Term Definition
4C Project The four C's stand for the Collaboration to Clarify Costs of Curation. The program is designed to allow institutions "to invest more effectively in digital curation and preservation." They argue that "Research in digital preservation and curation has tended to emphasize the cost and complexity of the task in hand. 4C reminds us that the point of this investment is to realise a benefit, so our research must encompass related concepts such as ‘risk’, ‘value’, ‘quality’ and ‘sustainability’." (See website: http://4cproject.eu/)
Born-digital Materials Materials produced in digital form, rather than having been converted from print or analog equivalents.
Checksum An algorithmically-computed numeric value for a file or a set of files used to validate the state and content of the file for the purpose of detecting accidental errors that may have been introduced during its transmission or storage. The integrity of the data can be checked at any later time by recomputing the checksum and comparing it with the stored one. If the checksums match, the data was almost certainly not altered. See also “Fixity Check.”
Data Sets Data sets are collections of data, most commonly corresponding to the contents of a single database table, or a single statistical data matrix, where every column of the table represents a particular variable, and each row corresponds to a given member of the data set in question.
Digital Preservation The series of managed activities, policies, strategies and actions to ensure the accurate rendering of digital content for as long as necessary, regardless of the challenges of media failure and technological change.
Digitized Materials Digital materials converted from print or analog equivalents.
File Format Packages of information that can be stored as data files consisting of a fixed byte-serialized encoding of a specified information model, and/or a fixed encoding of that encoding in a tangible form on a physical storage structure.
Fixity Check A mechanism to verify that a digital object has not been altered in an undocumented manner. Checksums, message digests and digital signatures are examples of tools to run fixity checks. Fixity information, the information created by these fixity checks, provides evidence for the integrity and authenticity of the digital objects and are essential to enabling trust. See also “Checksum”
OAIS Reference Model The Open Archival Information System (OAIS) reference model is a conceptual framework for an archival system dedicated to preserving and maintaining access to digital information over the long term. See http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=57284