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Introductory Chapter.

THE Fort Wayne manuscript, or rather that part of it containing the Indian Speeches delivered in the two Councils held Sept. 4th and Oct. 2d, 1811, at Ft. Wayne, Ind., and hitherto unpublished, is a missing link of much interest and value in the border history of the Northwest. To illustrate the place it occupies in the chain of events and explain the relations it sustains to them, it becomes necessary to recur briefly to the condition which the Indian affairs in the Indiana and Illinois Territories were in, shortly before and at the time when these Ft. Wayne conferences were held.

About the year 1805, the peaceful relations, established by the treaty of Greenville in 1795, between the white and the red people became seriously disturbed through the conduct of two Shawnee brothers, "Te-cum-thea" and "Lo-la-wa-chi-ca" — "The Loud Voice", otherwise and better known as "The Prophet".

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The Prophet claimed a mission from the Great Spirit to reform the manners of the red people, and to revive all those customs that had been discontinued by their two common and frequent intercourse with the white people. All the innovations in dress, food, arms, and manners derived from the whites were to be discarded; in reward for which they were promised a restoration of all the comfort and happiness enjoyed by their ancestors, of which they had so often heard their old sages speak, on condition however, of an implicit obedience to the will and orders of the Prophet. He pretended to foretell future events, declared himself invulnerable to the weapons of his enemies, and promised like immunity to those of his proselytes who would devote themselves wholly to his services.

Roving for a while among the surrounding tribes, making a convert here and there, the brothers took quarters at Gen. Wayne's old cantonment at Greenville, Ohio, and soon gathered with them about one hundred Shawnee warriors from the several bands of that nation, living in scattered villages on the head-waters of the Au Glaize, White River, the Mississinewa, and elsewhere, together with a few followers recruited from other tribes. Within a few months the number of Shawnees were reduced by desertions to about forty or fifty, and the residue of the Prophet's followers were chiefly composed of the riff-raff of other tribes, many of whom had fled for their crimes.

The Prophet's band remained at Greenville through the years 1806 and 7, increasing, the while, in its number of excited, religious fanatics, ready, it was feared, for any enterprise on which the Prophet or his brother might be inclined to lead them, and great fears were entertained by the inhabitants of the border white settlements for their own safety. Complaints were accordingly made, in response to which Capt. Wm. Wells, then Indian agent at Fort Wayne, sent Anthony Shane, a half-blood Shawnee, to Greenville with a copy the President's letter contained in a communication from the secretary of war; the substance of which was that Te-cum-the and his party, being upon grounds lately purchased by Gov. Harrison from its rightful owners, should remove to some point beyond the general boundaries stipulated

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in the treaty of Greenville in 1795. The council-fire being lighted, Shane stated the object of his mission, and invited the brothers to a conference at Fort Wayne. Whereupon Tecumthe, without consulting the opinions of those around him, arose and said to the messenger: "Go back to Fort Wayne, and tell Capt. Wells that my fire is kindled on the spot appointed by the Great Spirit above; and if he has any communication to make to me, he must come here."

The excitement increased, and in a letter from Capt. Wells to Gov. Harrison, of date May 25, 1807, it was stated that, within a short time then past, not less than fifteen hundred Indians had gone or returned through Ft. Wayne in their visitations to the Prophet and Tecumthe at Greenville. And, in the month of August of that year, persons living in the north and western parts of the Indiana Territory, and familiar with the state of Indian affairs, estimated the number of Indians at Ft. Wayne and Greenville, who were supposed to be under the influence of these Shawnee brothers, at seven or eight hundred men, most of whom were armed with new rifles, and well provided with ammunition, supplied from Canada. The governor of Ohio, being officially advised of these facts, took measures to rid his State of such a dangerous assemblage. Gov. Harrison, of the Indiana Territory, also took an active and efficient part in the common purpose to disperse the Prophet and his adherents. The result of these combined efforts was, that early in the year 1808 the Prophet and his partisans moved from Greenville, and, to the future and very great annoyance of Gov. Harrison, as well as to all the inhabitants claiming his protection, took up their residence in the Indiana Territory, on the west bank of the Wabash, a short distance below the mouth of the Tippecanoe River, where they established the village known to fame as "The Prophet's town".

Tecumthe and the Prophet claimed that the new grounds upon which they thus settled had been granted to them by the Pottawatomies and Kickapoos; these latter, however, had no title at all, being only squatters themselves, having years before, and by sheer force of superior numbers, intruded themselves into the domain of the Miamies, to whom all that part of the Wabash country rightfully belonged.

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The Prophet had little influence among the immediately-adjoining tribes such as the Miamies, Delawares, Shawnees, and some of the Pottawatomies, whose chiefs and elder men knew he was an impostor, and would have nothing to do with his plans, in the execution of which they only foresaw harm to themselves and their families. It was with the remote tribes that his fame was blazoned, and to whom his miracles without number were communicated. The party attached to him, relying on his promises of food and raiment by divine interposition, neglected to hunt or plant, and were often starving for want of subsistence, while reports were spread abroad that they were enjoying every luxury and ease. Thus were the upper-lake Indians, and those between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi, and especially the Winnebagoes and the Kickapoos of the Illinois Prairies, deluded by fabulous reports, industriously circulated among them by Tecumthe and other emissaries of the Prophet. Tecumthe combined in his character great subtility, cunning, and an indomitable perseverance; and while his brother remained at home he was itinerating among the most distant tribes, and making proselytes to his and his brother's schemes. Keeping himself and his ulterior aims in the background, it is now known that he was the principal means by which the extravagant stories of his brother's supernatural powers were propagated.

The general discontent among the Indians, caused by the scarcity of game, the rapidly-advancing skirmish line of white settlements — the sure forerunner of a denser population — upon their hunting-grounds, and, perhaps, more than all, the threatened war with Great Britain, were eagerly seized upon by Tecumthe, and hastened the time when he thought he might come out from under the shadow of the Prophet, and declare his long-kept purpose of forming a confederation of all the Indian tribes; abrogate all treaties previously made with the United States relative to the cession of lands; drive the whites eastward and south beyond the Ohio River, and ever after hold the conquested territory as the common property of the victors, with no right of a disposal of any part of it, except with the given consent of all. It was a revival of the plan undertaken by Pontiac at the conclusion of

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the French-Colonial War; and again espoused by the confederated Northwestern tribes soon after the establishment of peace between the United States and Great Britain in 1784.

Matters grew daily worse at the Prophet's town, which had now become the common refuge of all the Indian vagabonds in the country; horse-thieves and pilferers of other property; wild blades who would, every now and then, surprise a pioneer's cabin, standing remotely out beyond the well-defined lines of white settlements, and cowardly murder the indwelling women and children found welcome shelter at the Prophet's town, and a ready friend and paliator for their crimes in the person of either Tecumthe or his brother. Gov. Ninian Edwards, of the Illinois Territory, made frequent complaints of depredations committed upon his settlements along the Mississippi, incited from or by perpetrators harbored at this plague-spot on the Wabash. Inhabitants of the lower Embarrass and in the neighborhood of Vincennes could only go about their work with their rifles always in hand; and the town itself was, time and again, threatened with destruction. Indeed, several peaceful Indians of the Delaware and Piankeshaw tribes warned the Governor of the great danger to themselves as well as to the whites, and said they intended to flee beyond the Mississippi to escape the storm that was threatening from the Prophet's town.

In the meantime, Gov. Harrison — in whom the people of the Indiana and Illinois Territories had unbounded confidence — continued his unremitting efforts to secure their peace and safety. His correspondence with heads of the departments at Washington abundantly shows that during the whole period covered by the events under consideration he kept the Government fully advised of the movements of the Prophet and Tecumthe, and as often suggested the necessity of active measures to arrest the mischief they were doing. He labored with a zeal then little understood, though now fully appreciated, and largely succeeded in keeping the bulk of the surrounding tribes from the contaminations of the Shawnee brothers, and in this way did much to save

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the settlements intrusted to his care from the terrible consequences that otherwise would have followed. He sent frequent messengers to the Miamis and Pottawatomies, demanding that they should drive the Prophet and his horde away from the domain claimed by these two tribes; but they, in their ignorance and terror at the threats of the Prophet, did not dare to resort to force. They could only look on silently and abide the result of events. No threats or persuasions would induce the Prophet to leave, who, with his brother, now additionally stimulated with words of encouragement of British-Canadian agents, threatened open war. The Governor again sent a messenger to the Prophet's town, to whom Tecumthe denied an intention of making war but most solemnly declared that it was not possible to remain friends of the United States, unless they would abandon all idea of making settlements further to the north and westward. "The Great Spirit," said he; "gave this great island to his red children; he placed the whites on the other side of the big water; they were not contented with their own, but came to take ours from us. They have driven us from the sea to the lakes; we can go no further. They have taken upon themselves to say this tract belongs to the Miamis, this to the Delawares, etc.; but the Great Spirit intended it as the common property of all. Our Father [Gov. Harrison] tells us that we have no business upon the Wabash, that the land belongs to other tribes; but the Great Spirit ordered us to come here, and here we will stay."

Seemingly the general government did not comprehend the situation, or was indifferent to the results that would follow from the course to which affairs in the western territories were rapidly drifting. At last matters culminated, on the 31st of July, 1811, when a public meeting was called at Vincennes, at which it was resolved, in substance, that no security to life and property could be had other than by breaking up the combination of the Shawnee Prophet on the Wabash; that it was impolitic and injurious to the inhabitants of the United States as to those of the Indiana Territory to permit a formidable banditti, constantly increasing in numbers, to occupy a position which enables them to strike the border settlements without the least warning; that the combination

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headed by the Shawnee Prophet was a British scheme, and that the latter's agents constantly inciting the Indians to hostilities against the United States. A committee, consisting of leading citizens, among whom was the venerable Francis Vigo, was selected to prepare an address to President James Madison, embodying the resolutions passed at the meeting. The address as forwarded. The Government, it appears, had anticipated the request; for the secretary of war, in two letters addressed, July 17th and July 20th, 1811, respectively, to Gov. Harrison, advised him that the 4th Regiment, U. S. Infantry, with a company of riflemen, making in all five hundred men, under command of Col. John P. Boyd, had been ordered forward from Pittsburg, and were to be at the disposal of the Governor, with the precautionary restriction, however, that the force was not to be used in the suppression of the banditti under the Prophet, "unless such a course should be rendered absolutely necessary, as circumstances at that juncture rendered it especially desirable to the President that hostilities (of any kind, or to any degree not indispensably required) should be avoided."

The Governor, having his plans matured, his militia and other troops in hand, once more prepared a speech, addressed to the several Indian tribes, calling upon them to disperse the Prophet's band and calling upon its members to immediately return to their respective tribes; requiring from the Miamis an absolute disavowal of all connection with the Prophet, and, they being the owners of the land he occupied, to prevail upon them to express to him their disapproval of the Prophet and his adherents from longer remaining there. One of these speeches was taken to Fort Wayne by Capt. Tousant Dubois, and its explanation to the tribes assembled there in council called out the speeches of September

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4th and October 2d, 1811, found in the Ft. Wayne manuscript.

