tents nearly all the time. No News of importance.

Wednesday, Sept. 17th

Rainy forenoon, but pleasant in afternoon so that we had Dress-parade in the eve. Weather cool. I wrote a letter to Mr. and Mrs. Evans. 8000 prisoners were brought down the river today to be exchanged for an equal no. [number] of our men now prisoners.

Sept. 18th, 19th & 20th

Remained in camp. Busy most of the time in cooking and writing. Heard rumors of McClellan's great victory in Maryland. Our Exchanged prisoners came up from below. They look pretty bad. Many of them having been wounded and not yet recovered and nearly all of them having been sick.

Sunday, 21st

Attended service in the Episcopal Church down town. Heard that McClellan had taken 15,000 rebs. Good news.

Monday, Sept. 22nd

This morning while on Battalion Drill an orderly came with a dispatch to the Col. that Gen. McClellan had taken 20,000 and killed as many rebels, and had routed the whole rebel army in Maryland. The news was received with three cheers and a tiger and when we broke ranks cheer upon cheer rose in the air and the boys looked more cheerful than they have for many a day before. To use a phrase more expressive than elegant we were all ready to say, "Bully for McClellan."


Tuesday, Sept. 23

As it was a rainy morning we were excused from Battalion Drill; rained all day and we kept pretty close to our tents.

Wednesday, Sept. 24

Weather quite clear and very cool. Adams, Olney and myself worked nearly all day in carrying lumber to fix up our shanty with, and have got it so it is quite comfortable to live in, and they are much better than our tents in warm weather.

Thursday, Sept. 25th

We drew white flannel shirts, but as we do not like white shirts, Babcock and I got some maple-bark and copperas and colored ours and so many of the boys wanted their colored, we concluded to make a business out of it and have already colored over 40 shirts and have got as many more as we can color tomorrow. Dull about town and camp.

Friday, Sept. 26th

Today I am 23 years old. This is the second birthday I have passed in the service and I am afraid I shall pass yet another in the service. Everything is bustle and confusion as we are ordered to get ready to march nobody know where. Our Company was detailed to unload boats, but I did not have to go. Worked nearly all day in coloring shirts. Some think we are going [to] Batesville[AR] and some to Little Rock; but I hope it is to neither place.

Saturday, Sept. 27th

Our trains are all loaded and we have drawn every thing we need and are ready for a march. Today, finished my third month's cooking and I am tired enough to quit. Worked coloring shirts for the last 3 days and have colored at least 95 and hope we are about


through with it, but many more want theirs colored and if we stay here we shall do it.

Sunday, Sept. 28

Spent most of the day in writing. The day was misty and lowering. Our marching orders have been countermanded and there is now as fair a prospect of our remaining here another month as ever and we are glad of it, for none of us liked the idea of marching westward again.

Monday, Sept. 29th

Had 20 more shirts to color which with cooking, Battalion Drill and Dress Parade occupied most of my time. The hospital-boats "D.A. January" & "H. Choteau" took our sick up the river. Our Company sent 5, two of them my mess-mates, and the Regiment sent 70.

Tuesday, Sept. 30th

Colored about 20 shirts. Charlie commenced helping me cook. In the eve., Ally M. Cash came up to see me, had a very pleasant chat. I learned that we shall soon, probably, leave for Ironton, Missouri.

Wednesday, October 1st

Today, the paymaster came down from St. Louis; we shall soon be paid off and the boys never needed money more that at present.

Thursday, Oct. 2nd

It has been a rainy day and we have done little more than we were obliged to. I went down town through the mud and got some bread and that was pretty near all we had to eat through the day.


Friday, October 3d

Busy all day in cooking and copying a journal. Learned that Generals Steele's and Hovey's Divisions, the 1st & 4th go to Ironton and Gen.'s Wyman & Osterhaus, the 2nd & 3d will remain here until further notice.

Saturday, Oct. 4th

This morning our Company reported 23 men sick and the other Company's in proportion. There was never so much sickness in our Regiment as now. Quite pleasant in forenoon, but steady rain in P.M. Maj. Partridge came back today having been to Illinois on leave of absence.

Sunday, Oct. 5th

Our Company with D, E & G were on chain picket. I was detailed, but when I got out, it was found that only 3 Corporals were needed so I returned to camp. The 1st & 4th Divisions commenced moving up the river. The Iowa 4th was sent out to look after a party of rebels said to be lurking near here.

Monday, Oct. 6th

In the forenoon the paymaster came to our Regiment and in the P.M., we signed the payrolls and were paid off. I received $26. Guarded camp at night.

Tuesday, Oct. 7th

The boys are all busy settling their debts as they always do when they received their pay. I paid all mine, but a good many owe me yet.


Wednesday, Oct. 8th

Went down town and staid all the forenoon. Sent word to the paymaster about the money I sent home by him last payday and which I have not heard from since and am afraid I've lost it entirely.

Thursday, Oct. 9th

A very rainy and cold day. One year ago today we started for Springfield [MO] from Rolla [MO], and it was just such a day as this has been: cold, windy & rainy. But we can keep more comfortable now than we could then, marching in the rain and sleeping on the cold, damp ground. We now begin to need our overcoats and blankets very much, which we left in Springfield, Missouri. Gen. Wyman has sent for them and we shall have them soon.

Friday, Oct. 10th

Charlie and I worked nearly all day cooking and coloring shirts. Weather, cold enough to be very uncomfortable for us, although, if we had been up at the North all Summer we should think nothing of such weather, as there has been no frost here yet.

Saturday, Oct. 11th

We tore our house down and connected it with Charley's, Burkey's and Steffords, and it makes 6 of us a very comfortable house. We mean to get a store and then we shall be nicely fixed out.

Sunday, Oct. 12th

Had so much to do, that I could not attend church. Helped Lieut. Buck do up the money, the boys sent home this time by the paymaster. Went down to the Bakery for bread. Our Company are to report at Headquarters at 6:00 A.M. tomorrow with 1 day's rations in haversack's. We do not know where we are going.


Monday, Oct. 13th

Early this morning, we with Companys A, B, C, D & E were ready to start; marched down to the wharf and were ferried across the river on "Hamilton Belle" and for the first time in my life I set foot in Mississippi. We were to go on picket guard but I did not have to go on till night. 20 of us went out on a scout, but finding nothing contraband we returned. I was on duty 4 hrs. in the night.

Tuesday, Oct. 14

This morning we learned that we were within 1 mile of a camp of 150 Guerrillas, and we had some thoughts of going to the very plantation when they were there. Had we known we should have certainly have paid them a visit and tried our rifled muskets on them, but it is now too late, for they left last night.

At 9:00 A.M., we were relieved by the Indiana boys and returned to camp at 10:00 A.M. I found there two letters awaiting me, one from Brother Ebeneezer acknowledging the receipt of the $74 sent home by the paymaster and the other from Mr. & Mrs. Evans. Spent the day in cooking and went to bed early, tired and sleepy.

Wednesday, Oct. 15

Went down town and had two pictures taken for Lieut's Smith & Buck and I am going to have theirs in return. Weather fine & comfortable.

Thursday, Oct. 16th

Spent all day in town. Worked some in Tinshop for amusement only. I had rather be at work part of the time than lying around camp doing nothing. If I could only get excused from the Company, I could have steady employment here at $2 per day, but being a poor Corporal, I can't get excused on any account.


Friday, Oct. 17th

Worked some fixing our shanty. In the evening went down town to a concert by Smith's Minstrels and passed a very pleasant evening.

Saturday, Oct. 18th

This morning we had some trouble in the mess about cooking, and the result was the division of the mess, 6 of us seceding from the rest and leaving them to get along as best they could. We took half the furniture and fixed our house up, building a chimney and fireplace and making a table, benches, etc., and before night were keeping house as comfortable as any one could wish. A small mess is much more pleasant than a large one, and now I think there will be no grumbling or fault finding, if there is, it will not affect our side of the house.

Sunday, Oct. 19th

We were called up before day light to get ready to go over into Mississippi on picket guard again. We crossed the river about 8 o'clock. We found lying upon the bank the dead body of one of the pickets who had been shot the night before by Guerrillas. We took our posts and remained until next morning without seeing any signs of the enemy. The night was chilly and we suffered some with the cold as we have no overcoats yet.

Monday, Oct. 20th

This morning at 8 o'clock we were relieved by the 11th Indiana boys and got back at 10:00 A.M. Hardly had we got home before the pickets, who had relieved us, were fired upon and driven into the reserve, where they made a stand and routed the rebels and a cavalry force crossed just in time to follow and capture 2 of them. None were killed on either side. Thus again, have we been very


near the enemy and have never seen any force of them. Not a man of our Regiment has ever been killed by a Rebel ball.

Tuesday, Oct. 21st

Last night, the "Gladiator" bound for Memphis was signaled to come ashore for passengers and freight. No sooner had she touched the shore than she was boarded by Guerillas, who fired upon the passengers, killing and wounding several. A soldier backed the boat out into the stream (the engineer being killed) and several of the rebels who could not get ashore were captured and taken prisoners to Memphis. 20 of the passengers are killed & ___ [not given] missing.

Wednesday, Oct. 22nd

Today we colored 30 shirts, which, with the cooking, kept me pretty busy. One of our forage trains was captured with about 90 men of the 5th Illinois Cavalry. The rebs are plenty a short distance west from here and I believe if it were not for our gunboats, they would attack us here. Indeed, they say we dare not come out from the cover of our gunboats and fight them.

Thursday, Oct. 23

Felt rather unwell but kept at work cooking and coloring. Our Company was on Brigade chain guard. Weather cool but not uncomfortable.

Friday, Oct. 24

Our Company was on duty in town unloading boats. Received a letter from Champaign, Illinois. Loaned Burleigh $5.00 for Gould, who went North sick.


Saturday, October 25th

Left camp at 7:00 A.M. Went over into Mississippi on picket guard. The weather was cloudy and cold, and about noon we had quite a flurry of snow. A thing which was never before known so early in the season and a thing which I never saw before, a snow storm before there had been a particle of frost, which there had not been but last eve it froze standing water ź an inch thick on top. As we were thinly dressed we suffered much from the cold on picket. We took 3 prisoners whom we sent over the river for safe keeping.

Sunday, October 26th

Relieved at 9 o'clock returned to camp at 11:00. Weather pleasant but cold. A little snow fell on the North side of the shanty and tents. Boys busy at work building fire places to keep Jack Frost out of their houses.

Monday, Oct. 27th

As I have been cooking nearly all the time for 4 months, I am tired of it and accidentally resigned and Adams will take my place. Went down and had a picture taken to send to Belvidere, Illinois.

Tuesday, Oct. 28th

Spent the day in writing & copying my journal. The 24 Iowa came in last night and 10 more Iowa Regiments are expected soon.

Wednesday, Oct. 29th

We were on duty on Brigade Chain guard. I was on duty 8 hours. A rebel boat came up from Little Rock to exchange prisoners. She neglected to fire a signal gun, but run up with the rebel flag flying and snubbed against our wharf-boat for which piece of imprudence she will be detained and confiscated and sent North.


The boys gathered around the boat and said they would shoot their mast down unless they lowered the rebel flag, which they soon did, leaving a white one in its place. Several of their men deserted and say they will never go in Rebel service again.

Thursday, Oct. 30th

The fort here is completed and today fired a salute of 13 guns, replied to by the gun-boats and land batteries. The promotion of our Officers were announced to the Company; 1st Lieut. Smith becoming Capt, and 2nd Lieut Buck, 1st Lieut., (and non-commissioned) 1st Seargt. Loring, 2nd, and non-commissioned officers promoted according to rank.

Friday, Oct. 31st

At 10:00 A.M. we were mustered for payment. 6 Companies were on picket over the river. I went downtown and bought a bbl. [barrel] of sweet potatoes, for which I paid $4.25. Sent a letter to Bro. E.B.

Saturday, Nov. 1st

Our Company on Brigade Chain guard, but I did not have to go on. Weather beautiful. Spent the day in reading and writing.

Sunday, Nov. 2nd

Attended church in town. Preaching by Dr. Wood of Chicago, also attended in eve., preaching by Dr. Emery of Quincy, Illinois.

Monday, Nov. 3d

Spent A.M. in town and P.M. in camp, doing nothing. Every thing dull around here and no news from abroad.


Tuesday & Wednesday, Nov. 4th & 5th

Weather cool, but pleasant. No duty to do in camp, wood details.

Thursday, Nov. 6th

On picket guard over the river. Weather cold and disagreeable. The 29th Regiment [Wisconsin] came down today and encamped on the Mississippi side, so we shall not have to go over there on picket any more. They are new troops and appear rather green.

Friday, Nov. 7th

At 7:00 A.M. we were relieved by the 29th Wisconsin and returned to camp. The 30th Iowa came in today. The blankets which we left in Springfield came in good order today; but they will not let us have our gray overcoats, but we are to have blue ones instead.

Saturday, Nov. 8th

Eastman of Company E was buried today. Weather cool and windy. Considerable talk among the boys about enlisting in the regular army, for my part I am regular enough now.

Sunday, Nov. 9th

Attended church in town. Preaching by Chaplain of 11th Indiana Infantry. He is decidedly the smartest minister I have heard, since in the service.

Monday, Nov. 10th

Called by reveille before daylight. Prepared 2 days rations and at 7:00 A.M. we were ready to start on scouting and foraging expedition. There were 6 Companies of Infantry, 3 of Cavalry, and a section of Artillery. The Infantry took the Boat "A.J. Williams"


and steamed up the river. The Cavalry and Artillery went with a train of 160 wagons.

At 9:00 A.M., we reached the mouth of the St. Francis River [AR], went up it about 3 miles, when we came in sight of the train. They had seen two 25 Guerrillas, till reinforced by the Infantry, they dare not attack them, but the rebels had run as soon as they saw our advance.

We landed and I was detailed to take out a picket guard. I took two men and went out to where the Car [?] picket of 8 men was standing and they returned to their Company and the train moved on to the ferry and then we brought up the rear. We crossed the river and encamped. In the evening, cooked our supper of fresh port, etc., and made our beds in the sand & went to sleep.

Tuesday, Nov. 11th

Got up early and went to work picking corn. Work hard all day and picked more corn than I have since I left Illinois. In the evening, we went over the river and slept in the woods. It was a rainy night, but we kept pretty comfortable by building large fires.

Wednesday, Nov. 12th

It took all the A.M. to ferry the train across the river. We stood by the fire drying our clothes and blankets. About noon we were ready to start for home. A detail of 1 Company and 25 [men] was called for to return with the train. I drew lots with Corporal Kerr, and it fell to him and the rest of us returned on the boat and a ride of two hours brought us to Helena [AR]. The train got stalled and had to remain all night.

Thursday, Nov. 13th

Be rather tired and having no duty to do, I did nothing but go down town and then write up this journal from the 9th [Nov.].


Friday, Nov. 14th

Nothing going on in camp until 5:00 P.M. when we had a Dress Parade. Ordered to prepare 3 days rations and be prepared to start on an expedition down the river.

Saturday, Nov. 15th

Early in the morning we were up and getting ready for a start. At 4:00 P.M., we formed in order on the parade ground. Marched down town and got on board of the magnificent steamer, "Imperial," one of the largest, fastest and finest on the river. The boats to compose the fleet are partly loaded with Quartermaster's supplies and our men had detail all night to unload our boat. We have on board the 13th Illinois, the 4th Iowa, the 1st Iowa, and one Battalion of the 3d Iowa Cavalry.

Sunday, Nov. 16th

At 10:00 A.M. our fleet formed in line on the river and we were ready for a start. Not until now was I aware of the size and strength of the Expedition. First in line comes the "Hiawatha," "Nebraska," "Ohio Belle," "Tecumsah," "City Belle (the flagship), "Imperial," "Satan," "Catahoula," "Decatur," "Key West," "Gladiator," "Meteor," "Rocket," and "Lake City." 15 large boats completely loaded down with troops, certainly not less than 2000 men.

We steamed slowly down and at dark had got 45 miles commenced raining, and as we occupied the Hurricane deck it came rather hard on us, until 8:00 P.M. our Officers took the responsibility of letting us go into the cabins against the express orders of the Capt. of the Boat. Here we slept till morning. At 9:00 P.M. cast anchor.


Monday, Nov. 17th

Before daylight I was awakened by the men weighing anchor and in a few minutes we were under weigh. At 7:00 A.M., the "Carondolet" got on a sand bar and we had to round to, until she got off, which was at 11:00 A.M. About 5:00 P.M., we reached the mouth of the White River[AR] and ran in for the shore and tied up till morning. As the decks were still wet and cold many of the boys went into the hold but I made my nest in a box of sawdust, 4 ft. square.

Tuesday, Nov. 18

About 12:00, Midnight, our boat started back up the stream. Ran up 7 miles and landed the cavalry we had on board. Ran part of the way back and found the rest of the fleet up, so we followed suit and tied up too.

We were here transferred to the Decatur a boat of much lighter draft than the Imperial. The 29th Wisconsin and 30th Iowa were already on board and when we got on we were so crowded we could hardly find standing room, much less room to sit or lie down. In a short time we started down the river and at 2:30 P.M. we entered the mouth of the White River and ran up it, 3 miles and came upon a bar and we all disembarked and tried to run the empty boat over the falls but to no purpose.

We are now within 15 miles of a fortification, which was the purpose of this expedition to take, where it is said the Rebels have 15 guns and from 15 to 25,000 men, but we cannot get at them now, nor till the river is much higher than now. It being a rainy night, we took refuge in the hold and slept on the muddy floor below the river.


Wednesday, Nov. 19th

Got up at daylight; went on shore, cooked our breakfast, and then started for the Mississippi, again on foot. The Decatur got there before us and we went on board and got our knapsacks and things which we had left and crossed the river to where the Imperial was lying. We went on board and felt like giving 3 cheers when we got where we could clean up and sit down once more. The whole fleet moved up the river a short distance and tied up where they lay the rest of the day and night.

Thursday, Nov. 20th

The fleet lay here all day and the boys had plenty of chances to go out foraging and have brought in lots of meat, chickens, etc. Just at dark we moved up the river a mile and tied to the Mississippi side. The "Gladiator" has gone to Helena and it is expected back tomorrow with orders for us.

Friday, Nov. 21st

About 9:00 A.M. we started up the river to meet the Gladiator. Met the gunboats Lexington & Tyler going down. At 11:00 A.M. the Gladiator brought orders to return to Helena as soon as possible. With these orders we put on steam and just ran away from the rest of the fleet and arrived at Helena at 5:00 P.M., five hours in advance of the rest of the fleet. We have made a round trip of over 200 miles and it has amounted to — just nothing. All the enemy we saw was a party of 20 rebels who ran as soon as they saw us. Found everything as we left it at H — [Helena] except arrival of 2 new Regiments 27 & 28 Iowa.

Saturday, Nov. 22

As we had no duty to do in camp and being too tired to ramble around much, we kept pretty quiet all day. I went down town in the evening & went to Smith's Minstrels.


Sunday, Nov. 23d

Attended church, preaching by Chaplain of 47th Indiana Infantry.

Monday, Nov. 24th

Went down town with Capt. Smith. Had Company drill at 9:30 A.M. Dress Parade at 5:00 P.M. Spent most of the day in writing.

Tuesday, Nov. 25th

Wrote to my niece Anna Stewart. Sent journal to Bro. Wm. Drill from 8:30 to 10:30 A.M.

Wednesday, Nov. 26th

Busy all day getting ready to leave in the morning. I was placed on guard but was relieved at night by Company E as they aren't going with us.

Thursday, Nov. 27th

At 5:00 A.M. left camp; went down town and embarked on the Nebraska, but did not leave until noon. The fleet was the same as that first expedition ran down the river and the whole force, about 10,000 men, landed. We here learned that our course was into central Mississippi, some where, but for what purpose we don't know. We have an immense amount of commissary stores with us, and may possibly see [Gen.] Grant's army before we return. Made up our beds on bank of the River and rested till next morning.

Friday, Nov. 28th

At daylight, we were ready to march. We formed the rear of the 1st Division. Marched until noon, when we halted for Dinner, rested about an hour, and then marched until dark, making 22 miles. As it has been so long since we have done any marching it


was rather tough on us, and we were very lame and sore, but not so bad as the conscripts as we call those who enlisted for a big bounty. We camped in a thick cane brake and slept well.

