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Monthly Record of Current Events, March 8.

OUR Record closes on the 8th of March, containing events of the deepest interest.

During the month important military operations, which had been previously commenced, have been successfully carried on in Kentucky and Tennessee. At the middle of January the Confederate troops held the following points in these States: Mill Spring, on the upper waters of the Cumberland River, covering the Cumberland Gap, leading into Virginia; Fort Henry, on the Cumberland; and Fort Donelson, on the Tennessee, about 70 miles from the mouths of these rivers, barring the way by water into Kentucky, Tennessee, and Alabama; Bowling Green, near the middle of Kentucky, the centre of their line, about midway between Mill Spring and Fort Donelson; and Columbus, on the Mississippi, a few miles below the mouth of the Ohio. Opposed to these were the National forces under General Buell, who had advanced from various points to Munfordsville, midway between Mill Spring and Bowling Green. Cairo, at the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi; and Paducah, at the junction of the Ohio and Tennessee, were also held in force, forming points for gathering and transferring troops. A glance at the map shows the importance of the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers. Both fall into the Ohio near the southwestern corner of Kentucky. Following their course upward from their mouths they run southward, parallel with each other, at a distance of about 10 miles, for about 70 miles, crossing Kentucky and entering Tennessee. The Cumberland then turns eastward, traversing half the length of Tennessee, then bends northeastward, re-entering Kentucky. The Tennessee maintains its southerly course across the breadth of Tennessee, entering Alabama; then, turning to the east, it traverses the northern part of that State, when it turns northeast, and re-enters Tennessee. These directions are the reverse of the current, as we are tracing the rivers from their mouths upward, not from their sources down. The Cumberland is navigable for steamers to Nashville, in Tennessee, about 200 miles from its mouth, and for boats some 300 miles further. The Tennessee is navigable for steamers to Florence, in Alabama, 275 miles, and for boats 250 miles further.

The advance of the National forces, so long awaited, began about the middle of January. In our last Record we noted the battle of Mill Spring, January 19, where Zollicoffer was defeated and killed; and the capture of Fort Henry, on the Cumberland, February 6. After the capture of Fort Henry three gunboats were sent up the river. They proceeded to the head of steamboat navigation, at Florence, Alabama, capturing two steamers and a gun-boat; six other steamers loaded with military stores were burned by the enemy, to prevent their falling into our hands. A strong Union feeling was found to exist in that portion of Tennessee and Alabama through which this expedition passed. Soon after the capture of Fort Henry a movement was made toward Bowling Green. This important point, which a few weeks before had been occupied by a Confederate force said to number 40,000 men, was abandoned on the approach of our forces under General Mitchell, who took possession of the place on the 15th of February, the enemy retreating upon Nashville.

Simultaneously with this movement upon Bowling Green, Fort Donelson, the principal fortification on the Cumberland River, was attacked by our land and naval forces. General Grant left Fort Henry on the 12th, with a large force, divided into two divisions, under M'Clernand and Smith; six regiments having in the mean while been sent by steamers up the river. The fort, of which General Pillow had just assumed the command, was admirably constructed, and garrisoned by about 20,000 men. It was supposed by the enemy that it could not be taken except by an overwhelming force after a long siege. Besides Pillow, Floyd, formerly Secretary of Warunder Mr. Buchanan, and Buckner, who had commanded at Bowling Green, were in Fort Donelson. The works were invested by land on the 12th and 13th, occasional skirmishing taking place. The gunboats, four of iron and two of wood, commanded by Commodore Foote, having ascended the river, commenced a sharp attack on the 14th. After a severe bombardment of more than an hour the water batteries, against which the fire of the boats was directed, appeared to be nearly silenced. Just then the steering apparatus of two of the boats was shot away, and they drifted helplessly down the stream. The other boats having suffered severely, the naval attack