The prelude of the war of 1812 was fairly upon us, although the formal declaration of it was made in the following June.

The portion of the Ft. Wayne manuscript following the Indian speeches shows the author of it to have been a well-informed and candid writer. His statements of facts, dates, names, etc. harmonize in the main with creditable works since in print — the most notable variance from them being his account as to the number of Indians engaged at the battle of Tippecanoe. He must have had an intimate and long acquaintance with the Indians; and the information preserved in his manuscript as coming to his knowledge from them as to their military engagements with the whites is, for the most part, not only new, but valuable historical matter.

Among the authorities consulted or drawn upon in the collation of the preface and notes, as well, also, the foot-notes running through the printed text of the Ft. Wayne manuscript, the following may be named: "The American State Papers"; "U. S. Treaties with the Indian Tribes"; "Life of Tecumshe", by Dr. Benj. Drake; Harvey's "Shawnee Indians"; Hall & McKinney's "History N. A. Indians"; "History of Ohio", by Caleb Atwater; Howe's "Ohio Historical Collections"; "History of Indiana", by the late John B. Dillon; "Historical Notes of the Northwest",

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by the same author — both works being of the highest historical value for their accuracy of statement; Judge John Law's "History of Vincennes"; Mann Butler's "History of Kentucky"; "History of the War [of 1812], and Views of the Campaigns of the Northwestern Army", by Samuel R. Brown; "History of the Late War in the Western Country", by Capt. Robt. M'Affe; "Memoirs of Gen. Harrison", by Moses Dawson; "Memoir of Gen. Harrison", by Judge James Hall; "Life of Gov. Ninian Edwards" [of Illinois]; The Indian Vocabularies respectively of Col. John Johnson, Prof. Edwin James; Thos. L. McKenney (of the Indian Department); Henry R. Schoolcraft; Capt. John Carver; Alexander McKenzie; David Zeisberger's and Edward F. Wilson's several Grammars and Dictionaries of the Delaware and O'Jebway languages; Albert Gallatin's "Synopsis of the Indian Tribes of North America". All which are acknowledged as sources of original and reliable information.

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"The manuscript from which the following pages were set was received in April, 1882, from S. A. Gibson, superintendent of the Kalamazoo Paper Company, Kalamazoo, Mich., and was written in the same hand at different times, on twenty-eight pages of foolscap paper, apparently as old as the dates thereon. Each page has an anchor water-mark. Mr. Gibson took these pages, evidently torn from a book, from a large bundle of similar papers that had been recently received at the mills from Fort Wayne, Ind. — F.

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Speeches Delivered in General Council at Fort Wayne, on the 4th day of September, 1811 by the different Chiefs of the Miamie Tribe of Indians, in Answer to a Speech from his Excellency, Wm. H. Harrison, Governor of Indiana Territory.

Speech of Laprusieur, Orator for the Weas, a Branch of the Miamie Tribe of Indians.

WILLIAM H. HARRISON, GOVERNOR OF INDIANA TERRITORY, LISTEN TO WHAT I HAVE TO SAY:
You now tell us that we are on a wrong road, a road that will lead us to destruction. You are deceived. When I was walking along, I heard you speak respecting the Shawanoe (Prophet). You said we were of his party. I hold you and the Shawanoe both by the hand; I hold him slack. You have both told me one thing: that if I would adhere to you, that my people (the women and children) would be happy. The hearts of the Miamies are good. The Great Spirit has placed them on the choicest spot of ground; and we are now anxiously waiting to see which of you tells the truth.

Now, Father, for the first time your eyes are open. When you

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cast them on your children you see they are poor; some of them are even destitute of the necessaries of life. We want ammunition to support our women and children; this has compelled us to undertake our present journey.

Father, we have not let you go; we yet hold you by the hand; nor do we hold the hand of the Prophet with a view to injure you. I therefore tell you that you are not correct when you supposed we joined hands with the Prophet to injure you. Father, I listened to you a few days ago, when you pointed out to me the depredations of murder committed by the Indians on the Mississippi. I told you that I and my people had no wish to join in acts of that kind. I told you that we both loved our people, and that it gives us pleasure when we see them standing around us; that we should deprive ourselves of this pleasure if we commenced a war with each other, as a war would be the destruction of both parties. You always told me that our great Father, the President of the United States, has placed you here for good purposes; that his heart is good toward his red children! How then does it happen that our Father's heart is changed toward his red children.

Father, you have called upon us to fulfil the Treaty of Greenville. In that treaty it is stipulated that we should give information if we knew of any hostile design of a foreign power against each other. I now tell you that no information from any quarter has reached our ears to injure any of your people (except from yourself). You have told us that the thunder begins to roll.

Father, your speech has overtaken us here. We have heard it, it has not scared us; we are not afraid of what you say. We are going on to that country which has been frequented by Tecumseh, and we shall be able to know, in the course of our journey,

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whether he has told us lies or not: that all the Indians are of the same opinion that he is; but when we return, we shall be able to inform you whether what Tecumseh has told us be true or not.

Now, Father, you have heard what I have to say; you will hear it well what comes from me.

Father, you have told me twice you were angry with me. I went to see you with my warriors with me when we were sitting face to face, and toes to toes; you told me that the Indians on the Mississippi had struck your people, and I said nothing to you. You tell us that you sent a messenger after us; that we insulted your messenger, yourself, and our great Father. This is twice you have said you were angry with us! We have looked for the cause, but can find none.

Father, we, the Miamies, are not a people that are passionate: we are not so easily made angry as it appears you are! Our hearts are as heavy as the earth! Our minds are not easily irritated. We don't tell people we are angry with them for light causes; we are afraid if we did fly in a passion for no cause we should make ourselves contemptible in the eyes of others. We therefore hope you will no more say you are angry with us, lest you should make yourself contemptible to others. We have told you we would not get angry for light causes. We have our eyes on our lands on the Wabash, with a strong determination to defend our rights, let them be invaded from what quarter they may. When our best interests are invaded, we will defend them to a man, and be angry but once.

Father, now consider what your children, the Miamies, have said to you. You have offered the war-club to us; you have laid at our feet and told us we might pick it up, if we chosed. We have refused to do so; and we hope that this circumstance will prove to you that we are people of good hearts. We hope, Father, you will not be angry any more with us, we will not be angry with you. This is all I have to say to you at present.

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Speech of Silver Heels, a Massassinway Chief.

He informed his people that he conceived it greatly to the interest of his nation that a decisive answer should be given to their great Father's speech; that he had asked for it, and he was entitled to receive it; that for himself he had always detested the Prophet and his party; and that the interest of their nation required that the Miamies should have no connexion with him; that in case a misunderstanding should take place between the United States and the Prophet, it is the interest of our nation to remain neutral, and hold our Father by the hand. My chiefs and warriors now present, I hope this will be the answer that you will send to our great Father, the President of the United States.

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Address of Oseemit, a Puttawatamie Chief.

I do not want what I am now going to say to be written down; but I think it is the interest of my nation that I should make some few observations. It appears to me that some of my younger brothers, residing on the Wabash, have got in a wrong road; that our Father has told them of it, and it is not too late for them to return. We, the Puttawatamie chiefs, have told our young men not to listen to the Prophet, but, notwithstanding, some of them were foolish enough to believe what he said.

Address of Charley, an Eel-River Chief.

Laprusieure has come forward and made a speech, without consulting or knowing the opinion of the Indians, which I conceive to be very improper.

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Speech of Little Turtle, a Miamie Chief.

GOVERNOR HARRISON:
Father, your speech by Mr. Dubois was communicated to us

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yesterday. Father, your children, the Miamies of the Wabash, are all glad of what you say. These are the sentiments of the Indians:
Father, you have asked us whether we are prepared to take part with the Prophet, or still hold you fast by the hand. This Question causes us to believe that a misunderstanding has taken place between you and some of our people that have visited you lately; it also appears that you have made known your intentions to the Puttawatamies, respecting the Prophet. You have told the Puttawatamies and other Indians residing on the Wabash to

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leave him; you have told the Miamies the same; these are things that surprise us. The transactions which took place between the Indians and white people at Greenville are yet fresh in our minds At that place, we told each other that we would in future be friends, doing all the good we could to each other, and raise our children in peace and quietness. These are yet the sentiments of your children, the Miamies.

Father, you have told us you would draw a line; that your children should stand on one side and the Prophet on the other. We, the Miamies, wish to be considered in the same light by you, as we were at the treaty of Greenville, holding fast to that treaty which united us, Miamies and Puttawatamies, to the United States.

Father, listen to what I have to say; it is our request that you pay particular attention to it: We pray you not to bloody our ground, if you can avoid it. In the first instance, let the Prophet be requested, in mild terms, to comply with your wishes; and avoid, if possible, the spilling of blood. The lands on the Wabash are ours. We have not placed the Prophet there; but, on the contrary, have endeavoured to stop his going there. He must be considered as settling there without our leave.

Father, I must again repeat that you said you should draw a line between your children and the Prophet. We are not pleased at this, because we think you have no reason to doubt our friendship toward you. I have not said much to you, but I think I have said enough for the present; my words are few, but my meaning great. I shall close by requesting you will pay particular attention to what I have said. This is all, Father, I have to say; I have said it in the presence of your messenger, the commanding officer, your people, and all mine.

Speech of Oseemit, a Puttawatamie Chief.

I have said that I am here alone; I have come to attend to the interest of my women and children; I have thought it my duty to do so, as the other chiefs of my nation are absent.

When I heard the words of my Father, we, the Puttawatamies, inhabiting the Lakes, from Chicago around to the east, are of the same opinion as those of the Miamies, just delivered by the Little Turtle; notwithstanding some of our foolish young men have killed some of the whites. We, the chiefs of our nation, have told our young men not to listen to any bad birds that are flying in the air; but some of them have been led astray, inasmuch as they have not followed our advice, and have imprudently involved themselves in difficulties. We, the chiefs of the Puttawatamies,

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are determined that their faults shall not be charged to our nation. We, the Puttawatamies and Miamies, have been friends from our infancy. We shall continue to be so; their sentiments are ours, and ours theirs.

Father, what we said to each other at the treaty of Greenville is fresh in our memories. We there told each other that improper conduct of individuals should not reinvolve us in difficulties; this must also be fresh in your memories, as you wrote it down, and I hope it will long be remembered by both of us. I have nothing further to say.

Address of White Loon, a Wabash Chief.

You have heard what my uncle, the Little Turtle, has said; and my opinion is the same.

Little Turtle Addresses the Miamies.