Saturday, Nov. 29th

Woke in the morning very much rested, but still and sore from yesterday's march. Started at sunrise and marched steadily until noon, when we stopped and cooked our dinner. Rested 1˝ hours and marched till 5:00 P.M. and reached camp at the mouth of the Cold-Water River [MS] having made 8 miles.

Our advance found a party of rebels sitting on the bank of the river, threw a shell and killed three of them and the rest skedaddled in double quick time. Some of ours who were lame and fell behind were attacked by the Guerillas and were taken, and according to some accounts were killed, others say they were dressed butternut clothes and carried off as prisoners.

Sunday, Nov. 30th

Moved up ˝ mile to the ferry across the Hatchie River. Laid there encamped all day. Some of the boys went out foraging and brought in lots of sweet potatoes, salt pork, etc. Had a roll call once in two hours to prevent boys from leaving camp without orders. The night was raining and we had no way to do, but lie on the ground and take it as it fell.

Monday, Dec. 1st

We weren't allowed to leave camp at all, expecting an attack all the while, so we laid around camp till 4:00 P.M. when a long roll beat through the camp calling us into line of battle. A dispatch came in to effect that our cavalry were fighting at Panola, [MS] 27 miles distant and that we were needed there at once. We got started at 4:00 P.M., and went at a 2:40 Pace, but when we had gone 8 miles, orders came to return to camp. With great dissatisfaction we about


faced and marched back to camp, reached there at 9:00 P.M., but when we got there all our protection was gone and we had to lie on the damp ground.

Tuesday, Dec. 2n

Awakened at 5:00 P.M., by the long roll being beaten and we were soon in line, and were ordered by Gen. Hovey to remain till further orders, but the morning was chilly and ranks soon broken. At 8:00 we got breakfast and at 8:30 our Company was detailed on commissary guard. As Olney was absent, I had to take his place, there was no place to sleep so I sat up all night.

Wednesday, Dec. 3d

Relieved from guard at 10:00 A.M. Slept a good share of the day. Weather quite warm and pleasant. In the evening the artillery took position on the bank of the river and threw up breast works of logs to protect the gunners. We were ordered to sleep on our arms, expecting a night attack.

Thursday, Dec. 4th

Reveille at 5:00 A.M. and orders for roll-call every 2 hours to prevent me from leaving camp. The contrabands were kept at work all day, building rifle pits on each side of artillery pieces for sharpshooters to stand in and pick off Enemy's artillerists.

Friday, Dec. 5th

Reveille at 4:00 A.M. Left camp at 5:30. It had been raining all night and our blankets were wet and heavy and the roads were muddy and our day's march, 16 miles, was a hard one. Got in camp at 4:00 P.M. marched back in the direction of the Mississippi River.


Saturday, Dec. 6th

Broke camp at daylight and soon passed the place where we camped when coming out. Made 17 miles and encamped at 3:00 P.M. in the door yard of a large plantation. The house was deserted and some of the troops occupied it, but we occupied the ground with the sky for a cover. One of the 28th Iowa was shot by a Rebel a short distance from camp. Night cold and uncomfortable.

Sunday, Dec. 7th

Before daylight we were on one road to the river. The distance was 7 miles, which we soon made and found boats there to take us to Helena, but we did not get started till nearly noon. We were on the "Empress" and a run of 2 hrs. brought us to town. We reached camp at 3:00 P.M. and a happy set of boys we were to get back to our comfortable houses and the boys were as glad to see us as we were to see them.

We find that the rumor that we were to take a supply train to Grant's army is incorrect, as we brought back all the supplies we took with us, except what we used when out there. All that we can learn is that the Cavalry destroyed the R.R. at Panola, the infantry being held in reserve. So ends [Gen.] Hovey's second Expedition.

Monday, Dec. 8th,

Had no duty to do and did not get up early. Spent day in writing letters.

Tuesday, Dec. 9th

Spent most of the day in town. They are building many new Government Houses, sutler stores, etc., as though we're likely to remain here through the winter and certainly they can suit us no better for we are very comfortably situated.


Wednesday, Dec. 10th

Last night Gen's. Gorman, Thayer and Chas. Hovey arrived in town. Today our Brigade was reviewed by Gen. Gorman who takes command here. The best review we have ever had as our Brigade is larger & better than ever before. Weather fine.

Thursday, Dec. 11th

Went down town with Lieut. Buck. He had a picture taken for me. Dress Parade at 4:30 P.M. Weather cloudy, little rain.

Friday & Sat., Dec. 12 & 13

Two rainy, dark & gloomy days. Mud so deep we could not stir round camp much. Had no duty to do and felt rather lonely. Plenty of time for reading and writing.

Sunday, Dec. 14

Weather cloudy, but not much rain. Inspection at 9:00 A.M. Too muddy to go to church.

Monday, Dec. 15th

Today we learned that there is to be an expedition to start from here on the 18th of this month for Vicksburg and as is usual the case where there is fighting to be done, we are left behind to hold the post of Helena. Gen. Wyman does not like it at all; but Gen. Gorman will give him no satisfaction about going.

Tuesday, Dec. 16th

This morning our Regimental Officers held a consultation; the result of which was to constitute themselves a "Committee of the Whole" to wait on Gen. Gorman and urge our claim up on him which they did and returned with the intelligence that the 28th Iowa had been marched off and the 13th substituted in its place. This pleases some, and displeases others, but if we are to go directly to


Vicksburg, all are satisfied, but we were too well off here to wish for a tramp through interior Mississippi.

Wednesday, Dec. 17th

Ordered to have inspection at 10:00 A.M. but waited all day, and the Inspector did not come. At night, ordered to be ready to march in the morning. I went to hear the Harmonists in the evening.

Thursday, Dec. 18th

Morning came but no orders to march today. At 10:00 A.M., we were reviewed by Lieut. Gorman, a regular Officer on Gen. Gorman's staff. Spent the day in making preparations to Leave. Sent a box of things to Bro. Enoch.

Friday, Dec. 19

Expecting every hour to be ordered to march and now that we know we are to go, we are anxious to be off. In the evening, I went down to the Ordnance Office to turn over our extra guns. Saw Allie Nash.

Saturday, Dec. 20

No orders, as yet, to move. Our Company turned over our cartridge boxes and drew new ones. I went down to the Ordnance Office and saw Allie Nash again. Pretty certain that we shall leave tomorrow.

Sunday, Dec. 21

All last night, Gen. Sherman's fleet was coming down from Memphis, and the continual ringing of bells and blowing of whistles kept us awake a good share of the night. As soon as daylight, I went down to the levee to see the fleet. The wharf was lined with boats crowded with troops, mostly from Ohio, Indiana &


Missouri. At 11:00 A.M. we received orders to start and in a very short time broke camp and the 28th Iowa, immediately took possession of it. Embarked on the steamer "John Warner" a medium sized and very good boat. Our Regiment occupied it alone, and had to work by details all night to coal her for the trip. I did not do any work, but there was so much noise I did not sleep much. Night starlight and warm.

[On the 22nd of December the regiment, with an immense fleet, moved down the Mississippi, and, on the 26th, under convoy of the gunboats, moved up the Yazoo river to the attack on the city in the east.] (Boies]

Monday, Dec. 22

All things being ready, we left Helena at 11:00 A.M. Our Brigade occupied the boats "Ella" with Gen. Thayer on board, "Tecumsah," "Satan," "Decatur," and "Jack Warner." We ran down to Friars Point[MS], 20 miles from Helena, and tied up for the night. At this point the whole fleet got together. It consisted of the gun boats Lexington, Tyler, Benton, Cincinnati, Louisville, Carondelet and one or two others with the ammunition boats, navy hospitals, etc., with the transports: [Chapel listed these by number which are omitted here. Total of those listed: 76.]

Adriate, Alhambra, Arogle, Belle Padia, Blue Winy, Crescent City, Continental, Conway, Cheesenias, City of Madison, City of Memphis, Citizen, City of Alton, Champion, Chancellor, Die Vernon, Des Moines, Des Taylor, Decatur, Des Arc, Duke of Aigula, Empress, Emma, Ella, Ed Walsh, Fanny Bullet, Forest Queen(?), Fanny Ogden, Gladiator, Gen. Anderson, Hiawatha, Isabella, Iatau(n?), Iowa, Jessie Bell, John Warner, John J. Rowe, J.S. Pringle, John S. Dickey, J.C. Swan, Key West, Keunet, Lady Jackson, Louisiana, Luzerene, Meteor, Metropolitan, Northerner, Nebraska, Nere[?]Uncle Sam, Ohio Belle, Omaha, Pembina,


Polar Star, Post Boy, R.J. Williams, Robert Carr, Robert Allen, Sucker State, Spread Eagle, Souix City, Sunny South, Dacotah, Thos. E. Tuck, Tecumseh, U.S. Corl, Universe, Von Phul, War Eagle, Westmoreland, Same Gatz, Planet, South Western, Warsaw, White Cloud, Robert Campbell and many others whose names I could not learn.

Tuesday, Dec. 23

At 4:00 A.M., we were awakened by a cannonshot, fired as a signal for starting and in a few minutes we were under way. The morning was windy, cloudy and cold and our new over coats were very comfortable.

At 11:00 A.M. we passed the mouth of the White river and then were as far south as we had ever been. At 2:00 P.M., passed Napoleon[AR] and the mouth of the Arkansas river, the water of the Arkansas is a dirty brick color and very bad to use. We ran till 8:00 P.M. when we tied up to the shore, having made 120 mile since morning.

It was a splendid sight to watch the almost innumerable green and red lights on the boats where we landed. On both sides of the river the shores were lighted up and to make it still more grand, the houses and cotton gins on each side of the river were fired and the air was completely filled with burning cotton. Altogether it was a scene not soon to be forgotten.

Wednesday, Dec. 24

We did not leave the landing till 11:00 A.M. then made pretty good time through the P.M. and did not stop till 4:00 A.M. next day. Nothing worthy of notice occurred on the way. There is tiresome monotony in the scenery along the river here. The land low and swampy with here & there deserted plantations and then again nothing but stunted trees for mile along.


At 8:00 P.M. we crossed the line into Louisiana and at 4:00 A.M. tied up at Millikens Bend, 20 miles from Vicksburg, having made 130 miles. Weather very warm, so much so as to be slightly uncomfortable in the middle of the day. It is said that we are but 8 miles in a direct line from Vicksburg, but 20 by river. We expect soon to smell rebel gunpowder.

Thursday, December 25th

Christmas morning. Got up as soon as it was daylight and for the first time set foot on Louisiana soil. Weather as fine as I ever saw in Sept. in Malta, Illinois. The fleet lay still all the afternoon and the boys improved the time by visiting from boat to boat and nearly all of us found some friends in the Regiments that had come down from Cairo [IL] & Memphis [TN]. I found some Malta Boys in the 55th Illinois that I had not seen since I enlisted. Had a very pleasant chat with them. In the P.M. we untied and ran 14 miles so the mouth of the Yazoo River. In the eve. the 55th Illinois Boys came down again and I passed a very pleasant evening with them.

Friday, Dec. 26th

At 9:00 A.M. we pulled out into the stream, turned into the Yazoo river, and ran up about 12 miles and landed on the side next to Vicksburg; formed in line, and stacked arms. We soon heard the boom of cannon announcing the commencement of the bombardment of the city. We are in the rear of the city and I suppose the gunboats are in front.

Our Brigade formed and marched in the direction of the city. When out about 2 miles, we came upon the rebel pickets. They were just cooking their dinner and had to get up and leave everything, horses, cooking utensils, dinner and all. When out 4 miles we took a prisoner who said we were within 1˝ miles of their fortifications, where there are about 6000 sechers. Upon


receiving this news, a halt was made and we then marched back, a short distance to water, and camped for the night.

I think I shall remember as long as I live, the way I spent the Christmas of 1862, Lying under the guns of the enemy of Vicksburg, Mississippi.

On the morning of the 27th, the whole army was drawn up, the 13th, in Steele's division, on the left. During the afternoon the rebel pickets were driven in, and the regiment went into camp for the night in a furious rain-storm. In the morning the regiment was engaged in skirmishing, and during the afternoon a dashing charge was made upon a rebel battery by the 13th and 16th Illinois, under General Wyman. He had placed himself at the head of the 13th, and the regiment was moving on the battery, and had arrived at a small bayou, silenced the rebel guns upon the opposite side, and lay down and began firing on the sharpshooters who swarmed in the woods. As General Wyman rose up to move among his men, he was struck by a rebel bullet in the right breast and mortally wounded. The fall of the General was a terrible shock to the regiment. Several officers rushed to his assistance, but he cried, "For God's sake leave me and attend to the men." The regiment remained there some time, and were subsequently moved to another part of the field. At this time Porter D. West and Isaiah Babcock of Company F were severely wounded.

On that night the men lay on their arms in line of battle, destitute of blankets, although the weather was freezing. [Boies]

Saturday, Dec. 27th

Marched early in the morning. Had not proceeded far when our advance was fired upon by the rebel pickets and about 1 mile farther we came upon a squad of 50, who retreated as soon as they saw us.

We now formed in line of battle and marched a short distance through the woods, which were filled with underbrush,


making it almost impossible to keep up the line. As we came to the edge of the woods fronting a large open field, they opened fire upon us with artillery from the woods on the opposite side. Almost in an instant, the 1st Iowa, 1st Missouri and 4th Ohio Batteries were brought up and wheeled into position and returned the fire with interest. Our position was to support the 4th Ohio Battery and the order came, "To the ground men!" and lying on the ground, the enemy's shot and shell whistled harmlessly over our heads, although pieces of shell fell pretty close to us. A brisk artillery skirmish was kept up for about an hour, when the enemy having ceased to reply to our shots, the firing ceased for awhile. The enemy could be seen at work on their fortifications on a hill, about 2 miles distant and the Chicago Battery of 24-lb. Parrot guns took position and commenced throwing shells at them, causing them to scatter in every direction.

Toward evening another Battery went out and fired a few shots and the rebel Infantry attempted to take it but did not succeed. As it was now growing dark, things remained in this position, with occasional exchanges.

On the 29th [December] occurred the grand desperate charge upon the rebel works on Chickasaw Bayou, in which the regiment lost one-third of its number.

About nine o'clock a line was formed for an assault upon the batteries. They stood on eminences, in horse-shoe form; and, in the terrible abyss into which shot and shell from three sides were pouring, the regiment was formed for a charge. There were three brigades: and the 13th was in the brigade under command of General Frank P. Blair. Most of this brigade was composed of new troops; so that the veterans of the 13th were required to lead the charge.

Into all this terrible storm of shot and shell the 13th marched without faltering. They captured two lines of rebel rifle-pits;


and when they reached the third line, very few remained of this brigade but a scattered remnant of the 13th. [Boies]

Monday, Dec. 29th

Early in the morning we formed in line of battle and so remained till 11:45 A.M. when all ready for the charge. Our Brigade was to enter at the front and Gen. Thayers to the right. As the signal, our column advanced in quick time to the edge of the wood. Here we had to descend a steep bank into a ravine of about ˝ mile in width which had been blockaded by the rebels by cutting small trees about 2 ft. from the ground and felling them in every direction. In the center of this was a bayou with water about 2 ft. deep. We took a double-quick step across this ravine, keeping in line as well as we could and get over the brush and we reached the bank on the opposite side without the loss of a man, although the enemy were pouring in their fire from the batteries beyond. Here we halted to recover breath and then climbed the breast-work.

We were now at their first rifle pits; crossed these and stood upon a wide open plain of about a mile in length and ˝ mile in breadth. On the bluffs on the opposite side, arranged in a semicircular form, were the enemy's fortifications and artillery, which we were trying to take. The field was filled with rifle pits cut in every direction and filled with sharp shooters; while the brow of the hill was covered with Regiment upon Regiment of rebel infantry. Here began the work in earnest.

Our line was broken up by the 16th Ohio lying in the rifle pit, out of which the enemy had retreated and the only way we could do was to press forward, every man for himself. We advanced on a run, under a murderous cross fire of artillery from over 30 cannon and Regiment after Regiment poured their fire into us, still we kept on. It rained a perfect shower of shot and shell around us; men were falling on every side, but with General Blair


on the field himself, his sword waving over his head, and his hearty voice cheering us on, we never thought of turning back

Shells were bursting over our heads and on every side of us and one piece struck me on the leg, causing me to fall and bruising me severely. My canteen was all shot to pieces by my side and it seemed impossible that anyone could escape, but all our efforts were in vain. When we were within a short distance of the works, the Gen.[Blair] saw we could never take them and ordered a retreat. This we did in the same manner we advanced, every man for himself and we arrived under cover of the woods at 1:00 P.M., having been under fire 1˝ hours.

But Oh! what a sight was our Brigade and our Regiment. Many of our poor fellows lay dead, or wounded on the field, and the woods were filled with men bearing off their wounded comrades. The loss of our Regiment in killed, wounded and missing was 179, over ź of the men we took into action. Our color bearer was shot and our colors fell into the hands of the enemy as, also, did those of some other Regiments.

Companys D, E, F & G suffered the most. Our Company (F) lost 21 men, Capt. Smith, right arm shot off, Seargt.[?] Wyman wounded in the thigh; Seargt Olney, in the shoulder; Corp. Kerr in leg, amputated and has since died; Barton, missing; Burbank, wounded in leg; Campbell, in hand; Deiley, in body and arm, supposed to be dead; Gaudy wounded in shoulder; Hartman, slightly; Houghton, missing; Merrill, wounded in leg; Meyers, on arm; Orr, in leg; Partridge in arm, seriously; Phelps, in hand; Russell, killed; Secord, missing and many wounded slightly but not reported.

We retired a mile from the field and encamped. It rained hard all night and I never laid down or went to sleep, all night. The rebels would not allow us upon the field, under a flag of truce, to take care of our wounded or bury our dead and they had to lay


there all night exposed to the cold rain with the exception of a few that our nurses stole up on the field and took care of.

The Gens. here say the 13th fought as well as men could and for this we are thankful, that, whether we ever get home or not we have a good name to send. Participants at Pea Ridge [AR] and Shiloh [TN] say that no Regiment there were exposed to such an awful fire as we here at Walnut Ridge. [MS]

They were now within thirty rods of the fortifications. Of the 600 men who started, 177 were either killed, wounded or captured. Of 63 men of Company F, 22 were killed, wounded and missing. Captain R.A. Smith, who had gallantly led his company to the third rifle-pit, lost his arm while in the advance, but bound it up and continued with the troops until the charge was over. [Boies]

December 30, Tuesday

Felt rather badly, having been standing around in the rain all night and my leg was quite lame and we were very thankful that we were allowed all day for rest. Just at night we moved our camp a short distance and remained through the night, which was clear, but quite cold one. I slept more, in all, than I have since I left the boat.

If we could have captured the fortifications, which we had now so nearly accomplished, the road to Vicksburg would have been open to us, and all the loss of life and property that subsequently occurred in the struggle for its capture would have been saved.

But the day was full of misfortunes; the divisions moved without concert of action. No reinforcements were sent forward, and, after holding their ground for half an hour, the order came to retire; and, as similar misfortunes had occurred at other points, the day was lost. The grand attack upon Vicksburg had failed, and the country was much depressed. [Boies]


Wednesday, Dec. 31

Our Brigade received orders to march on a secret expedition at 8:00 P.M. with two day's rations. We lay around all day and in the evening lit big camp fires to lead the enemy to believe that we were to remain there over night. Left camp without any noise, not a word being spoken loud, any guns carried at "trail" arms. Marched down to the Continental and embarked, expecting to move to some other point. The night was very cold and we suffered very much for want of blankets and were very glad when daylight came, which found us still lying at the landing, where we got on the night before.

Thursday, Jan. 1st [1863]

New Years, but not a very happy one to us. Weather quite comfortable. Lay on the Continental till dark, when orders came to disembark and go aboard the Warner, which was lying two miles below and right glad were we to get back on our own boat and to have our knapsacks and blankets, but what a difference in our ranks when we left the boat and now. When we were then crowded for room we have now plenty in the same space. My bed-fellow (Olney) is lying wounded on the City of Memphis, but I am thankful that it is no worse. Remained at the landing all night and enjoyed a good nights rest.

Friday, Jan. 2

I went down to the City of Memphis to see our wounded boys. Found them as comfortable as could be expected, but Olney has an ugly wound in his shoulder. The ball is yet in there and cannot be found.