was suspended. Upon consultation between General Grant and Commodore Foote, it was resolved that the boats should go to Cairo for repairs, and that the works should be invested by land, the direct assault being postponed. This plan was frustrated by the enemy, who on the morning of the 15th sallied from their intrenchments, and made a vigorous attack upon M'Clernand's division, which formed the right of our army. Our forces were pressed back for a time, losing many killed and wounded, and 250 prisoners. The enemy having concentrated his forces in this assault upon our right, our left, under General C. F. Smith, was ordered to attack their intrenchments. These were carried; whereupon our right again assumed the offensive, recovered the ground which had been lost, drove the enemy back within his lines, and took possession of some commanding positions. This action, which had lasted the whole day, with varying fortunes, was brought to a close by night. It left us in a position which rendered our success on the following day certain. At daylight a simultaneous advance from all points was begun, when a flag of truce was sent from the enemy bringing propositions from General Buckner for an armistice until noon, to arrange terms of capitulation. As was afterward shown, Pillow and Floyd had embarked as many troops as could be conveyed by the steamers in their possession, and had escaped up the river, leaving Buckner in command of the fort. To the request for an armistice Grant replied that no terms except immediate and unconditional surrender would be granted, and that unless these were accepted he should move at once upon their works. Buckner replied that he was compelled to accept the "ungenerous and unchivalrous terms" offered, and surrendered at discretion. The whole number of prisoners thus surrendered was about 14,000, and 5000 are supposed to have escaped with Pillow and Floyd. Official reports of the losses have not yet been issued, but it is known to have been heavy on both sides. — General Pillow has published his account of the loss of Fort Donelson. He took the command on the 8th of February, and set to work to improve the defenses. Floyd soon arrived, and assumed the command. Before the defenses were complete the fort was invested by fifty-two regiments, while they had, he says, but 12,000 men all told. The plan adopted at a council of war summoned by Floyd was to cut their way through and retreat. Pillow then narrates the proceedings of the 14th and 15th. At the close of this last day he had lost a large proportion of his men, and the remainder were worn out, having been exposed without sleep or shelter for five days in the trenches; while the enemy had not only gained a position which commanded Buckner's intrenchments, but had regained their investing position, cutting off the retreat again. A council of war was held. Pillow wished to cut his way through. Buckner said he could not hold his position half an hour; and that to cut the way through would cost three-fourths of the force; and no officer had a right to sacrifice three-fourths to save the remainder. Floyd concurred in this opinion. Floyd said he would give up the command to Buckner, if he might withdraw his own division; for bo would not be taken. Buckner assented; whereupon Floyd turned over the command to Pillow, who passed it to Buckner, who thereupon sent a flag of truce asking for an armistice of six hours to agree upon terms of capitulation; but before this was delivered Pillow had retired from the garrison. He says that in the battle of the 10th 5000 of the Federal troops were left dead or wounded on the field.

Fort Donelson having been captured, Commodore Foote, with two gun-boats, proceeded up the river some thirty miles to Clarksville, another point strongly fortified, where it was supposed that the enemy might make a stand, this being the last considerable defensive position below Nashville. The enemy had, however, abandoned the place, after having set fire to the railroad bridge, and retreated upon Nashville. This city, the capital of Tennessee, and the place fixed upon some months ago as the future capital of the Southern Confederacy, was the next point of attack. It was now open to our forces from two directions: by the railroad from Bowling Green, and up the Cumberland. Both approaches were used. Steamers, with troops under General Nelson, proceeded up the river, while General Buell, with his army, advanced from Bowling Green. Until late on the 16th the inhabitants of Nashville believed that the National forces had been defeated. A dispatch of the 15th from Fort Donelson assured them that "the enemy are retreating — glorious result — our boys following and peppering their rear. "Pillow sent a dispatch the same day, announcing, "On the honor of a soldier, the day is ours." Cave Johnson, on the morning of the 16th, sent word from Clarksville that "our officers feel confident of success, our troops equally so, and can not be conquered." The first tidings of their reverses were brought during the 16th by the arrival of Floyd, who had escaped from Fort Donelson. During the day the forces who had abandoned Bowling Green appeared, and passed on to the South. It was reported that the National gun-boats were close at hand. The Governor and Legislature departed for Memphis, carrying off the public archives. The public stores were thrown open for all who chose to take them, on Monday the 17th; the gun-boats in process of construction were destroyed, the railroad bridges burned in anticipation of the immediate arrival of the National forces. These did not appear for a week; meanwhile Floyd having been appointed to command, assisted by Pillow and Hardee, the order for distributing the public stores was countermanded, and the distribution partly stopped. But on the morning of the 23d the advance body of General Buell's column appeared at Edgehill, a village opposite Nashville. Buell arrived on the following evening, and was immediately waited upon by a Committee headed by the Mayor of Nashville; a formal interview was arranged for the following morning, before which time Nelson with his column had arrived up the river. At the meeting on the 25th Nashville was formally surrendered upon the assurance that the persons and property of all citizens would be respected. On the following day, February 26, the Mayor issued a proclamation urging all citizens to resume their ordinary avocations under the assurance of protection from the National forces. Few military stores were captured, the greater part having been carried away or distributed among the people. On the 19th Governor Harris issued a proclamation, from Memphis, announcing the fall of Fort Donelson, and summoning every able-bodied man, without regard to age, to enlist in the army. — Senator Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, has been appointed Military Governor of the State, with the rank of Brigadier-General.