I told my people, when they were going to see the Governor, not to say anything respecting the land; that they had signed the paper closing the sales of the land, and that the treaty for that land was a fair and honorable one. I also told them to have nothing to do with the Prophet, that the Prophet was an enemy of Governor Harrison's, and Harrison of his; that if they formed any kind of connexion with the Prophet, it would make Governor Harrison an enemy of theirs.

Speech of Five Medals, a Puttawatamie Chief.

FORT WAYNE, 2d October, 1811.
ADDRESSED TO HIS EXCELLENCY, WILLIAM H. HARRISON, GOVERNOR OF

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INDIANA TERRITORY; DELIVERED IN THE PRESENCE OF TOPENAPA, THE HEAD CHIEF OF THE PUTTAWATAMIE TRIBE OF INDIANS, AND ALSO IN THE PRESENCE OF THE MIAMI CHIEF, LITTLE TURTLE, AND OTHERS.

Father and friend: We your children, the Puttawatamies and Miamies, now take you by the hand as friends, and thank the Great Spirit above in enabling us to do so.

Father, you have spoke to my brothers, the Miamies, and also to the Puttawatamies. Your words reached my place of residence during my absence, consequently I was not able to understand what you said as well as I wished, therefore I came to Fort Wayne.

Father, on my arrival at this place, I sent for my friend, the Little Turtle, in order that I might know to a certainty what you had said; I have seen him, and he has given me the information I asked for, and further states that he has himself already answered you; and it only remains for me now to answer you.

Father, I now tell you the opinion of your children, the Puttawatamies and Miamies; we are but one people, and we speak with but one voice, therefore, I now request you to pay particular attention to what I say, as I now speak the sentiments of them all.

When our chiefs arise in the morning and see the clear sky; when they see the beautiful streams of water that are running, which is to be used by their women and children in peace and quietness; when they see the beautiful green woods around them, which was made for their use, and their women and children enjoying these blessings in peace and quietness, they thank the Great Spirit for his goodness toward them, and pray to him that he may continue these blessings forever.

Father, the words which you are now listening to are the sentiments of your children. We wish to live in peace with all the world; and request of you to have pity on our younger brothers that reside on the Wabash.

Father, after I heard your words, I looked down the Wabash,

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and saw that the Shawanoe Prophet had led some of our younger people, Puttawatamies and Miamies, astray. I have understood, Father, that you wished to see me; whether to believe or disbelieve this information I know not; yet, if it is your wish to see me you should have given me information of it in writing, and that by the way of Fort Wayne.

Father, if you should want to say anything to us, speak to us through our old friend, Capt. William Wells, in whom we all have entire confidence, and then your words will be attended to immediately.

Father, I do not know that I have much more to say to you at present, after observing that your knowledge of the Indians enables you to know that the Puttawatamies and Miamies are one people, and as our brothers, the chiefs of the Miamies, are present, perhaps they may have something to say to you.

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Speech of Little Turtle, a Miamie Chief.

ADDRESSED TO HIS EXCELLENCY, WILLIAM H. HARRISON, GOVERNOR OF INDIANA TERRITORY.

Friend and Brother, you have listened to our chiefs, the Puttawatamies. You see that their sentiments and ours are the same, as respects the welfare of our people. It is true that some of our foolish young men have been deluded by the Shawanoe Prophet, and made to follow a path that is filled with thorns and briers. We pray you to have pity on these foolish people and forgive them the crimes they have committed.

My friend, I could not say anything more to you than what our great chief, the Five Medals, has said. He has told you to forgive those foolish people that have been led astray by the Prophet. Tell them the impropriety of their conduct, and request them to do better; and we hope they will do better.

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My friend, these are the sentiments of our hearts; to live in are with all people, is our first wish; and we have entire confidence that the Treaty of Greenville is fresh in the mind of our Father, the President of the United States. I have nothing more to say at present.

Father, we all now take you by the hand and request the Great Spirit to incline your heart to be kind to your Red brothers.

A Letter from the Celebrated Miamie Chief, Little Turtle.

FORT WAYNE, 25th January, 1812.
To HIS EXCELLENCY, WILLIAM H. HARRISON, GOVERNOR OF INDIANA TERRITORY.

My friend: I have been requested by my nation to speak to you, and I obey their request with pleasure, because I believe their situation requires all the aid I can afford them. When your speech by Mr. Dubois was received by the Miamies, they answered it and I made known to you their opinion at that time. Your letter to William Wells, of the 23d November last, has been explained to the Miamie and Eel-River tribes of Indians.

My friend, altho neither of these tribes have had anything to do with the late unfortunate affair which happened on the Wabash, still they all rejoice to hear you say that if those foolish Indians, which were engaged in that action, would return to their several homes and remain quiet, that they would be pardoned and again received by the President as his children. We believe there are none of them that will be so foolish as not to accept of this friendly offer; while at the same time I assure you that nothing shall be wanting on my part to prevail on them to accept it.

All the Prophet's followers have left him (with the exception of two camps of his own tribe). Tecumseh has just joined him, with eight men only. No danger can be apprehended from them at present. Our eyes will be constantly kept on them, and should they attempt to gather strength again, we will do all in our power

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to prevent it, and at the same time give you immediate information of their intentions.

We are sorry that that peace and friendship, which has so long existed between the red and the white people, could not be preserved without the loss of so many good men as fell on both sides in the late action on the Wabash; but we are satisfied that it will be the means of making that peace which ought to exist between us more respected, both by the red and the white people.

We have lately been told, by different Indians from that quarter, that you wished the Indians from this country to visit you; this they will do with pleasure, when you give them information of it in writing.

My friend, the clouds appear to be rising in a different quarter, which threatens to turn our light into darkness. To prevent this it may require the united efforts of us all.

We hope that none of us will be found to shrink from the storm that threatens to hurt our nations.

Your friend, MISHECANOCQUAH or LITTLE TURTLE. X
For the Miamie and Eel-River tribes of Indians.

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The Manners and Customs of the North-Western Indians. [HISTORICAL.]

The French were the first white people that were ever known among the North-Western Indians.

When the British and French commenced a war against each other in North America, the North-Western Indians joined the French, and some of the Six Nations of Indians joined the British.

After the British had gotten possession of this country from the French, a Tawa chief, by the name of Pontioch, renewed the war against the British, and took all the posts that were occupied by the latter, on the Lakes and their waters, in one day, (Detroit excepted) where Pontioch himself was. This wonderful achievement of military skill was performed by stratagem.

After this, in 1774, the first war commenced between the Americans and the North-Western Indians. The principal action that took place between the parties was at the mouth of the Big Canawa. The Indian army consisted of about three hundred Shawanoes and Delewares, and a few Miamies, Mingoes, and Wyandotts, all of whom were commanded by the celebrated Shawanoe chief, Cornstalk.

This was the war that ended at the Treaty of Greenville, in 1795, altho' at different times, individual Indians would treat or pretend to do so with the Americans, while at the same time, other Indians would be destroying some of the very people that their chiefs were treating with.

The Indians that opposed General Sullivan, in 1779, were the combined forces of the Six Nations. Their number, and by whom commanded, I do not know.

The Indians that defeated Colonel Crawford at Sandusky were the Wyandotts, Delewares, Shawanoes, Cherokees, Puttawatamies,

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Ottaways, and a few of the Six Nations, said to be eight hundred in all. I never heard who commanded them, as the Indians always keep the number of their killed and wounded as secret as possible. I shall not undertake to say what number were killed and wounded in either of the actions above mentioned.

Bowman's campaign was against the Shawanoes, on the Little Miamie River. I am not acquainted with any of the particulars of the action that took place between him and the Indians.

My knowledge of the campaign carried on by General Clark

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against the Shawanoes, on Mad River and the Big Miamie, is not to be depended on.

When General Harmar arrived at the Miamie Town, he sent Col. John Hardin with a party of men in search of the Indians.

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Col. Hardin met three hundred Miamies at the head of Eel River who were commanded by the celebrated Miamie chief, Little Turtle. An action ensued, and the whites were defeated. The Indians had one man killed and two wounded. The Indians that fought the troops under the command of Col. Harmar in the Miamie Town, were the party above mentioned, and commanded by the same chief; also a body of five hundred more consisting of Shawanoes, Delewares, Puttawatamies, Chippaways, and Ottaways. The Shawanoes were commanded by their own chief, Blue-Jacket; the Delewares by Buckingehelas; and the Ottaways and Chippeways by Agaskawak, an Ottaway chief. The Indians say they had fifteen killed and twenty-five wounded.

General Scott's campaign was against the Weeas' Town on the

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Wabash, where he met with little or no opposition, as the warriors of the Weeas expected that General Scott was going against the Miamie Town, and had nearly all left their own village to meet him there. Eight men and two women were killed by the troops under General Scott at the Weeas' Town. The number of women and children that were taken prisoners, I do not recollect.

Gen. Wilkinson's campaign was against the Eel-River Town. He met with no opposition, as there were but ten old men, three young ones, and a few women and children. Four men were killed, and one woman. The number of prisoners taken, I do not recollect.

In 1790, an army of Indians, composed of Miamies, Delewares, Shawanoes, and a few Puttawatamies, three hundred in number, who were commanded by the Little Turtle, attacked Dunlop's Station, on the Big Miamie River. This Post was commanded by Lieut. Jacob Kingsbury. The Indians had ten killed and the same number wounded.

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There was an army of Indians composed of Miamies, Puttawatamies, Ottaways, Chippaways, Wyandotts, Delewares, Shawanoes, and a few Mingoes and Cherokees, amounting in all to eleven hundred and thirty-three, that attacked and defeated General St. Clair on the 4th November, 1791. Each nation was commanded by their own chiefs, all of whom were governed by the Little Turtle, who made the arrangement for the action and commenced the attack with the Miamies, who were under his immediate command. The Indians had thirty killed and died with their wounds the day of the action, and fifty wounded.

In the autumn of 1792, an army of three hundred Indians composed of Miamies, Delewares, Shawanoes, and a few Puttawatamies, who were commanded by the Little Turtle, attacked Col. John Adair, under the walls of Fort St. Clair, where they had two men killed.

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The 30th June, 1794, an army of fourteen hundred and fifty Indians, composed of Miamies, Puttawatamies, Delewares, Shawanoes, Ottawas, Chippaways, and Wyandotts, with a number of French and other white men in the British employ, attacked Fort Recovery. The Indians were commanded by the Bear chief, an Ottaway. The white men attached to the Indian army were commanded by Elliott and McKee, both British officers. The garrison was commanded by Capt. Gibson, of the 4 sub-legion. The Indians have repeatedly told me that they had between forty and fifty men killed, and upward of a hundred wounded, a number of whom died of their wounds. This was the severest blow I ever knew the Indians to receive from the whites.

The Indians that fought General Wayne, the 20th of August, 1794, was an army of eight hundred men, consisting of Miamies, Shawanoes, Puttawatamies. Delewares, Ottaways, Chippaways, and Wyandotts, with a number of white men from Detroit. The Indians were governed by British influence, and consequently made but little resistance. The Indians had twenty-four killed and fifteen wounded.

