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Signers, and those who refused to sign, in Dutchess County


We, the subscribers, inhabitants of the Colony of New-York, do most solemnly declare, that the claims of the British Parliament to bind, at their discretion, the people of the United Colonies in America in all cases whatsoever are, in our opinions, absurd, unjust, and tyrannical; and that the hostile attempts of their fleets and armies to enforce submission to those wicked and ridiculous claims ought to be resisted by arms. And therefore we do engage and associate, under all the ties which we respectively hold sacred, to defend by arms these United Colonies against the said hostile attempts, agreeable to such laws or regulations as our representatives in the Congress, or future General Assemblies of this Colony, have or shall, for that purpose, make and establish.