Columbus had been styled the "Gibraltar of the Mississippi." It had been strongly fortified, and was thought impregnable to any attack, while it


prevented any passage down the river. But the evacuation of Bowling Green, and the capture of Fort Donelson and Nashville, rendered its possession by the Confederates useless, even if it could be successfully defended. Its abandonment was therefore considered certain. An armed reconnoissance made on the 2d of March by Commodore Foote from Cairo, showed that the evacuation was then taking place. On the 4th another force was sent down to take possession; but on arriving they found that they had been anticipated by a scouting party of Illinois cavalry, sent by General Sherman from Paducah, who were already in possession of what remained of the place. The works were uninjured, and a large amount of military stores were secured. It was supposed that the forces of the Confederates were to fall back to Fort Randolph, in Tennessee, 160 miles below Columbus, and 60 above Memphis, although Island 10 in the Mississippi, some 120 miles above Randolph, has also been suggested as their immediate destination.

In Missouri, also, active operations were resumed about the same time as in Kentucky and Tennessee. The Confederate General, Sterling Price, who had for some time occupied Springfield, was surprised on the 13th of February by the advance of our forces under General Curtis. He abandoned his position in haste, retreating toward Arkansas, closely followed by our forces. He made several ineffectual attempts at a stand, but was uniformly defeated, our troops capturing stores and prisoners. Price has been driven out of Missouri into Arkansas, and portions of that State are now in our hands, Fayetteville, a considerable town, having been occupied on the 27th of February. At a place called Mud Hollow the retreating army had poisoned a considerable quantity of meat, and 42 of our soldiers who ate of it were poisoned.

Thus, in about a fortnight of active operations, the Confederate forces have been driven entirely out of Kentucky and Missouri, and from all except a small portion of Tennessee. While these operations were going on in the West, the Burnside Expedition, for which such serious apprehensions had been entertained, has met with similar success. Early in February the greater part of this expedition had succeeded in getting into Pamlico Sound. On the 7th of February, the day after the fall of Fort Henry, an attack was commenced by this expedition upon Roanoke Island, in the narrow channel between Pamlico and Albemarle Sounds. The island had been strongly fortified, and was thought capable of barring the way of any naval force into Albemarle Sound, and thus preventing any serious operations upon the coast of North Carolina. The attack was opened by the gun-boats, which bombarded the forts, while the troops landed beyond reach of their guns. The forces, under Generals Foster, Reno, and Parks, having effected, a landing, encamped during the night. At daybreak on the 8th they advanced through a dense swamp upon the enemy's intrenchments, suffering considerable loss. These intrenchments were carried by storm, the enemy abandoning them, and running away at full speed toward the upper end of the island, closely pursued by our forces. There was, however, no means of escape, and before our troops could overtake them they were met by a flag of truce. Immediate and unconditional surrender was demanded, and these terms were complied with, about 2500 men laying down their arms. Our loss was about 50 killed and 200 wounded; that of the enemy being less, as they only fought under cover, ran away, and surrendered when overtaken. Among their killed was O. Jennings Wise, a son of Henry A. Wise, who was shot while endeavoring to escape in a boat. On the next day a portion of our fleet passed into Albemarle Sound, and overtook the Confederate flotilla near Elizabeth City. One of their gun-boats was captured and four destroyed, while but two made their escape. Elizabeth City, Edenton, and several other places in North Carolina were subsequently occupied by our forces.

The right wing of our grand army, under General Banks, crossed the Potomac at Harper's Ferry on the 26th of February, and advanced upon Charlestown. In Western Virginia, our troops, under General Lander, on the 13th of February, surprised the enemy's camp near Blooming Gap, dispersing it, with a loss of 13 killed and 75 prisoners. General Lander reported that his department was entirely cleared of the enemy, and asked to be relieved from his command on the ground of ill health, he never having recovered from a wound received at Edwards's Ferry the day after the disaster at Ball's Bluff. His request proved too well-founded, for he died on the 2d of March. He is succeeded by General Shields. — The operations of our forces in the neighborhood of Port Royal are kept secret. We learn from Southern sources that they are approaching Savannah, having already cut off the communication between that place and Fort Pulaski.