At 2:00 P.M., the fleet pulled out into the river; ran down the old channel, and a little before 4:00 P.M. we tied up on the Louisiana shore of the Mississippi River, remained there until after dark when we were ordered up to Millikens Bend. The night was


dark, rainy and foggy and it was very difficult and dangerous running. We put up some tents on the Hurricane deck, but were in danger of swamping our boat from having too much sail upon her and had to take them down in double quick time and then lay exposed to a terrible rain storm all night. Got to the Bend at 10:30 P.M. and laid over until morning. The troops are all with drawn and the rebels are in peaceable possession of Vicksburg again.

Saturday, Jan.3d

A very rainy day. We moved up a short distance and laid by through the day. At 8:30 P.M., we came for a picket guard and [Co's.] F & G were detailed. It was raining like great guns at the time, but we had to go and it was not much worse than staying on the boat for we could not get out of the rain anywhere, but fortunately for us it cleared up soon after we went out and the remainder of the night was moonlight and pleasant.

Sunday,Jan. 4

Lay in shore nearly all day. Weather very fine. Just before night pulled up a short distance to where we could get wood and wooded up our boat. Started up again and were working slowly along all night, stopping occasionally for wood and once to draw rations off the Adriatic. The night was beautiful, and though we had not rested much for several nights it was more pleasant to remain up and watch the river and the boats than to go to bed, and I staid up nearly all night. I took a good nap just before morning, which refreshed me a good deal.

Monday, Jan. 5

Worked slowly along up the river sometimes towing a gunboat along and again stopping to help a boat that had run ashore. In course of the day got up to Game's Landing where we


staid over night on the downward trip. Stopped one night here again.

Tuesday, Jan. 6

Received a mail today. A letter from Rachael. It seems as though we were making no headway up the river. We have no coal and have to stop very often for wood which is very poor stuff at best to fire a Steam-boat with. We had to tow the gun boat Louisville all night and in the morning were 30 miles below Napoleon, Arkansas.

Rain all day. Passed Napoleon [AR] about noon and just before dark reached the mouth of the White River. The whole fleet tied up and it is rumored we are to make an expedition up the river.

Wednesday, Jan. 7

Laid tied up to shore all day, not certain which way we are going yet.

Thursday, Jan. 8

Went over to the Luzem for coal for our boat. Took on 500 bushels and went back to the Mississippi shore. In the evening went back again and were taking coal all night. Ordered to start up White River at 8:00 A.M. tomorrow.

Friday, Jan. 9

Early in the morning we went over to the Adriatic to draw rations; but other boats were ahead of us and we had to start up the river without them. Ran up the river to the Arkansas cut off; turned into that, and ran through to the Arkansas up which we ran 60 miles and tied up. Remained here all night.

Up the Arkansas river was Arkansas Post, a strong fortification to protect that river, and to McClernand was assigned


the task of capturing it. Steele's division, in which was the 13th Illinois, was among the troops. After a day of hard fighting, Arkansas Post was forced to surrender to the Union arms; and with it five thousand prisoners were taken, and a large amount of munitions of war. It was a victory that raised the hopes and the spirits of the country, and greatly cheered the hearts of the soldiers. [Boies]

Saturday, Jan. 10

Dissembled early. About a mile below Arkansas Post. Which is our purpose to take. Remained in the field near the boats until after noon. When we were ordered forward. Moved to the right, about a mile, through a swamp, when we were met by an orderly and ordered back. Went back near the boats and stacked arms and in a few minutes our whole Division had returned. Gen. Thayer's Brigade soon moved out to the front and we had just got some good fires built and were prepared to cook some supper when we (Blair's Brig.) were ordered out, but owing to some obstruction in the road and the darkness we moved only a short distance and encamped for the night. About 11:00 P.M. our train came by and we got some supper and went to bed about 1:00 A.M.

Sunday,Jan. 11th

Moved early in the morning. Took a circuitous rout and came out near the river, above the fort. The gunboats and land batteries soon opened fire on the fort and entrenchments and continued shelling them all afternoon. At about 1:00 P.M. our infantry opened fire and the gun-boats moving up close there was an incessant booming of cannon and rattle of musketry for 3 hours when the enemy's cannon being disabled they hoisted the white flag.

Our loss was 240 killed, wounded and missing. Enemy's, much more. Our Brigade was held in reserve, consequently were not exposed to much fire. The loss of our Regiment was 2


wounded. We took over 6000 prisoners, among whom were 2 Brig. Gens.; 29 pieces of cannon; 18 siege & 11 field pieces. Every artillery horse of the enemy was killed and their heaviest cannon disabled and the case mated [made?] fort knocked edgeways.

From the moment our colors floated over their works till after dark cheer after cheer sound till everything rang. It is a great victory and partly makes up for our defeat at Vicksburg. They had built log huts for the winter and lots of supplies. I acted as color guard, but prefer my own company.

Monday, Jan. 12

I took a walk over the battlefield and gathered some relics. Moved into the rebel barracks at 9:00 A.M. Our Regiment occupying 5 streets & our Company 5 houses, which makes up plenty of room. Our mess occupies the Rebel Lieutenants Quarters. Spent day in cleaning & putting new bunks in. They tell us we are to remain here for a time. For the first time since I left Helena [AR] I undressed & slept well.

Tuesday, Jan. 13

Wakened at daylight by Reveille. Quite a new thing as we have not heard reveille before for 3 weeks. Had a nice Johnny-cake make of sechers corn-meal for breakfast. Spent half the forenoon on the battlefield and just got back, when Adjutant Jenks sent for me to do some writing for him. Spent 3 or 4 hrs. in writing general orders, when another general order came for us to Embark immediately on the Warner. This is the way it always is, as soon as we begin to be comfortable, we have to get up and move.

We were ordered to put every thing combustible in the houses and fire them, which we did and at 3:00 P.M. we started for the boats, leaving nothing but smoking ruins. The rifle Pits are filled up & the fort being demolished as fast as possible & soon the Fort [Hindman] at Arkansas Post, will remain, only, in History.


We were busy loading all night. I volunteered to stand guard for the sake of having a dry place to sleep,

Wednesday, Jan. 14th

From daylight to dark it continued to rain in perfect torrents, not even holding up long enough (and ran down the old channel) for us to cook anything. The new Mentor came up from the Mississippi River. She carries two 13 inch Dahlgren guns and is one of the best gun-boats ever built. Toward night it began to grow cold and we had to leave the deck and hunt places below. Hartman and I laid (not slept) down on some cord wood near the boiler. About 12:00 P.M. it began to snow and we lay shivering till morning which brought no abatement of the storm.

Thursday Jan. 15

Snowed all day. 2 or 3 inches of snow. Severest storm known here for a great while. Pulled out at 9:00 A.M. and started down the river. The boat broke one of her runners and we had to go slow, to keep right side up. At 7:00 P.M. we reached Napoleon & tied up to the wharf. Col. Gorgas told us to go on shore and make ourselves as comfortable as possible in the vacant houses around town & we all found shelter. We (Company F) went into a boarding house & found some stoves & felt quite at home,


Busy all day cooking and fixing up our quarters. We found some molasses and made some excellent candy. We were sent out on picket guard and although I was one of the color guard and excused from all duty, I went out and stood my regular guard with the rest. We did not come on [off?] duty till 5:00 A.M.


Saturday Jan. 17

We remained on duty all day and for some inexplicable reason were not relieved and had to remain out.

Sunday, Jan. 18

We were relieved at noon and ordered on board the Warner immediately. Packed up our traps and embarked. Had not been out long, when some rascal set fire to the town & the boats had to move up stream. Rained nearly all night.


Early in the morning the signal gun was fired, and soon the whole fleet was moving slowly along down stream; but did not make much heading and the boats were in a huddle all the way.

Tuesday, Jan. 20

Continued moving down stream all day. Busy writing all the time. Sent a letter to Bro. Ebenezer. Weather clear but quite cold.

Wednesday, Jan. 21st

About 3:00 P.M. we arrived at Millikens Bend[MS], 30 miles from Vicksburg. It is said we're to remain here a few days. It seems good to get on shore if only for a few hours.

Thursday, Jan. 22

A very pleasant day. Our boat lay along side the Adriatic nearly all day, drawing rations. I was detailed to take charge of a funeral escort of Bashaw of Company E who was wounded at Vicksburg, and died last night. We had just buried him when an order came to do funeral orders to funeral honors to one of the 69th Indiana, but they buried him before we got there. Most of the boats have moved down the river and we are to follow tomorrow.


Friday, Jan. 23

Quite early we moved down to where the rest of the fleet was lying. We disembarked and were busy almost all day in getting our things off the boats. Just before dark we moved out a short distance and there had to stand or lie around all in the mud 3 or 4 hours. Then we moved off in a southerly direction, but the roads were very bad and we could not move far and about 10:00 P.M. we encamped for the night.

Saturday, Jan. 24th

At day light, without waiting for breakfast we moved on across a large swamp and after a hard march of 3 miles we came out into the river, as far below Vicksburg, as we were above it when we left the boats. By going across the river where there was a big bend, we have got below them without having been in range of their guns. We are in sight of the city, though 6 miles away from it. They are now at work cutting a canal across where they begun it last summer. Worked in the forenoon setting tents and fixing camp.

A little before noon, the rebel transport, "Vicksburg," came up the river and as she passed, our battery opened fire upon her, but it was foggy and she hugged the other bank closely and got past and ran up under the protection of their forts, but when the "De Soto" came up, she did not have such good luck. Not knowing that we were below the city, she came up on this side of the river and ran in ashore for wood and our boys "lay low" and as soon as they had tied up, boarded her and took her prize and her officers & crew.

In the afternoon, I went back to the boat for rations and had a fine walk of 8 or 9 miles through the mud and rain. Went to bed early; thinking to have one good night's rest, but about 11 o'clock, a rebel boat was heard on the river and it was that the rebels were landing troops below us and so we were called up and marched down the levee and formed in line of battle on bank of the river


waiting about ˝ hour, we returned to camp and were ordered to be ready to fall in at day light.

Went to bed again and I was just getting along nicely, when around came the orders again to fall in. Our whole Brigade was out and we thought that this time we were sure to have a fight Marched down a little farther than before and stood in line of battle without seeing any enemy, save a drenching rain, until daylight in the morning.




Volume IV: February, 1863 — April, 1865.


[Actually a fourth volume of Chapel's journal has not been found up to this time. Chapel was taken prisoner near Tuscumbia, AL, and died in the Confederate prison at Danville, VA. Hevenor, was mustered out June 18, 1864, as were most of the 13th, and was able to return home to Malta, Illinois. He brought three of the volumes with him; how much of a fourth volume was ever written is unknown. With most of the 13th's activity coming in the last two years of the war, it is doubtful as to how much time was allowed Chapel to keep up an almost daily journal. Thus, in place of a Volume VI, the following accounts are being continued here: Henry L. Boies' chapter "The Thirteenth Illinois Infantry" from History of DeKalb County, Illinois and Victor Hicken's Illinois in the Civil War.]

[February, 1863]

Upon the fall of Arkansas Post, the regiment accompanied General Steele to Greenville, Miss., where an immense amount of stores were captured and destroyed. Passing then under the immediate command of General Grant, it marched across Milliken's Bend to Grand Gulf, and, making a detour, took part in the capture of Jackson, the capital of Mississippi. Orders from the General authorized the 13th to inscribe upon its banners, with Chickasaw Bayou and Arkansas Post, the word Jackson, as a token of its participation in that achievement of our troops. [Boies]

[July, 1863]

From Jackson the regiment moved upon Vicksburg, and engaged in the siege of that place until its final fall on July 4th, 1863. In the trenches, in the deadly assault, in the dangers and sufferings of that long siege, the 13th bore its full share; and


Vicksburg was also inscribed upon its banners and its list of triumphs.

It was the grandest triumph yet vouchsafed to the Union cause: for it bisected the Confederacy and restored to us the control of the Mississippi, the great Father of Waters. [Boies]

[July 10, 1863]

Two days after the surrender, the 13th were again moving upon Jackson, which had been re-occupied by the enemy; and, upon the 10th of July, that city was again in possession of our boys, and Jackson, July 10th, was added on our banner to the list of our victories.

For a few weeks the regiment was rested, encamped upon Black river, in the rear of Vicksburg. There George Carr and Samuel Bryant were captured by the enemy, and for many long months endured the horrors of captivity in rebel prisons.

Then under the great Sherman, it moved on Chattanooga. Arriving at Bridgeport, on the Tennessee river, Col. Gorgas turned over the command to Lieutenant-Colonel Partridge, and departed on recruiting service, appearing no more with the regiment until after its active campaigns had ceased.

The regiment now engaged in the active operations for the capture of Chattanooga. They acted as rear guard for the 15th Army Corps on its march from Corinth to Tuscumbia, and for one week were every day engaged in severe skirmishes with the enemy, who was striving to cut off its wagon-train. Upon the capture of Tuscumbia, the name of that place was ordered to be placed upon its banner.

In Lookout Valley the regiment was placed in the command of Fighting Joe Hooker, and participated in the memorable capture of Lookout Mountain, and, on the 25th, in the still greater victory of Mission Ridge, where the 13th captured more prisoners of the 18th Alabama regiment than it had men of its own, and


carried off in triumph from the field of the battle flag of that regiment. [Boies]

In the ranks of the 123rd Illinois most of the men pessimistically viewed the charge up the mountain as a "forlorn hope" and thought that it would not be successful. Then, for one heart-stopping instant, the colors of a Federal regiment were seen waving from near Craven House. The band of the 123rd immediately broke out in a quickstep version of "Hail to the Chief," and in the ranks of the Illinois regiment not a few were emotionally affected. Far to the right of the Federal line, the "awful glory of the spectacle" was similarly revealed to the men of the 34th Illinois. The fog near that side of Lookout had completely blown away, revealing the brilliant regimental colors of the 13th and 75th Illinois. And, when the sun went down and dusk fell over the mountain, the long string of campfires of the Federal troops, glowing like lava from an active volcano, indicated to an entire Union army the success of Hooker's men. [Hicken]

Here the rebel foe was defeated and routed, flying in despair across the Chickamauga, and burning the bridge in its rear. The 13th was among the troops sent in pursuit of them. Cleburne, who, among the rebels, was called the Stonewall Jackson of the west, was in command of the rear of Bragg's flying host, and, at Ringold Gap, determined to make a stand and resist his pursuers.

The 13th, upon that bloody day, was the first to engage the enemy and the last to leave the field. It was sent forward over an open plain to seize an important position. Of their service on this occasion, General Osterhaus officially says: "The 13th Illinois executed the order in magnificent style. They charged through a hail-storm of balls, and gained the position assigned to them — held it, although the enemy poured a murderous fire into their brave men, both from the gorge above and the hill upon the right."


The rebels rallied and made a desperate charge upon its position, but the charge was repelled with heroic courage. General Hooker says: "The position was heroically taken and held by that brave regiment, it all the time maintaining its position with resolution and obstinacy. It has never been my fortune to serve with more zealous and devoted soldiers." No small praise, this from the most famous fighting general of the war.

The regiment gained undying fame by its valor at this fight; but it was at a fearful cost. It lost, in dead and wounded, one-one-seventh of the entire loss of the desperate battle; but the victory was won, and Cleburne driven from his position.

Among its dead was Major D.R. Bushnell, and of its wounded were Colonel Partridge, Captain Walter Blanchard, and Captain James M. Beardsley. Major Bushnell was a citizen of Sterling — one of the noblest and manliest of all our citizen soldiers. His loss was sadly deplored. Captain Blanchard, who subsequently died of his wounds, was an aged man, a judge of DuPage County Court, and President of the Naperville Bank; had two sons in the army, but endured all the hardships of the service with a heroism that nothing could overcome. [Boies]


A Prisoner of the Confederates

Corporal Wilson E. Chapel was taken prisoner near Tuscumbia, AL, on October 26, 1863. Just one month before on August 23, 1863, he had been detached or detailed as clerk at Division Headquarters, Div. 15 Army Corps.

Just how Chapel arrived at the Confederate prison at Danville, VA, is unknown. He may have been one of many who were rounded up and put in a cattle car on the Southern Railroad, which ran northeast through the valley to Virginia, to the Richmond & Danville Railroad or the Danville & Western Railway. Of course, by this time many of the railroads had been destroyed or were inoperable. Alabama had had five railroads, Georgia ten, Tennessee five. North Carolina five and Virginia eighteen. Or he may have had to walk from Alabama, a distance of approximately 700 miles.

On some occasions the newly arrived prisoners would be greeted by a Negro band and a colored-people chorus singing "Dixie" as they were led through the streets to the prison.

The prison(s) were six brick or wooden tobacco factories, each three stories high. They had been stripped of all furnishings, including lamps and chairs. Four of the buildings were located at the comer of Spring and Union Streets; three of these were the factories of J.W. and C.G. Holland. Behind Prison No. 1 was a hut used as a cook house for all four prisons. Prison No. 2 was a wooden factory adjoining Prison No. 1.

Prison No. 3 was a brick factory converted into the officers' prison. Prison No. 4 was across the street. Prison No. 5 was at Floyd and High Streets. And Prison No. 6 was almost in the center of the city at Lynn and Loyal Streets, resembling a brick-turreted Bastille, and initially used for Negro prisoners.

About 650 men were crammed into the three floors of each factory. There was a two-inch crust of dirt on the floors, a breeding


place for rats and vermin. The smell of old tobacco and other manufacturing odors was still strong and became even worse. On each floor the prisoners slept in rows of four, two rows with their heads to the walls and the other two rows with their heads to the center of the building. The former was preferred since the cracks in the boarded windows allowed air to lessen the stench of unbathed bodies and uncovered waste.

Potbellied stoves were at the end of each floor. But the small coal ration was poor in quality and difficult to keep ignited. Men fought for positions around the stoves; this only absorbed and blocked the circulation of any heat. Some tried building fires atop pieces of scrap iron laid on the floors, but the smoke of inferior coal and wet wood only burned their eyes and parched their throats. In winter the temperature could go below zero and the men would keep walking and stumbling to keep from freezing to death.

In addition to the stagnant drinking water and lack of adequate food, there were the fleas, lice and other parasites. They crawled over the ground and from body to body. By daylight the men could pick them off, which they called "skirmishing," but in the darkness there was nothing to be done but to suffer with patience.

Cleanliness was impossible. Thirty men at a time were permitted to go outside to makeshift troughs and rinse themselves quickly with muddy river water while the guards prodded them along with bayonets. Twice a day under heavy guard, fifteen men were allowed to go down to the Dan River and obtain drinking water for their floor. But as they gradually became living skeletons, two men cold barely struggle back with half a pail of water between them.

Ever since December, 1863, when the first Federal prisoners arrived in Danville, there was an epidemic of smallpox. The disease had quickly sped through all six prisons, prostrating men by the hundreds. A special hospital was established south of town. But


owing to a lack of drugs and medical knowledge, the few doctors in attendance were powerless. Wagons laden with corpses made daily trips to a makeshift cemetery just off the hospital grounds.

The citizens of Danville protested to the Board of Health in Richmond, VA, because of the unsanitary state and the unbearable odor from the hospitals. The filth ran unchecked down ditches and drains owing to a lack of water works in Danville.

The outbreak of smallpox gave rise to a number of escape attempts by the prisoners. Although guards patrolled the area, few of them dared venture into the prison buildings. Tunnels from the basements were dug by the prisoners but were usually discovered. In the only successful attempt, the tunnel came out behind a colored family's shanty; about 75 prisoners escaped before it was discovered. Because of pressure from the town's people, prisoners were relocated to the second and third floors which made them even more crowded. This meant that only six men at a time would be allowed to descend to the first floor to use the latrine. Particularly in the morning, the waiting line from both upper floors was long and some could not restrain themselves. A prisoner artist had depicted "Morning Toilet," showing those conditions; it shows the artist placing his cup on the window sill and notes the rafters were whittled down to a breaking point to boil "Crust Coffee."

Also, to prevent other possible escapes, the guards began firing at those who ventured too close to the windows. They were intermittently searched by the guards for valuables they "forgot" to return. They could not approached within six feet of a guard.

This became a problem in the hot summers when the few windows did not allow for enough air and the men bordered on suffocation. For short periods during the day, the prisoners were permitted to congregate in improvised courtyards. But their filth attracted hordes of flies which swarmed around their face, arms and legs. By late summer, scurvy, combined with chronic diarrhea, had


become the new uncontrollable killer and was much more feared than the smallpox.