The Indians that fought the troops under the command of

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Governor Harrison, on the 7th of November, 1811, were composed of Shawanoes, Puttawatamies, Kickapoos, Wynebagoes Taways, and a few Muscoes, amounting in all to one hundred and fifty, agreeable to the most correct information that could be procured from the Indians that were in the action. The Indians lost twenty-five men killed in the action. The number of wounded has not been ascertained. This is the last action that was fought between the Indians and the whites.

The Indians and whites lived in peace and friendship from the treaty of Greenville, which was held in 1795, until the first raising of the Shawanoe Prophet, which was in 1807, from that time until the 7th November, 1811, the time that the Prophet's followers fought the troops under the command of Governor Harrison; that treacherous and nefarious scoundrel has been fostered by the British Government, and caused a considerable number of the North-Western Indians to be unfriendly toward the United States, and occasionally committed depredations of murder on our Western frontiers.

There appears to have been no separate cause for each campaign of the Indians against the whites. The war that began in 1774, which was the first that took place between the Indians and the Americans, and which was caused by the repeated ill-treatment the Indians received from the frontier settlements of the whites, was kept up by the Indians, owing to the great influence the British had among them. This influence was kept up by the annual supply of arms and ammunition, which the Indians received from the British Government.

From this it is evident that if the United States had got possession of the Military Posts on the Lakes, which the British Government was to deliver up to them in 1783, there would have been no Indian war after that time.

The Emigration of the North-Western Indians, and Their General Conduct.

Organization.

The Miamie Nation are the oldest inhabitants of this country.

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From whence they emigrated is not known. The Eel Rivers, Weeas, Piankeshaws, and Kaskaskees are all branches of the Miamie tribe, and all speak the same tongue.

The Delewares emigrated to this country from the East, and are called by other Indians, Elanabah, or people from the sunrise.

The Shawanoes emigrated to this country from West Florida.

The Wyandotts, Chippaways, Ottaways, Puttawatamies, and Kickapoos emigrated from the North and North West.

The Wynebagoes and Melomenees, who at present inhabit the west side of Lake Michigan, emigrated from the West.

The Socks, Foxes, Johwees, and Nottawessies also emigrated from the North West.

There is a material difference in the language of the different nations of Indians; yet there is but little or no difference in their customs and manners; they are warm friends, but most inveterate enemies. The men are trained up to hunting and going to war, whilst all the laborious work is left for the women to do.

Each nation is divided into villages, and each village has one or more chiefs attached to it, according to its size, who keep their subjects in order by persecution, as arbitrary power is never made use of by them (except in cases of murder). The influence of a chief seldom extends further than his own village.

Male and Female Rites.

Both the male and female children are nurtured in such a manner as is best calculated to endure the greatest hardships. They are compelled to bathe their bodies in cold water every day, and fast for a certain length of time. The length of time a child has to fast is regulated by its age. A child that is eight years old will fast half a day, and one that is twelve or sixteen will fast a day. The person that is fasting has its face blacked, and is not permitted to wash it until the time of fasting is out. The face of the male is blacked all over; that of the female on the cheeks only. The male quits this practice at the age of eighteen, it is then said by the parents that his education is complete, and he is then old enough to be a man. His face is then blacked for the last time, and he is taken a mile or two from any house, where he has a small hut built for him out of bushes or weeds. After this, he is addressed by his father or guardian in the following words:

My son, it has pleased all the Great Spirits that live above the clouds, and all those that live on the earth, that you should live to see this day; they have all witnessed your conduct ever since I first blacked your face; they know whether you have at all times strictly adhered to the advice I have given you; and I hope they will reward you accordingly. You must now remain here, until myself or some of your friends come to you.

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The man then returns home, takes his gun and goes a hunting, while his son is left five or six days, and sometimes eight days, without anything to eat or drink. When the father or guardian has procured meat enough for a feast, he invites some of his neighbors to come and partake of what he has. They accompany him to where his son has been staying for several days; the boy is then taken home, where he is immersed in cold water, his head shaved all over except a small spot on the top; victuals are then given him, which have been prepared in a separate vessel for that purpose. After he is done eating, a looking-glass is given him, and a bag of vermilion or paint; he is then told by the company that he is a man. After this, he is considered as such by the people of the village. They frequently go to war before being declared men in this manner, and they are respected according to their merit.

Immediately after a boy's face is blacked, which generally takes place at daybreak, he takes his bow and arrows and goes to the wood, from whence he does not return until the usual time of washing his face and eating comes on. I have accompanied boys for several years at different times, when their faces were blacked, and I never knew a single instance of their eating or drinking while in this situation, or without the knowledge of their parents.

Their minds are operated on by fears, as they are made to believe that if they eat or drink while their face is black, such an offence would be followed by immediate punishment from the Great Spirit, who watched strictly over all their actions.

When an Indian girl arrives at the age of puberty, and her monthly discharges or catamenia comes on, she is separated from the family, and a small hut is built for her, some distance from the house where her parents reside. She is put in the hut prepared for that purpose, where she remains until the menstrual discharge ceases; during which time no person is allowed to visit or keep company with her. Victuals are cooked in a separate kettle at a fire built out of doors for that purpose. All her cooking utensils and clothing are considered unclean until they are washed and purified for the purpose of using herself and being made use of by others. When this disease leaves her, she is directed to bathe herself in cold water; after which, a sweat-house is built, and she is taken into it by her mother, or some other female friend, and is scarified on her legs and arms with a piece of sharp flint; after this, she is sweated and purified for an hour or two, and then admitted into the family.

This practise prevails among all ages of the women, when their systems are in the condition above mentioned. It is in this

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manner that the systems of the Indians are prepared to bear hunger and all inclemencies of the different seasons.

If a woman is pregnant when traveling, and her time of parturition should come on, she will stop at the first convenient stream of water, where she will be delivered of her child. She will then wash the child all over in the cold water, and wrap it up in her blanket or any old clothing she may have along; she will then wash herself, and in two hours be ready to proceed on her journey.

Polygamy is universally admitted among the Indians. A man may have as many wives as he pleases, and can change them as often as it may suit his own views. Young men are instructed by their parents to get as many wives as they can, but never to have connexion with a married woman, and by no means to involve himself or his friends in a quarrel with their neighbors.

Marriages are performed in three different ways. 1st. If the male and female agree, they may cohabit with each other without any further ceremony. 2d. When a young man loves a girl, and she will not consent to have him without he first obtains the consent of her parents, which must be done with a present adequate to the character of the girl. If his present is received by the girl's friends, the marriage is fixed; if the present is returned, it is understood that they are not willing for the match. 3d. This is considered by much the most honorable and binding on the parties concerned. When an Indian has a son that he wishes to be married to a good and a virtuous woman, he assembles his friends and relations, and consults with them what woman his son shall marry. When a choice is made, the relations of the young man collect what presents they think are sufficient for the occasion, and take them to the parents of the girl or intended bride; they make known their business, leave the articles, and return home without an answer. The relations of the girl then assemble together, and consult each other on the subject. If they agree to the match, they collect suitable presents, dress the girl in her best clothing, and take her to the persons that made application for the match, where she and the presents are left. The marriage is then considered complete, as all the ceremony for the occasion has been regularly gone through. But if the friends of the girl or herself do not approve of the proposals, the presents that were given by the young man's relations are returned, which is considered a refusal.

Military Discipline.

When a warrior wishes to go to war, he informs one or two of his most intimate friends of his intentions and asks them to join

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him. The war party is then formed by their inviting as many men as they wish the party to consist of. Their intentions are kept secret from all the rest, as the person that is to command the party wishes such men only as will at all times obey his orders. After the party is completely organized, they leave the village secretly in the night. When they encamp, the captain or commander places the oldest men in front of the camp, and the youngest in the rear; the former do all the hunting for the party and keeps out a strict watch for the enemy; the latter do all the cooking, making of fires, mending moccasins, etc. Each party has a small budget, which they call the war budget, which contains something belonging to each person in the party, that represents some wild animal, (that is to say,) a snake's skin, a buffalo's tail, a wolfs head, a mink's skin, or the feathers of some extraordinary bird. This budget is considered sacred, and is always carried by some person chosen for that purpose, who always marches in front and leads the party to the enemy. He is never passed on the march by any of the company while he has the budget on his back. When the party halts, the budget is laid on the ground in front of them, and no person is permitted to pass it without orders from the property authority. No person is allowed to sit or lay his pack on a log, neither is any one allowed to talk of women while they are going toward the enemy. When a four-legged animal is killed by the party, the heart is carefully preserved by a person appointed for that purpose. When they encamp, a fire is built alongside of the war budget, and the heart cut in small pieces and burned in it. The sticks or spits upon which they roast their meat is split half down the middle, and then the meat is placed in the split; the stick is to be sharpened at but one end, which is to be stuck in the ground. No person is allowed to step across the fire, or walk round it in any other way than that in which the sun traverses.

It will readily be imagined that the order observed among the Indians when going to war is completely calculated to prevent accident or surprises, and keep up good discipline. When the enemy is to be attacked, the war budget is opened, and each man takes out his skin, or corpenyomer, or war bag, and ties it on that part of his body which he was directed to do by his ancestors in such like cases.

When an Indian attacks his enemy, he is generally stripped naked (except what is called his breech-cloth and moccasins). His body is painted in different colors, though generally red. After the action is over, each person returns his war bag to the commander of the party, who takes the same skin or cloth that

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they were formerly wrapped in, and carefully wraps them up again and gives the budget to the man that took the first prisoner scalp, who leads the party home in triumph. This is considered as a record of his bravery in the nation, and consequently great honor is attached to it. Should there be more than one of the enemy killed or taken prisoner, the person that gets the first scalp or takes the first prisoner is entitled to the first honor.

When the party returns home, the war budget is hung in front of the door of the person that carried it on the march against the enemy. It is suffered to remain there thirty or forty days, and some one of the party goes every night and sings and dances where it hangs; particularly those that have taken a prisoner or scalp.

When the person that commanded the party thinks proper, he assembles the party, and a feast is prepared by them for all the people of the village. They sing and dance all night. Those of the party that did the enemy most damage serves out the feast to the assembly. After this is over, the war budget is opened by the commander, and each person of the party takes out his corpenyomer or war bag, and the party is dissolved.

Their Religion and Mode of Worship.

Every Indian family has one or more of the skins or images above mentioned, which is called in the Miamie language Corpenohor Corpenyomer. It is those instruments that they consider sacred, and accordingly worship them. They say when the Great Spirit formed them, that he placed those things in their possession and told them if they would worship them that they would live to an immense age, and always remain happy; consequently, some one member of each respective family pays reverence to those divine images monthly. After singing all night such songs as he has been instructed to do on such occasions by his ancestors, which may be called religious songs; he then prepares a kettle of victuals and a few pipes of tobacco, and invites his neighbors to come and partake of what he has prepared for the occasion. When the company has collected, he tells them the cause of his calling them together. The company then proceeds to eating, with a great deal of ceremony too tedious to mention. Each person will throw a small piece of the victuals in the fire before he puts any in his mouth.