Important measures, financial and others, have been before Congress. The Treasury Note Bill, somewhat modified from the shape in which it passed the House, as given in our last Ficconi, has been passed. The chief modification is, that the Demand Notes are not to be received in payment for duties upon imports, or to be paid out for the interest upon the public debt — both of which are to be paid in gold. The notes are to be received and paid out by Government for all other purposes, and are made a legal tender for all debts. — A general Tax Bill has been reported by the House Committee of Ways and Means. It embodies specific taxes upon liquors, tobacco, oils, gas, paper, leather, soap, salt, flour, and 3 per cent. upon all manufactures not enumerated; a tax upon railroad and steamboat travel, upon advertisements, carriages, watches, jewelry, plate, slaughtered cattle, etc.; licenses of from 5 to 200 dollars upon trades, hotels, theatres, shows, and the like; an income tax of 3 per cent. upon the surplus of all incomes over $600; the same upon dividends, salaries of Government officers and employes, and 1 to 5 per cent. upon legacies; stamp duties upon legal and commercial papers; taxes upon patent medicines, telegraphic messages, and expresses. The Bill is now before the House, where it is presumed its details will undergo considerable modification. Various propositions relating to the question of slavery have been submitted. The most important of these is the "Confiscation Bill" reported in the Senate by the Judiciary Committee, providing for the confiscation of the property of those engaged in the insurrection, and enfranchising their slaves. This Bill has elicited prolonged and able debates, and is now before the Senate.

On the 6th of March the President submitted to Congress a message upon the emancipation of slaves. As this message may be supposed to represent the views of the Government, we give it in full:

I recommend the adoption of a joint resolution by your honorable bodies, which shall be substantially as follows:

Resolved, That the United States ought to co-operate with any State which may adopt a gradual abolishment of Slavery, giving to such State pecuniary aid, to be used


by such State in its discretion, to compensate for the inconveniences, public and private, produced by such change of system.

If the proposition contained in the resolution does not meet the approval of Congress and the country, there is the end: but if it does command such approval, I deem it of importance that the States and people immediately interested should be at once distinctly notified of the fact, so that they may begin to consider whether to accept or reject it.

The Federal Government would find its highest interest in such a measure, as one of the most efficient means of self-preservation. The leaders of the existing insurrection entertain the hope that the Government will ultimately be forced to acknowledge the independence of some part of the disaffected region, and that all the Slave States north of such parts will then say, "The Union for which we have struggled being already gone, we now choose to go with the Southern section." To deprive them of that hope substantially ends the rebellion, and the initiation of emancipation completely deprives them of it as to all the States initiating it. The point is not that all the States tolerating Slavery would very soon, if at all, initiate emancipation, but that, while the offer is equally made to all, the more Northern shall, by such initiation, make it certain to the more Southern that in no event will the former ever join the latter in their proposed Confederacy. I say "initiation," because, in my judgment, gradual and not sudden emancipation is better for all.

In the mere financial or pecuniary view any member of Congress, with the Census tables and the Treasury reports before him, can readily see for himself how soon the current expenditures of this war would purchase, at a fair valuation, all the Slaves in any named State.

Such a proposition on the part of the General Government sets up no claim of a right by federal authority to interfere with Slavery within State limits, referring, as it does, the absolute control of the subject, in each case, to the State and its people immediately interested. It is proposed as a matter of perfectly free choice with them.

In the annual Message last December I thought fit to say: "The Union must be preserved, and hence all indispensable means must be employed." I said this not hastily, but deliberately. War has been, and continues to be, an indispensable means to this end. A practical reacknowledgment of the National authority would render the war unnecessary, and it would at once cease. If, however, resistance continues, the war must also continue, and it is impossible to foresee all the incidents which may attend, and all the ruin which may follow it. Such as may seem indispensable, or may obviously promise great efficiency toward ending the struggle, must and will come.

The proposition now made, though an offer only, I hope it may be esteemed no offense to ask whether the pecuniary consideration tendered would not be of more value to the States and private persons concerned than are the institution and property in it, in the present aspect of affairs.

While it is true that the adoption of the proposed resolution would be merely initiatory, and not within itself a practical measure, it is recommended in the hope that it would soon lead to important results. In full view of my great responsibility to my God and to my Country, I earnestly beg the attention of Congress and the people to the subject.