The most frequent and severe complaint, however, was against the food. The citizens of Danville had but little food and that given to the prisoners was inferior. Their basic diet was a meal of corn and cob ground together made into a johnny cake. They sometimes received rice but often it had maggots bugs or rat dung. Their soup contained musty rice, spoiled cabbage and was diluted with river water. Coffee was made from burnt rye, burnt peas or scorched wheat bran. Food might be obtainable from the outside if they could pay for it. They sometimes cooked their own vegetables but it had to be eaten immediately or it would be stolen by a half-starved companion. Some local citizens brought bread or whatever provisions they could spare. A church distributed newspaper and magazines and the local ministers visited the hospitals. By late 1864 over 4,500 men were quartered on the upper floors of the six buildings.

Chapel died on April 6, 1864, of fever and ague malaria. The list of Danville prisoners dates from November 24, 1864 to April 28, 1865. The Union army had captured Danville the day before. Chapel's name is listed as Corp. W. Chaplin, F, 13th Ill. and he had died over a year earlier.

He is buried in the National Cemetery, Danville, VA. His marker there reads "262, Corpl. W. E. Chappel, ILL" and underneath reads "One Unknown Soldier" which may indicate another prisoner was buried in the same grave. There is also a grave stone in the Malta, IL, cemetery which may be a memorial placed there by his family and friends.

One of his buddies since the winter of 1860-61, wrote: "... he was as true a friend as it falls to the lot of men to have. His devotion to country was not of the spasmodic order; but was of that kind to be found in the descendants of hardy old Massachusetts stock."






From Tuscumbia, AL, to Danville, VA

Perhaps more needs to be said about Chapel's long trek from where he was taken prisoner and the 700 or more miles to the Confederate prison in Danville, VA. A portion of the Danville Register, April 6, 1865, gives some insights as what may have occurred.

The railroads in the South, which were still relatively new, were very important to both sides of the War. General Robert E. Lee said, "If the Danville road cannot be made to supply our wants, we shall inevitably starve." Thus, as it turned out, the Richmond and Danville Railroad was literally his last lifeline.

Remembering that Chapel was captured, along with many others, on October 26, 1863, some of the railroads were still in the process of being built. And some of those already running still had an unfinished look with makeshift stations and freight offices and poorly made and already worn tracks. And locomotives were no better than the rails they ran on.

Danville depended upon the R&D RR and more so when the Piedmont Railroad was completed in June, 1864, when it connected with roads in North Carolina and in the lower South. However, this would be almost nine months before the Confederates could use it for transporting prisoners.

Further, although the R&D was the last of the fourteen major Confederate railroads to be attacked (in May, 1864), many of the roads in the South had already been ruined, if only temporary. There was a shortage of labor to do the repairs both on the line and in the shops.

A Confederate law adopted in February 1864, provided for the exemption of one man per mile of railroad in use for military transportation. Despite this law, their Bureau of Conscription


refused to relax its iron clad rules. Nearly one-third of the company-owned slaves escaped, adding to the shortage of labor.

The company, then, decided to hire slaves. In 1864, it had 700 at work on the R&D and was advertising for 1,000 to work on the Piedmont. And to make matters worse, when attacked, many of the company's slave workers were carried away or driven off.

The destruction of bridges was also a major problem. Many were burned or destroyed by the Confederates to keep the Union from crossing the major rivers. Even bridges constructed by the oncharging Union army were destroyed.

Thus, it appears in October, 1863, the prisoners from Alabama and Georgia, especially, were more likely to have marched most of the way to places like Danville, VA. This could have been a great hardship in itself before they ever arrived at these temporary prisons. There may have been much cruelty on the way and the food and other supplies would have been at a minimum.

Danville may have been the better location for a prison as it had never been the target of a raid by the Union, and because of the R&D Railroad was able to obtain supplies from Richmond for both the town and the prisoners.

(The above is based on an article by Angus J. Johnston II in "Civil War History," a publication of the University of Iowa.)

Why Was Chapel Not Taken to Andersonville, GA?

While Andersonville, GA, might have been about 500 miles closer to Tuscumbia, AL, and much less of a march certainly than to Danville, VA, the main reason was that Andersonville did not become established until February, 1864. Chapel was captured on October 26, 1863.

Andersonville was eventually the largest and best known of Confederate military prisons, but Chapel perhaps would have done far worse there because of its much poorer conditions.


[April 17th, 1864]

On the 17th of April, when the time of the regiment would have expired in a week, it was posted at Madison Station in Alabama. The rebel Roddy's command, outnumbering it five to one, came upon it disguised in the blue uniforms of our own army and completely surprised and surrounded it. The regiment at this time had only 350 men fit for duty. The rebels had three pieces of artillery and 1500 cavalry and infantry. After two hours hard fighting against these odds, the regiment was obliged to abandon the station, fighting its way through its foes, losing sixty-six men prisoners in their hands, the enemy's loss, as reported by flag of truce, was sixty killed, wounded and missing.

In the summer of 1864, worn down with hazards and hardships of three years of very active service, having traveled through seven Southern States, marched more than three thousand miles, fought twenty pitched battles and innumerable skirmishes, the scarred and war-worn veterans of the 13th Illinois came back to their homes, and were received with a welcome such as their heroism deserved. [Boies]

[The War Ends, April, 1865]

A large number of the regiment re-enlisted, and were consolidated with the 56th Illinois Infantry, being there known as Company "I"; and for another year they fought the rebellion till its close. Of the remainder of the regiment, full one-half subsequently re-enlisted in other regiments, and again took the field. The regiment entered the service with 1010 men. It received 55 recruits, but, when mustered out, its whole force was 500. It had lost from the various casualties of war 565 men. [Boies]

[According to 1903 estimates by the U.S. Adjutant General, about 194,000 Northern and 215,000 Southern soldiers were prisoners, of whom more than 30,000 Union and nearly 26,000 Confederate POWs died in captivity.]



Major Battles of the Civil War.

By Name of Battle     Casualties
      North South
Antietam (Sharpsburg) MD Sept. 17 1862 11,500 9,000
Bull Run (Manassas) #1 VA July 21 1861 1,500 2,000
Bull Run (Manassas) #2 Aug. 29-30 1862 10,000 9,000
Chancellorsville VA May 1-4 1863 11,000 10,000
Chattanooga TN Nov.23-25 1863 5,500 2,500
Chickamauga GA Sept.19-20 1863 11,500 17,000
Cold Harbor VA June 03 1864 6,500 1,500
Fair Oaks (Seven Pines) VA May 31 -June 01 1862 4,500 5,500
Fort Donelson TN Feb.16 1862 2,500 2,000
Fort Henry TN Feb. 6 1862 34 16
Franklin TN Nov. 30 1863 1,000 5,500
Fredericksburg VA Dec.13 1862 12,000 5,500
Gettysburg PA July 1-3 1863 17,500 22,500
Kennesaw Mountain GA June 27 1864 2,000 270
Mobile Bay AL Aug. 5 1864 315 32
Murfreesboro(Stone River) TN Dec.31 1862-Jan. 2 1863 9,000 9,000
Nashville TN Dec.15-16 1864 3,000 3,000
Perryville KY Oct. 8 1862 3,500 3,000
Petersburg, Siege of VA June 20 1864 -Apr. 2 1865 17,000 13,000
Seven Days (Richmond) VA June 25 -July 01 1862 16,000 20,000
Shiloh (Pittsburg Landing) TN Apr. 6-7 1862 10,000 9,500
Spotsylvania Court House VA May 8-12 1864 10,000 9,000
The Wilderness VA May 5-6 1864 17,000 11,000
Vicksburg, Siege of MS May 19 -July 04 1863 9,000 10,000


By Chronology     Casualties
      North South
Bull Run (Manassas) #1 VA July 21 1861 1,500 2,000
Fort Henry TN Feb. 6 1862 34 16
Fort Donelson TN Feb.16 1862 2,500 2,000
Shiloh (Pittsburg Landing) TN Apr. 6-7 1862 10,000 9,500
Fair Oaks (Seven Pines) VA May 31-June 01 1862 4,500 6,500
Seven Days (Richmond) VA June 25-July 01 1862 16,000 20,000
Bull Run (Manassas) #2 Aug. 29-30 1862 10,000 9,000
Antietam (Sharpsburg) MD Sept. 17 1862 11,500 9,000
Perryville KY Oct. 8 1862 3,500 3,000
Fredericksburg VA Dec.13 1862 12,000 5,500
Murfreesboro(Stone River) TN Dec.31 1862-Jan.2 1863 9,000 9,000
Chancellorsville VA May 1-4 1863 11,000 10,000
Vicksburg, Siege of MS May 19 -July 04 1863 9,000 10,000
Gettysburg PA July 1-3 1863 17,500 22,600
Chickamauga GA Sept.19-20 1863 11,500 17,000
Chattanooga TN Nov.23-25 1863 5,500 2,500
The Wilderness VA May 5-6 1864 17,000 11,000
Spotsylvania Court House VA May 8-12 1864 10,000 9,000
Cold Harbor VA June 03 1864 6,500 1,500
Kennesaw Mountain GA June 27 1864 2,000 270
Mobile Bay AL Aug. 5 1864 315 32
Franklin TN Nov. 30 1864 1,000 5,500
Nashville TN Dec.15-16 1864 3,000 3,000
Petersburg, Siege of VA June 20 1864-Apr.2 1865 17,000 13,000


History of 13th Regiment Illinois Infantry, 1861-1865.

This is a review of the 13th Illinois Infantry, and particulary of Corporal Wilson E. Chapel's last days assigned to Company F.

Because Volume IV of his diary has never been found, this is an attempt to replace it with excerpts from other sources. Thus, the unit is traced from where Chapel with his diary left Mississippi.

The following accounts are being reiterated in an effort to continue and complete the story:
Henry L. Boies' chapter "The Thirteenth Illinois Infantry" from History of DeKalb County, Illinois.
Victor Hicken's Illinois in the Civil War.
T. M. Eddy's The Patriotism of Illinois.

Report of the Adjutant General [AGR] of the State of Illinois, Volume I, Containing Reports for the Years 1861-66. Revised by Brigadier General J. W. Vance, Adjutant General Springfield, ILL; H.W. Rokker, State Printer and Binder, 1886

(Sources not noted are from Chapter XLIII, entitled "Operations on Memphis and Charleston R.R." from "KY., SW., VA., TENN., MISS., N. ALA., AND N. GA." Pages 17-30.)

April 21, 1861. Organized at Dixon, ILL., and mustered into State service.

The Thirteenth Regiment Illinois Infantry was one of the regiments organized under the act known as the Ten Regiment Bill. It was composed of companies as follows: "I" from Cook County, "H" from Kane county, "K" from Du Page county, "E" and "F" from DeKalb county, "A" and "C" from Lee county, "B" and "G" from Whiteside county, and "D" from Rock Island county.

John B. Wyman of Amboy, was elected Colonel, B.F. Parks of Aurora, Lieutenant Colonel, and A.B. Gorges of Dixon, Major.

The Regiment was mustered into the State service on the 21st day of April and into United States service on the 24th day of May, 1861; for three years or during the war, by Captain John Pope, of the Regular Army, at Camp Dement, Dixon, Illinois. [AGR]


May 24, 1861. Mustered into U.S. service by Capt. John Pope, being the first three years Regiment from Illinois mustered into U.S. service.

The Thirteenth was the first Regiment organized from the then Second Congressional District of the State, and was composed of as good citizens as Northern Illinois contained, many that enlisted as privates rising to field officers in later regiments.

Its Colonel, John B. Wyman, organized and commanded the "Chicago Light Guards" the first Crack Corps the Garden City ever had, and he soon brought the Thirteenth to a degree of proficiency in drill and soldierly deportment that was never excelled by any regiment with which it was afterwards associated. [AGR]

June 16, 1861. Moved to Caseyville, Ill. On the 16th of June it was ordered to Caseyville, Ill., 10 miles east of St. Louis, and on the 5th day of July it passed through St. Louis to Rolla, Mo., where it remained until the spring of 1862. [AGR]

July 5-6, 1861. Thence to Rolla, Mo., ,being the first Regiment to cross Mississippi River into hostile Missouri.

During the summer of 1861, it remained at Rolla, Missouri, guarding that post, for it being a depot of supplies, was constantly threatened by the enemy. Here the regiment did excellent service in suppressing many predatory bands that invested that region within a radius of forty miles; and by their zealous protection of the Union people who had suffered from their cruel and relentless foes, inspired this persecuted class with a like attachment and devotion to the cause of their country. While here, Colonel Wyman succeeded in organizing many of the citizens into cavalry companies; and, under Gen. Curtis, these intrepid scouts proved themselves the most daring and efficient cavalry in the Southwestern Army. [Eddy]

July to October, 1861. Attached to Fremont's Army of the West.

Till October 10, 1861. Duty at Rolla, Mo.

While stationed at Rolla it was engaged in guarding supply trains to and from General Lyon's army, suppressing guerrilla bandits in that part of the State, and was a part of General Fremont's force that went to Springfield, Missouri, in the fall of 1861, after General Price, when the regiment was well and favorably known as "Fremont Grey Hounds," a name given to them by General Fremont himself, on the evening the regiment joined his army at Bolivar, a splendid regiment in splendid shape, after a day's march of forty-two miles. [Patterson] [AGR]


October 10-November 7, 1861. Fremont's advance on Springfield, MO.

In October, 1861, the regiment joined the army under General fremont, then forming at Springfield, Mo., and their admirable condition and efficiency in drill being marked by the General, they were assigned the highest post of honor in that "Grand Army;" but on the arrival of Gen. Hunter the plans of Gen. Fremont were entirely changed, and this regiment returned tobRolla. [Eddy]

October 13, 1861. Action at Wet Glaze, MO.

October 15, 1861. Linn Creek, MO.

To January, 1862. District of Rolla, Dept. of Missouri.

November 10, 1861. Return to Rolla and duty there till March, 1862.

December 1861. Action at Salem, Mo.

March, 1862. Unattached, Army of Southwest Missouri.

March 6, 1862. Ordered to join Curtis at Pea Ridge, Ark.

In 1862 it joined General Curtis' army at Pea Ridge, 250 miles southwest of Rolla, and was with General Curtis in his memorable march from Pea Ridge to Helena, Arkansas, on the Mississippi River. [Arthur Patterson]

In 1862 it joined General Curtis' army in his attack upon Chickasaw Bayou, and from that time on became a part of the noted Fifteenth Army Corps, commanded so long by General Sherman in person. In the first day's assault at Chickasaw Bayou, Colonel Wyman was killed. The day following, it was a part of General F.P. Blair's Brigade that distinguished itself by approaching nearer to the rebel works than any other command in that part of the field. The losses to the Regiment on that day were 183 killed and wounded. It was present at the capture of Arkansas Post, after which it returned to Young's Point opposite Vicksburg. While there, General Steele's Division, of which the Thirteenth was a part, made a very successful raid to Greenville, Miss., and up Dear Creek, driving the rebels out of that region, and destroying an immense quantity of corn intended for the rebel garrison at Vicksburg. [AGR]

March 6, 1862, it was sent to join the army of Gen. Curtis, and participated in that terrible march across the country to Helena, Ark., during which journey the most unparalleled suffering was endured from thirst, heat and short rations. [Eddy]


April 8-July 14, 1862. March to Helena, Ark.

To July 1862. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, Army of Southwest Missouri.

To November 1862. Helena, Ark., District of Eastern Arkansas, Dept. of Missouri.

Till December, 1862. Duty at Helena, Ark.

To December, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, District of Eastern Arkansas, Dept. of the Tennessee.

December, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 11th Division, 13th Army Corps (Old), Dept. of the Tennessee.

To January 1863. 1st Brigade, 4th Division, Sherman's Yazoo Expedition.

December 22, 1862-January 3, 1863. Sherman's Yazoo Expedition.

December 26-28, 1862. Chickasaw Bayou.

December 26, 1862, the men of this regiment being considered as veterans, were placed in the advance of General Sherman's army in the attack on Chickasaw Bayou, and during the second day's fight lost their brave Colonel, who was shot by the sharpshooters of the enemy. [Eddy]

The 13th Illinois Infantry was part of Gen. Sherman's army in his attack upon Chickasaw Bayou and from that time on became part of the noted 15th Army Corps, commanded so long by General Sherman in person. In the first day's assault at Chicasaw Bayou, Colonel Wyman was killed. The following day, it was a part of General F.P. Blair's Brigade that distinguished itself by approaching nearer to the rebel works than any other command in that part of the field. The losses to the regiment on that day were 183 killed and wounded. [Patterson]

December 29, 1862. Chickasaw Bluffs On the 29th, the terrible charge was made on Gen. S.D. Lee's entrenchments, and the regiment lost one hundred and seventy-seven men killed, wounded and missing. [Eddy]

January 3-10, 1863. Expedition to Arkansas Post, Ark..

Jan. 10-11, 1863. Assault and capture of Fort Hindman, Arkansas Post. It was present at the capture of Arkansas Post, after which it returned to Young's Point, opposite Vicksburg. [Patterson]


January 17, 1863. Moved to Young's Point, and duty there till March While there, General Steele's Division, of which the Thirteenth was a part, made a successful raid to Greenville, Miss., and up Deer creek, driving the rebels out of that region, and destroying an immense quantity of corn intended for the rebel garrison at Vicksburg. [Patterson]

February 14-26, 1863. Expedition to Greenville, Miss. Upon the fall of Arkansas Post, the regiment accompanied General Steele to Greenville, Miss., where an immense amount of stores were captured and destroyed. Passing then under the immediate command of General Grant, it marched across Milliken's Bend to Grand Gulf, and, making a detour, took part in the capture of Jackson, the capital of Mississippi. Orders from the General authorized the 13th to inscribe upon its banners, with Chickasaw Bayou and Arkansas Post, the word Jackson, as a token of its participation in that achievement of our troops. [Boies]

April 2-14, 1863. Expedition from Milliken's Bend to Greenville, Black Bayou and Deer Creek, Miss. It was a part of General Grant's army that crossed the Mississippi at Grand Gulf below Vicksburg, and participated in a part of the battles the rear of Vicksburg and in the capture of Jackson, and was with General Sherman's Corps on the right of the army during the siege of Vicksburg.

April 29-May 1, 1863. Demonstration against Hames' and Drumgould's

May 2-14, 1863. Moved to join army in rear of Jackson, Miss., via Richmond and Grand Gulf. It was part of General Grant's army that crossed the Mississippi at Grand Gulf below Vicksburg, and participated in a part of the battles in rear of Vicksburg and in the capture of Jackson, and was with General Sherman's Corps on the right of the army during the siege of Vicksburg. [Patterson]

May 14, 1863. Jackson, Miss. It was with General Steele's Division in the fruitless assault on the rebel works on the 2nd day of May, where it suffered severely. [Patterson] [AGR]

July 4, 1863. Vicksburg, Miss., surrendered. Vicksburg surrendered on the 4th day of July, 1863, and on the same night at 12 o"clock the regiment started with General Sherman after Joe Johnston. [Patterson] [AGR]


From Jackson the regiment moved upon Vicksburg, and engaged in the siege of that place until its final fall on July 4th, 1863. In the trenches, in the deadly assault, in the dangers and sufferings of that long siege, the 13th bore its fall share; and Vicksburg was also inscribed upon its banners and its list of triumphs.

It was the grandest triumph yet vouchsafed to the Union cause: for it bisected the Confederacy and restored to us the control of the Mississippi, the great Father of Waters. [Boies]

Note: After Vicksburg, the 13th U.S. Army Corps was sent to Gen. Banks, Dept. of the Gulf; however, most of the 15th U.S. Army Corps was sent to Memphis, TN.

July 10-17, 1863. Siege of Jackson. The 13th was present the second time at the capture of Jackson, Miss., and moved still further east to Brandon, where the pursuit of Joe Johnston ended, and with the remainder of the command returned to Black River and went into camp. [Patterson] [AGR]

Two days after the surrender, the 13th were again moving upon Jackson, which had been re-occupied by the enemy; and, upon the 10th of July, that city was again in possession of our boys, and Jackson, July 10th, was added on our banner to the list of our victories.

For a few weeks the regiment was rested, encamped upon Black river, in the rear of Vicksburg. There George Carr and Samuel Bryant were captured by the enemy, and for many long months endured the horrors of captivity in rebel prisons.