There are but few Indians that will give an opinion respecting a future state. They say that those things are only enquired after by fools and the white people. Some of them have told me that

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they believed there were two other worlds. One was intended as the place of residence for the spirits of the good people on this earth; and the other for the spirits of those that were bad, and that the bad ones were always assisting the evil spirit to do ill, while the good ones resided with the good spirit, and remained in peace and quietness.

I once asked a very distinguished chief what he supposed was necessary to constitute a good and a great man. He replied that a good father, a good husband, a good neighbor, a good warrior, and a lover of his nation, was all in his opinion that was necessary for a man to possess, to fulfil the expectations of the Great Spirit, who placed us on this earth; though, the Indians generally appear to care but little about a future state. They are only anxious to live to an old age in this world.

Ceremonies Among the Indians When One of Them Die.

When an Indian dies, his relations black their faces and fast for a certain time, which time is regulated by the head of the family. When it is known that an Indian has died, the neighbors assemble and bury the dead, after which the heads of such families that are friendly disposed toward the deceased person and their surviving friends, take some article of clothing, and address the friends of the deceased in the following words:

Friends: We are sorry that it has pleased the Great Spirit to call one of your family from you, though this is not uncommon among us people of this world. Our friend has only gone on the journey, a few days before us, which we shall all have to travel; we have therefore come to invite you to mourn no longer, and to cover the body of our departed friend.

After this, they all return home. The articles of clothing are left and preserved for the person that may be adopted in place of the deceased.

Their Mode of Adopting a Living Person in Place of One that has Died.

When an Indian loses one of his relations, he believes that if his place is not filled by adoption, that more of his friends will die.

If the deceased is a male, one of his most intimate male friends is chosen to fill the vacancy. If a female, one of her most intimate female friends is also chosen to fill the vacancy. If the deceased is a person of respectability, it frequently happens that

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two persons are chosen to fill the vacancy. After everything is prepared, the person, or persons, to be adopted is sent for, when the ceremony begins. If the deceased was a warrior, the adoption is exhibited by the warriors of the village, who assemble at the house of the deceased.

They commence by dancing the war-dance and singing the war-song in rotation. The warriors go through all the different manoeuvres that is customary when engaged with an enemy; after which, each one reports to the assembly the number of actions he has been in, and the number of scalps and prisoners he has taken.

During the time the warriors are dancing, they occasionally give the same yells and repeat the same words they did when they were in battle. All the while there is a constant yelling kept up by the assembly. When a warrior has gone through such of his exploits as he thinks proper, he hands the war-club to some other warrior, and sits down. The other rises up and repeats as many of his war exploits as he thinks proper. In this way the dance is continued until each warrior of the village is called on to relate his war exploits. Some are called on two or three times during the dance. The assembly is then dismissed by the speaker of the friend of the deceased, telling them that the hearts of the relations of the dead are glad.

The person or persons adopted sits among the relations of the deceased during the dance. After the dance is over, they are invited by their new relations to a private place, where they receive everything that belonged to the deceased, also the articles that were given by neighbors by way of a donation in adoption. They are then told that they are one of the family, and must consider themselves as such, and that they are entitled to the same authority and respect in the nation that the person was when living, whose place they fill.

When a common man or woman or child dies, the adoption is exhibited by a few persons of both sexes, by playing at some favorite game of the deceased. If it was a man that died, by shooting at a mark, running a foot-race, or some other game. If a woman, by playing some game she was fondest of.

Their Custom When Visiting the Grave or Graves of Their Deceased Relations.

When an Indian goes to the grave of his deceased friend or relation, he addresses himself to the grave, as though the corpse in it was living. He relates every misfortune that has happened in the family since the death of the person whom he supposes he

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is speaking to; after which he leaves a piece of tobacco, some victuals, or spirituous liquor, if he has any, and departs.

Amusement.

The Indians are an indolent race of beings, consequently they are fond of any kind of amusement that will serve to pass away their time and make them merry. They are very fond of gambling and dancing. They have a variety of games to play at, too tedious to mention, though the game at Moccasin is most generally practised among them. They are remarkably honorable in their gambling debts, and will strip the shirt off their backs to pay a debt incurred by gambling. They also have a variety of dances. The morning dance commences in the evening and continues until the following morning, at which time there is a feast prepared for the company. The outward dance is performed by a certain sect of Indians, which is supposed to possess supernatural powers, so that they can destroy their neighbor's property or life at any time they please, without being discovered by the person to whom the injury is done or any one else. All persons that enter this society are admitted with the strictest ceremony.

It is common for each person who dances to have an otter skin. The eldest members of the society place themselves in the middle of the floor, and the dance is then opened by their singing the songs of the society. A circle is instantly formed around those that are singing, and each person has an otter skin in his hand when he commences dancing. After a few minutes has elapsed, some one of the company makes a noise like an otter, shakes his skin, and walks or dances around on the inside of the circle. He then, with a sudden motion, points his skin at some one of the company, who screams out, and falls down as though he had been shot with a ball; in a few minutes he recovers, and handles his skin in turn, pretending to laugh up the ball he was shot with, when it appears that the bullet is in his mouth; he then puts the nose of the otter skin to his mouth, when it is supposed that his peace is loaded; he then goes around the circle as before, and shoots at who he pleases. In this way, the dance is continued until the managers of the society think proper to break it up. No member can quit the dance until the whole company is dismissed.

The members of this society were formerly treated with great respect by their neighbors; but on the contrary, they are at present treated with as much disrespect as they formerly were respected.

The begging dance is generally performed by the young men and boys, who dress like warriors and go about through the villages singing war songs. It is customary for the head of every family, whose house they dance at, to give them something. This

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is the dance that is generally performed when they visit a white person. There are a number of * * * * * the whites do, though they are not so tenacious of it as the whites. They are much more hospitable to their friends, neighbors, and visitors than the whites.

Government.

The Indians have little or no laws, no coercive power, nor any kind of government. Their most important combats are the internal sensation of right and wrong. When an Indian commits a crime which is not punishable by death, he is treated with contempt and excluded from society.

Religion and Medicine.

The Indians believe that thunder, lightning, and all other natural disturbances of this world, are distinct and independent powers or beings, and consequently worship them accordingly.

The Pow-wowers or Priests were formerly in high estimation amongst the Indians, as it was believed that they were the agents of the different great powers or spirits that govern the universe, and that they had power to kill or save, as they pleased.

Those supposed inspired beings generally act as doctors, and it is not uncommon for them to extract a hair ball on the whisker of a bear, a wolf, or a panther, from the body or joint of their patients (or at least make them believe so). They go through the village early in the morning, preaching and telling the people what appears most advisable for them to employ themselves at during the day. Those Pow-wowers, Priests, or Doctors are not so much respected at present as they were formerly.

The present mode of burying the dead among the Indians appears to have existed through all ages, tribes, and conditions. Some lay the dead body on the top of the earth and make a crib or pen over them with logs, and cover it with bark; others dig graves as white people do, they then lay the corpse in the grave, cover it with bark, and then all over with earth; others again will make a coffin out of strong boards, in which they will place the corpse, and hang it up in the top of a tree. It is customary for them to bury as much of the deceased's property with the dead body as can conveniently be placed in the grave or coffin with them. They frequently put a piece of bread or meat and a carrot of tobacco under the head of the person to be interred, as they believe they will be in need of some refreshment on their journey. They generally celebrate the death of a distinguished chief or warrior by drinking, feasting, dancing, and singing.

The Indians are subject to all the different diseases that the whites are (the gout not excepted).

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The Mound Builders.

Ferdinand de Soto and his army were the first to discover the mounds. Mention is frequently made of them by the historians of the expedition. This mention is incidental, and so connected with the account of the people and the various incidents of the expedition as to escape notice, yet the descriptions correspond closely with the works as they were found. Some of the villages were surrounded by stockades, and were so situated as to be used for defenses or for fortifications, but a large number of them are also described as having elevated mounds which were used by the caciques for their residences and as observatories from which they could overlook the villages. It is not unlikely that some of the more prominent of these mounds may be identified. There are many of such mounds described in the narratives. One such is mentioned in Georgia, one in Alabama, and one in Mississippi. One mound is described around which there was a terrace wide enough to accommodate twelve horsemen. On another mound the platform was large enough to accommodate twelve or thirteen large houses, which were used for the residence of the family and the tenants of the cacique. This was not far from New Madrid, in Arkansas. It was upon the terrace of one of these mounds that De Soto stood when he uttered his reproaches against his followers, having found out the dissatisfaction and revolt which had arisen among them. This was after he had passed the Mississippi River, and about the time when he became discouraged in his fruitless expedition. The narrative shows that these prominent earthworks were associated universally with village life. Sometimes the dwelling of the cacique would be on the high mound which served as a fortress, the only ascent to it being by ladders. At other times, mention is made of the fact that from the summit of these mounds extensive prospects could be had, and many native villages could be brought to view. The villages are described as seated "in a plain, between two streams; as nearly encircled by a deep moat, fifty paces in breadth, and where the moat did not extend was defended by a strong wall of timber," "near a wide and rapid river, the largest they discovered in Florida" — this was the Mississippi. "On a high artificial mound on one side of the village stood the dwelling of the cacique, which served as a fortress."

Thus throughout this whole region, from the seaboard at Tampa Bay, in the States of Florida, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, these ancient villages appeared, occupied by the various tribes, such as Creeks, Catawbas, Cherokees, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Quapaws, Kansas, and possibly Shawnees. They were situated on all the larger streams in the more favorable localities, and the sites of many of them can be identified at the present time. — American Antiquarian.

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Notes

1. It is stated by Gov. Harrison in his Memoirs, edited by Moses Dawson, that "Te-cum-the" is the Indian pronunciation of the name; while Judge James Hall, in his "Memoir" of Gov. Harrison, and Dr. Benjamin Drake, in his "Life of Tecumshe", as he spells the name, state its meaning to be the "Crouching Panther". The latter author says, "that on assuming the sacred office of Prophet, ‘Lau-le-was-i-kaw’ changed his name to ‘Lens-kwau-ta-wau,’ meaning the open door, because he had undertaken to point out to the Indians the new life which they should pursue." In the text we have followed the orthography and the interpretation of the name as given by Gov. Harrison at a time when he was directly referring to it, in connection with a speech delivered by the Prophet on the occasion of his two weeks' visit with the Governor at Vincennes, in August, 1808. The Prophet and Te-cum-the — for whom the former was merely the mouth-piece — avowed that his voice should be heard, as in time it was, among all the tribes, from the gulf to the most northern lakes and westward to the mountains. Hence the significance of the name Loud Voice.