The Confederate Congress assembled at Richmond January 22. The electoral votes for Permanent President and Vice-President were counted; all were cast for Messrs. Davis and Stephens respectively. Mr. Davis's Inaugural repeats the charges so often made against the National Government, and asserts that the Confederate States were forced into war against their will. Within the year the Confederacy had increased from six to thirteen States, and Maryland also would, when able to speak, connect her destiny with the South. The intelligence of the fall of Fort Donelson had just reached Richmond; but Mr. Davis says that "though the tide is for the moment against us, the final result in our favor is not doubtful; our foes must soon sink under the immense load of debt which they have incurred." In a Message, four days later, Mr. Davis says that "events have demonstrated that the Government had attempted more than it had power successfully to achieve. Hence, in our efforts to protect by our arms the whole territory of the Confederate States, sea-board and inland, we have been so exposed as recently to encounter serious disasters." The surrender of Roanoke Island "was deeply humiliating, however imperfect might have been its means of defense." He hopes that the reports of the losses at Fort Donelson have been exaggerated; since he can "not believe that a large army of our people have surrendered without a desperate effort to cut their way through the investing forces, whatever may have been their numbers, and to endeavor to make a junction with other divisions of the army. "He thinks the war will continue a number of years; and urges that enlistments in the army should be for a long term. The force of the army is somewhat vaguely stated at "400 regiments of infantry, with proportionate forces of cavalry and artillery. "The financial system of the Confederacy, he says, has worked well; the credit of the Government being unimpaired, and no floating debt existing. The expenditures during the year are put down, "in round numbers, at 170,000,000 dollars." — The conduct of the war, on the part of the Confederate authorities, has been sharply criticised in the Congress. Mr. Foote, of Tennessee, offered a resolution in favor of a vigorous offensive warfare, which was regarded as a direct impeachment of the Administration. In supporting his resolution, Mr. Foote said that if they had pushed forward, Southern freedom would have been accomplished six months ago. The concentration of their forces at Bowling Green, he said, was a "notable instance of the folly and criminal carelessness which has marked our military policy." Other members followed in the same strain, denouncing especially the course of the Secretaries of War and of the Navy. Much dissatisfaction prevails in Richmond; the papers state that the "traitors" there are numerous. Several arrests of prominent persons have been made; among these is John M. Botts. At a public meeting it was recommended that the cotton and tobacco of the whole Confederacy should be destroyed to prevent their falling into the hands of the Federal authorities. A bill has been reported in the Senate directing the military authorities to destroy cotton, tobacco, military and naval stores, and all other property, when necessary to prevent them from falling into the hands of the enemy; prohibiting the owners of cotton and tobacco from moving them without permission into any military district; and providing for the indemnification of the owners of these articles who may destroy them, upon proof that the destruction was necessary to prevent their capture. A resolution was unanimously adopted that it is "the unalterable determination of the people of the Confederate States to suffer all the calamities of the most protracted war; but that they will never, on any terms, politically affiliate with a people who are guilty of an invasion of their soil and the butchery of their citizens." Martial law was proclaimed, on the 27th of February, over Norfolk and Portsmouth, and the country fo r ten miles around, and on the 1st of March over Richmond and the surrounding country. The distillation of grain into whisky is expressly prohibited.

Messrs. Mason and Slidell reached Southampton January 29, and proceeded to London. Little notice was taken of their arrival. Mr. Slidell soon after went to Paris, where he has taken up his residence. — The Confederate steamer Nashville left Southampton February 3, the United States steamer Tuscarora, which had been watching her, not being allowed by the British Government to follow until after 24 hours. The Nashville steered for Bermuda,


arriving on the 20th, took in coal, and departed on the 24th; on the 26th she met an American trading schooner, took off the crew, and burned the vessel; and the next day she reached Beaufort Harbor, North Carolina, sighting a United States blockading steamer; she hoisted American colors, steered straight for the blockading vessel, then suddenly changing her course, succeeded in entering the harbor. She is said to have brought a large supply of paper for the Confederate Treasury and Post-office Departments.

Arrangements for a general exchange of prisoners have been made between the United States and the Confederate authorities. This arrangement was made when the enemy held about 3200, far more than we had. The successes at Roanoke, Fort Donelson, and in Missouri have put nearly 20,000 Confederates in our power. A large part of those captured at Bull Run and Ball's Bluff have returned home. — February 14, Government issued an order for the release of political prisoners not held by military authority, upon their engaging not to aid the enemies of the United States; the Secretary of War having power to except those whose detention is necessary for the public safety. — February 25, Government took military possession, under a special Act of Congress, of all telegraphic lines in the United States. All dispatches relating to military matters, not authorized by authority, are prohibited, and editors giving any unauthorized military details are to be excluded from receiving information by telegraph or sending their papers by mail. — General Charles P. Stone, who commanded our forces at Ball's Bluff, has been arrested and sent to Fort Lafayette, on charge of misbehavior at that battle and subsequent complicity with the enemy.