Then under the great Sherman, it moved on Chattanooga. Arriving at Bridgeport, on the Tennessee river, Col. Gorgas turned over the command to Lieutenant-Colonel Partridge, and departed on recruiting service, appearing no more with the regiment until after its active campaigns had ceased.

The regiment now engaged in the active operations for the capture of Chattanooga. They acted as rear guard for the 15th Army Corps on its march from Corinth to Tuscumbia, and for one week were every day engaged in severe skirmishes with the enemy, who was striving to cut off its wagon-train. Upon the capture of Tuscumbia, the name of that place was ordered to be placed upon its banner.

In Lookout Valley the regiment was placed in the command of Fighting Joe Hooker, and participated in the memorable capture of Lookout Mountain, and, on the 25th, in the still greater victory of Mission Ridge, where the 13th captured more prisoners of the 18th Alabama regiment than it had


men of its own, and carried off in triumph from the field, the battle flag of that regiment. [Boies]

In the ranks of the 123rd Illinois most of the men pessimistically viewed the charge up the mountain as a "forlorn hope" and thought that it would not be successful. Then, for one heart-stopping instant, the colors of a Federal regiment were seen waving from near Craven House. The band of the 123rd immediately broke out in a quickstep version of "Hail to the Chief," and in the ranks of the Illinois regiment not a few were emotionally affected. Far to the right of the Federal line, the "awful glory of the spectacle" was similarly revealed to the men of the 34th Illinois. The fog near that side of Lookout had completely blown away, revealing the brilliant regimental colors of the 13th and 75th Illinois. And, when the sun went down and dusk fell over the mountain, the long string of campfires of the Federal troops, glowing like lava from an active volcano, indicated to an entire Union army the success of Hooker's men. [Hicken]

Here the rebel foe was defeated and routed, flying in despair across the Chickamauga, and burning the bridge in its rear. The 13th was among the troops sent in pursuit of them. Cleburne, who, among the rebels, was called the Stonewall Jackson of the west, was in command of the rear of Bragg's flying host, and, at Ringold Gap, determined to make a stand and resist his pursuers.

The 13th, upon that bloody day, was the first to engage the enemy and the last to leave the field. It was sent forward over an open plain to seize an important position. Of their service on this occasion. General Osterhaus officially says: "The 13th Illinois executed the order in magnificent style charged through a hail-storm of balls, and gained the position assigned to them — held it, although the enemy poured a murderous fire into their brave men, both from the gorge above and the hill upon the right."

The rebels rallied and made a desperate charge upon its position, but the charge was repelled with heroic courage. General Hooker says: "The position was heroically taken and held by that brave regiment, it all the time maintaining its position with resolution and obstinacy. It has never been my fortune to serve with more zealous and devoted soldiers." No small praise, this, from the most famous fighting general of the war.

The regiment gained undying fame by its valor at this fight; but it was at a fearful cost. It lost, in dead and wounded, one-one-seventh of the entire loss of the desperate battle; but the victory was won, and Cleburne driven from his position.

Among its dead was Major D.R. Bushnell, and of its wounded were Colonel Partridge, Captain Walter Blanchard, and Captain James M.


Beardsley. Major Bushnell was a citizen of Sterling — one of the noblest and manliest of all our citizen soldiers. His loss was sadly deplored. Captain Blanchard, who subsequently died of his wounds, was an aged man, a judge of DuPage County Court, and President of the Naperville Bank; had two sons in the army, but endured all the hardships of the service with a heroism that nothing could overcome. [Boies]

July 19, 1863. Brandon, Miss.

Till September 27, 1863 Camp at Big Black.

September 27-November 21, 1863. Movement to Memphis, thence to Chattanooga, Tenn. When General Sherman was ordered to join General Grant at Chattanooga with his corps, of which this regiment was still a part, it went from Vicksburg to Memphis by boat, and from there to Chattanooga was a continuous fight, at the rebels tried every way in their power to prevent Sherman from joining Grant's army. [Patterson] [AGR]

October 20-29, 1863. Operations on Memphis & Charleston R.R. in Alabama.

October 21, 1863. Cherokee Station, Ala.

General Sherman telegraphs from Bear Creek: Iuka, October 21, 1863 My advance found Forrest's Cavalry, 400 strong, at Barton's Station, and whipped them handsomely yesterday, killing 2 and taking 9 prisoners. Our loss, 1 killed and 3 wounded slightly — all of the Fifth Ohio Cavalry, which acted most handsomely. The Tennessee River is up 8 feet on the shoals. I must cross over to communicate with Nashville and Chattanooga, and must have a steam ferry-boat. I will keep a regiment at Eastport. Wheeler, 10,000 strong, is near Decatur. I hope he will oppose my advance, but thing he will swing up on my flank. My advance is at Cane Creek.

October 24-25, 1863. Tuscumbia and Barton Station, Ala. They accompanied General Sherman in his march from Corinth to Tuscumbia, being for one week daily engaged with the enemy. From the Tennessee to Lookout Valley their division was the rear guard of the 15th Army Corps, and frequently they were engaged with the enemy in his unsuccessful attempts to capture the train. [Eddy]


Union Brig. Gen. Charles R. Woods report: At 3 a.m. on October 26, Woods left camp at Cherokee Station, AL, with his brigade, having the advance of the division, and proceeded in the direction of Tuscumbia, AL. The brigade is composed of 12th Missouri Infantry, 13th Illinois Infantry, 27th Missouri Infantry, 3rd Missouri Infantry, 76th Ohio Infantry, 32nd and 29th Missouri, 70th and 31st Missouri Infantry. It was accompanied by the 1st Missouri Horse Artillery, and the 4th Ohio Battery, and was followed by the Second Brigade of the division.

When I reached Barton's Station I found that the cavalry had driven the enemy to a strong position. I deployed two regiments, the 13th Illinois and 76th Ohio, on the left of the railroad and the remainder of my brigade on the right, taking the two battalions, composed each of two regiments, to a position žs of a mile to the right, and posting them in a piece of woods. Having completed these dispositions, and thrown skirmishers well to the front, I ordered the brigade to advance.

The Second Brigade, with skirmishers in front, advanced at the same time on my left. The skirmishers moved forward in gallant style, driving the enemy from their position and pushing them back to Cane Creek, a distance of a mile. Here they reformed, having five pieces of artillery posted on high ground, with open fields intervening, and skirmishers strongly posted along the creek bottom. After reconnoitering, I pushed my right forward in the edge of the woods. The skirmishers soon reached the creek, and succeeded in crossing.

At this point the firing was very heavy, but of short duration. the enemy, abandoning their positions, fell back to the Little Bear creek, 3 miles from Tuscumbia. They made a stand upon a hill which commanded the valley between us. I posted my brigade on the right of the road upon a hill. About the time the first two regiments were posted the enemy's cavalry made a charge across the open field on my right, with the evident intention of getting possession of the hill. They were checked and driven back by a volley from the Third and Twenty-seventh Missouri, by which Colonel Forrest was severely, if not mortally, wounded by a Minie ball through both thighs.

It being late, nothing further was done than to take a position and to hold it until dark. The troops, except three regiments, which were left on picket duty, were then withdrawn into a ravine. On the following morning, the 27th instant, I deployed the Seventeenth Missouri, Col. John f. Cramer commanding, as skirmishers, supported by the Third Missouri on the opposite side of the creek. At the same time the Second Brigade moved up on my left and the Second Brigade moved up on my left and the Second Division on my


right, the movement was successful, and by 12 m.[midnight] the troops were in Tuscumbia. I append a list of killed and wounded.

Report from Confederate Major-General Stephen D. Lee, from his Headquarters Cavalry in Mississippi, Six Miles East of Tuscumbia, Ala., October 28, 1863:
I have the honor to report that the enemy were held in check at Bear Creek, 3 miles west to Tuscumbia, till 9 a.m. yesterday morning, when my position was flanked, and I was compelled to withdraw. The enemy displayed about 6,000 infantry in line of battle. From prisoners captured I learn that Osterhaus' division is in front, Blair's next. The rest of Sherman's corps is still beyond Big Bear Creek. Grant now commands all west of the Alleghanies, Sherman commanding the Department of the Tennessee, Blair commanding Sherman's corps. The enemy have retired from opposite Decatur. I cannot account for the enemy allowing me to destroy so much of the railroad, as they have seen the work and are aware of it. General Ferguson has not been heard from yet. General Roddey returned in time to join me yesterday morning. I sent him in the rear of the enemy again last night. My scouts have captured the medical wagon attached to Osterhaus' headquarters full of valuable supplies. The enemy do not seem disposed to advance to-day. Their pickets are 2˝ miles from Tuscumbia. I shall annoy them in every way, and break their communications.

P.S. I regret to state that the gallant Colonel Forrest was severely wounded while leading his regiment against the enemy on the 26th. He had to be left in Tuscumbia, as also some 15 or 20 men too severely wounded to be moved.

October 26, 1863. Skirmishes near Cane Creek and at Barton's Station, Ala.

October 26, 1863 Corporal Wilson E. Chapel is reported to have been taken prisoner on this day. Although still part of Company F of the 13th Illinois, he had been detached August 23, 1863, as clerk at Division Headquarters, Division 15 Army Corps.

Oct. 27, 1863 Little Bear Creek, Tuscumbia, Ala.


Report from Confederate Major-General Stephen D. Lee, from his Headquarters, Tuscumbia, Ala., October 31, 1863:

I have the honor to report that on the 26th instant the enemy advanced in force, and after severe skirmishing on the 26th and 27th occupied Tuscumbia.

On 28th, the enemy evacuated Tuscumbia and moved back toward Big Bear Creek. I attacked his rear guard 15 miles west of Tuscumbia on the morning of the 29th, and after a severe skirmish retired before his main force. The enemy's force consisted of two divisions of infantry, under Osterhaus and Morgan L. Smith, the whole commanded by General Blair, commanding Fifteenth Army Corps. The force of the enemy was about 8,000. They rebuilt the bridge over Big Bear Creek and run the cars to Cherokee Station, 8 miles east of that point. The thorough destruction of the railroad and the stubborn resistance made to their advance have deterred them from this route, and they are now crossing at Eastport and moving on the north side of the Tennessee River. They intended rebuilding this road to Decatur.

The enemy acknowledge a loss of 100 killed and wounded on the 22d [21st] instant. Their loss has been heavier since. My loss so far is 6 killed and 40 wounded.

On the night of the 25th, I sent Brigadier-General Ferguson with two regiments after a raiding party from Corinth. He succeeded in meeting the enemy, routing him and scattering his entire force over the country, capturing 2 pieces of artillery, 4 guidons, 30 prisoners, a considerable quantity of small-arms, &c. Prisoners are still being caught over the country. The raiders were mostly composed of the Tory regiment from North Alabama. My scouts captured a valuable medical wagon attached to Osterhaus' headquarters, full of medicines, &c.

The enemy are marching through Florence, and I think toward Huntsville. There is little doubt that the enemy intends another flank movement on General Bragg via Will's Valley. There is little further use for cavalry in this valley, and, unless I receive orders to the contrary, will leave for Mississippi in about a week. My horses need shoes and resting. Am having my command filled up as rapidly as possible. It would not be prudent for me to cross the Tennessee now with my present force and the dispositions of the enemy. Their main cavalry force from what I can learn is in the vicinity of Huntsville, and at last accounts the cars were running from Steepness to Paint Rock, and the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad was strongly guarded by troops from Meade's army.

October 29, 1863. Skirmish at Cherokee Station, Ala.


November 23-27, 1863. Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign.

November 23-24,1863 Battles of Lookout Mountain. It was with General Osterhaus' Division, temporarily attached to General Hooker's command at the battle of Missionary Ridge, where the Regiment captured 2500 prisoners, and followed the retreating forces to Rossville, where the enemy was overtaken and a severe skirmish ensued; from there the enemy was driven to Ringgold Gap, where they massed their batteries to protect their retreat.

The losses in this battle were 67. Among the killed were Major Bushnell, Captain Blanchard and Color Bearer Riley, the latter, when shot through the breast, fell in such manner as to be rolled up in the flag, staining it with his heart's blood. For its conduct in the battles in and around Missionary Ridge, the Regiment received the following complimentary notice in Gen. Hooker's report, vol. 8, page 215, Rebellion Record:

Nov. 25, 1863. Mission Ridge. Captured flag of the 18th Alabama Infantry. It was with General Osterhaus' Division temporarily attached to General Hooker's command, at the battle of Missionary Ridge, where the regiment captured 2,500 prisoners, and followed the retreating forces to Rossville, where the enemy was overtaken and a severe skirmish ensued; from there the enemy was driven to Ringgold Gap, where they massed their batteries to protect their retreat. [Patterson]

At Mission Ridge the 13th captured more than its own aggregate of the 18th Alabama rebel infantry, carrying the 18th's battle flag in triumph from the field. [Eddy]

November 27, 1863. Ringgold Gap, Taylor's Ridge.. Osterhaus' Division fanned in line of battle, the 13th being directly in front of the Gap and massed batteries. It being impossible to take the Gap by charge, the Division was withdrawn and again advanced up the side of the mountain to the left of the Gap, where it encountered the forces of General Pat Clayborn, strongly entrenched at the top of the mountain. Here the Thirteenth Illinois and the Division held their grounds till their ammunition gave out, and they were finally relieved at the third attempt by the 14th Army Corps, they held this trying position for about two hours, the greater portion of the time being without ammunition, depending wholly for their safety upon "fixed bayonets: and their determination never to retreat.


The losses in this battle were 67. Among the killed were Major Bushnell, Captain Blanchard, and Color Bearer Riley — this was a brave Irish-American of Downer's Grove — what more glorious record has any man than this: "Color Sergeant, killed at Ringgold, November 27th, 1863." He fell when shot through the breast in such a manner as to be rolled up in theflag, staining it with his heart's blood. For its conduct in the battle in and around Missionary Ridge, the regiment received the following complimentary notice in General Hooker's report

"At the same time the enemy kept his artillery busily at work. Their skirmishes were driven in, and, as we learned the position of the battery, the Thirteenth Illinois Regiment, from the right of Wood's line, was thrown forward to seize some houses from which their gunners could be picked off by our men. These were heroically taken and held by that brave regiment. Apprehensive that he might lose his artillery, the enemy advanced with superior force on our skirmishes, and they fell back behind Wood's line, when that excellent officer opened on the rebels and drove them into the leaving, as they fled, their dead and wounded on the ground. Our skirmishers at once reoccupied their line, the Thirteenth Illinois all the time maintaining its position with resolution and obstinacy." [Patterson] [AGR].

The General finishes his eulogy on this division in these words, "It has never been my fortune to serve with more zealous and devoted soldiers." [Eddy]

At Ringgold Gap they were the first to engage the enemy, and, refusing relief, were the last to leave the field. Here their loss was sixty-three killed and wounded. [Eddy]

The following is from Gen. Osterhaus' official report: "Strengthening Col. Cramer by skirmishers from the 12th Missouri infantry, I sent orders to that officer to push the left of his line well forward, and at the same time ordered the 13th Illinois (which held the extreme right) to advance rapidly over an open field to a few houses in front. The 13th Illinois executed the order in magnificent style. They charged through a hail-storm of balls, and gained the position assigned to them, and held it, although the enemy poured a murderous fire into these brave men from the gorge in front, and the hill on the right."

Speaking of the desperate charges repelled by the obstinate bravery of these men, he concludes his allusion to the 13th in the following language: "The 13th Illinois remained undaunted, keeping up a vehement fire." [Eddy]


February 3, 1864 First negotiations for peace failed.

To April, 1864 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 15th Army Corps, Army of the Tennessee.

April 17, 1864 At Madison Stataion, Ala.
On the 17th of April, when the time of the regiment would have expired in a week, it was posted at Madison Station in Alabama. The rebel Roddy's command, outnumbering it five to one, came upon it disguised in the blue uniforms of our own army, and completely surprised and surrounded it. The regiment at this time had only 350 men fit for duty. The rebels had three pieces of artillery and 1500 cavalry and infantry. After two hours hard fighting against these odds, the regiment was obliged to abandon the station, fighting its way through its foes, losing sixty-six men prisoners in their hands, the enemy's loss, as reported by flag of truce, was sixty killed, wounded and missing.

In the summer of 1864, worn down with hazards and hardships of three years of very active service, having traveled through seven Southern States, marched more than three thousand miles, fought twenty pitched battles and innumerable skirmishes, the scarred and war-worn veterans of the 13th Illinois came back to their homes, and were received with a welcome such as their heroism deserved. [Boies]

April 9, 1864 Generals Grant and Lee meet at Appomattox Courthouse, VA.

April 26, 1864 Gen. Johnston surrenders to Gen. Sherman near Durham, N.C.

April 27, 1864 Action at Madison Station, Ala. This regiment was assigned to the post of 1st regiment, 1st brigade, 1st division, 15th army corps; but changed to the 3d division in April as their time had nearly expired. On the 17th inst., they were completely surprised and entirely surrounded by a portion of Roddy's command at Madison Station, Alabama. The surprise was occasioned by the enemy advancing on the pickets clothed in United States uniform. After two hours' hard fighting against immense odds the regiment was compelled to abandon the station, breaking through the enemy's line. The enemy had three pieces of artillery with from 1,000 to 1,500 cavalry and infantry. The regiment at this time only numbered 350 men for duty. Sixty-six pickets and skirmishers were captured by the enemy. The enemy's loss, as reported by flag of truce, was sixty killed, wounded and missing. One out of the four prisoners taken from the enemy has died from


his wounds, leaving the killed and wounded of the enemy as high as fifty-seven. [Eddy]

May 4, 1864. Gen. Richard Taylor surrenders Confederate forces in Alabama and Mississippi.

May 26, 1864 At Shreveport. LA, Gen. Edmund Kirby-Smith surrenders the last Confederate army still in the field.,

Till May, 1864 Stationed at Madison Station, Ala..

May 13-15, 1864 Resaca, Ga., (Detachment).

To June 1864   Unassigned, 3rd Division, 15th Army Corps.

June 18, 1864 Mustered out, Springfield, IL. The time of this regiment being so near out they were not taken on the march to the sea, but left to guard the communications in the rear. On the 18th of June, 1864, the regiment was mustered out at Springfield, Ill., having served three years and two months. [Patterson] [AGR|

In the summer of 1864, worn down with the hardships and hazards of three years' active campaigning, having traveled through seven Southern States, marched more than 3,000 miles, fought for the flag and the Union in twenty battles and skirmishes, the scarred veterans of the 13th came home and were received with a grand welcome. Such men deserve to live in the hearts and affections of the people for whom they have fought.

It is estimated that a majority of the 13th veterans have re-enlisted and are again in the field. [Eddy]

This regiment entered the service with 1,010 men, since which time it has received fifty-five recruits. The aggregate when mustered out was five hundred, leaving their loss at five hundred and sixty. [Eddy]

A large number of the regiment re-enlisted, and were consolidated with the 56th Illinois Infantry, being there known as Company "I"; and for another year they fought the rebellion till its close.

Of the remainder of the regiment, full one-half subsequently re-enlisted in other regiments, and again took the field. The regiment entered the service with 1010 men. It received 55 recruits, but, when mustered out, its whole force was 500. It had lost from the various casualties of war 565 men. [Boies]


Names on Monument at Vicksburg: 13th Infantry Co. F.

Captain Richard A. Smith Corporals Musicians
1st Lieut. Azro A. Buck Panson Burleigh R.M. Hevenor
2nd Lieut. Thodore Loring Edward W. Olney Albert Mulligan
Sergeants Thomas Hogan  
John S. Harroun Wesley D. Russell  
Enos Churchill Wilson E. Chappel  
Porter B. Hall Nicholas Dupue  
Byron F. Wyman John Adams  
Richard S. Davenport Albert F. Kingsley  
Allen, William Harrington, Nelson Spiking, John H.
Atwood, Morris Harrison, Chas J. Sprague, Edward F.
Babcock, Isaiah Houghton, Alonzo Stafford, Seymour
Barnes, Dav. A.A.B. Humphries, John Thompson, Julius
Barton, Anthony Humphries, James West, Asa P.
Bradley, Daniel Locy, Joseph W. Young, John
Brown, George Merrill, Abbott  
Bryant, Samuel T. Miers, Frederick C.  
Burbank, Elbert Nagreen, Joseph  
Burbank, Horace C. Nichols, John W.  
Burkee, Cyrus C. Norris, Sylvester W.  
Campbell, George Orr, Thomas J.  
Carr, George Orvis, Charles W.  
Caswell, Chas. E. Partridge, Z.B.  
Clawson, Leonard L. Patten, David H.  
Courtwright, C. Peck, Charles V.  
Crosby, Charles R. Ramer, Henry  
Deily, Jacob S. Russell, Gustavus F.  
Fidermont, Samuel Secord, Francis  
Gaudy, Wayne Smith, Henry  
Hartman, Philo D. Smith, Oliver W.  