2. "He boasted [through his medium, the Prophet] that he would follow the footsteps of the great Pontiac;" vide Gov. Harrison's Memoirs.

3. John P. Boyd, born in 1768; appointed from Massachusetts [was in the Mahratta service in the East Indies; rose to the rank of commander of 10,000 cavalry] colonel 4th Infantry, 7 Oct., 1808; commanded a brigade in Battle of Tippecanoe and distinguished himself, 7 Nov., 1811; brigadier-general, 26 Aug., 1812; led his brigade in the capture of Ft. George. U. C., 27 May, 1813; disbanded, 15 June, 1815. Afterward naval officer of Port of Boston. Died at Boston, Mass., 4 Oct., 1830. — GARDNER.

4. It may be added that these missives had no more effect in arresting the climax than if the paper on which they were scribed had been thrown upon the sea. The frenzied mob at the mouth of the Tippecanoe could hardly await the advancing tread of Gov. Harrison's army. The Governor, although complained of by some of his officers for not assaulting the town upon sight, the soldiers being eager for battle, kept rigidly within the letter and spirit of his instructions, and declined a resort to force until every effort toward a peaceful solution of difficulties had been exhausted. With the power to compel an obedience to his orders, he again demanded the occupants of the village to disperse. It being nearly night, a suspension of hostilities was agreed to, with a view to a friendly conference on the following morning. The Prophet, fearing the issue, or supposing he could effect a surprise, set his maddened warriors upon the Governor's encampment, under cover of darkness, made more dense by a drizzling rain, that fell dank and chill upon the silent though wakeful army, on the morning of November 7, 1811. A terrible defeat, the burning of the village, and the loss of the Prophet's power, was the result of his rash act.

5. LePousser [French], A-she-non-qua in the Miami dialect, signifying the Speech Maker, the Persuader, or Talker. At the Treaty, held October 26, 1809, at Vincennes, this chief's name is signed Lapousier [the article La and the word Pousser run together as in the Ft. Wayne manuscript], while at the "Treaty of Peace and Friendship," between the U. S. and the Miamis and other hostile tribes in the war of 1812, executed at Greenville, Ohio, July 22, 1814, his name appears thus, "La-passiere or A-she-non-qua." Vide "History of the War" [of 1812], by Sam'l R. Brown; vol. ii; Appendix, where the text of the Treaty is supplemented with the signers' names interpreted and carefully spaced so as to preserve the correct sound in their pronunciation.

The Weas, for whom A-she-non-qua was a leading orator, were a band of the Miami tribe having their principal village on the east bank of the Wabash, below Lafayette, and above Attica, Indiana, and known in early history as Ouitanon, or the Wea-town. The name is yet preserved, and the identity of the neighborhood retained, in its bestowal upon "Wea-Prairie" and "Wea-Creek." Vide Chamberlain's Indiana Gazetteer.

6. The Treaty of Greenville, concluded August 3d, 1795, at Fort Greenville [upon the site of Greenville, County-seat of Clarke Co., Ohio], was the finale of a bitter warfare waged by the Indians against the encroaching advances of civilized society upon their hunting-grounds. The struggle began before the Revolutionary War had ended, and closed with the memorable victory of Gen. Wayne over the confederated tribes of the [then] Northwest Territory, at the foot of Maumee Rapids [near South Toledo, Ohio], upon the 20th of August, 1784. No longer able to contend, the Sachams and war-chiefs of the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanees, Ottawas, Chippewas, Pottawatomies, Miamis, Kickapoos, etc., etc., met Gen. Wayne in council at Greenville, and executed the Treaty; containing, among other matters, in its 9th article, the stipulation to which A-she-non-qua here refers in reply to Gov. Harrison's complaints that it had not been enforced against the malcontents assembled at, or gathering from every direction to, the "Prophet's Town."

67. When considered with reference to the guarded manner in which the Indian is accustomed to avow hostile purposes, A-she-non-qua's speech is a notable specimen of defiant oratory. Firy and bold, it reflects the feelings and desperate purposes of Te-cum-the and his deluded followers, and is in singular contrast with the utterances of Little Turtle and other speakers, who, with cooler heads, foresaw the calamity that would come upon their people in the end, if the threatened war was precipitated. Gov. Harrison, in an official letter dated from Vincennes, September 17, 1811, referring to this council, says; "* * * succeeded in getting the chiefs together at Fort Wayne, though he found them all preparing to go to Malden. [Amherstburgh, Canada, near the mouth of Detroit River, in the upper part of which village was Fort Malden, under whose protecting guns most of the vessels for the British upper-lake service were built, and the principal depot from which supplies for the fur-trade and presents to the Indians were distributed.] The result of the council discovered that the whole tribes — including the Weas and Eel Rivers, for they are all Miamis — were about equally divided in favor of the Prophet and the United States." "La-pousier, the Wea chief, whom I before mentioned to you as being seduced by the Prophet, was repeatedly asked by * * * [Capt. Dubois] what land it was that he determined to defend with his blood; whether it was that which was ceeded by the late treaty [of September 30, 1809, whereby the Indians had yielded their claim to three several large bodies of land in Indiana and Eastern Illinois] or not, but he would give no answer. * * * reports that all the Indians of the Wabash have been, or now are, on a visit to the British agents at Malden. He has never known one-fourth as many goods given to the Indians as they are now" receiving, etc.

8. On the Miss-iss-sin-e-vva River, commencing at its mouth near Peru, Indiana, and extending up the stream a number of miles, were, at intervals, several Miami villages, over one of which Silver Heels was a presiding chief. On the 14th of December, 1812, a mounted expedition of 600 men, commanded by Col. John B. Campbell, of the l9th Regiment, U. S. Infantry, left Dayton, Ohio, to destroy these towns; three of which he burned, and destroyed a large amount of other property, including many horses and cattle. Eight warriors were killed, and forty-two prisoners, counting women and children taken. The emergency of the hour fully justified Gov. Harrison in ordering this movement. He especially requested Col. Campbell to spare the lives of Silver Heels, the White Loon (and other chiefs whom he names), "who had undeviatingly exerted themselves to keep their warriors quiet and to preserve their friendly relations with us." Vide Gov. Harrison's instructions to Col. C. and the latter's official report to the former.

9. At the Treaty of Fort Wayne, concluded September 30, 1809, this chief is designated as "Ossemeet, brother to Five Medals"; while his name appears to the great Treaty signed at Chicago, August 29, 1821, as "Os-see-meet." The name is probably derived from, or is a corruption of, the word "Osh-e-may-un", i.e., younger brother, and expressive of the idea that his claims to consideration were because of this relationship to the "Five Medals", who was a noted sacham and warrior. See note to the latter's speech, p. 73.

10. A chief of that subdivision of the Miamis who were called Eel-Rivers (and Eel-Creeks), for the reason that their ancient and principal village — known by the Indians as Ke-na-pa-com-a-qua, to the early French writers as L'Anguille [the Eel], and to the Americans as the "Eel-River Town" — was situated on this stream, some six miles above its confluence with the Wabash at Logansport, Ind. However, it is evident, from Gov. Harrison's instructions to Col. Campbell, already referred to, that Charley lived in one of the villages on the Miss-iss-sin-e-wa, which Col. Campbell was ordered to destroy; for among those whose lives were to be saved is named that of "Charley, the principal of the Eel-River Tribe." This chief figures at several of the treaties, on behalf of his tribe, both before and after the war of 1812, as "Ka-Tun-ga", "Ke-tan-ga" (with the addition of "Charley"); and, in some instances, as simply Charley. His aboriginal name — the signification of which is nowhere given — appears distilled through uneducated French or American interpreters, or written down by careless secretaries, and is neither Indian, French, or English, but savors of the corruption of all.

His people were swept over to the British by the current of events immediately following Gen. Hull's surrender of Detroit, and which carried with it nearly all the other Northwestern tribes. The failure of the attack upon Fort Harrison, near Terre Haute, Ind., September 4, 1812, and upon Fort Wayne early in this month, together with the energy Gov. Harrison displayed in organizing the militia of Indiana, Ohio, and Kentucky, all ablaze with enthusiasm, to recover the prestige and territory lost by the unexplainable conduct of Gen. Hull at Detroit, thoroughly alarmed those of the Miamis who had taken sides with Te-cum-the and the British. Accordingly we learn, from an official letter of Gov. Harrison, dated Franklinton, O., October 13, 1812, that: "Before I left St. Mary's for Defiance, some Miamis had arrived, via Fort Wayne, with a flag and a message from their chiefs, begging for peace. I had no time then to listen to their speech, and, on my return here, I found the Owl [a distinguished chief, who had long been a confidential friend of the Governor], Charley, the Eel-River chief, the Turtle's son, and several others who had joined them. They came prepared to palliate or deny the hostility of their tribe, as one or the other might best suit their purpose. * * *"

Charley survived the war, and was living as late as October 6, 1818, when he, with other "chiefs and warriors of the Miami nation of Indians", executed the Treaty of St. Mary's; and he was dead before October 23, 1826, when, at the treaty held at the mouth of the Miss-iss-sin-e-wa, a reservation of "five sections of land, above the old village on the north side of Eel River," was made in favor of his son "Little Charley". Vide Indian Treaties with the United States.

11. Misch-e-can-o-quoh, or the Little Turtle, agreeably to the best received authorities, "was of mixed origin" — his mother being a Mohegan woman and his father a Miami chief — born about the year 1747, at the latter's village on the upper waters of Eel River, some twenty miles west of Ft. Wayne. He planned and won decisive victories in the two engagements against detachments of Gen. Harmer's army, near Ft. Wayne, in October, 1790; was conspicuous as the leader in the attack, on the morning of November 4, 1791, upon the forces of Gov. St. Clair, that resulted in the terrible disaster known in history as "St. Clair's Defeat", and which was without a parallel in Indian warfare until the disastrous engagement of Gen. Custer, on the Little Big-Horn River of the Upper Missouri. He was also in the action of June 30, 1794, in the severe attack upon Major McMahon's escort of ninety riflemen and fifty dragoons, under the walls of "Fort Recovery", a military post erected in December, 1793, upon the ground where St. Clair had been defeated. Satisfied that the Indian confederation could not successfully contend with Gen. Wayne, he advised them to listen to the latter's overtures for peace.

Overruled in this, lead his own warriors in the battle of August 20, 1794, known as the "Battle of the Fallen Timbers", in which Gen. Wayne achieved a decisive victory. From this time forward, the Little Turtle was the open and abiding friend of the United States. He would before this have broken away from the malign influence operating from Canada through its agents and traders, hut he was powerless to carry his people with him until after they had suffered serious reverses.

At the Treaty of Greenville, he shone as the brightest light in the assembled orators, gathered at this great council-fire from the entire Northwest, to plead the cause of their tribes and of their starving women and children.