The representatives of England, France, and Spain, under date of January 10, issued a manifesto addressed to the Mexican people, reiterating the declaration that their object was not conquest; they also presented the ultimatum of their governments to the effect that satisfaction must be rendered for the expulsion of the Spanish minister, indemnification be made to Spain for losses sustained by her subjects, and punishment be inflicted upon the offenders; that payment should be made by Mexico for the expenses of the expedition; and that the treaties which have been broken should be acknowledged and observed. The Mexican Government replied, acknowledging that the treaties had been violated, and promising their future observance. As a preliminary to negotiations, the withdrawal of the allied forces, with the exception of a guard of honor of 2000 men, was demanded. To this the allies refused to accede. On the 18th of February a conference was held at Soledad between General Prim, representing the allies, and General Degollado, the Mexican Minister of Foreign Affairs. Here the preliminaries for negotiation, to take place at Orizaba, were settled. While these are pending, the allied armies are to occupy Cordova, Orizaba, and Tehuacan, and the Mexican flag is to be replaced upon the Castle of San Juan D'Ulloa at Vera Cruz. In case the negotiations fail, the allied forces are to return to Vera Cruz.

Earl Russell, on the 31st of January, issued a circular to the Lords of the Admiralty, directing that during the continuance of the American war no ships of war or privateers of either party should be allowed to use any British port as a station for any warlike purpose, or for obtaining facilities for warlike equipment; no such vessel to be allowed to leave any British port in which any vessel belonging to the other belligerent shall have departed, until after the expiration of 24 hours. Every vessel of war of either belligerent entering any British port is required to leave within 24 hours, except in case of stress of weather or distress. In such case they may be allowed to make necessary repairs, and take in supplies for immediate use; these supplies to consist only of provisions and other necessaries for the crew, and so much coal as may be needed to carry the vessel to the nearest port of her own country, or some nearer destination; no coal to be supplied, without special permission, a second time to any vessel in any British port, until after three months from the last supply. — In accordance with this regulation the Confederate steamer Nashville, which had been lying at Southampton, put to sea on the 4th of February, and the United States steamer Tuscarora, which had been watching her, was prevented from following in pursuit for 24 hours. We have before noted the arrival of the Nashville at Beaufort, North Carolina. — Parliament opened on the 6th of February. The Queen's Speech, which was read by Commission, touches upon the death of Prince Albert; represents her relations with European Powers to be wholly satisfactory; says there is no reason to apprehend any disturbance of the peace of Europe. It speaks of the adjustment of the Trent affair, and says that "the friendly relations between her Majesty and the President of the United States are unimpaired. "It makes no further allusion to the British relations with this country. — In the debates of Parliament American affairs occupied a large space. The leaders of both parties agree that the time has not come to recognize the Southern Confederacy. Lord Palmerston, on behalf of Government, declared that the policy of strict neutrality would still be maintained. The question of the stone blockade is still discussed by the press and in Parliament. Earl Russell, in reply to a question, stated that he had been assured that the design was not to permanently destroy the harbor of Charleston; and that, in fact, such a destruction would be impossible, for the rivers would ultimately open a passage for themselves.

The French Chambers opened their session on the 27th of January. The Emperor's speech presented a general resume of the affairs of the empire. An abstract of the financial portion of this speech is given in our Foreign Bureau. In reference to this country the Emperor merely says: "The civil war which desolates America has gravely compromised our commercial interests. So long, however, as the rights of neutrals are respected we must confine ourselves to expressing wishes for the early termination of these dissensions." — The Address of the Chambers in reply to this speech regrets the injuries inflicted by the civil war upon trade and manufactures, but agrees with the Emperor that the friendly relations between the two countries render neutrality incumbent, and expresses the belief that the quarrel will be all the shorter if not complicated by foreign interference.

The project of establishing a monarchy in Mexico, with a European prince upon the throne, is seriously mooted by the French and Spanish Governments, with the tacit consent of Great Britain. It is affirmed that the crown has been offered to the Archduka Maximilian of Austria.