This is a total of 64 men and does not include the support group that remained behind. A separate monument has their names on it.

The names of Colonel Adam B. Gorgas, Lieut. Colonel Frederick W. Partridge, Major Douglas R. Bushnel, and other Field/Staff members are at the top of the plaque above the ten companies.


Chapel Family Buried in the Malta Cemetery.

The Chapel Family Buried in the Malta Cemetery are:
Blk 2 Lot 3 [spelled with one "L"]
George Chapel, 1828-1899, Gr. 007
Isaac H. Chapel, 1845 — 8 Oct. 1862 Gr 008 (died when Wilson was in service)
Joseph Chapel, 1793 — 13 May 1874 Gr. 005
Mary Elizabeth Chapel, 1828 — 10 Jan 1902 Gr. 6

Blk 10 Lot 3 [spelled with two "L's"]
Clarence E. Chapell, 20 Aug 1859 — 08 Mar 1893 Gr. 007
Enoch Chapell, 24 Apr 1827 — 02 Sep 1883, Gr. 005
Sarah P. Winchell Chapell, 22 Jul 1834 — 22 Nov 1921, Gr. 006
Wilson E. Chapell, 26 Sep 1839 — 06 Jun 1864, Gr. 004

(This may be a memorial stone, as he is/was buried in National Cemetery, Danville, VA. From his journal he wrote he was celebrating his 23rd birthday on 26 Sept. 1863. If so, he would have had a birth date of 1840, not 1839.)

Census 1860 (not in 1850 Census as moved to Malta in 1860).

Household 462.3528
George Chapell, 35 M Fanner, R MA
Mary Chapell, 34 F Housekeeper MA
Emma Chapell, 4 F IL

Household 463
William Chapell, 2 M IL
Thomas Galicole 17 F FL ENG [Farm Laborer?
Isaac Chapell, 12 M MA
Dewitt Dewitt, 20 M FL MA [Farm Laborer?]


Story of the 13th Illinois Flag

The Flag of the 13th

The Regiment Flag of the 13th Illinois Infantry had the following inscription:

Actually first at Chickasaw Bayou and assault of 29th; Jackson, May 14th, 1863; Vicksburg and assault. May 22, 1863; Jackson, July 10, 1863; Tuscumbia, Oct. 26-27, 1863; Lookout Mountain, Nov. 24, 1863; Mission Ridge, Nov. 25, 1863; Ringgold, Georgia, Nov. 27, 1863.

The flag was transmitted to the State [Illinois] with letters to Illinois Governor Oglesby from the Governor of Massachusetts, John A. Andrew, and Rev. Dr. S.K. Lothrop. The letters describe how the flag was found.

From the Governor of Massachusetts letter:

"Locke, who is a fine young fellow in appearance, brought it to me in person, and brought with it the silk flag, the first Union flag displayed in Richmond [VA] on the day of its capture. Upon examination, this flag appears to belong to an Illinois regiment numbered the 13th: but of what arm of the service, whether infantry or cavalry, does not appear. It was probably hanging in Turner's office as a rebel trophy. It belongs of right, therefore, to your State, and I hold it subject to your order, content in yielding it to you, to remember, as symbolical of the common patriotism of the whole country, that the first Union flag raised in Richmond was an Illinois flag by a Massachusetts soldier."


From the Rev. Dr. S.K. Lothop's letter:

"The bearer, John F. Locke, of Somerville, a private of company E. 39th regiment Massachusetts volunteers, 5th army corps, was captured at the attack on Weldon railroad, on the 19th of August, 1864, and sent to Salisbury , N.C.., where he was kept till the 20th of February, 1865, and on that day was sent to Richmond, arriving there on the 22nd, to be paroled and exchanged. The day after his arrival at Richmond, he met Capt. Porter, Adjutant General of his brigade who had been left by Gen. Hays in charge of the supplies sent to Richmond for our prisoners there, and Capt. Porter wished him to remain and assist in the charge and distribution of these supplies. With this wish or order he complied, and remained at Richmond so employed up the time of the evacuation of that city by the rebels, civil and military. Capt. Porter having in the meantime left, and Capt Stuart, of the 146th, New York regiment, taking his place. On the morning of the 3d of April, Capt. Stewart, Locke and one soldier having passed the night in the building containing out stores, which was near Libby prison, Capt. Stewart left a little before 7 o'clock, and walked up Main street to see what was going on, the explosions, the fires and other indications all satisfying them the city was being evacuated. Locke was left in charge of the building. About twenty minutes after this, Capt. Stewart's servant came down to the building and said the Federal cavalry were coming in — that they were about a mile and a half off. Locke, upon hearing this, went immediately over to Libby, entered Major Turner's off, found there two captured Union flags — one silk, the other bunting — returned to the building, and proceeding to the third story, hung out the Union flag from a window or doorway before any of our troops were in sight and while there were yet straggling many rebel soldiers in the street. He claims thus to have raised the first Union flag in Richmond, and as he proposes wailing upon your Excellency [Governor] with the Union flag which he took from Major Turner's office in the Libby, and wanted these facts to be known to you, I have taken the liberty to write them out in the form of this note to you. Locke has been nearly three years in the service, and is twenty-one years old." AGR p. 159.


The Flag After the Battle of Chickasaw Bayou

[But the 13th Illinois were the heroes of the day. They fought with magnificent bravery, reckless of all danger. No sooner were their lines formed than they fell before the pitiless storm of shot and shell, like grass before the scythe of the mower: yet they held their position like Spartans, although exposed to this terrible fire from batteries against which their own fire was harmless.

The colors of the regiment were left upon the field of battle, and afterwards sent as a trophy to Richmond. They lay there till the final capture of that city, when they were found by one of the first of the Union troops who entered, and were thrown to the breeze — the first Union flag that had been seen in that rebel capital since the fall of Sumter.]

Patrick Riley, Color-Bearer

"Patrick Riley, the color-bearer, while carrying the flag across the open plain, was struck in the breast, and fell to the ground, the flag bespattered with his blood; but he still held it firm and erect, until his successor was obliged to wrench it from his dying grasp and pass on. The regiment gained undying fame by its valor at this fight; but it was a fearful cost. It lost, in dead and wounded, one-one-seventh of the entire loss of the desperate battle; but the victory was won, and Cleburne driven from his position." Boies, p. 302

Plate III (Page 329) No. 1 — Flag of the Thirteenth Regiment Illinois Volunteers

This flag is stained by the life-blood of Patrick Reilly, color-sergeant, who was killed at Ringgold Gap, November 27, 1863. He was shot through the breast and fell in such manner as to be rolled up in the flag.

Description of the Battle-Flags p. 34


The Story of Henry Holt, the Bugler

A young man, Henry Holt, bugler of Major Power's cavalry, attached to the 13th regiment, was complaining of feeling rather ill, when the Quartermaster, Captain Henderson, who had a passion for aught like fun, proposed to bury the musician; and in the spirit of merriment, seized a spade, and, after measuring the complainer, dug a grave of his exact proportions.

The bugler laughed, as did his companions, at the humor of the officer, and soon after went away to discharge some duty with which he had been trusted.

About nine o'clock the same evening. Holt was sitting, with seven or eight of his company, about a camp-fire, within a few feet of the grave, when some one pointed to it and remarked, in a tone of badinage:

"Come, Harry, get ready for your funeral!"

The youth looked over his shoulder at the gloom cavity in the earth, put his hand to his head, and fell from his stool. His companions laughed at the little piece of acting, as they supposed it, and were surprised that he did not rise from the earth.

They went up to him, asking, "Are you asleep, Harry?"

He made no answer, and yet his eyes were open.

They shook him in vain.

His friends grew alarmed. One placed his hand upon Harry's heart. It was still: he was dead!

He had perished of a stroke of apoplexy, and was buried at midnight, in the grade made for him in jest by a merry-hearted friend.

And so the droll jest was drowned in the hollow sound of the earth falling upon a rude coffin, and solemnly waking the stillness of the night-morn amid the solitude of a broad prairie of the southwest. [Boies]


Brig. General Frederick W. Partridge

Originally from Norwich, VT, and Sandwich, IL, he settled in Sycamore after the War. He came from a military family:

Capt. Samuel Partridge fought in colonial and Indian wars before the Revolution; Capt. Isaac Partridge was in the Revolutionary War; Capt. Cyrus Partridge was War of 1812. A cousin was Supt. of West Point. F.W. was assigned a secret mission in the 1847 American-Mexican War (and failed!).

In the Civil War he fought at Lookout Mt., Missionary Ridge, Chattanooga and Ringgold Gap, TN. Mustered out in 1864, he recovered from his wounds, resumed his law practice, and came to Sycamore when he became Clerk of the Circuit Court. A friend of General Grant, F.W. became President. General of Siam (U.S. Ambassador to Thailand) when Grant became President. While in Siam he became a hero by saving the King's son. He once sponsored a dinner for both Stephen A. Douglas and Abraham Lincoln. His first house was destroyed by fire in 1880 with all its contents including the finest Siamese curiosities in America.

He lived at the Smith-Partridge House, 230 Somonauk St., often referred to as the Wetzel House and now owned by St. Peter's Episcopal Church. Capt. Richard A. Smith was also wounded in the Civil War and became a leader of Sycamore's GAR. This is the only House in the Sycamore Historic District built in the 19th Century Gothic architecture, perhaps because it is located between two Gothic churches.

General Partridge passed away 22 January 1899 and is buried in Elmwood Cemetery. His wife, Mary (Pauline), died in 1885, but had a plaque, which is on the inside south wall of St. Peter's Episcoapl Church, is dedicated to her husband. Miss Blanche Partridge, the only daughter of the General, died at his home on Feb. 23, 1898. She was 38 years of age and was buried in Sandwich, IL. The 1880 census shows the General as a merchant and also living in the household were Anna Brown, a servant, and Ann B. Pauline, his sister-in-law.


Orderly Sergeant Edward Bridge

Although not mentioned by Chapel, he undoubtedly knew and perhaps heard about Orderly Sergeant Edward Bridge who was also from Malta, IL. Boies History relates:

"Among those from Malta, [IL], who gave their lives in defence of their country, was Orderly Sergeant Edward Bridge, an intelligent, exemplary and patriotic young soldier of Company B, Fifty-fifth Illinois. He was severely wounded at Shiloh, but recovered and lived to fight the battles of Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post, Haines' Bluff, Champion Hills, Black River, Vicksburg and Jackson, winning the highest commendation in his relation as a soldier and as a man, but he died of pneumonia at Larkinsville, Alabama, January 11th, 1864. Aged 21." p. 530.

Jefferson Davis

Jefferson Davis (1808-1889) Confederate President. He grew up in the Mississippi frontier. Was educated in Kentucky and Transylvania. Graduated from U.S. Military Academy, a year ahead of Gen. Robert E. Lee.

He served seven years in remote garrisons in Wisconsin and Illinois; saw action during the Black Hawk War, 1832. He married the daughter of President Zachory Taylor; she died after three months of marriage.

He ran successfully for Congress, 1845. He was in the Battle of Buena Vista, 1847. He returned to Washington, D.C., as a Senator. He was Secretary of War, 1853-57, during President Pierce administration. He was in the debates about slavery.

He resigned Senate seat, Jan. 21, 1861. Was made President of Confederacy, Feb. 18, 1861.

Not to be confused with Brig. Gen. Jefferson C. Davis, under Gen. Curtis, and later of the 14th Corps of the Army of the Cumberland.

Rev. Arnold T. Needham

The chaplain at the time the 13th regiment went out of service was Rev. Arnold T. Needham. At the breaking out of the war he enlisted as a private. He was subsequently promoted as sergeant for bravery. By his active, yet unobtrusive piety, his zeal in caring for the wounded and dying, he had so won upon the


officers of the regiment that they recommended his appointment to that office although he was not even a licentiate. Leave of absence granted; he returned to his home in Chicago, was licensed and ordained, and received his commission. Chaplain Needham is a devoted Christian minister, and at the expiration of the time of enlistment, he entered the Rock River Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and was appointed to a pastoral charge, where he gives full proof of his ministry.

The Services of Two Sycamore Doctors

While not directly associated with Company F of the 13th Regiment, there were two Sycamore doctors who were appointed or otherwise called into service during the War.

According to the Adjutant Generals Report, Dr. O.M. Bryan of Sycamore was appointed to the medical board under General Orders No. 25 of the War Department for the Medical Department. He came on a new board on June 14, 1861, along with four other doctors from Chicago, Collinsville, Paris and Peoria, IL. "Dr. Bryan was subsequently promoted to Brigade Surgeon." AGR, p. 25

On April 30, 1862, extra surgeons were authorized to be appointed because of "the anticipation of the close approach of a great battle before Corinth, [MS], then closely invested by our immense army,"

Among 15 appointed from throughout Illinois and at the head of the list, was Dr. P.J. Wardner of Sycamore. On July 5, 1865, he was paid $113.60 "These Surgeons, although acting under the authority of the War Department, really formed no part of the army. They were not mustered into service, nor did their names appear upon any rolls, either for muster or pay. Nevertheless, as early as possible after their appointments, they severally repaired, at their own expense, to the several posts assigned them, to render such medical aid to our soldiers as the necessities of the service demanded: and it is believed their services were timely and efficient." AGR, pp. 101-2.


Company F, 13th Regiment
Illinois Vol. Infantry, 3 Years
Adjutant General's Report

Vol. 1, 1861-66, Revised, 1866
Pp. 587-589
  Residence X
Enlisted May 24, 1861
Death or Mustered Out Date
Adams, John Syc 5/30/6 6/18/64 MO as Corporal
Allen, William Syc X 6/10/64
Atwood, Morris Syc X 9/9/63 Discharged Disability
Babcock, Isaiah Syc X 6/18/64
Barnes, Daniel, A.A.B. Syc X 6/18/64
Barton, Anthony Syc X 6/21/64
Berogan, John Pierceville 6/15/61 ?
Bradley, Daniel Syc X 5/8/65 POW
Brown, George Crtld 7/6/61 6/6/65 POW
Bryant, Samuel T. Syc X 6/18/64
Buck, Azro A. Syc X 6/18/64 Prom., Sgt, 2nd&1st Lt., Capt.
Burbank, Elbert Syc X 6/18/64
Burbank, Horace C. Syc X 9/1/63 Transfer to Invalid Corps
Burgess, Lewis Cortland X 1/1/62 Discharged
Burkee, Cyrus C. Syc X 6/18/64
Burleigh, Ranson Syc X 6/18/64 MO as 1st Sgt.
Campbell, George Syc X 6/8/65 POW
Carr, George Syc X 6/6/65 POW
Caswell, Charles H. Syc X 6/18/64
Chappel, Wilson E. Malta X 6/6/64 Promoted to Corp., POW, Died
Churchill, Enos Cortland X 6/10/61
Clarke, John Cortland X 12/10/61 Discharged
Clawson, Leonard L. Syc X 3/15/64 Died
Coogle, John Syc X 8/18/61 Deserted
Cook, Charles Dixon 12/18/63 12/18/63 Trans. to Co. I, 56th Ill. Inf.
Courtright, Cyrn's S. Cortland X 6/18/64
Crosby, Charles R. Syc X 6/18/64
Culver, Harian Cortland X 1/1/62 Discharged
Davenport, Richard S. McDonough X 6/18/64 MO as 1st Sgt.
Deiley, Jacob S. Syc X Unknown Wounded in Hosp. 12/29/62
Dolan, Thomas Syc X 7/1/62 Discharged
Dupue, Nicholas Syc X 6/18/64 MO as Corporal
Dutton, Everett F. Syc X 9/22/62 Promoted to Field & Staff
Fidermont, Samuel Syc X 6/18/64
Freeman, William Syc 7/1/61 7/31/61 Deserted
Gaudy, Wayne Cortland X 5/4/63 Discharged Disability
Goodrich, George Cortland X 2/16/63 Died
Gould, Benjamin L. Cortland 7/6/61 1/26/63 Discharged Disability
Green, Andrew J. Syc X 10/2/61 Died
Hall, Porter D. Unknown X ? Absent, w'nd, since 11/27/63
Harrington, Nelson R. Syc 9/3/61 1/29/64 Vet, Cpl, trans to Co. I, 56th Inf.


Harrison, Charles J. Syc X 7/25/64
Harroun, John S. Unknown X ? 1st Sgt., Absent on Duty
Hartman, Philo D. Syc X 6/18/64
Hevenor, Reuben M. Malta X 6/18/64
Hill, John Malta X 4/28/63 Deserted
Hogan, Thomas Syc X 5/25/63 Died of Wounds
Houghton, Alonzo Syc X 1/29/64 Vet trans to Co. I 56th Ill. Inf.
Humphries, James Peoria 9/3/61 5/8/65 POW MO as Corporal
Humphries, John Syc X 4/30/63 Discharged Disability
Jones, William J. Malta X 12/14/61 Discharged
Keer, William C. Syc X 1/5/63 Died of Wounds
Keppell, Isaac N.Kingston X 5/17/62 Died
Kingsley, Albert F. Syc 6/16/61 ? Promoted to Corporal
Lawrence, John M. Cortland 6/10/61 ?
Locy, Joseph W. DeKalb X 6/6/65 POW
Loring, Theodore Cortland X 6/18/64 Prom. Sgt, 2nd & 1st. Lt.
Loudon, George Syc X 1/1/62 Discharged
Mayo, Zeiotes Bingham Syc X 7/25/61 Resigned, prom. Capt. to Col.
McLaughlin, Thomas Syc X 2/28/63 Deserted
Merrill, Abbott Kaneville 5/30/61 6/18/64
Miers, Frederick C. (Myers) Syc X 6/6/65 Vet, POW, trans. Co. I, 56th Inf.
Milligan, Robert Syc X 4/28/63 Deserted
Mulligan, Albert Syc X 6/18/64
Nagreen, Joseph Syc X ? Absent, sick since 10/21/63
Nichols, John W. Syc X 5/30/65 MO as Sgt.
Nichols, Stephen Syc 9/3/61 2/21/63 Discharged Disability
Norris, Sylvester W. Syc X 6/18/64
Oleson, Hans Cortland X 11/2/63 Died
Olney, Edward W. Syc X 6/18/64 MO as Sgt.
Orr, Thomas J. Syc X 6/18/64
Orvis, Charles W. (Ovis) Syc X 1/29/64 Vet. Trans. to Co. I, 56th, POW
Ovitt, John Malta X 11/24/62 Discharged Disability
Patridge, Frederick W. Sandwich X 6/18/64 Lt. Col. 13th Co. E &Staff MO
Partridge, Zeolotes B. Syc X 5/6/63 Discharged
Patten, David H. Syc 5/30/61 6/18/64
Peck, Charles V. Syc X 11/27/63 KIA at Ringgold
Phelps, William A. Syc X 6/18/64
Potter, Seneca Syc X 7/23/62 Discharged Disability
Ramer, Henry Pierceville X 6/18/64
Robbins, Alfred Syc X 10/20/62 Discharged
Russell, Alphonzo Cortland 9/3/61 12/29/63 KIA Chickasaw Bayou
Russell, Gusfavus F. Cortland X 6/18/64
Russell, Wesley D. Syc X 6/26/63 Died
Secord, Francis Syc X ? Absent sick since 10/1/63
Sigline, Jacob Syc X 9/10/61 Discharged
Smith, Henry Pierceville X 11/27/63 KIA at Ringgold
Smith, James M. Syc X 5/31/62 Deserted
Smith, Oliver W. Syc X 6/18/64