After the conclusion of peace, Little Turtle resided at his village, where the Government had built him a comfortable house. "He took," says Gov. Harrison, "great interest in everything that appertained to civilized life, and possessed a mind capable of understanding their advantages, in a degree far superior to any other Indian." In his character he combined, in an eminent degree, the qualities of the military strategist, the wily diplomat, the orator, and the philosopher, winning distinction in all.

He died of gout, July 14, 1812, on the side of the St. Marys River, opposite Ft. Wayne, in the orchard yard of his son-in-law, Capt. Wm. Wells, from whose house, at his own request, he had been removed to the open air. He was buried upon the spot with military honors, by the troops of the garrison, and with his remains were deposited the sword and large silver medal presented by President Washington, and his other war implements and ornaments. Vide "History of the War"; "Memoirs of Gen. Harrison"; Brice's Fort Wayne; etc., etc.

12. Capt. Toussant Dubois, of an ancient family of Vincennes, near which he also resided. An Indian trader, and for many years a confidential messenger and spy for Gov. Harrison, who reposed great confidence in his energy, fidelity, and intelligence. As captain of a company of spies and guides, he rendered conspicuous services in the Tippecanoe campaign of October and November, 1811. He became a large owner of lands on the Embarrass River, within the present limits of Lawrence County, Illinois, as assignee of original claimants under grants reserved to the ancient inhabitants of Vincennes. Vide Harrison's Memoirs; Dillon's Indiana; American State Papers, etc. The late Jesse K. Dubois, long State treasurer of Illinois, and well known throughout the State for his genial and sterling qualities, was a descendant of the subject of this note.

13. Os-see-meet here protests that he is delegated with no authority; that he had only come to town to make purchases for his family; and that, inasmuch as the other chiefs having the right to represent his nation in council were absent, he deemed it his duty to communicate his and their views.

14. Wap-a [White] Man-gua [Loon], and by this name he signed the Treaty of Greenville. His village was one of the three burned on the Miss-iss-sin-e-wa by Col. Campbell.

15. A celebrated war-chief of the River St. Joseph of Lake Michigan, whose village was upon the Elkhart Tributary of that stream, in Northern Indiana. He is recognized under various names, viz.: at the Treaty of Greenville as "Wau-gshe" — from "Wau-gese", the Odjibwa name for a favorite silver ornament in the shape of and called a "Half-Moon" — at the second Treaty of Peace executed at Greenville, July 22, 1814, he is written down as "O-nox-a, or Five Medals"; while, at the Treaty of Spring Wells, near Detroit, in 1815, his name is affixed to the parchment as "Noun-geesia, or Five Medals". The two are synonomous, the first being compounded from "Noun", Five, and "Gee-sia", medals or ornaments, in the Pottawatomie dialect, allowing for a somewhat defective spelling that fails to fully preserve the sound of the word as the Indian would pronounce it. He wore upon his person medals presented to him by both British and American authorities, with other ornaments, from which he came to be designated as "The Five Medals".

16. To-pen-ne-bee, principal chief of the Pottawatomie nation, the protector of Mr. Kinzie's family, at the Chicago massacre, narrated in Mrs. Kinzie's "Wau-Bun".

17. Killed at the Chicago Massacre, August 15, 1812. In the employ of the United States as interpreter, scout, or agent, from July, 1792, to the time of his death, and for many years a resident at Ft. Wayne; and well known to all the Indians visiting that post, to receive their annuities or for other purposes, by many of whom he was held in high esteem and by others as thoroughly hated for his unswerving devotion to the United States.

18. Soon after the surrender of Detroit, Fort Wayne was besieged. With plenty of provisions and water, four small field-pieces, and seventy men, the fort was well prepared to resist a siege by the Indians; the latter, therefore, undertook to gain its possession by strategem. The Five Medals and other chiefs, in their conferences with the garrison under flags of truce, had observed that the commandant, Capt. Rhea, who was well advanced in years and much addicted to drunkenness, betrayed a spirit of timidity, which justified them in believing they could use him in their purposes if they once had him in their power. Acting on this idea, it was arranged that, under pretence of holding a friendly conference, Five Medals, Win-ne-mac, and three other hostile chiefs were to gain admission into the council-room, within the fort, with their scalping-knives and pistols secreted under their blankets. Then, upon an understood signal being given, they were to assassinate the two subordinate officers, seize Capt. Rhea, and with threats of instant death if he did not comply, and promises of personal safety if he did, compel him to order the gates of the fort to be thrown open for the admission of their warriors, lying in ambush without. The plan was put in execution, but was balked by a circumstance, seemingly, almost miraculous. Wm. Oliver, a young man of Ft. Wayne, though absent at Cincinnati when the siege began, who, learning on his way home that the Indians had invested the fort, hurried back toward the settlements to give the alarm and secure assistance, after which he again set out for Fort Wayne, in advance of the forces marching to its relief, for the purpose of encouraging the garrison to persevere in its defence until their arrival. Luckily, the Indians had been withdrawn from the direction by which Oliver, in company with two friendly Shawnees, were approaching the fort, and were massed upon the opposite side. Win-ne-mac, the Five Medals and their three confederates, with their flag of truce, were in the act of carrying their plan into execution as Oliver and his Shawnees reached the gate. The attacking and the relieving party, each unknowing of the purposes or near presence of the other, coming by different directions, and screened by the angles of the fort, were not seen by each other until this moment. Win-ne-mac, much chagrined at the unexpected turn of affairs, uttered an ejaculation of disappointment, and with the others returned to their waiting warriors with the word that the attempted surprise of the fort had failed. The account of the above, not generally known, incident connected with the investment of Fort Wayne, is condensed from Dr. Drake's "Tecumthe".

On the 12th of September, 1812, Gov. Harrison, with two thousand Kentuckians and several hundred citizen militia of Ohio, by severe and forced marches, arrived at Fort Wayne; the troops were broken up into several detachments and sent out southwest, west, and northwest on retaliative missions. On the morning of September 16, the detachment commanded by Col. Samuel Wells struck the Five Medal's Town, burned it to the ground — the inhabitants having fled two days before — captured a large quantity of corn, in process of drying upon scaffolds, and an abundance of beans, potatoes, and other provisions, besides which they totally destroyed seventy acres of corn. In the village were several coarse bags, appearing to have contained shot; pieces of gun and ammunition boxes with London and Maiden printed upon them, and abundant other evidence that, since his friendly speech of the previous October, the Five Medals, like all the rest of his nation, had gone over to the British.

19. In this "Talk" — the last ever made by the Little Turtle — he here refers to the battle of Tippecanoe, fought on the morning of the 7th of the previous November. The original address will be found in Gen. Harrison's Memoirs, of which that in the Ft. Wayne manuscript above is a literal copy, except that the two words, in the closing line, "hurt our" are substituted for "burst on" in the original; which reads "* * * the storm that threatens to burst on our nations." The copy above varies a little in the address and omits the certificate of authentication, which is as follows in the original:

"FT. WAYNE, 25 January, 1812. "GOVERNOR HARRISON: — My friend:"

here follows the Talk, ending with Little Turtle's name, as above, all which is verified thus:
"Witness. WM. TURNER, S. Mate, U. S. Army. "I certify that the above is a true translation. W. WELLS."

Mr. Dawson, the compiler of the Memoirs quoted, in introducing this address, says, "The Talk received from the Little Turtle, which so feelingly deplores the consequences of the late action, also appears to allude to the gathering storm that broke out in the June following [when the United States made a formal declaration of war against Great Britain]. This information the Little Turtle must have had from some communication, by himself or others, with British agents. The speech is given as a relic of that extraordinary genius who was fated not long to survive it."

A more extended sketch of Capt. Wells and the Little Turtle is now well advanced for the press by the author of these notes.

20. Battle of Point Pleasant, October 10, 1774.

21. John Sullivan, born in Maine, February 17, 1740; was appointed in the Continental army from New Hampshire; promoted to major-general, August 9, 1776; resigned, November 30, 1779; and died in New Hampshire, January 23, 1795. — GARDNER.

22. William Crawford, an old pioneer, Washington's business agent in the West, who, under protest, commanded this expedition of nearly five hundred men, organized to destroy the inhabitants and towns of the Moravian Delawares and Wyandots upon the Sandusky, was taken prisoner by the Indians and afterward, March 11, 1782, tortured to death in a most horrible manner near Sandusky. — Annals of the West.

23. Col. Joseph Bowman's command in July, 1779, destroyed their town capturing some booty, including 160 horses. — Annals of the West, 217.

24. Geo. Rogers Clark, born Albemarle Co., Va., Nov. 19, 1752; died near Louisville, Ky., Feb. 13, 1818. Originally a land-surveyor, he commanded a company in Dunmore's army in 1774. In 1775, he went to Kentucky, and took command of the armed settlers. In the spring of 1778, Maj. Clark was intrusted by Gov. Henry of Virginia with the command of an expedition against the British at Kaskaskia, which he surprised and captured. He succeeded, also, in reducing other posts in this region, including that at Vincennes, which were organized into a county, under the jurisdiction of Virginia, and named Illinois. Promoted to colonel by the Virginia authorities, he applied himself successfully to the pacification of the Indian tribes. While thus engaged, he learned that Gov. Hamilton of Detroit had captured Vincennes, and that further blows were to be struck against American posts. Anticipating the enemy, Col. Clark commenced his march against Vincennes, February 7, 1779, with 175 men, traversing a wilderness and the drowned lands of Illinois, suffering every privation from wet, cold, and hunger. The place was besieged on the morning of the l9th, and was surrendered the next day. He intercepted a convoy of goods worth $10,000, and built Fort Jefferson on the west bank of the Mississippi. In retaliation for the inroads of the British and Indians into Kentucky, in June, 1780, he led a force against the Shawnees on the Great Miami, defeating them with heavy loss, at Pickawa. During Arnold's invasion, Clark took temporary command under Baron Stuben. He afterward succeeded in raising a considerable force for an expedition against Detroit, and was made a brigadier; but the progress of Cornwallis, and the poverty of the country, restricted the frontiersmen to the defensive. In September, 1782, Gen. Clark, at the head of more than 1000 mounted riflemen, assembled at the mouth of the Licking, invaded the Indian towns on the Scioto, burned five of their villages, and laid waste their plantations, producing a salutary effect, and so awing the savages that no formidable Indian war-party ever after invaded Kentucky. In 1786, Clark commanded an expedition of 1000 men against the Indians on the Wabash. It was a failure. His great services to his country were passed over, and he died in poverty and obscurity. "A Sketch of his Campaign in Illinois in 1778-9," by H. Pirtle, was published. 8vo., Cincinnati, 1869. — Drake. A county in Illinois and other western States, as well as many towns, and one of the principal streets of Chicago are named for him.