Smith, Richard A. Cortland 8/6/61 8/21/63 Promoted 2nd Lt, 1st Lt, Capt
Smith, William S. Syc X 9/19/61 Died
Spiking, John H. Syc X 6/18/64
Sprague, Edward F. Syc 9/3/61 9/3/61 Trans. to Co. I, 56th Ill. Inf.
Stafford, Seymour Syc X 9/1/63 Transfered to Invalid Corps.
Stark, William H. Cortland X 12/15/61 Died
Thompson, Julius DeKalb X 6/18/64
Waldron, John Syc X 12/16/62 Discharged Disability
West, Asa P. Syc X 6/6/63 Discharged Disability wounds
Whitney, Lorenzo H. Syc X 9/10/61 Discharged
Willis, Moses M. Syc X 8/11/63 Discharged Disability
Wing, Vinter B. Syc X 9/6/62 Died of internal fever
Wyman, John B., Col. Amboy X 12/28/62 KIA at Chickasaw Bayou
Wyman, Byron F. Syc X 6/18/64 MO as 1st Sgt.
Young,John Syc X 1/13/64 Died of Wounds
Other names on Boies List      
Chappel, Wilson E. Malta   Not on Boies list.
Chapel, Charles So.Grove   11/23/65 Commissary Sgt, 17th Ill. Cav.
Courtwright, Cyrenus S. Cortland   AGR abbrev. Cyrn's
Gandy, Wayne Cortland   Boies misspelled Gaudy
Gandy, George W. Cortland   Boies: Early resident of
Gandy, Isaac Cortland   Boies: Early resident of
Depue, Nicholas Sycamore   Boies misspelled Dupue
Depue, J.H. Genoa   3/21/64 Sgt. died In Civil War
Depue, James S. Sycamore   12/23/61 Discharged 8th Ill. Cavalry
Depue,Joseph Sycamore   1/11/63 Discharged Disability 105th Inf
Depue, Richard D. Sycamore   12/16/65 MO 17th Ill. Cavalry
Durkee, Cyrus C. Sycamore   Boies misspelled Burkee
Losee, Joshua DeKalb   6/6/65 POW
Losee, Rufus DeKalb   12/28/62 Discharged Disability
Orritt, John Malta   Boies spelling of Ovitt?
Siglin, Jacob Sycamore   Boies spelling of Sigline?
Siglin, Isaiah Sycamore   12/18/65 MO 17th Ill. Cavalry
Siglin, Jacob M. Sycamore   7/15/62 Resigned 8th Ill Cavalry
Siglin, Joshua Sycamore   12/18/65 MO 17th Ill. Cavalry
Willis, Moses B. Sycamore   Boies initial for "M"?
Willis, Henry B. Sycamore   10/17/64 MO 42nd Ill. Infantry


Afton Cemetery    
Dunbar, Eugene W.   Co. E Pvt. d. 8/11/1866
Dunbar, S.T.   Co. E. Cpl. d. 2/24/1868
Charter Grove    
Siglin, Joshua   Co. F Pvt. d. 1/8/1906
Culver, Cem. Sandwich    
Wright, John H. (Henry) orig. from Northville Co. E. Pvt,
Dickson Cem., Sandwich    
Skinner, Robert orig. from Northville Co. E. Sgt.
Elmwood Cem, Sycamore    
Crosby, Charles A.   Co. F. Pvt. Died 5/22/1905
Deily, Jacob   Co. F. Pvt. Died 1898
Dutton, Everell F.   BrigGen 105th Died 6/8/1900
Harrington, Nelson R.   Co. I, 56th Inf, Cpl d. 1/4/1912
Kimberly, Frank (Kinerly) not on AGR or Boies list Co.F13th Pvt d. 12/21/1881
Mayo, Zeiotes Bingham   Co. F Capt. d. 3/12/79
Nichols, Stephen L.   Co. F. no death date given
Partridge, Frederick W.   13th Ill lnf. BrigGen d. 1/22/99
Phelps, William A.   Co F Pvt. died 10/21/1884
Smith, Richard A.   Co. F Capt. Died 2/24/1919
Smith, William S.   Co. F no info but d. 9/19/61
Waldron, John   Co. F Pvt. Died 1875
Wyman, Byron F.   Co. F. Sgt. Died 4/27/1909
Greenwood, Hinckley    
Ankle, Henry orig. from Somonauk Co. B&E Pvt. d. 7/16/1894
Darnell, Enoch B. orig from Fox Co. E. Pvt. d. 7/14/1916
Kingston Cemetery    
Russell, W.D.   13th Ill Inf. Pvt. d. 1863
Malta Cem.    
Chapel, Wilson   Co. F Cpl d. 6/6/1864
Deily, Jacob Also, see Elmwood, Syc Co. K 15th Ill. Inf. D. 8/8/1934
Havenor, R.M.   Co. F Pvt d. Sept. 1921
Hill, John   Co. F. Pvt. d. 1864
Mayfield Cem., Sycamore    
Nichols, John W.   Co. F. Pvt. d. July 1899
Mound Rest, Cortland    
Ovitt, Simeon D. not listed In AGR Co. F. Lt. d. 1922
Ramer, Henry E.   Co. F Pvt. d. 1914 Co. D?
Oak Lawn Cem, Sandwich.    
Barnes, Charles E.   Co. E. Pvt. d. 8/17/1877
Wallace, Henry not on Dekalb Co list Co. E. Pvt.
Mullen, John not listed AGR nor Boies Co F. Pvt. no death date
Underwood, William E.   Co. E. Cpl. no death date
Oak Ridge Cem. Sandwich    
Palmer, C.L.   Co. E. Pvt. d. 6/12/1863
Devoll, George B.   Co. E. 1st Lt. d. 6/16/1895


Ohio Grove, Cortland    
Burgess, Lewis   Co F. Pvt. d. date unknown
Buried Elsewhere Those of Co. F who died in Service
Bushnell, Douglas R. Sterling 12/29/62 11/27/63 Lt.Col.13thStaff KIA Ringgold
Chappel, Wilson E. Malta X 6/6/64 Promoted to Corp., POW, Died
Clawson, Leonard L. Syc X 3/15/64 Died
Goodrich, George Cortland X 2/16/63 Died
Goodwin, Josiah K. Amboy X 8/4/63 13thStaff HospStwd Died
Green, Andrew J. Syc X 10/2/61 Died
Hill, John     1864 Co. F. Pvt. d. 1864
Hogan, Thomas Syc X 5/25/63 Died of Wounds
Keer, William C. Syc X 1/5/63 Died of Wounds
Keppell, Isaac N. Kingston X 5/17/62 Died
Oleson, Hans Cortland X 11/2/63 Died
Peck, Charles V. Syc X 11/27/63 KIA at Ringgold
Russell, Alphonzo Cortland 9/3/61 12/29/63 KIA Chickasaw Bayou
Russell, Wesley D. Syc X 6/26/63 Died
Smith, Henry Pierceville X 11/27/63 KIA at Ringgold
Smith, William S. Syc X 9/19/61 Died
Stark, William H. Cortland X 12/15/61 Died
Wing, Vinter B. Syc X 9/6/62 Died of internal fever
Wyman, John B., Col. Amboy X 12/28/62 KIA at Chickasaw Bayou
Young,John Syc X 1/13/64 Died of Wounds



1. Reuben M. Hevenor, the diary is dedicated by him. Enlisted May 24, 1861, and was mustered out on June 18, 1864.

2. John (Jack) Hill of Malta, IL, who enlisted May 24, 1861, and later deserted, April 28, 1863. The GAR later said the AGR falsely reported this. "The facts are, he was sent to the hospital from Helena, Ark., and his descriptive roll given him; he lost this. He died in 1864."

3. Captain Bulls is not associated with the 13th but may have been from DeKalb or an army recruiter who was assigned from outside DeKalb County.

4. The 1860 Malta Census shows Joseph R. Evans, tinsmith.

5. Chapel misspelled "esconsed" and may have used to mean: to cover or shelter, to protect, to hide, or to be placed comfortably, snugly or securely.

6. Col. John Wyman from Amboy, IL, enlisted May 24, 1861, and was killed at Chicksaw Bayou, MS, Dec. 28, 1862. Chapel records his being wounded in the thigh on Dec. 27. (Not to be confused with 1st Sgt. Byron F. Wyman of Sycamore in Co. F of the 13th.)

7. Lt. Col. Parks enlisted May 9, 1861 and resigned June 25, 1861. AGR does not show his residence. Chapel comments on this resignation later.

8. Major Adam B. Gorgas was from Dixon, IL, enlisted June 25, 1861, was promoted to Lieut. Col. Dec. 29, 1862 and to Colonel, Feb. 17, 1863. He was mustered out June 18, 1864. Not to be confused with Josiah Gorgas (1818-1883), a Confederate general and chief of ordnance.

9. Mr. Munger and Mr. Evans are not mentioned in Boies.

10. Chapel worded "every thing" as two words, likewise with other words of that time.

11. Skinner is not found in any Company of the 13th Infantry (AGR). Boies shows an Eldridge Skinner, Sandwish, mustered out June 7, 1865, as Corporal, wounded. Doubtful is the same but Skinner is not a common DeKalb Co. name.

12. Was this the same banner or flag that went with them all the way to Ringgold, AL. See appendix for story.

13. Capt. Zelotus Bingham Mayo from Sycamore, IL, was mustered in May 24, 1861, as the first of four captains to head Company F, and resigned July 25, 1861. He was born Dec. 29, 1812, thus was now 49-50 years old. He had served before this at Seminole, Mexico, and Florid. Boies cites "a decrepid old soldier who had seen service in the Mexican War," He was succeeded by 1st Kt. E.F. Dutton of Sycamore. He is buried in Elmwood Cemetery, Sycamore.

14. Corporal Edward W. Olney, from Sycamore, enlisted May 24, 1861, and was mustered out June 18, 1864 as Sergeant. Burial is not known in DeKalb cemeteries.

15. Samuel C. Plummer, Surgeon, from Rock Island, IL, enlisted May 24, 1861, given rank Sept. 9, 1861, was promoted First Asst. Surgeon, Nov. 7, 1862 and was mustered out June 18, 1864.

16. Cairo (pronounced both Kyro or Kare-O) is at the southern tip of Illinois and about 350 miles from Dixon.

17. Pvt. Sylvester W. Norris [not Morris] of Sycamore enlisted May 24, 1861, and mustered out June 18, 1864. Burial is unknown in DeKalb County.

18. Perhaps a hotel or rooming house in Malta?

19. Chapel's writing looked like "Wilace" or "Wilau." This is a DeKalb County township and town and not to be confused with the town Milan near Moline, IL. In 1857 was the youngest town; in 1860 pop. 262.

20. Enoch and Sarah. Chapel capitalizes Brother and Sister and these may well be family members. Check the 1860 and 1870 Census. Apparently lived outside of Malta, e.g., a farm or DeKalb; however DeKalb is also on the [later Northwestern, and Union] Railroad.

21. The place where the war was being carried on.

22. Later the official Union uniform was blue and the Confederate uniform was a grey.

23. A case of leather or canvas for carrying equipment or supplies on the back.

24. The ladies may have been from Nachusa House in Dixon, or from the town of Nachusa, five miles east of Dixon.

25. Seargeant (sic) was Sergeant [no first name] Berry, May have been related to a James S. Berry of Sycamore who was promoted from Sgt. to Captain of the 8th Illinois Cavalry; term expired Dec., 28, 1866. He is not buried nor has a local memorial in any local area cemetery, Sycamore or DeKalb County.

26. Known as the "IC" this railroad had extensive coverage of the State of Illinois, mostly electrified but also steamers on its mainlines.

27. Cameras and photography were still quite new. Mathew B. Brady (1823-1896) became famous for his photographic record of the Civil War. Traveling with the Union Army, his group took more than 3,500 pictures of battle and camp scenes. The word "artist" could have meant a portrait artist but could have been used for photography means drawing or writing with light

28. Obviously on the Illinois Central R.R. before Bloomington, IL, but does not appear on current, road maps.

29. Armies on the march ate salt pork and hard biscuits called hardtack, and drank coffee. Food supplies included flour, corn, pork and beans. Most army cooks had never cooked before; thus, many soldiers preferred to do their own cooking.

30. Near the center N/S line of the state and near Carlyle Lake, Salem and Centralia, IL, in Clinton County.

31. Their destination Caseyville, IL, was to be directly west near St. Louis.

32. Most likely Nelson R. Harrington of Sycamore who was ranked Sept. 3, 1861, and had re-enlisted as a veteran; thus, probably had previous drill experience. Not known to be buried in DeKalb County. Not to confuse with his son, Cpl. Nelson R. (II) b. Jan. 7, 1844, (would be 17 yrs,) and d. Jan. 4, 1912, who was in Co. F but transferred to 56th Infantry. He is buried in Elmwood Cemetery, Sycamore.

33. A gunner's leather bag used for conveying ammunition to a gun.

34. A fraternity group similar to the Masons or Knight Templers, perhaps.

35. Grog originally was a mixture of rum and water not sweetened, but could refer to any alcoholic drink.

36. Pvt. Charles H. Caswell from Sycamore, enlisted May 24, 1861, and mustered out June 18, 1864. Born at Belvidere, IL, "was a good soldier, knew no fear, apparently always ready for duty, and always well until the march to Jackson, MS, in July, 1863, when he was sun-struck. He was sent to the hospital at Paducah, KY, where he caught the smallpox. He returned to the regiment, when at Madison Station, AL, a physical wreck. After the war he lived at Republic, Chickasaw county, Iowa, and may be buried there.

37. Lieut Col. Fredrick W. Partridge was from Sandwich. He was Field and Staff for the Thirteenth and had been Capt. of Company E. He mustered May 24, 1861, and was promoted June 25, 1861. He became a Brig. General and after the War moved to Sycamore. See Appendix for further biography.

38. Jefferson Davis (1808-1889) was Confederate President. He perhaps knew of Malta, IL, as he had served seven years in remote garrisons in Wisconsin and Illinois, he saw action during the Black Hawk War, 1832, in which Abraham Lincoln had also served. See Appendix for more biography.

39. From St. Louis to Rolla, about 75; Rolla to Springfield, about 80.

40. Believe to be Gen. Nathaniel Lyon (1818-1861) B. in Connecticut, was a West Point grad and was in Seminole and Mexican Wars. He commanded the federal arsenal & troops in St. Louis; he saved the arsenal and captured the prosecessionist militia gathering at Camp Jackson in May. 1861, thereby probably saving Missouri for the Union. Appointed a Brig. Gen., he was killed at Wilson's Creek in August, 1861.

41. Col. Boiles not in Boies or AGR.

42. Assumed to be Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where iron products were produced.

43. Wilson Creek is jut south of Springfield, Missouri, where there is now a National Park for the battlefield. It is also called Oak Hills. There were 258 Union killed, 873 wounded and 186 missing. The Confederates lost 279 with 951 wounded.

44. Gen. Sigel was of the 36th Illinois Infantry.

45. Capt. Milton S. Littlefield of Jerseyville, IL, enlisted Apr. 20, 1861 and was mustered out Nov. 26, 1862. Company F of the 14th Ill. Inf.

46. Little Piney River originates near Lenox, MO, and runs north to Rolla.

47. The Gasconade River runs north and south but west of Rolla. Both the Big and Little Piney Rivers run into it.

48. They appear to have marched northwest of Rolla. The Osage River flows north to the Missouri River.

49. Col. A.C. McClurg was appointed Capt. Feb. 29, 1861, and was mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

50. Secesh. According to the dictionary, a secessionist; also, secessionists collectively. This could also mean they withdrew or separated, or were part of the withdrawal of a State (Missouri) from the Federal Union.

51. Warsaw is 118 miles west of Rolla and west of the now Lake of the Ozarks. Do not find Spoon or Stone River on current maps.

52. Mack's Creek is a town about half way between Warsaw and Bolivar but to the east.

53. Pvt. Charles E. Howland from Lisle, IL, who had enlisted May 24, 1861.

54. Bolivar, MO, is NNE of Springfield.

55. On today's road map this is difficult to understand. Perhaps what Chapel meant was that the Linn Creek-to-Springfield road and the Jefferson City-to-Springfield road met at Bolivar and then proceeded to Springfield.

56. General John Charles Fremont (1813-1890) was a Union General raised in South Carolina. He was a national hero in the 1843-44 expedition through Oregon, Vancouver, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah. He became rich during the Gold Rush. Just before the war in 1856 he was the Republican Know-Nothing presidential candidate. He was governor of Calif. (1847) and of Arizona (1878-83). He had excessively harsh politics toward slave holders.

57. Union Gen. Samuel Davis Sturgis (1822-1889) b. in Pennsylvania, graduate of West Point and fought in Mexican War. When his officer resigned to join Confederate Army in April, 1861, he saved Fort Smith, Arkansas, for the Union. He commanded defenses of Washington, D.C., and fought at Second Bull Run, South Mountain, Antietam, Fredricksburg and in Kentucky, Tennessee and Mississippi. He attracted criticism for his action at Wilson Creek, and his disastrous loss to Gen. Nathan B. Forrest at Brice's Cross Roads in June, 1864.

58. Confederate Gen. Sterling Price (1809-1867) b. in Virginia but moved with parents to Fayette, MO in 1831. Commanded Missouri troops during Mexican War. Forces under his command defeated a Union army at Wilson's Creek in Aug., establishing him as one of the early Confederate military heroes. Nicknamed "Pap" he fought at Iuka, Corinth, Helena and during the Red River campaign of 1864.

59. Sutler: A person who follows an army and sells to the troops provisions, liquors, or the like.

60. Captain Everell F. Dutton (Jan. 4, 1838-June 8, 1900) was from Sycamore, Illinois. He enlisted with Company F, 13th Regiment, Aug 6, 1861, and was discharged for promotion Sept. 22, 1862. Later was with the 105th Ill. Inf. and mustered out June 7, 1865 at Washington, D.C. had 18 officers and 351 men. He became a Brig. Gen. And is buried in Elmwood Cemetery, Sycamore.

61. For the story of Henry Holt, the bugler, see the appendix.

62. This could have been Pvt. Julius (Yule for Jule) Thompson from DeKalb of Co. F of the 13th. He had also enlisted May 24, 1861 and was mustered out June 18, 1864. These must have been horses assigned to each Company and were not of the Cavalry units.

63. The 14th Ill. Inf. was made up of men from Cook, DeKalb, Kane, Du Page, Lee, Whiteside and Rock Island counties.

64. The 15th Ill. Inf. was composed of men from McHenry, Winnebago, Boone, Stephenson, Ogle, Lake, and Carroll counties.

65. Lung fever is the same as pneumonia.

66. Union General Franz Sigel, and under his command, Gen. Peter J. Osterhaus, both of the 36th Illinois and Gen. A.S. Asboth of the cavalry. Gen. Osterhaus officially said: "The 13th Illinois executed the order in magnificent style, They charged through a hail-storm of balls and gained the position assigned to them — held it, although the enemy poured a murderous fire into their brave men, both from the gorge above and the hill upon the right." This was in regard to Ringgold Gap, of which Boies writes: "The 13th, upon that bloody day, was the first to engage the enemy and the last to leave the field. It was sent forward over an open plain to seize an important position." (Boies, p.301)

67. The muzzle-loading, one-shot guns seemed primitive, but they had an effective range of 250 years. Just before the War, the first breech-loaders were introduced. The Springfields may have been a musket or experimental at this time, but in 1867 after the War, the U.S. Army adopted the single-shot breech-loading Springfield rifle, the first to be used as regulation army equipment.

68. Pvt. Cyrus C. Burkee from Sycamore, Company F, enlisted May 24m 1861, and mustered out June 18, 1864. Burial not found in DeKalb County cemeteries.

69. Pvt. William J. Jones was from Malta, Company F, enlisted May 24, 1861, and was discharged Dec. 14, 1861. Burial not found in DeKalb County.

70. "Camp Lafayette" was obviously named for the Revolutionary War hero Marquis de Lafayette (1757-1834). However, this appears to have been a temporary name as there no such camp nor town in Missouri. Likewise, "Camp Rolla" was their name for their camp at that time.

71. Union Gen. Samuel Ryan Curtus, (1805-1866), West Point grad. and civil engineer. Raised Ohio volunteers for Mexican War. Resigned Iowa Congressional seat to join state regiment at outbreak of Civil War. Commander of the Union's Army of the Southwest in 1862. Fought and defeated Van Dorn at Pea Ridge, AR. This defeat put Missouri solidly in Northern hands. Then he successfully commanded the Departments of MO, KS and Northwest. He stopped Gen. Sterling Price's Missouri raid, Sept.-Oct., 1864.

72. Much of their marching today would be through parts of today's Mark Twain National Forest.

73. Also, much of their marching was near and/or either side of what is now Interstate-44.

74. Sugar Creek is just the other side of the Missouri/Arkansas line.

75. Plaite Creek may also be Flat Creek.

76. Keatsville is no longer on current maps, MO and AR. Not to be confused with Keytesville, in northeast Missouri, where there is a monument to Gen. Sterling Price.