25. Josiah Harmar, born in Philadelphia, 1753; died there, August 20, 1813. Educated chiefly at Robert Proud's Quaker School, Philadelphia. Made captain 1st Pennsylvania regiment in October, 1776; was its lieut.-colonel in 1777, and until the close of the Revolution. He was in Washington's army in the campaigns of 1778-80; served under Gen. Greene, in the South, in 1781-2; and was made brevet-colonel 1st U. S. regiment, September 30, 1783. In 1784, he took to France the ratification of the definitive treaty. As Indian-agent for the Northwest Territory, he was present, January 20, 1785, at the treaty at Fort Mclntosh. Lieut.-colonel of infantry under the Confederation, August 12, 1784; brevet-brigadier-general (by resolve of Congress, July 31, 1787,) and general-in-chief of the army (September 29, 1789); commanded an expedition against the Miami Indians, September 30, 1790, and partially defeated, October 22, 1790; resigned January 1, 1792; adjutant-general of Pennsylvania, 1793-9; and active in preparing and furnishing the Pennsylvania troops for Wayne's Indian campaign, 1793-4. — A. T. Goodman's Memoir.

26. John Hardin, born in Fauquier Co., Va., Oct. 1, 1753, died 1792. He early became an excellent marksman; served with distinction in the Indian wars of Virginia, and as a lieutenant in Morgan's Rifle Corps in the Revolution; settled in Washington Co., Ky., in 1786. He commanded a detachment of Kentucky and Pennsylvania militia under Gen. Harmar at his defeat, Oct. 19 and 22, 1790; commanded Brig.-Gen. Chas. Scott's advance, and distinguished in his successful expedition against the Indians on the Wabash, in May, 1791. Murdered by the Indians while bearing a flag of truce, near Shawnee-town, O., for his horse and equipments, which were very fine; was the father of Martin D. Hardin, lawyer, born on the Monongahela River, Pa., June 21, 1780; died Oct. 8, 1823, educated at Transylvania Academy; studied law; several years a member of the Kentucky legislature; secretary of state 1812; a major under Maj.-Gen. Harrison in the N. W. army in Lt.-Col. John Allen's Rifle Reg't of Aug., 1812; U. S. senator 1816-7. He published reports of Laws in Kentucky Court of Appeals 1805-8, Frankfort, 8vo., 1810. His son, John J. Hardin, born in Frankfort, Ky., Jan. 6, 1810; educated at Transylvania University; practised law at Jacksonville, Ill.; was prosecuting-attorney; member of the Ill. legislature, 1836-42; representative in Congress from Ill., 1843-5; Col. 1st Reg't 12-month volunteers in Mexican war; June 30, 1846; killed, February 23, 1847, in battle of Buena Vista, while leading his regiment in a charge at the latest conflict. His son, Gen. Martin D. Hardin, great-grandson of John Hardin, born at Jacksonville, Ill., June 26, 1837; graduate of West Point; brevet 2d lieut. 3d Artillery, July 1, 1859; 2d lieut., January 2, 1860;. 1st lieut., May 14, 1861; lieut.-colonel 12th Pennsylvania Reserve Veteran Corps, July 8, 1862; brevet-captain, August 29, 1862, for gallant and meritorious service in battle of Groveton, Va.; brevet-major, August 30, 1862, for gal. and mer. service in battle of Bull Run (2d), Va.; colonel 12th Veteran Reserve Corps, Sept. 1, 1862; brevet lieut.-colonel. Dec. 14, 1863, for gal. and mer. service in an encounter with band of guerillas; brevet-colonel, May 23, 1864, for gal. and mer. service in battle of N. Anna River, Va.; mustered out of Volunteer service, June 11, 1864; brig.-general of Volunteers, July 2, 1864; brevet brig.-general, March 13, 1865, for gal, and mer. service in the field during the war; mustered out of Volunteer service, Jan. 15, 1866; major 43d Infantry, July 28, 1866; transferred to 1st Infantry, March 15, 1869. Retired with rank of brig.-general, Dec. 15, 1870; loss of left arm and wounds in line of duty (under Acts of Congress, August 3, 1861, and July 28, 1866). — Gardner, Drake, Hamersly.

27. 1790, Oct. 19 and 22. Battle on the Miami River, Ohio, fought by the U. S. Artillery, Pennsylvania and Kentucky militia, under Brig.-Gen. Josiah Harmar; and who were defeated by bands of Indian warriors. Our troops engaged on the 19th were 30 regulars and 180 militia; and on the 22d 60 regulars and 340 militia. Our loss was 183 killed and 31 wounded. — Gardner.

28. Charles Scott, soldier and governor of Kentucky, 1808 — Sept., 1812, born in Cumberland Co., Va., 1733; died Oct. 22, 1820. A non-com. officer of Virginia militia at Braddock's defeat in 1755; raised and commanded the first company south of the James for the Revolutionary army; was appointed colonel of 3d Virginia Batt., Aug. 12, 1776; was distinguished at Trenton; made a brig.-gen., April 2, 1777; was with Gen. Wayne at the storming of Stony Point in 1779; was made prisoner at Charleston, S. C., in 1780, and was not exchanged until near the close of the war. At Monmouth, where he was the last to leave the field, he was particularly distinguished. In 1785, he settled in Woodford Co., Ky.; as brig.-gen. of Kentucky levies, was with Gen. St. Clair at his defeat in 1791; commanded a successful expedition to the Wabash, and in actions with the Indians in May and June, 1791; maj.-gen. of division of 1600 Kentucky mounted volunteers under Gen. Wayne, July 2, 1793; and distinguished in his victory Aug. 20, 1794, when he commanded a portion of Wayne's army at the battle of Fallen Timbers. Served from May 11 to Oct. 26, 1794. The shiretown of Powhatan Co. was named for him, also a county in Kentucky. — Drake.

29. James Wilkinson, born in Maryland, 1757. Adjutant-general in Gates' army at Saratoga, 1777; lieut.-colonel commandant 2d Infantry, Nov. 7, 1791; commanded expedition on the Wabash in 1791 and Feb., 1792; brig.-general, March 5, 1792; commanded right wing of Wayne's army in his victory of Aug. 20, 1794, at the Maumee Rapids, and was distinguished; governor of Louisiana Terr'y, Dec., 1805-7; general-in-chief of the army from Dec., 1796, to July, 1798; and from June, 1805, to Jan., 1812; brevet major-general, July 10, 1812; major-general, March 2, 1813; disbanded June 15, 1815. Died near Mexico, Dec. 28, 1825; buried in the parish of San Miguel. — Gardner.

30. August 7, 1791.

31. Jacob Kingsbury, born in Norwich, Conn., 1755, was 42 years in the U. S. service, having risen from the ranks — which he joined at Roxbury, in 1755 — to be an officer in the Revolutionary army. Served in Wayne's Indian Campaigns. Lieut. of Inf'y regiment, Sept. 29, 1789; Capt., Dec., 1791; in 1 sub-legion Dec., 1792; in 1st Inf'y, Nov., 1796; major 2d Inf'y, May 15, 1797; Lt.-Col. 1st Inf'y, April 11, 1803; Colonel 1st Inf'y, Aug. 18; 1808; Inspector-Gen, (rank of colonel), April 28, 1813; disbanded June, 1815; died at Franklin, Mo., July 1, 1837. His son, Col. Thomas H. C. Kingsbury, born in New Orleans, Dec. 23, 1807, was Col. of 11th Conn. volunteers, and was killed at Antietam, Sept. 17, 1862. — Gardner, Drake.

32. 1791, Nov. 4. Battle near the sources of the Maumee of the Lakes, fought by a battalion of the 2d infantry and levies from Kentucky, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, about 1400 effectives under Maj.-Gen, Arthur St. Clair; defeated by some 1500 Indian warriors. Our loss was 632 killed and 264 wounded. — Gardner.

33. 1792, Nov. 6. Conflict in sight of Fort St. Clair, fought by Kentucky mounted men, about 50, under Maj. John Adair, against Indian warriors. Our loss, 6 killed, 5 wounded; the Indian loss greater. — Ibid.

34. John Adair, born Chester Co., S. C., August 16, 1759; died Harrisburg, Ky., May 19, 1840. Received a public-school education; served in the Revolutionary army; removed to Kentucky in 1787; was a major of Kentucky mounted "levies" under Gen. St. Clair and Gen. Wilkinson in expeditions against the Northwestern Indians in 1791; was attacked by the Miami chief, Little Turtle, in camp near Fort St. Clair, November 6, 1792, and forced to retreat; was lieut.-colonel commandant in Gen. Charles Scott's division in July, 1793. He was a volunteer aide to Gen. Shelby at the battle of the Thames, October 5, 1813; made brigadier and adjutant-general to Maj.-Gen. Thomas' division of Kentucky, 6-months' militia, November 10, 1814; and commanded the Kentucky Rifle-Brigade (centre of Gen. Jackson's line, January 8, 1815) with distinction at New Orleans in 1814-5. He was several years a member of the Kentucky Legislature, of which body he was also speaker; was a member of the Kentucky Constitutional Convention in 1799; and Register of the U. S. Land-Office; U. S. senator in 1805-6; governor of Kentucky, 1820-4; and a Democratic Member of Congress, in place of John Breckinridge, resigned, in 1805, and in 1831-3, serving on the Committee on Military Affairs. — Gardner, Drake.

35. 1794, June 30. Defence of Fort Recovery by its garrison of riflemen and voluntary cavalry, under Maj. Wm. McMahon of the 4th sub-legion (who was killed), against a vastly superior force of Miami Indians. Our loss was 22 killed and 30 wounded. — Gardner.

36. Alexander Gibson, Virginia; captain Infantry, Nov. 21, 1782; in 4 sub-legion, Dec., 1792; distinguished in command of garrison of Fort Recovery, in victorious repulse of Indians, Nov. 30, 1794; in 4th Infantry, Nov., 1796; resigned Nov. 15, 1800. — Ibid.

37. Anthony Wayne, born Jan. 1, 1745, in Chester Co., Pennsylvania. Brig.-general in Revolutionary army, Feb. 21, 1877; representative in Congress from Georgia, 1791-2. Major-general and general-in-chief of the army, March 5, 1792; commanded in the victory over the Indians in the battle of the Maumee Rapids, Aug. 20, 1794. Died, Dec. 15, 1796, on the shore of Lake Erie in Pennsylvania. — Ibid.

38. 1794, Aug. 20. Battle of the Maumee Rapids, at the "Fallen Timbers," fought by the army under Maj.-Gen. Anthony Wayne, against 2000 Indians, who were defeated and completely routed. Our loss was 33 killed and 100 wounded. — Ibid.

39. For record of Gen. Harrison, see page 52.

40. 1811, Nov. 7. Battle of Tippecanoe River, near its confluence with the Wabash, fought by Battalion of the 4th infantry, 200 strong, Kentucky and Indiana militia, about 450, under Gov. Wm. H. Harrison of Indiana Territory against over 600 Indian warriors under "The Prophet." Our loss was 62 killed, 126 wounded; the Indian loss exceeded 150 killed, — leaving from 36 to 40 dead on the field. — Gardner.

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