77. Assume to be the Battle of Pea Ridge, Arkansas. Also called Bloody Ridge.

78. First Lt. Richard A. Smith of Cortland, IL, who was discharged Aug. 21, 1863. He enlisted May 24, 1861, and was promoted from 2nd Lt. to Captain. He is buried in Elmwood Cemetery, Sycamore.

79. First Lt. Azro A. Buck was from Sycamore. Enlisted Aug. 6, 1861 and was promoted from Sgt. to 2nd Lt. to Captain. He was mustered out June 28, 1864. Have no record of burial in DeKalb County.

80. Pvt. John Adams from Sycamore was a recruit enlisting May 30, 1861 and mustered out June 18, 1864 as a Corporal. Do not show him buried in DeKalb County.

81. Pvt. Edward W. Olney of Sycamore.

82. Again, Flat Creek; and Cape Fair, now part of the Table Rock Lake.

83. This may have been the James River.

84. Tattoo is a bugle call for soldiers to return to quarters for the night.

85. Bear Creek may have been Beaver Creek, or it may have been a creek no longer on the map because of damming rivers and creeks in the Lake of the Ozarks and Bull Shoals area. (There is a town Bear Creek, AR, southwest of where they were.)

86. Rails were bars of wood like those used in fences or to support upright posts.

87. Unbolted meal is meal that has to be sifted or separated, as bran from flour, by passing through a bolter.

88. Pvt. Anthony Barton from Sycamore who served from May 24, 1861, to June 21, 1864. It is not known where he is buried in DeKalb County.

89. Sorghum, or millet, is a genus of grasses grown in the U.S. for its juice which is used in making molasses.

90. The Battle of Shiloh, TN, (named after a church on the battlefield) took place on April 6-7. On the first day, Confederate troops almost smashed Grant, but he managed to hold his lines. Johnston, the Confederate general, was killed in the battle. The next day, with about 20,000 reinforcements from Buell, Grant forced the Southerners to retreat to Corinth, MS.

91. Pvt. James M. Smith of Sycamore who soon would be a deserter, May 31, 1862. He had enlisted May 24, 1861. His grave is not found in DeKalb County and may not be recognized for the year's service he gave.

92. This could have been either or both, Bryant Creek and the North Fork of the White River.

93. This could be John A. Davis who came in as a colonel, July 25, 1861.

94. Salem, AR, is about 15 miles south of the MO-AR line.

95. Wood's Cavalry not listed in AGR. If John Wood, was ex-governor of Illinois who appeared in battle with the Eighth Illinois Cavalry, Boies, p.219

96. Could have followed and crossed on way from Salem to Batesville, AR.

97. Howitzers are a short cannon with a low muzzle velocity, firing sells in a relatively high trajectory.

98. Pvt. Reuben M. Hevenor, from Malta, IL, who served from May 24, 1861to mustering out June 18, 1864. It is assumed he was entrusted with Corporal Chapel's journals and brought the 3 or 4 volumes home after Chapel died. Reuben died Sept., 1921, and is buried in Malta Cemetery, IL.

99. Those drowned were believed to be under Col. Eugene A. Carr's command who was mustered in at Camp Butler, IL.

100. Isaac Keppell of Kingston, IL, who died May 17, 1862, and had enlisted May 25, 1861. Unknown as to whether he was reinterred in a DeKalb Cemetery.

101. Smith, Green, Stark and Keppell.

102. Most likely Capt. William W. Strong from Glasgow, IL.

103. Could not be identified for Co. G 13th Regiment by AGR.

104. Massachusetts is where Chapel had lived until 1860 and had gone to school. While this may have been perhaps a lady friend, it may have also been a relative. Lyman Chapel, who was 26 years old, volunteered for 3 years in Co, B of the 37th Mass. Infantry at Camp Briggs, Pittsfield, MA, on Aug. 30, 1862. He later was KIA at Winchester, VA, Sept. 19, 1864. (This info was found in Chapel's file at the DeKalb Co. Joiner History Room.)

105. Fairview may have stayed deserted as AR has two Fairviews, one in the far north and one far south.

106. William Kerr [or Keer] from Sycamore, IL, died Jan. 5, 1863, of wounds. (Boies, p. 305). AGR shows name as Keer. He is not buried in Sycamore nor in DeKalb County cemeteries.

107. As they were not yet in conflict, they were moving backward and not retreating.

108. Gen. Henry Wager Halleck (1815-1972) was commissioned by Pres. Lincoln and was in command of the Dept, of Missouri (also western KY, KS, OH, and MS). He was commander over Grant, Buell and Pope. He was an overly cautious and ineffective warrior but did force Beauregard to evacuate Corinth, MS. By early June, the Union held the Mississippi River as far south as Memphis.

109. Again, under Col. Eugene A. Carr.

110. Pvt. William P. Tyler from DeKalb was in the 42nd Illinois Infantry. He died at Tipton MO, Dec. 31, 1861, according to Boies which perhaps is not the same person. This reference is June 8, 1862. Check AGR.

111. Jacksonport, AR. The name is now used for a state park and may have been changed to the now city, Newport. It is where the Black River meet the White River.

112. The long and winding White River is presumed to be the one in June, Chapel often refers to as it runs down from Batesville, AR, and passes south parallel to Searcy to the east.

113. Brig. Gen. Frederick Steele was in temporary command under Gen. Curtis for the Dept. of Arkansas. He was Grant's old West Point roommate but had failed of promotion because he returned a fugitive slave to its owner. Lincoln sent a letter supporting Steele, said he was a Northern man and a Republican. Within weeks Grant order denying harbor to freed slaves was canceled. This bridge was part of Steele's Bayou Route. Later he was head of the Fourth Division under Sherman, was assigned to the Red River Expedition and was at the capture at Mobile, AL.

114. Memphis was taken by Gen. Grant, perhaps once on his way from Paducah, KY, and from victories at Forts Donelson and Henry, and Shiloh, to Vicksburg; and on his return from Vicksburg and on to Chattanooga, TN. There was not a major battle at Memphis.

115. Pontoon bridges were temporary and were carried on pontoon trains or wagons, loaded with pontoon materials which accompany an army when on the march.

116. Bayou is a marshy inlet or outlet of a lake or a river; also, a backwater.

117. Ninth Illinois Cavalry out of Camp Douglas, IL.

118. Augusta is about 30 miles directly south of Newport.

119. Tenth Illinois Cavalry out of Camp Butler, IL.

120. Capt. Wordsworth is not in Boies nor the AGR. (Possibly Woodsworth?)

121. Perhaps another way of expressing this: only three out of four men could get water.

122. Cache River runs parallel north and south to the White River.

123. Clarendon, AR, is where the White and Cache Rivers meet and is directly west of Little Rock, AR.

124. L'Anguille River, AR, is where the White and Cache Rivers meet and is directly west of Little Rock, AR.

125. The first time Chapel mentions Vicksburg as their goal.

126. Arbor: a place shaded by trees, shrubs or vines; perhaps may have been a frame of lattice work.

127. Pvt. John Adams from Sycamore, enlisted May 30, 1861 and mustered out as Corporal on June 18, 1864.

128. Gen. Charles E. Hovey was with the 33rd Illinois Infantry, promoted from Col. Sept. 5, 1862.

129. Iron-clads, similar to the famous Monitor and Merrimac. The Confederates had raised a sunken federal ship, the Merrimac, at Norfolk, VA, and covered with iron plates, On March 8, 1862, renamed the Virginia, it attacked northern ships at Hampton Roads and destroyed two of them. When the Virginia returned the next day, it found a newly arrived iron-clad, the Monitor, waiting. Neither ship won the battle that followed. But the Virginia did prevent McClellan from using the James River, the best route to Richmond.

130. The "*2 shots" was from the original typewritten copy. This may mean there were 2 holes from shots in a cannon stove which is a long, upright, cylindrical stove.

131. Gen. John B. Wyman from Amboy, IL.

132. Chapel may have intended this as ironic humor since they had experienced so much rain.

133. Brig. Gen. Jefferson C. Davis under Gen. Curtis. Later he was with the 14th Corps of the Army of the Cumberland. Not to be confused with President Jefferson Davis of the Confederacy.

134. His handwriting may have meant "Cincinnati".

135. "Neb" was for the boat Nebraska which had arrived the day before.

136. Pvt. Horace C. Burbanks of Sycamore, enlisted June 3, 1861, and later transferred to the Invalid Corps, Sept. 1, 1863.

137. Ague is like having a fit, shivering with cold, chilliness or fear.

138. Bitters is a liquor, alcoholic.

139. Chapel tells later he does this copying for pay which fives him a certain degree of esteem with those in Co. E.

140. Could be either the 5th and 6th or the 56th Ohio.

141. Believe to be the "Acacia" which is mentioned later.

142. Sgt. Porter D. Hall, Cortland, absent wounded since Nov. 1863.

143. One may question a cake of ice floating in the river in the month of August and how long would it last to be rescued. However, ice from the north may have been shipped in large amounts on barges or on ships refrigerated to maintain food supplies.

144. Assume this was with their rifles and distance of 165 yards or over 1 and ˝ football fields away, at 12 inch target.

145. Yazoo River: The waters of the western and north central basin flow in to the Mississippi River chiefly by way of the Yazoo and its large tributaries, the Sunflower, Coldwater, and Tallahatchie.

146. Confederate Major General Thomas Carmichael Hindman, b. Tennessee and first served in Arkansas. Was at Shiloh, Little Rock, Chickamauga and Atlanta.

147. St. Francis River runs through the St. Francis Basin from the north corner of the state down to almost Helena where it connects with the L'Anguille River.

148. The first time he mentions guerrillas. Boise comments: "It was the first regiment to cross the Mississippi river, and move into the hostile region of Missouri. The regiment did excellent service in suppressing the plundering guerillas who infested that region for forty miles around." P.294.

149. Brig. Gen. Gideon Pillow, a Confederate who fought Gen. Grant at Fort Donelson, TN, Feb., 1862.

150. This would be Reuben M. Hevenor and Boies lists: Moses B. Willis, Sycamore, discharged August 11, 1862, which does not coincide with this date of August 31, unless he still hadn't left.

151. Check Adjutant General's book for Smith and Simpson, 1st Ill. Cavalry.

152. Jacob S. Deily, Sycamore, wounded and in hospital since Dec. 29, 1862. Boies shows as Private. A Jacob Deily is also buried in Malta Cemetery.

153. Lyceum is any lecture hall or an organization providing public lectures, concerts, etc.

154. Scrip [not script] is a temporary certificate given for part payment and to be exchanged for money. This may have been issued by the U.S. as fractional currency.

155. Boies says Vinter B. Wing, Sycamore, died September, 1862, of wounds.

156. Batesville, Missouri, but is also a town in Mississippi and Arkansas.

157. Thomas Randell of Princeton, IL, enlisted June 11, 1861, and killed Helena, AR, Sept. 8, 1862. AGR

158. Major Generals Philip Kearny [1814-1862] and Issac I. Stevens, died at the Second Battle of Bull Run, or Manassas, VA. Kearny of the New Jersey militia cavalry, who rode into a group a Confederates and was shot down while trying to escape.

159. Gen. George Brinton McClellan [1826-1885] in Seven Day's Battle in July, 1862, which repulsed Gen. Robert E. Lee. This was now Sept.?

160. "Tiger" is a loud yell often used at the end of a round of cheers.

161. John Adams, Sycamore, mustered out June 18, 1865, as Corporal. Had been a recruit to Co. F, 13th Illinois Infantry. Cpl. Edward W. Olney, Sycamore mustered out June 18, 1864, as Sergeant of Co. F.

162. Private Isaiah Babcock, Sycamore, enlisted May 24, 1861, and mustered out June 1864.

163. A green, crystalline compound used in dyeing.

164. Ally M. Cash. Later on Dec. 19, Chapel refers to an Allie Nash. This is perhaps the same person who may be Llewellyn Nash of the 13th Company D, of Rock Island County, who enlisted June 11, 1861.

165. Probably they owe Chapel for copying journals and for dyeing shirts.

166. Charles Caswell, Cyrus Burkee and Seymour Stafford, all from Sycamore; Stafford transferred to Invalid Corps. — Boies, p. 306.

167. Azro A. Buck, Sycamore, promoted from Sergeant to Captain, and earlier 2nd and 1st Lieut. Boies, p. 305, 530.

168. The Bakery was their own in the army wagon train; they did not go to a bakery in a town.

169. In the military services most watches are on a rotating four hours. In wartime some may be six or eight; however, they also marched, drilled and had other duties in any 24 hour period.

170. It is presumed they were in Mississippi for only over night and returned to their camp in Arkansas (?).

171. Capt. Richard A. Smith from Cortland, IL, many references for R.A. Smith in Boies. Born 1828, died Feb. 24, 1919. Discharged Aug. 21, 1863. Buried in Elmwood Cem., Sycamore.

172. The Tinshop, like the Bakery, was part of the wagon train.

173. These Minstrels, especially during the Civil War, may have more likely been vaudeville acts rather than black-face comedy.

174. This picket was apparently not from Company F as no death date is shown for Oct. 19/20.

175. Cpl. Ransom Burleigh of Sycamore enlisted May 24, 1861; and Pvt. Benjamin Gould of Cortland, enlisted July 6, 1861 and discharged Jan. 1863, disability.

176. Maybe a friend (girl) of Chapel's who lived in Belvidere.

177. First Lt. Theodore Loring of Cortland. Enlisted May 24, 1861, promoted 1st Sgt., then to 1st Lt. August 21, 1863. He was mustered out June 18, 1964. He is buried at Mound Rest Cem., Cortland, IL.

178. Were these ministers who were in service as chaplains, or were they visitors?

179. Jefferson J. Eastman, of Fox, Kendall not DeKalb County, enlisted May 24, 1861, and died Nov. 7, 1862.

180. William C. Kerr [or Keer, AGR p. 588], Sycamore, died Jan. 5, 1863 of wounds.

181. The flagship is the shop or boat that carries the commanding officer.

182. Hurricane deck is the top deck of a passenger ship plying inland waters.

183. A bounty is a reward, premium, or allowance given for enlisting in the service. The AGR show the County of DeKalb incurred expenditures and liabilities in aid of the suppression of the Rebellion. The total was $408,195.87 which was all for bounties and none for transportation, subsistence, general expenses, soldier's families and interest.

184. A dense thicket of cane plants.

185. Confederate soldiers wore clothing which was brown for the dye of the butternut; also brown homespun overalls.

186. Hatchie River is short name for Tallahatchie River.

187. Panola is the name of a county east of Helena, AR. Town not on maps today.

188. Gen. Hovey

189. Sutler store could be a sewing store.

190. Gen. Francis T. Sherman

191. Gen. Thayer

192. Napoleon, Arkansas, not shown on current maps.

193. Millikens Bend, is a bend in the Mississippi River amidst the mixture of rivers, islands and bayous above Vicksburg. It is not a town.

194. Boies does not include the 55th as a unit from DeKalb County. Check Adjutant General's Report for these Malta Boys.

195. Porter D. West is given in Boies text but is not listed in the Company F list (p. 305). However, suspect this is Sgt. Porter D. Hall, of Cortland, who is given as absent wounded since Nov. 1863.

196. Robert Parker Parrot [1804-1877] a graduate of West Point, invented the famous Parrot rifle which was a cast-iron rifled cannon whose breech was strengthened by a wrought-iron hoop; the rifle was cheap and easy to produce and allowed for the use of a larger explosive charge than other funs could accommodate. He offered his guns to the Union army at cost.

197. One quarter would multiply to a total of 716 taken into action.

198. Capt. Richard A. Smith from Cortland who was made captain, Sept. 22, 1862. He is buried in Elmwood Cem., Sycamore.

199. Sgt. Byron F. Wyman who was from Sycamore and Is buried in Elmwood Cemetery. It is not known whether he was related to Col. John B. Wyman who was from Amboy, IL.

200. Corporal Edward W. Olney from Sycamore enlisted May24, 1861, and mustered out as Sgt. June 18, 1864. He is not buried in DeKalb County.

201. Corporal William C. Keer (AGR) from Sycamore enlisted May 24, 1861, and died from wounds Jan. 5, 1863. He is not buried in DeKalb County and most likely was buried there.

202. Pvt. Anthony Barton from Sycamore enlisted May 24, 1861, and mustered out June 21, 1864. Do not show buried in DeKalb County.

203. Pvt. Elbert Burbank from Sycamore enlisted June 3, 1861, with brother(?) Horace C. Burbank who transferred to Invalid Corps Sept 1, 1863. Elbert mustered out June 18, 1864. Only show a Lt. W.H. Burbank buried in Elmwood Cem., Sycamore and others not buried in DeKalb County.

204. Pvt. George Campbell of sycamore enlisted May 24, 1861, was POW and mustered out June 8, 1865. Do not show buried in any DeKalb County cemetery.

205. Pvt. Jacob S. Deiley from Sycamore enlisted May 24, 1861 and was wounded, in hospital Dec. 29, 1862. Both he and perhaps a brother, William H. Deily, are buried in Elmwood Cem., Sycamore.

206. Pvt. Wayne Gaudy from Cortland enlisted May 24, 1861, and was discharged May 4, 1863, with disability. Not shown as buried in DeKalb County.

207. Pvt. Philo D. Hartman from Sycamore enlisted May 24, 1861, and was mustered out June 18, 1864. Do not show buried in any DeKalb County cemetery.

208. Pvt. Alonzo Houghton was from Sycamore enlisted May 24, 1861, and later re-enlisted as a veteran. Transferred to Company I, 56th Ill. Inf. Jan. 29, 1864. Do not show as buried in DeKalb County.

209. Pvt. Abbott Merrill from Kaneville, IL, was recruited May 30, 1861, and was mustered out June 18, 1864. May be buried in Kane County as none shown in DeKalb County.

210. Pvt. Frederick C. Miers was from Sycamore enlisted May 24, 1861, re-enlisted as veteran, was POW, and mustered out June 16, 1865, and transferred to Company I. Not buried in DeKalb County.

211. Pvt. Thomas H. Orr from Sycamore enlisted May 24, 1861 and mustered out June 18, 1864. No record of burial in DeKalb County.

212. Capt. Frederick W. Partridge from Sandwich, IL, mustered in May 24, 1861with Company E and promoted June 25, 1861, as Major to 13th Field and Staff. Also, then over Company F. Buried in Elmwood Cem., Sycamore.

213. Pvt. William A. Phelps from Sycamore enlisted May 24, 1861, and mustered out June 18, 1864. He is buried in Elmwood Cem., Sycamore.

214. Pvt. Alphonso Russell from Cortland enlisted as a recruit Sept. 3, 1861, and was killed Dec. 29, 1862, at Chickasaw Bayou. He had a brother(?) from Cortland, Gustavus F. Russell who had enlisted May 24, 1861, and was mustered out June 18, 1864. Neither are buried in DeKalb County.

215. Pvt. Francis Secord from Sycamore who enlisted May 24, 1861, and was later absent on sick leave since Oct. 1, 1963. Do not show as buried in DeKalb County.

216. Walnut Ridge is also Walnut Hills which included the Chickasaw Bayou also called the Chickasaw Bluffs. These are in the middle of the Mississippi River just north of Vicksburg. Should not be confused with two Walnut Ridges in Arkansas and Chickasaw County in northern Mississippi.

217. Gaine's Landing is the same as Haine's [or Hayne's] Bluff?

218. White River [AR] flows both into the Arkansas and Mississippi River.

219. Capt. William M. Jenks of Company G. from Morrison, IL, enlisted May 24, 1861, and mustered out June 18, 1864.

220. John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren [1809-1870] Designed like a soda-water bottle (like a coke bottle) so that pressure in a cannon was greater at the breech. Cast solid and bored smooth, the 11-inch guns were made in 1851.

221. Pvt. Joseph M. Bashaw was from Sandwich, IL, enlisted May 24, 1861, and died Jan. 21, 1863, of wounds. Do not know where he is buried.

222. Continued in Volume IV (Volume 4, lost or with W.E.C[hapel] when taken prisoner.) Wilson E. Chapel, Co. F. 13th Regt. Ill. Vol. Inft. Encamped near Vicksburg, Miss. January 24th, 1863 Copied by Nelle A. Hevenor, Malta, Ill. May 24, 1886.